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Fluid Mechanics

Deeptanshu

Fluid Kinematics
Normal force per unit area - normal stress/pressure
Tangential force per unit area - shearing stress
Newtons law of viscosity- Shear stress = du
dy , - coeffiecient of viscosity
For an ideal fluid, = 0 i.e. ideal fluids are inviscid.

Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates


Suppose P (x, y, z) can be expressed in terms of 3 independent, single valued
and continuously differentiable scalar point functions u1 , u2 , u3 as
x = x(u1 , u2 , u3 ) y = y(u1 , u2 , u3 ) z = z(u1 , u2 , u3 )
(x,y,z)
6= 0, the transformation can be inverted. In
If the Jacobian (u
1 ,u2 ,u3 )
such a case, (u1 , u2 , u3 ) are the curvilinear coordinates of P .If at every point
P (x, y, z), the coordinate axes are mutually perpendicular, u1 , u2 , u3 form orthogonal curvilinear coordinates of P .
Let e1 , e2 , e3 be the right-handed system of unit vectors extending in the
direction of increasing u1 , u2 , u3 respectively.
Scalar Factors or Material Coefficients h1 , h2 , h3 are defined as


r
r
;
hi =
= hi ei
(scalar factors)
ui
ui

where r = r(u1 , u2 , u3 )
Quadratic Differential Form
dr =

hi dui ei

So, the differential of an arc length, ds satisfies


X
(ds)2 = dr dr =
h2i (dui )2

Differential Operators
d = .dr
=

ui =

ei
hi

X ei
X
ui =
ui
hi ui
i
i
1

(Gradient)

Let F(u1 , u2 , u3 ) = F1 e1 + F2 e2 + F3 e3

F=



1
(F1 h2 h3 ) (F2 h3 h1 ) (F3 h1 h2 )
+
+
h1 h2 h3
u1
u2
u3
1
F=
h1 h2 h3


= () =


h1 e1


u1
h1 F1

h2 e2

u2

h2 F2

(Divergence)


h3 e3

u3
h3 F3

1
1
1
e1 +
e2 +
e3
h1 u1
h2 u2
h3 u3

(Curl)


(Laplacian)

The differential operators for Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinate


systems may be easily determined by the application of these general formula
to the specific coordinate systems.

Kinematics
There are two methods for studying fluid motion.
Lagrangian Method: Study the individual time-rate of change i.e. given
initial position of a particleP0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) at t = t0 , find out P (x, y, z) at any
time t. However, the fundamental equations are non-linear and difficult
to solve in most cases.
x = f1 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t) y = f2 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t) z = f3 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t)
Eulerian Method: Study the local time-rate of change i.e. select any
fixed point in space and study the fluid as it passes through that point.
u = F1 (x, y, z, t) v = F2 (x, y, z, t) z = F3 (x, y, z, t)
* To convert from Eulerian to Lagrangian system, use u = dx
dt , v =
d
D = dt
to simplify in case none of the relations is an ODE.

dy
dt .

Use

Derivatives
dy
Let q = (u, v, w) be the velocity of the particle where u = dx
dt , v = dt , w =
Also, let f (x, y, z, t) be any scalar parameter associated with the fluid flow.

f =

dz
dt .

f
f
f
f
x +
y +
z +
t
x
y
z
t

Dividing by t and taking limit t 0, we get


Df
f
f
f
f
=
+u
+v
+w
Dt
t
x
y
z
D
Dt
|{z}

Material Derivative

t
|{z}

(q )
| {z }

Convective Derivative

Local Derivative

(Derivatives)

The acceleration of a fluid particle of fixed identity is given by


a=

Dq
q
=
+ (q )q
Dt
t

(Acceleration of a Particle)

Note that the q operator is on the whole velocity vector including the
unit vectors.

Equation of Continuity

+ (q) = 0
t
Since (q) = q + q

(Eulerian Form)

D(log )
+q=0
Dt
It is derived from the Law of Conservation of Mass.
The equation can be applied to any orthogonal coordinate system by using
the general definition of F


1
(q1 h2 h3 ) (q2 h3 h1 ) (q3 h1 h2 )

+
+
+
= 0 (General Form)
t
h1 h2 h3
u1
u2
u3
Coordinate System
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Spherical

Coordinates
(x, y, z)
(r, , z)
(r, , )

(h1 , h2 , h3 )
(1, 1, 1)
(1, r, 1)
(1, r, r sin )

Working Rule
For any general point P , construct a parallelopiped with edge lengths 1 1 , 2 2 , 3 3 .
Let the velocity components of fluid in these 3 directions be u, v, w respectively.

