Fluid notes from MD Raisinghania

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Fluid notes from MD Raisinghania

© All Rights Reserved

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Deeptanshu

Fluid Kinematics

Normal force per unit area - normal stress/pressure

Tangential force per unit area - shearing stress

Newtons law of viscosity- Shear stress = du

dy , - coeffiecient of viscosity

For an ideal fluid, = 0 i.e. ideal fluids are inviscid.

Suppose P (x, y, z) can be expressed in terms of 3 independent, single valued

and continuously differentiable scalar point functions u1 , u2 , u3 as

x = x(u1 , u2 , u3 ) y = y(u1 , u2 , u3 ) z = z(u1 , u2 , u3 )

(x,y,z)

6= 0, the transformation can be inverted. In

If the Jacobian (u

1 ,u2 ,u3 )

such a case, (u1 , u2 , u3 ) are the curvilinear coordinates of P .If at every point

P (x, y, z), the coordinate axes are mutually perpendicular, u1 , u2 , u3 form orthogonal curvilinear coordinates of P .

Let e1 , e2 , e3 be the right-handed system of unit vectors extending in the

direction of increasing u1 , u2 , u3 respectively.

Scalar Factors or Material Coefficients h1 , h2 , h3 are defined as

r

r

;

hi =

= hi ei

(scalar factors)

ui

ui

where r = r(u1 , u2 , u3 )

Quadratic Differential Form

dr =

hi dui ei

X

(ds)2 = dr dr =

h2i (dui )2

Differential Operators

d = .dr

=

ui =

ei

hi

X ei

X

ui =

ui

hi ui

i

i

1

(Gradient)

Let F(u1 , u2 , u3 ) = F1 e1 + F2 e2 + F3 e3

F=

1

(F1 h2 h3 ) (F2 h3 h1 ) (F3 h1 h2 )

+

+

h1 h2 h3

u1

u2

u3

1

F=

h1 h2 h3

= () =

h1 e1

u1

h1 F1

h2 e2

u2

h2 F2

(Divergence)

h3 e3

u3

h3 F3

1

1

1

e1 +

e2 +

e3

h1 u1

h2 u2

h3 u3

(Curl)

(Laplacian)

systems may be easily determined by the application of these general formula

to the specific coordinate systems.

Kinematics

There are two methods for studying fluid motion.

Lagrangian Method: Study the individual time-rate of change i.e. given

initial position of a particleP0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) at t = t0 , find out P (x, y, z) at any

time t. However, the fundamental equations are non-linear and difficult

to solve in most cases.

x = f1 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t) y = f2 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t) z = f3 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t)

Eulerian Method: Study the local time-rate of change i.e. select any

fixed point in space and study the fluid as it passes through that point.

u = F1 (x, y, z, t) v = F2 (x, y, z, t) z = F3 (x, y, z, t)

* To convert from Eulerian to Lagrangian system, use u = dx

dt , v =

d

D = dt

to simplify in case none of the relations is an ODE.

dy

dt .

Use

Derivatives

dy

Let q = (u, v, w) be the velocity of the particle where u = dx

dt , v = dt , w =

Also, let f (x, y, z, t) be any scalar parameter associated with the fluid flow.

f =

dz

dt .

f

f

f

f

x +

y +

z +

t

x

y

z

t

Df

f

f

f

f

=

+u

+v

+w

Dt

t

x

y

z

D

Dt

|{z}

Material Derivative

t

|{z}

(q )

| {z }

Convective Derivative

Local Derivative

(Derivatives)

a=

Dq

q

=

+ (q )q

Dt

t

(Acceleration of a Particle)

Note that the q operator is on the whole velocity vector including the

unit vectors.

Equation of Continuity

+ (q) = 0

t

Since (q) = q + q

(Eulerian Form)

D(log )

+q=0

Dt

It is derived from the Law of Conservation of Mass.

