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• Characteristics of H-1B Workers

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Characteristics of H-1B Workers

“Losing the World's Best and Brightest: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part V,” March 2009
This paper finds that of the foreign national students surveyed, more are planning to leave the United States after
graduation than the historical norm as measured in STEM disciplines. A significant percentage of these students also
indicated that they intend to open businesses in the future, which is a prevalent sentiment among Indian and Chinese
nationals currently studying in the United States — a significant contrast to the recent past, when Chinese and Indian
degree holders were very likely to stay in America and continue working or in a research capacity (even more so in
the Ph.D. ranks).

Technology Policy Institute

“The Budgetary Effects of High-Skilled Immigration Reform,” March 2009
Most economists believe that admitting more foreign-born highly skilled workers – particularly in the fields of science,
technology, engineering, and mathematics — is beneficial to the U.S. economy. And because highly skilled workers
pay substantially more in taxes than they receive in federal benefits, high-skilled immigration has additional positive
effects on the federal budget. This paper examines those fiscal effects to help inform the immigration policy debate.

National Foundation for America Policy

“H-1B Visas by the Numbers,” March 2009
This report examines past H-1B cap visa use and recent research on high skilled immigration and that reveals many
of the arguments made to restrict the H-1B visa are off point. The report predicts that even though the number of
initial H-1B FY 2010 cap applications may be fewer due to the economy, the low quotas combined with the demand
built up by the inability of employers to hire skilled professional on new H-1B visas over the past year will contribute to
employers likely reaching the H-1B 65,000 and 20,000 caps. The report points to recent surveys of Chinese and
Indian professionals who have left America in part because of visa constraints.
National Bureau of Economic Research
“How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation,” August 2008
This report explores individual patenting behavior as well as state–level determinants of patenting to measure the
extent to which skilled immigrants increase innovation in the United States. The data imply that a one percentage
point rise in the share of immigrant college graduates in the population increases patents per capita by 6 percent. The
report additionally finds that natives are not crowded out by immigrants, and that immigrants do have positive spill–
overs, resulting in an increase in patents per capita of about 15 percent in response to a one percentage point
increase in immigrant college graduates.
Applied Research in Economic Development
“Skilled Immigration and Economic Growth,” May 2008
This report, authored by professors from Harvard and Duke University, as well as the University of California,
Berkeley, concludes that highly skilled science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) foreign graduates
contribute significantly to U.S. economic growth and global competitiveness. The report found that of the roughly
2,000 companies interviewed, over 25% reported at least one key founder as an immigrant; the top immigrant
founders for U.S. engineering and technology companies were from India; California, New Jersey and Michigan had
the greatest percentage of companies founded by immigrants; and most immigrant founders had strong backgrounds
in STEM related fields, while many immigrant founders’ entry visa were either F-1 student visas or an H-1B specialty
occupation visas. According to this report, U.S. immigration policy should do more to welcome these highly
educated, skilled immigrants who are making important contributions to our national economic development.
The Partnership for New York City
“Winning the Global Race for Talent,” March 2008
The Partnership for New York City conducted an unprecedented survey of international companies in its membership
that have headquarters or major operations in New York in order to better understand how the city stacks up in the
race for global talent. This report includes the alarming results of that study as well as policy recommendations to put
New York back on an even footing in the race for global talent.
National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP)
“H-1B Visas and Job Creation,” March 2008
New research shows that hiring H-1B visa holders is associated with increases in employment at U.S. technology
companies, undermining the assertion that foreign-born professionals harm the job prospects of Americans. This
report addresses arguments made to justify current limitations on hiring talented international students and other
foreign nationals in the United States.
National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP)
“Talent Search: Job Openings and the Need for Skilled Labor in the U.S. Economy,” March 2008
According to this new report from NFAP, major U.S. technology companies today average more than 470 U.S.-based
job openings for skilled positions while defense companies have more than 1,265 each, indicating U.S. businesses
continue to experience difficulty in filling positions for skilled labor of all kinds. This is part of a longer-term trend that
threatens America’s economic future, with U.S. companies lacking access to skilled professionals needed to grow
and innovate.
National Science Foundation
“An Overview of Science, Engineering, and Health Graduates: 2006,” Steven Proudfoot, March 2008
This report is a compilation of data collected from the 2006 National Survey of Recent College Graduates (NSRCG),
demonstrating the characteristics of individuals who received bachelor's or master's degrees in science, engineering,
or health (SEH) fields during the academic years 2003, 2004, and 2005.
