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GROUP 3

BINTANG PRATAMA
IRFAN RAMADHAN
SERUNI MARTHADIANA
WULAN PUTRI PERMATASARI
CLASS - 1 CONCENTRATION OF HIGHWAY

PREFACE

Thanks you to Allah SWT Almighty for the blessing and help in finishing
this paper. Thank you too mrs. Siti and our friends who help and support us to
finishing this paper well. In this paper we dessribe about admixtures & additives.
We make this paper purpose to help our friends to more than understand about
admixtures & additives.
We would like to express our appreciation to those who have helped and
supported to publish this paper. We realize that this paper is still far from
perfection. Therefore, any suggestions either about its defeciencis or for the
improvement on this paper will be warmly appreciated. Hopefully, this paper can
be benefited for us all.

May 2014

Publisher

Chapter I

Admixtures
Admixtures are materials besides water, cement, and aggregates, added
to the concrete or mortar, before or during mixing.
The function of admixtures are :

Increase the workability of concrete.


To set a factor cement ratio.
Prevent the segregation1 and bleeding2.
To set a setting time.
Increase the compressive strength of concrete.
Increase the concretes resistance from chemical substance.
1
2

Segregation : Separation of fine and coarse aggregate.


Bleeding
: Separation of water from fresh mortar.

Classification of Admixture :
1. Chemical Admixture
2. Mineral Admixture (Additives)
The construction industry classify liquid materials as admixtures and solid
materials as additives
1. Chemical admixture is a material that added to the concrete or mortar,
to modify the properties of mortar in the fresh/ hardened state.
Chemical admixture can be added when mixing or foundry.
According to ASTM C.494, chemical admixtures are divides into 7 :
Type A: Water Reducing Admixture
Type B: Retarding Admixture
Type C: Accelerating Admixture
Type D: Water Reducing and Retarding Admixture
Type E: Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixture
Type F: Water Reducing High Rate Admixture
Type G: Water Reducing High Range Retarding Admixture
Function
Type A: Water Reducing Admixtures

To achieve a higher strength by decreasing the water content


at the same workability.
To achieve the same workability by decreasing the cement
content so as to reduce the heat of hydration in mass
concrete.
Type B: Retarding Admixture

Retard hydration of cement.


To retard or extend the setting time of cement paste in concrete.

These are helpful for concrete that has to be transported to long


distance, and helpful in placing the concrete at high
temperatures.

Type C: Accelerating Admixture

To accelerate the setting time and increase the rate of


hardening and strength of concrete.
Increase in the rate of hydration of the hydraulic cement.
These are used in cold weather conditions (below 5C or 41F).
Reduced bleeding.

Type D: Water Reducing and Retarding Admixture

To achieve a higher strength by decreasing the water content at


the same workability.
To achieve the same workability by decreasing the cement
content so as to reduce the heat of hydration in mass concrete.
To retard an initial setting time and hardening concrete.
Retard hydration of cement.
These are helpful for concrete that has to be transported to long
distance, and helpful in placing the concrete at high
temperatures.

Type E: Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixture

To reduce the water content.


To accelerate an initial setting time and hardening concrete.
To produce the concrete with fast setting time, low water cement
ratio, but still workable.
To increase the compressive strength of the concrete.
Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixtures is
manufactured by combining Water Reducing Admixtures and
Accelerating Admixtures

Type F: Water Reducing High Rate Admixture

Reduce the water content more than 12%


Increase the workability.
To produce the concrete with low water cement ratio, but still
workable.
Increase the compressive strength.
Superplasticizer is kind of Water Reducing High Range
Admixtures.

Type G: Water Reducing High Range Retarding Admixture

To reduce the water content more than 12%


To retard the setting time and hardening concrete.
Retard hydration of cement.
These are helpful for concrete that has to be transported to long
distance, and helpful in placing the concrete at high
temperatures.
Water Reducing High Range Retarding Admixtures is
manufactured by combining superplasticizers and Retarding
Admixtures.