Total excess flow-in through the first face = 1 1 1


(u2 2 3 3 )
1
So, conservation of mass gives
X

(1 1 2 2 3 3 ) =
1 1
(u2 2 3 3 )
t
1 1

Condition for Boundary Surface


A fluid and the surface with which contact is preserved must have
zero relative velocity along the normal.
For a surface F (r, t) = 0 to be a boundary surface of a fluid
F
+ q F = 0
t

(Boundary Surface Condition)

The normal at boundary, n is the unit vector along F

Streamlines
Streamline is a curve such that the tangent at any point is in the direction of
the velocity of fluid at that point. By definition, for a streamline, q dr = 0.
For Cartesian Coordinates, this reduces to
dx
dy
dz
=
=
u
v
w

Velocity Potential
is the velocity potential of a fluid flow if it satisfies
q =

(Velocity Potential)

The sign is to ensure that flow takes place from higher to lower potential.
The necessary and sufficient condition for velocity potential to exist is that
q = 0. If such exists, the flow is known as irrotational.
The surfaces = constant are called equipotentials and they intersect the
streamlines orthogonally.
For an incompressible, irrotational fluid, the equation of continuity demands
that is a harmonic function
2 = 0

(Incompressible Irrotational Fluid)

Vorticity
=q

(Vorticity Vector)

Like stream lines, a vortex line is a curve such that the tangent to it at any
point is in the direction of the vorticity vetor i.e dr = 0.
A flow where is not zero everywhere is said to be rotational or vortex
motion.
The rotation or angular velocity vector of a fluid element, satisfies
= 2

(Rotation)

Inviscid Flow
Eulers Equation of Motion
Dq
1
= F p
Dt

(Eulers Dynamical Equation)

Here, F is the external force acting per unit mass.

Cylindrical Coordinates
Dq
=
Dt

Dqr
q 2 Dq
qr q Dqz
,
+
,
Dt
r Dt
r
Dt


1
,
,

r r z

Spherical Coordinates
Dq
=
Dt

q2 + q2 Dq
q2 cot Dq
Dqr
qr q
q q cot

,
+

,
+
Dt
r
Dt
r
r
Dt
r


1
1

,
,
r r r sin

Eulers equation can be written as


 2
q
q
1
+
+ q = F p
t
2

(Lambs Hydrodynamical Equation)

If an ideal fluid satisfies the following conditions:


Density is a function of pressure p only
The motion is in steady state
The external forces are conservative
There must exist a function P such that P = 1 p.
n = (P + V +

q2
)=q
2
2

n is normal to both q and . So, the family of surfaces V +P + q2 = C contains


both the streamlines and vortex lines.
5

Working Rule
Write down the equation of continuity as f (r)v = f (r0 )v0 = F (t) where
r0 , v0 are parameters for a known point.
For spherical symmetry, it is r2 v = F (t). For cylindrical symmetry, it is
rv = F (t).
Differentiate it to obtain
looking at a fixed point.
v
t

Plug in the value of


with respect to r
Use v v
r =

2
1 (v )
2 r

v
t

F 0 (t)
f (r) .

Do not differentiate f (r) as we are

in the Eulers equation of motion and integrate

if required.

Determine the constant of integration using given conditions.

Impulsive Action
Generated due to sudden velocity changes at the boundary or impulsive forces
being made to act on the interior. The impulsive pressure is same in every
direction and propagates instantaneously through the fluid.
If the velocity changes instantaneously from q1 to q2 under the influence of
impulsive pressure
e and impulsive body force per unit mass I
q2 q1 = I

(Impulsive forces)

For an incompressible fluid, q1 = q2 . So, if I = 0


2
e=0
(Incompressible fluid, I = 0)
 
If q1 = 0, I = 0, q = e . So, the flow is irrotational and = e is the
potential function.

Energy Equation
The rate of change of total energy(kinetic,potential,intrinsic) of any
portion of a compressible inviscid fluid is equal to the rate at which
work is being done by the pressure on the boundary, provided the
the potential due to extraneous forces is time-invariant.
Z
T =
V

1 2
q dV
2

(Kinetic Energy)

Z
W =

dV

(Potential Energy)

Z
I=

EdV

(Intrinsic Energy)

E is the intrinsic energy per unit mass defined as E =


Z
dI
=
p qdV
dt
V

R V0
V

pdV .