National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP)
“Driving Jobs and Innovation Offshore: The Impact of High-Skill Immigration Restrictions on America,” December
This study points to the growing number of U.S. technology companies, research labs and other businesses forced to
pursue offshore alternatives due to current and proposed restrictions on high-skill immigration. The burgeoning
demand for skilled labor throughout the U.S. economy and an increasing need to compete globally has created a
demand for scientists, engineers and professionals in the United States that cannot be filled by Americans alone.
Duke University, New York University, Harvard University and the Kauffman Foundation
“America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part III: Intellectual Property, the Immigration Backlog, and a Reverse
Brain-Drain,” August 2007
This paper - the third in a series of studies focusing on immigrants’ contributions to the competitiveness of the U.S.
economy - finds that the number of skilled workers waiting for visas is significantly larger than the number that can be
admitted to the United States. This imbalance creates the potential for a sizeable reverse brain-drain from the United
States to the skilled workers’ home countries.
National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP)
“H-1B Visas, Enforcement, Outsourcing and U.S. Workers: An H-1B Primer,” May 2007
This report helps to explain that H-1B professionals fill key niches in the U.S. labor market and enhance the ability of
U.S. companies to compete globally for talent and markets. The NFAP brief supports that H-1B visa holders keep
jobs and innovations inside the United States and do not lead to the elimination of U.S. jobs through “outsourcing” or
other means. The brief stresses that without sufficient H- 1B visas outstanding international students and researchers
and engineers from abroad cannot work in the United States, particularly since the typical wait time for an
employment-based green card is 5 years or more.
National Foundation for American Policy
“U.S. Green Card Delays Worsen for Employment-Based Immigrants: Options Available for Congress to Fix the
Problem,” May 2007
Today, many of the world’s most talented people come to America and are told to wait five years – or leave the
country. The enormous backlogs and wait times for employment-based green cards sends a signal to many
international students and other outstanding individuals that America may not be the place to build your career or
raise your family. Given the importance of foreign-born scientists and engineers to the U.S. economy, failure to solve
this problem threatens the level of innovation that takes place in America and the competitiveness of many U.S.
companies. Making employment-based green card categories current for skilled immigrants could provide important
competitive advantages for U.S. employers battling for talent against foreign competitors.

National Foundation for American Policy

“U.S. Businesses Contribute Over $91 Billion a Year in Taxes to Fund Public Education; Company-Paid H-1B
Scholarship and Training Fees Approach $2 Billion Since 1999,” May 2007
U.S. businesses pay over $91 billion a year in state and local taxes directed toward public education, while the
mandated scholarship and training fees U.S. companies pay for each H-1B professional hired are approaching $2
billion since 1999, according to this National Foundation for American Policy analysis. These findings undermine the
argument that companies should not be permitted to hire international students and other foreign nationals on skilled
visas unless they do more to support U.S. education.
Master of Engineering Management Program, Duke University; School of Information, U.C. Berkeley
"America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs," January 2007
This study documents the economic and intellectual contributions of first-generation immigrant technologists and
engineers at the national level. The report estimates that one quarter of technology and engineering companies
started between 1995 and 2005 had at least one senior executive - a founder, chief executive, president or chief
technology officer - who was born outside of the United States.
National Venture Capital Association
"American Made: The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Professionals on U.S. Competitiveness," Stuart
Anderson and Michaela Platzer, November 2006
This first-of-its-kind study shows the profound impact immigrant entrepreneurs have had on company creation,
innovation and market value in the United States. Among its findings is the fact that over the past 15 years,
immigrants have started 1 in 4 (25 percent) U.S. public companies that were venture-backed, representing a market
capitalization of more than $500 billion. However, the study also found that two-thirds of the immigrant founders
surveyed believe that current U.S. immigration policy hinders the ability of future foreign-born entrepreneurs to start
American companies today.
The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation
"Global Flows of Talent: Benchmarking the United States," David M. Hart, November 2006
This policy brief compares the flows of highly educated people to the United States against similar flows to seven
other high-income countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, and the U.K. It then
compares how national immigration policies foster or constrict these flows. Finally, it makes several broad policy
recommendations that the United States should consider to ensure effective competition for talent in the short-term
and to develop a global system for cultivating and using talent that is beneficial for everyone over the long-term. Link
Issues in Science and Technology
"From Brain Drain to Mutual Gain: Sharing the Benefits of High-Skill Migration," David M. Hart, Fall 2006
This paper argues that a global economy built on policies that foster mutual gain would be both richer and fairer than
one premised on a war for talent.