The materials are kinds of admixtures


Type A: Water Reducing Admixture
lignosulfonic acid derivatives
hydroxycarboxylic acids or hydroxylated polymers

Type B: Retarding Admixture

Type C: Accelerating Admixture

Unrefined lignosulfonates containing sugars


Hydroxycarboxylic acids and their salts (i.e. sugars)
Carbohydrates including sugars
Gelatin (Sodium Heptonates - animal or fish fats)
Hydroxylated polymers

Calcium Chloride
Triethanolamine
Silicates
Fluorides
Alkali Hydroxide
Nitrites
Nitrates
Formats

Type D: Water Reducing and Retarding Admixture


Long chain carboxylic acids
Calcium, ammonium and butyl stearates
Acrylic resins

Type F: Water Reducing High Rate Admixture


Melamine formaldehyde condensates
Naphthalene Formaldehyde
Modified lignosulfonate
Synthetic polymers

Chapter II
Additives
Additive is a material that may be added to mortar, to improve or
achieve special properties. Additive can be added when mixing.
Function:
Increase the workability of concrete.
Increase the resistance of sulfate and alkali-silica reaction.
Increase durability of concrete.
Increase compressive strength.
Decrease the hydration heat.
Decrease shrinkage of concrete.
1. Fly Ash

Fly ash is an artificial pozzolan which has excellent cementitious


properties and also consists of finely divided particles.
The particles of fly ash are mostly spherical and the particle size is
very small which ranges between 1 to 100 m. The fineness is also good
enough for it to reduce the heat of hydration and also in replacing
cement particles.
2. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag
This particular slag is a nonmetallic product containing silicates and
aluminates of calcium and other bases. The molten slag is rapidly
chilled in water to form granulated material which is used in concrete.
There are three categories of blast furnace slag and they are
divided on the basis of their activity index:
Grade 80- Low activity-index
Grade 100- Medium activity index
Grade 120- High activity index
Activity index is the ratio of compressive strength of slag- Portland
cement to that of ordinary Portland cement
3. Silica Fume
Silica fume is formed by the reduction of quartz at high
temperatures to form SiO vapors which oxidize and condense to
form spherical particles. These particles are very finely divided and
the fineness has a very high value. It is an artificial pozzolan
admixture.
The particle size is less than 1 m and the fineness is about
2000 sq.m/kg. The pozzolanic reaction of silica fume is higher than
the other pozzolans because of its fineness.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. http://www.google.co.id
2. http://en.wikipedia.org
3. Gebler, S. H., and Klieger, P., Effect of Fly Ash on the Air-Void Stability
of Concrete, Research and Development Bulletin RD085, Portland
Cement Association, http://www.port cement.org/pdf_files/RD085.pdf,
1983, 40 pages.
4. Gebler, Steven H., and Klieger, Paul, Effect of Fly Ash on Some of the
Physical Properties of Concrete, Research and Development Bulletin
RD089, Portland Cement Association,
http://www.portcement.org/pdf_files/RD089.pdf, 1986,48 pages.
5. Gebler, Steven H., and Klieger, Paul, Effect of Fly Ash on the Durability
of Air-Entrained Concrete, Research and Development Bulletin RD090,
Portland Cement Association,
http://www.portcement.org/pdf_files/RD090.pdf, 1986a, 44 pages.
6. Helmuth, Richard A., Fly Ash in Cement and Concrete, SP040T, Portland
Cement Association, 1987, 203 pages.
7. Hogan, F. J., and Meusel, J. W., Evaluation for Durability and Strength
Development of a Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Cement,

Concrete, and Aggregates, Vol. 3, No. 1, American Society for Testing


and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, Summer 1981, pages
40 to 52.
8. Mesfer M. Al-Zahrani (Presentation)
9. Nitish Krishan(Presentation)