You are on page 1of 71

SOLUTIONS

PULLOUT

Worksheets
Term 2 (October to March)

Social Science

Class
OSWAAL BOOKS
Oswaal House 1/11, Sahitya Kunj, M.G. Road, AGRA-282002
Ph.: 0562-2857671, 2527781, Fax : 0562-2854582, 2527784
email : contact@oswaalbooks.com, website : www.OswaalBooks.com

Our Distributors
PORT BLAIR

Andaman & Nicobar

: Andaman Book Centre, Ph.: (3192) 245312


Mitali Enterprises, Ph. (03192) 230749

GUNTOOR
HYDERABAD

: Y. Renuka Devi, Ph.: (0863) 2252308


: Himalaya Book World, Ph.: (040) 24732057,66822350
Raj Kamal Book Centre, Ph.:(040) 24756064
VIJAYAWADA : Excel Book & Stationery, Ph.: (0866) 2492635
VISHAKHAPATNAM :Rajeshwari Book Link, Ph.: (0891) 6661718
GUWAHATI
LAKHIMPUR
BHAGALPUR
PATNA

Assam

: Books & Books, Ph.: 9854152607


Book Emporium, Ph.: (0361) 2635094
Prime Book & Periodicals, Ph.: (0361) 2733065
: Vidya Mandir, Ph.: 9435089840

Bihar

PURNEA
MUNGER

: Sanjay Book Store, Ph.: (0641) 2424830,


: Bokaro Student Friends, Ph. : (0612) 2300600
Nova Publisher & Distributors, Ph.: (0612) 2666404
Gyan Ganga, Ph.: (0612) 2268394
Sri Durga Pustak Mandir, Ph. : (0612) 2301704
Sharda Pustak Bhandar, Ph.:9204528373, 9204281431
Vikas Book Depot, Ph.: (0612) 2304753
: Chaurasia Book Centre, Ph.: 09006717044
: New Aman Book & Stationers, Ph.: (06344)220757

BILASPUR
DURG
RAIPUR

: Sri Book Depot, Ph.: (07752) 220920, 232342


: Jai Bhawani Book Depot, Ph.: (0788) 2327620
: Shri Ramdev Traders, Ph.: (0771)2533465, 4099446

DELHI

: R.D. Chawla & Sons, Ph.:(011) 23282360 -61


Mittal Books, Ph.: (011) 23288887

Chattisgarh
Delhi
Goa

GOA

: Golden Heart Emporium, Ph.:(0832) 2725208, 3257383

AHMEDABAD

: Tushar Book, Ph.: (079)26578741, 26587103


Abhyas Book, Ph.: (079) 26766366
Rohinee Sales, Ph. : (079) 27503622, 27506022
Mahajan Book Depot, Ph.: (079) 25356031
: Vinay General Store, Ph.: 9925817463
: Royal Stationers, Ph.: (0281) 2582926, 2576910
: Shopping Point, Ph.: (0261) 2230097
Kaji Book & Stationers, Ph.: (0261) 2767156

VAPI
RAJKOT
SURAT

JABALPUR

KATNI

NEEMUCH
REWA
UJJAIN

:
:
:

Andhra Pradesh

Gujarat

: Adlakha Stationery, Ph.: (0124) 2306991, 230599

BOKARO
DHANBAD
HAZARIBAGH
RANCHI

:
:
:
:

Orissa
BHUBANESWAR : Sagar Book Store, Ph.: (0674) 2516040, 2506040

BANGALORE

: Hema Book World, Ph.: (080) 40905110


Sapna Book House, Ph.: (080) 40114455
Hema Stores, Ph.: (080) 25575110
Avenue Book Centre, Ph.: (080) 22244753
Karnataka Book Depot, Ph.: (080) 22291832
: Pragati Book Stall, Ph.: (08392) 272727
Chaitanya Agency and Books, Ph.: 8277477778
: Laxmi Agencies, Ph.: (08192) 231271
: Bharath Book Mark, Ph.: 0824-4273030 4260030
School Book Co., 0824-2496923, 4281777