The equation can be applied to any orthogonal coordinate system by using

the general definition of F

1

(q1 h2 h3 ) (q2 h3 h1 ) (q3 h1 h2 )

+

+

+

= 0 (General Form)

t

h1 h2 h3

u1

u2

u3

Coordinate System

Cartesian

Cylindrical

Spherical

Coordinates

(x, y, z)

(r, , z)

(r, , )

(h1 , h2 , h3 )

(1, 1, 1)

(1, r, 1)

(1, r, r sin )

Working Rule

For any general point P , construct a parallelopiped with edge lengths 1 1 , 2 2 , 3 3 .

Let the velocity components of fluid in these 3 directions be u, v, w respectively.

(u2 2 3 3 )

1

So, conservation of mass gives

X

(1 1 2 2 3 3 ) =

1 1

(u2 2 3 3 )

t

1 1

A fluid and the surface with which contact is preserved must have

zero relative velocity along the normal.

For a surface F (r, t) = 0 to be a boundary surface of a fluid

F

+ q F = 0

t

Streamlines

Streamline is a curve such that the tangent at any point is in the direction of

the velocity of fluid at that point. By definition, for a streamline, q dr = 0.

For Cartesian Coordinates, this reduces to

dx

dy

dz

=

=

u

v

w

Velocity Potential

is the velocity potential of a fluid flow if it satisfies

q =

(Velocity Potential)

The sign is to ensure that flow takes place from higher to lower potential.

The necessary and sufficient condition for velocity potential to exist is that

q = 0. If such exists, the flow is known as irrotational.

The surfaces = constant are called equipotentials and they intersect the

streamlines orthogonally.

For an incompressible, irrotational fluid, the equation of continuity demands

that is a harmonic function

2 = 0

Vorticity

=q

(Vorticity Vector)

Like stream lines, a vortex line is a curve such that the tangent to it at any

point is in the direction of the vorticity vetor i.e dr = 0.

A flow where is not zero everywhere is said to be rotational or vortex

motion.

The rotation or angular velocity vector of a fluid element, satisfies

= 2

(Rotation)

Inviscid Flow

Eulers Equation of Motion

Dq

1

= F p

Dt

Cylindrical Coordinates

Dq

=

Dt

Dqr

q 2 Dq

qr q Dqz

,

+

,

Dt

r Dt

r

Dt

1

,

,

r r z

Spherical Coordinates

Dq

=

Dt

q2 + q2 Dq

q2 cot Dq

Dqr

qr q

q q cot

,

+

,

+

Dt

r

Dt

r

r

Dt

r

1

1

,

,

r r r sin

2

q

q

1

+

+ q = F p

t

2

Density is a function of pressure p only

The motion is in steady state

The external forces are conservative

There must exist a function P such that P = 1 p.

n = (P + V +

q2

)=q

2

2

both the streamlines and vortex lines.

5

Working Rule

Write down the equation of continuity as f (r)v = f (r0 )v0 = F (t) where

r0 , v0 are parameters for a known point.

For spherical symmetry, it is r2 v = F (t). For cylindrical symmetry, it is

rv = F (t).

Differentiate it to obtain

looking at a fixed point.

v

t

with respect to r

Use v v

r =

2

1 (v )

2 r

v

t

F 0 (t)

f (r) .

if required.

Impulsive Action

Generated due to sudden velocity changes at the boundary or impulsive forces

being made to act on the interior. The impulsive pressure is same in every

direction and propagates instantaneously through the fluid.

If the velocity changes instantaneously from q1 to q2 under the influence of

impulsive pressure

e and impulsive body force per unit mass I

q2 q1 = I

(Impulsive forces)

2

e=0

(Incompressible fluid, I = 0)

If q1 = 0, I = 0, q = e . So, the flow is irrotational and = e is the

potential function.

Energy Equation

The rate of change of total energy(kinetic,potential,intrinsic) of any

portion of a compressible inviscid fluid is equal to the rate at which

work is being done by the pressure on the boundary, provided the

the potential due to extraneous forces is time-invariant.