National Foundation for American Policy
"Legal Immigrants: Waiting Forever. An Analysis of the Green Card Backlogs and Processing Delays Affecting
Families, Skilled Professionals and U.S. Employers," May 2006
This detailed review of immigration statistics from the U.S. Department of State, Department of Homeland Security
and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services reveals that those who "play by the rules" are likely to wait many
years to become a lawful permanent resident, whether they are sponsored by an employer or a family member.
Moreover, those seeking to become citizens must also endure long processing delays in the quest for naturalization.
National Foundation for American Policy
"H-1B Fees Paid By U.S. Companies Have Funded 40,000 Math And Science Scholarships For U.S. Students; Fee
Totals Exceed $1 Billion Since 1999," March 2006
This report details the tremendous benefits that have been realized from the $500 training and scholarship fee that
U.S. companies pay when they hire H-1B skilled foreign-born professionals. Briefly, U.S. companies have paid more
than $1 billion in fees that have funded more than 40,000 scholarships for U.S. students in math and science.
National Foundation for American Policy
“H-1B Professionals and Wages: Setting the Record Straight,” March 2006
Through a serious analysis of how the U.S. labor market functions, this policy brief sets the record straight on why
U.S. companies hire foreign-born individuals on H-1B visas. It specifically refutes critics’ assertions that H-1B
holders are paid less than Americans, showing that their pay is equal to and in fact higher than the prevailing wage.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
"Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B): Fiscal Year 2003,"
issued November 2004
Most recent government report on the makeup of H-1B visa holders and their employers. Finds that applications for
education-related services and for health/medical services increased from the last fiscal year, while computer
industry-related applications declined during the same time period. Report includes tables, graphs and statistics.
Links to Studies on Trends Impacting Access to Highly Educated Workforce
Business Roundtable
“Lifelong Learning: An Essential Factor in Workforce Success and Global Competitiveness,” October 2008
Survey of employers conducted for Business Roundtable shows that U.S. businesses are:
• Wrestling with an undertrained workforce: Half see a sizeable gap between their needs and employees’
• Demanding better-educated workers: 65% anticipate hiring “all,” “most” or “some” workers with an associate
degree or higher.
Council on Competitiveness
Private Sector Demand for Sustainable Energy Solutions: A Comprehensive Roadmap to Achieve Energy Security,
Sustainability and Competitiveness
Recommendations: Bridge the Skills Gap and Build the Talent -- Harness global talent by amending U.S. immigration
laws. To help fill the talent pipeline, the United States should grant green cards to foreign students receiving
undergraduate and advanced degrees in scientific and engineering disciplines from U.S. Institutions.
Migration Policy Institute
“Uneven Progress: The Employment Pathways of Skilled Immigrants in the United States,” October 2008
This report explains how highly skilled immigrants are underutilized in the U.S. labor market. It finds that one of every
five highly skilled immigrants in the U.S. labor force are unemployed or working in unskilled jobs. Since numerous
studies have shown that these immigrants contribute to the economy through innovation and entrepreneurship and
that they produce a surplus for public coffers by paying more in taxes than they take out in services, the brain waste
documented in this report represents unrealized returns not only to these immigrants and their families but also to the
nation as a whole. The report posits that because human capital drives productivity and development, strategies to
maximize the available human capital deserve the close attention of federal, state, and local policymakers.
Notices of the American Mathematical Society
“Cross-Cultural Analysis of Students with Exceptional Talent in Mathematical Problem Solving,” November 2008
After examining decades of data from extremely high-level youth mathematics competitions, researchers found that
the United States is failing to develop the math skills of both girls and boys; girls who do succeed in the field are most
often immigrants or daughters of immigrants from countries where mathematics is more highly valued. The study
shows that there many girls in the United States with profound intrinsic aptitude for mathematics, however they are
rarely identified due to socio-cultural, educational, or other environmental factors.
Council of Graduate Schools
“2008 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey, Phase I: Applications,” April 2008
This report highlights survey data suggesting that the rate of growth in applications from prospective international
graduate students has slowed considerably. Furthermore, a majority of the graduate schools that have consistently
responded to the CGS survey still have not reversed the declines in international applications they suffered in 2004,
when the number of applications to American colleges and universities from prospective international graduate
students dipped by 28 percent.