Let n be the inward normal at the surface. Then, the net rate at which work
is being done by the fluid pressure
Z
R=
pq ndS
S

.
The Law of Conservation of Energy,also known as the Volume Integral form
of Bernoullis Equation is
dI
d
(T + W ) = R
=
dt
dt

Z
pq ndS +

d
(T + W ) = R =
dt

p qdV

(Energy Equation)

Z
pq ndS

(Incompressible Fluids)

Bernoullis Equation
The general form, obtained by integrating Eulers equation of motion, is
 
1
dp

+ dq 2 + dV +
=0
d
t
2

where is the velocity potential and V is the force potential.


If is a function of p only,
Z
1 2
dp

+ q +V +
= F (t)
t
2

If is constant, then

1 2
p
+ q + V + = F (t)
t
2

If the motion is steady,


1 2
q +V +
2

dp
=C

If the velocity potential does not exit,


streamline.

(Steady Motion)
1 2
2q

+V +

dp

is constant along a

2D Motion
A fluid is said to have 2-dimensional motion if, at any given instant, the flow
pattern in a certain plane is the same as that in all other parallel planes within
the fluid.

Stream Function
The stream function or current function for a 2D motion satisfies
u=

v=

(Stream Function)

q =
(Polar Coordinates)
r
r
It always exists for a 2D flow, even if the velocity potential does not.
The equation of streamline is given by d = 0 or = C.
Also, 2 1 = flow across any line joining 1&2.
qr =

=0 =0 =

1 2

2

(Spin Components/Vorticity)

= 0 = 2 = 0

(Irrotational Flow)

w = + i

(Complex Potential)

dw

=
i
= u + iv
dz
x
y

(Complex Velocity)

w = V ei z is the complex potential of a uniform flow with magnitude V


at an angle to X axis.

Cauchy-Riemann Equation

=
x
y

1
=
r
r

=
y
x
1

=
r y
r

(Cartesian Form)
(Polar Form)

Sources and Sinks


The mass m of fluid coming out of a source or going in to the sink per unit time
is known as its strength. They are singularities in the flow field as infinitely
many streamlines meet at a source/sink. So, the velocity vector is not unique
at the point of a source or sink.
A sink is regarded as a source of strength m.

Complex Potential
In 2D, the flow across any small curve surrounding the source is 2m. So, if qr
is the radial velocity and the source is taken as the origin, 2rqr = 2m. This
gives = m log r, = m
In general, for a source of stength m situated at z = z1 is
w = m log z z1 = m log r +i (m)
| {z }
| {z }

(Complex Potential)

The velocity of fluid at a point P due to a source of strength at A is


along AP. ????????

Doublet/Dipole
A source and sink of equal strength,m placed very at a very small distance s
apart.
= ms

(Strength of Doublet)

The line from m to +m is the axis of the doublet.


For a doublet making an angle with the X axis, situated at z = z 0
w=

ei
z z0

(Complex Potential of Doublet)

Images
If in a liquid, a surface S can be drawn across which there is no flow,
then any system of sources, sinks and doublets on the opposite side
of the surface are known as the image of the system with regard to
the surface

If the surface S is treated as a rigid boundary and all the liquid removed
from one side of it, the motion on the other side will remain unchanged. Since
there is no flow across it, S must be a streamline.
The image of a source or a doublet with respect to a line(in 2D) is its mirror
image with respect to the line.

Conformal Mapping
Consider two complex variables, z = x + iy, = + i such that there exists a
mapping of the zplane into the plane, = f (z). The necessary condition for
d
must exist independent of the direction
existence of such a mapping is that dz
of z.
Suppose f maps neighbouring points P, P1 , P2 in the zplane to Q, Q1 , Q2
in the plane. Then, Q1 QQ2 = P1 P P2 i.e. a conformal mapping preserves
angles.

d
QQ2
QQ1
0
=
= |f (z)| =
P P1
P P2
dz
So, the map scales distances by |f 0 (z)|.





+
i
x
+
+
i
x
x
y
y y

( + i)
=
=
z
(x + iy)
x + iy
If this is independent of


x
y ,

+i
y
y


=i

+i
x
x

So, satisfies the Cauchy-Riemann Conditions

=
+i
=
i
dz
x
x
y
y

10

= x