Z

T =

V

1 2

q dV

2

(Kinetic Energy)

Z

W =

dV

(Potential Energy)

Z

I=

EdV

(Intrinsic Energy)

Z

dI

=

p qdV

dt

V

R V0

V

pdV .

Let n be the inward normal at the surface. Then, the net rate at which work

is being done by the fluid pressure

Z

R=

pq ndS

S

.

The Law of Conservation of Energy,also known as the Volume Integral form

of Bernoullis Equation is

dI

d

(T + W ) = R

=

dt

dt

Z

pq ndS +

d

(T + W ) = R =

dt

p qdV

(Energy Equation)

Z

pq ndS

(Incompressible Fluids)

Bernoullis Equation

The general form, obtained by integrating Eulers equation of motion, is

1

dp

+ dq 2 + dV +

=0

d

t

2

If is a function of p only,

Z

1 2

dp

+ q +V +

= F (t)

t

2

If is constant, then

1 2

p

+ q + V + = F (t)

t

2

1 2

q +V +

2

dp

=C

streamline.

(Steady Motion)

1 2

2q

+V +

dp

is constant along a

2D Motion

A fluid is said to have 2-dimensional motion if, at any given instant, the flow

pattern in a certain plane is the same as that in all other parallel planes within

the fluid.

Stream Function

The stream function or current function for a 2D motion satisfies

u=

v=

(Stream Function)

q =

(Polar Coordinates)

r

r

It always exists for a 2D flow, even if the velocity potential does not.

The equation of streamline is given by d = 0 or = C.

Also, 2 1 = flow across any line joining 1&2.

qr =

=0 =0 =

1 2

2

(Spin Components/Vorticity)

= 0 = 2 = 0

(Irrotational Flow)

w = + i

(Complex Potential)

dw

=

i

= u + iv

dz

x

y

(Complex Velocity)

at an angle to X axis.

Cauchy-Riemann Equation

=

x

y

1

=

r

r

=

y

x

1

=

r y

r

(Cartesian Form)

(Polar Form)

The mass m of fluid coming out of a source or going in to the sink per unit time

is known as its strength. They are singularities in the flow field as infinitely

many streamlines meet at a source/sink. So, the velocity vector is not unique

at the point of a source or sink.

A sink is regarded as a source of strength m.

Complex Potential

In 2D, the flow across any small curve surrounding the source is 2m. So, if qr

is the radial velocity and the source is taken as the origin, 2rqr = 2m. This

gives = m log r, = m

In general, for a source of stength m situated at z = z1 is

w = m log z z1 = m log r +i (m)

| {z }

| {z }

(Complex Potential)

along AP. ????????

Doublet/Dipole

A source and sink of equal strength,m placed very at a very small distance s

apart.

= ms

(Strength of Doublet)

For a doublet making an angle with the X axis, situated at z = z 0

w=

ei

z z0

Images

If in a liquid, a surface S can be drawn across which there is no flow,

then any system of sources, sinks and doublets on the opposite side

of the surface are known as the image of the system with regard to

the surface

If the surface S is treated as a rigid boundary and all the liquid removed

from one side of it, the motion on the other side will remain unchanged. Since

there is no flow across it, S must be a streamline.

The image of a source or a doublet with respect to a line(in 2D) is its mirror

image with respect to the line.

Conformal Mapping

Consider two complex variables, z = x + iy, = + i such that there exists a

mapping of the zplane into the plane, = f (z). The necessary condition for

d

must exist independent of the direction

existence of such a mapping is that dz

of z.

Suppose f maps neighbouring points P, P1 , P2 in the zplane to Q, Q1 , Q2

in the plane. Then, Q1 QQ2 = P1 P P2 i.e. a conformal mapping preserves

angles.

d

QQ2

QQ1

0

=

= |f (z)| =

P P1

P P2

dz

So, the map scales distances by |f 0 (z)|.

+

i

x

+

+

i

x

x

y

y y

( + i)

=

=

z

(x + iy)

x + iy

If this is independent of

x

y ,

+i

y

y

=i

+i

x

x

=

+i

=

i

dz

x

x

y

y

10

= x

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