National Science Foundation
“Unemployment Rate of U.S. Scientists and Engineers Drops to Record Low 2.5% in 2006,” Nirmala Kannankutty,
March 2008
The overall unemployment rate of scientists and engineers in the United States dropped from 3.2% in 2003 to 2.5% in
2006, according to data from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Engineers Statistical Data System
(SESTAT). This is the lowest unemployment rate measured by SESTAT since the early 1990s, and it continues a
trend of lower unemployment rates for scientists and engineers compared with unemployment rates in the rest of the
U.S. Economy.
National Science Board
"Science and Engineering Indicators,” February2008
This report is a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international
science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy-neutral, and does not offer policy options or
recommendations. The data presented are "indicators"— quantitative representations that provide summary
information bearing on the scope, quality, and vitality of the science and engineering enterprise. The indicators
reported in SEI are intended to contribute to an understanding of the current environment and to inform the
development of future policies.
“Cyberstates 2007: A Complete State-by-State Overview of the High-Technology Industry,” April 2007
This report details national and state trends in high-tech employment, wages, and other key economic factors. The
Cyberstates report is based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data collected from all businesses in the United
States. The report shows that over the past two years there has been an increase in the amount of U.S. high-tech
industry jobs by four percent. In 2006, the high-tech industry continued growing, adding nearly 150,000 net jobs for a
total of 5.8 million in the United States, an increase from the 87,400 jobs added in 2005.
Public Policy Institute of California
"How Immigrants Affect California Employment and Wages," February 2007
This report examines the effects of the arrival of immigrants between 1960 and 2004 on the employment, population,
and wages of U.S. natives in California. In this report, UC Davis economist Giovanni Peri explains that immigration
helped to increase U.S.-born workers’ wages an average of 4 percent over the past four decades. Peri reports that
there is no link between the influx of immigrants and the worsening of employment opportunities for natives over that
timeframe. Within the same education and age group there is also no association between the influx of immigrants
and the out-migration of natives.
CGS: Council of Graduate Schools
"Findings from 2006 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey, Phase III: Admissions and Enrollment ,"
November 2006.
This report is based on the final phase of a three-part annual survey of international graduate student applications,
admissions, and enrollment among CGS U.S. member institutions. The report shows that the total enrollment of
international graduate students has increased one percent from 2005 to 2006, after three consecutive years of
declines. The findings in the report confirm that there has been a recovery in international graduate student flows to
the United States.
American Immigration Law Foundation
"The Growth and Reach of Immigration: New Census Bureau Data Underscore Importance of Immigrants in the U.S.
Labor Force," August 2006
This report uses new Census Bureau data to underscore the extent to which immigration continues to fuel the
expansion of the U.S. labor force. It concludes that America needs to do more to provide new categories of
permanent and temporary visas for workers and visitors, as well as to lift arbitrary numerical caps on immigration.
U.S. Department of Education - Commission on the Future of Education
"A National Dialogue: The Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education - Final Report,"
August 2006
This report argues that in order to retain the best and brightest students and professionals from around the world, the
federal government must address immigration policies specifically aimed at international students. The Commission
recommends that these international students who graduate with an advanced science, technology, engineering or
mathematics degree from a U.S. college or university should have an expedited path to an employer-sponsored
green card and also be exempted from the numerical cap for green cards. The Commission also recommends
eliminating the requirement that in order to receive a student visa, all students must prove that they have no intent to
remain in the United States after graduating.
American Immigration Law Foundation's Immigration Policy Center
"Building a Competitive Workforce: Immigration and the U.S. Manufacturing Sector," August 2006
This report discusses the reasons for the rising loss in foreign skilled labor and presents the threats and challenges
that this phenomenon has on the U.S. manufacturing industry and its ability to compete in the global economy.
NAFSA: Association of International Educators
"Restoring U.S. Competitiveness for International Students and Scholars," June 2006
This report analyzes the current U.S. competitiveness position for international students and scholars and provides
comprehensive recommendations for ensuring that the United States continues to be a magnet for worldwide student
Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) - Phase 2 for 2006 NOW AVAILABLE
International Graduate Admissions Survey, 2004, 2005, and 2006
Since 2004, CGS has undertaken a survey research project to investigate the international graduate admissions
process. The survey is conducted in three phases: Applications, Admissions, and Enrollment. The idea for this
research came from growing concerns about new restrictions and regulations on international student visas and
changing global trends in international student flows to U.S. Graduate institutions.
