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Let's go on and look at another

amplifier, this is a inverting amplifier


configuration.
Now, we're actually going to use this one
in the guitar amplifier.
So, what we do in this case is you take
the negative terminal, the inverting
input of the op amp.
And that is connected to the output with
this feedback resistor, R2.
Now again, we have a source with assumed
well a source in series with some
resistance R1.
And that's connected to this terminal, as
you will, the inverting terminal.
So, you got the feedback resistor and the
input resistor both connected to this
terminal.
And the non-inverting terminal of the up
end is grounded.
So, we want to analyze this circuit and
compute V out as a function of the
signal, the signal voltage.
So, we're going to start by looking at
this node that we've labeled A, and apply
Kirchhoff's current law to that node.
Now, Kirchhoff's current law says that
the algebraic sum of all the currents
flowing into that node is 0.
So, i1 is flowing in, i2 is flowing in,
so they're both positive.
And iN is flowing out, so that's
negative.
So, those three have to sum up to zero.
Now, [COUGH] I can then write an
expression for i1 and i2 in terms of the
voltages.
Now i1, the current through this
resistor, is just going to be the
difference of Vs minus Vn.
So, Vs is the voltage on this side of the
resistor.
The voltage on this side of the resistor
is Vn.
And so, the current i1 is just that
voltage difference, Vs minus Vn over R1.
Then, the second current, i2, the voltage
difference across that is V out over
here.
The m over here, and so the current, i2,
is V out minus VN over R2.
So, that's the second term.
And then in is leave it as it is.
Now, we're going to now use the
assumptions that are part of the ideal op
amp model.
the first one is that Vp and VN are
equal.
And the second one is that there's no
current flowing into either of these.

the non-inverting or the inverting input.


So, these are both zero.
So, that's the ideal op amp assumption.
Okay, so with those assumptions and that
equation, remember that we're looking
back up here.
We made Vp equal to 0 and Vp equals VN,
so VN has to be zero.
So, I can go back in this equation and
set VN equal to zero everywhere I see it.
And the equation at node then reduces to
this simple equation, Vs over R1 plus V
out over R2 equals 0.
And so, I can solve that for V out as a
function of Vs, the source of voltage,
and it's just minus R2 over R1.
And so, the voltage gain of this, the
output voltage divided by the input
voltage is negative.
The ratio of the feedback resistor to the
input resistor.
So, if I put in a small sinusoidal signal
what's going to come out of this is a
sinusoidal signal that is amplified by a
factor of R2 over R1, and it's going to
be inverted.
So, I get a larger sine wave that is also
inverted.
So, you can build a gain stage with this
sort of amplifier configuration.
And you can control the gain of the stage
just by choosing the values of R2 and R1.
And in the first stage of the Kathrein
amplifier that we built this gain is
around five or six.
I forget exactly but this R2 is maybe
five or six times bigger than R1.
So, this is an extremely useful an
ubiquitous configuration for op amps.
So this is worth remembering.
Thank you.