Council of Graduate Schools (CGS)
"Graduate Enrollments and Degrees: 1986-2004," October 2005
This report presents a summary of the findings of the 2004 CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment, a joint project
of the Council of Graduate Schools and the Graduate Record Examinations Board.
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Development
"High Skilled Immigration in the International Arena," Barry R. Chiswick (University of Illinois at Chicago and IZA
Bonn), September 2005
This conceptual paper, prepared for a United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Development,
examines the international mobility of high-skilled workers. The paper provides, among other things, an historical
background of high-skilled international migration, the reasons for the recent growth in demand for high-skilled
workers in the technologically advanced nations and the impact of high-skilled migration on the level and distribution
of income in the destinations.
American Electronics Association (AeA)
"Losing The Competitive Advantage? The Challenge For Science And Technology In The United States," February
This report explores the challenges that the United States currently faces and, in many ways, ignores at its peril, with
the purpose of warning audiences that America's competitive advantage, particularly in science and technology, is
increasingly at risk.
National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP)
"The Multiplier Effect," Summer 2004
This report examines the impact that children of immigrants and foreign-born students have on technological and
scientific advancement in this country. NFAP produced its findings after conducting more than 50 interviews and
examining the immigration backgrounds of top U.S. high school students.
National Association Of Manufacturers' Annual Labor Day Report
"The Looming Workforce Crisis: Preparing American Workers For 21st Century Competition," September 2005
This report explores how rapid changes in technology and intense global competition - particularly from Asia - have
led to growing anxiety about the future of American competitiveness. The report argues that in order to keep our
economy strong and stay competitive, we must recommit our nation to innovation and the concerted development of
a more highly educated and skilled workforce.
TAP Report
"Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative," July 2005
Fifteen prominent U.S. business organizations joined together to issue this report that announces a goal to double the
number of science, technology, engineering and mathematics graduates with bachelor's degrees by 2015. Citing
increasing foreign competition and decreasing domestic interest in these fields, the organizations together believe
that reaching this goal will be critical to maintaining our country's competitiveness in the 21st century.
Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)
"Sustaining the Nation's Innovation Ecosystem: Maintaining the Strength of Our Science and Engineering
Capabilities," June 2004
The report states that scientific and engineering talent lies at the core of the Nation's innovation ecosystem. Technical
skills are required at all points within the ecosystem from the research labs to the basic workforce. Noting that global
inroads are occurring at all education levels, the report calls for action at each stage of the science and engineering
workforce pipeline.
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation
"The Knowledge Economy: Is the United States Losing its Competitve Edge?," February, 2004
The Task Force has developed a set of benchmarks to assess the international standing of the United States in
science and technology. These benchmarks in education, the science and engineering (S&E) workforce, scientific
knowledge, innovation, investment and high-tech economic output reveal troubling trends across the research and
development (R&D) spectrum. The study finds that the United States still leads the world in research and discovery,
but our advantage is rapidly eroding, and our global competitors may soon overtake us. (February 2004)
National Intelligence Council (NIC)
"Mapping the Global Future: Report of the National Intelligence Council's 2020 Project", December, 2004
This is the third unclassified report prepared by the National Intelligence Council (NIC) in recent years that takes a
long-term view of the future. It offers a fresh look at how key global trends might develop over the next decade and a
half to incluence world events. Mindul that there are many possible "futures," our report offers a range of possibilities
and potential discontinuities, as a way of opening out minds to developments we might otherwise miss.
Council on Competitveness
National Innovation Initiative Final Report: Innovate America, December, 2004
The physical and policy structures that support innovators, including networks for information, transportation,
healthcare and energy; intellectual property protection; business regulation; and structures for collaboration among
innovation stakeholders. Recommendations support a new industry-academia alliance, an innovation infrastructure
for the 21st century, a flexible intellectual property regime, strategies to bolster the nation's manufacturing
enterprises, and a national innovation leadership network.

Northeastern University Center for Labor Market Studies

"Understanding & Responding to Imbalances in Engineering IT Labor Markets", September 15, 2004
A recent study by Dr. Paul Harrington of the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University presents
evidence from the National Science Foundation that foreign computer, math, science and engineering graduates of
U.S. universities at the bachelors, Masters and PhD level earn the same average wage as their U.S. citizen
American Immigration Law Foundation
"Maintaining a Competitve Edge: The Role of the Foreign-Born and U.S. Immigration Policies in Science and
Engineering" August 2004
The Immigration Policy Center's latest IN FOCUS report examines the prominent role of foreign-born scientists and
engineers (S&Es) in the U.S. science and engineering labor force. Despite their vital role, long-standing structural
flaws in the U.S. visa system and the unintended consequences of security procedures instituted since September
11, 2001, may be causing an increasing number of S&Es to forgo coming to the United States, thereby depriving the
nation of a critical supply of human talent. Yet attracting this talent is a key factor in maintaining the nation's economic
competitiveness and preeminence in science.
ACT Policy Report
"Maintaining a Strong Engineering Workforce," 2003
This comprehensive policy report examines twelve-year trends of more than 750,000 ACT test takers to find out why
there remains a continual decline in the number of U.S. students planning to obtain science or engineering degrees.
The study finds that while overall employment in engineering is expected to increase during the 2000-2010 period,
engineering degrees over this same time period are expected to remain stable. The authors make recommendations
to policymakers, private industry and educators on ways to increase the U.S. engineering workforce.
Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST)
"The Quiet Crisis: Falling Short in Producing American Scientific and Technical Talent," 2002
BEST is a public-private partnership dedicated to building a stronger, more diverse U.S. workforce in science,
engineering and technology by increasing the participation of under-represented groups. Their report asserts that the
U.S. is experiencing a "quiet crisis" in the imbalance between supply and demand of technically skilled workers.
Naming priorities for government, industry and non-profit groups, this study looks for ways to quell the Quiet Crisis
and keep America at the forefront of scientific and technical innovations.
Carnegie-Mellon Software Industry Center
"Europe in the Creative Age," February 2004
This new index finds that a "creative crescent" of northern European countries is challenging the economic power of
the United States and other European nations. The growing U.S. trend of discouraging the use of foreign workers has
harmed the country's international reputation, making the U.S. stand to lose its grip on the world's highest-skilled
Chicago Council on Foreign Relations
"Keeping the Promise: Immigration Proposals from the Heartland," June 2004
Examining immigration trends in the Midwest U.S., this report finds that foreign-born populations grew faster in that
region than the national average in the 1990s. The independent task force authoring the report strongly recommends
that the U.S. eliminate caps on the number of business visas issued to foreign nationals, in order to grow the U.S.
economy with the best and brightest employees from around the world.
Committee for Economic Development (CED)
"Reforming Immigration: Helping Meet America's Need for a Skilled Workforce," 2001
In this statement CED explores "the role that immigration should play in the development of our future workforce and
in the continued economic growth and prosperity of our society." The report concludes that proper, open immigration
policies will be of large benefit to meeting the U.S. demand for skilled workers.
GAO -- Testimony of Comptroller General of the United States
"Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce to Achieve Results,"
GAO-01-1007T, July 31, 2001
Testimony focuses on the federal government's crucial need to hire skilled IT workers: "As is apparent, the need for
qualified IT professionals has placed the public sector in direct competition with the private sector for scarce
resources. For the second consecutive year, federal CIOs have identified the need for skilled IT workers as their most
critical issue."
Hudson Institute
"Global Aging and the Global Workforce," March 2003
Report finds that aging will exert a "double whammy" effect on supplies of high-skilled workers-removing (due to
retirement and death) large numbers of the most experienced workers from the labor force even as the cohort of
young and freshly minted university graduates declines due to low birthrates.
Hudson Institute
"Beyond Workforce 2020: The Coming (and Present) Market for International Labor"
A follow-up to the Hudson Institute's economic and demographic study, "Workforce 2000," this white paper seeks to
examine current trends. One major finding is that the fiscal impacts of aging, along with its demographic effects on
declining population and workforce growth, will further heighten the need for foreign labor in the advanced economies
of the world.
National Education Association (NEA)
Report on Trends in Foreign Teacher Recruitment, June 2003
The U.S. faces substantially teacher shortages each year in areas of math, science, foreign languages and special
education, as well as in schools located in "less-desirable" locations. Therefore, public school systems throughout the
country are utilizing the services of perhaps as many as 10,000 foreign teachers in primary and secondary schools on
"nonimmigrant" work or cultural exchange visas, according to this study.
National Science Board/National Science Foundation
"Science and Engineering Indicators 2004," May 2004
While the U.S. remains the global leader in scientific research and development, along with high technology exports,
the future is uncertain, indicates this latest report from the NSB. The biennial study concludes that the shrinking U.S.
science and engineering labor force is an "emerging and critical problem" for the U.S., along with competition from
other nations that place a priority on science education. For example, the study shows that the United States now
ranks 17th among nations surveyed in the proportion of its 18-24-year-olds earning natural science and engineering
degrees. In 1975, the United States ranked third.
National Science Board/National Science Foundation
"The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America's Potential," August 2003
This report names two major long-term trends imperiling the U.S. scientific and engineering workforce: 1) The
intensifying global competition for S&E talent, such that the United States may not be able to rely on the international
S&E labor market to fill unmet skill needs; 2) The decline in the number of native born S&E graduates entering the
workforce. NSB/NSF recommends that the U.S. intervene to improve success in educating S&E students from all
demographic groups, especially those that have been underrepresented in S&E careers.
President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)
"Assessing the U.S. R&D Development," October 2002
Report to the U.S. President on the "chronic issue" of the human resources inadequacies in science and engineering.
Finds that foreign students are a key component of maintaining and improving this scientific workforce.
"Federal Investment in R&D," September 2002
Prepared for the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), this extensive report looks at
trends in Federal investment in research and development since 1975. The report takes an in-depth look at the
changes in U.S. science and engineering education, along with the science, education and technological workforce,
finding that federal investment in R&D has increased - but at too slow a pace compared to international competitors.
In-depth charts and graphs included in report.
"Is there a Shortage of Scientists and Engineers?" 2003
This study uses comparative data of U.S. and foreign students in the science fields to determine that there is a
shortage of scientists and engineers, especially due to the lack of emphasis the U.S. places on science education in
comparison to other countries.
U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century
Phase III Report: "Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change," February 15, 2001
As part of their report on making significant change in the U.S. national security apparatus, the Commission
recommends increased funding for research and development, as well as increased emphasis on science education
in the U.S. The Commission also recommends that U.S. immigration policy be formulated to ensure that the best and
brightest foreign nationals stay in the U.S., as competition for these students from all over the world is greater than
ever before.
Facts about L-Visas
National Foundation for American Policy
“Understanding L-1 Visas and the Recent OIG Report,” March 2006
In addition to explaining how the L visa is used, this report found, among other things, that no evidence exists that L-1
visas are being widely used to circumvent restrictions on H-1B visas for skilled professionals. This and other findings
refute claims made in a recent report from the Office of Inspector General at the U.S. Department of Homeland
Security of mismanagement in the L-1 visa program.
Congressional Research Report for Congress
"Immigration Policy for Intracompany Transfers (L Visas): Issues and Legislation," June 12, 2003
This report to Congress gives an overview of the temporary visa program, focusing on the L visa and its legislative
history. Using the latest U.S. Department of State data, the report gives an assessment of the trends in issuance of L
visas and the company procedures for hiring an L-visa holder.
To order a copy of this study, click here.
Flight Capital, David Heenan, 2005
In Flight Capital, business writer David Heenan explores the exodus of successful, foreign-born professionals who
are leaving America for opportunities in their native lands: China, Ireland, Singapore, Taiwan, India, Mexico, Iceland,
and Israel. He identifies a dozen strong actions that the United States can take to save its position as the world
leader in human capital.
The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent, Richard Florida, 2005
In The Flight of the Creative Class, Richard Florida explains how the United States is in danger of losing its status as
the world’s greatest talent magnet, which is crucial to its economic advantage.
The Human Face of Global Mobility, Michael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell, 2006
This collection brings together political scientists, sociologists, demographers, and ethnographers to explore the
reality behind assumptions about new global migration trends. It challenges widely held views and specifically sheds
new light on international student migration.
Lockout: Why America Keeps Getting Immigration Wrong When Our Prosperity Depends on Getting It Right,
Michele Wucker, 2006
In Lockout, Michele Wucker argues that the U.S. economy depends more than ever on immigrants, particularly highly
educated foreign-born professionals. While historically America has predominately reaped the benefits of
globalization, for the first time ever, the world's most talented minds no longer see America as the only destination of
The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman, 2005
In The World Is Flat, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman explains when the flattening of the world began;
what it means to countries, companies, communities, and individuals; and how governments and societies can, and
must, adapt.