BELLARY
DAVANGERE
MANGALORE

Karnataka

Kerala

ERNAKULAM

: H & C Store,Ph.: (0484) 2377235


Orient Book House, Ph.:(0484) 2370431
Academic Book House, Ph.: 0484-2376613
Surya Book House, Ph.: (0484) 2363721
KOTTAYAM
: H &C Store, Ph.: (0481) 2304351
BOOK Centre, Ph.: (0481) 2566992
KOZHIKODE
: Edumart, Ph.:(495) 4040395
PATHANAMTHITTA : H & C Store, Ph.: (0468) 2223081
PALARIVATTOM : H & C Store, Ph.: (0484) 2344337
PERUMBAVOOR : Adithya Book House, Ph.: (0484) 2594186
THRISSUR
: Giftalia Book Bhawan, Ph.: (487) 2336918
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM : Academic Book House, Ph.: 0471-2333349,
TRIVENDRUM : H & C Store, Ph.: (0471) 2572010

Madhya Pradesh

BURHANPUR
GWALIOR
INDORE

: Saifee Book Depot, Ph.: (07325) 252046


: Krishna Sons, Ph.:(0751)2320431
Agarwal Book Depot, Ph. : (0761) 4068183
: Arun Prakashan, Ph.: (0731) 2454372, 2459448
Mahesh Book Depot, Ph.: (0731) 2447635

Punjab

BHATINDA
LUDHIANA

: Janta Book Depot, Ph.: (0164) 2253993


: Chhabra Book Depot, Ph.: (0161) 2405427

BHARATPUR
BHILWARA
JAIPUR
KOTA

:
:
:
:

CHENNAI

: Indian Book House, Ph.:(044) 24327784


Central Book Distributors, Ph.: (044)24343336
Kamal Store, Ph.: (044) 24419202, 42117130
Ruby Books, Ph.: (044) 26425958
P.C.M. Book Shop, Ph.: (044) 24337329

AGARTALA

: Book Corner, Ph.: (0381) 2301945

AGRA

: Ajay Book Depot, Ph. : (0562) 2254621, 2250262


Om Pustak Mandir, Ph.: (0562) 2464014, 3059218
Manav Book Depot, Ph.: (0562) 6545883
: Shaligram & Sons, Ph.: (0571) 2421887
: Mehrotra Book Depot, Ph.: (0532) 2400129, 2266865
Book Wala, Ph.: 7388100488
: Sasta Sahitya Sadan, Ph.: (05462) 224421
: Raj Book Agencies, Ph.: 9412150750
: Ram Kumar Mahaveer Prasad, Ph. : (01344) 221064
: Kamal Prakashan, Ph.: (0120) 2830051
: Vidyarthi Sahitya Bhandar, Ph.: (0551) 3249392
: Fairdeal Book Seller, Ph.: (0512) 2652683
: Azad Book Distributor, Ph.:(0522)2350981,2619939
Rama Book Depot, Ph.: (0522) 4045252
Chacha Enterprises, Ph.: (0522) 4105921, 248117
Sharma Stationery Book & General Store, Ph.:2456851
: Vishnu Book Depot, Ph.: (0565) 2401096
: Mahi Book Palace, Ph.: (0121) 2641791
Ideal Book Depot, Ph.: (0121) 2660648
: Book Land, Ph.: (0120) 2412054
Delta Stationery, Ph.: 9818907067
: Bokaro Student Friends, Ph.: (0542) 2401250
Gupta Books, Ph.: 2413017, 2410012

Jharkhand

Bokaro Student Friends, Ph.: (06542) 234706


Bokaro Student Friends, Ph.: (0236) 2302493
Kalyani Book House, Ph.: 09304804856
Bokaro Student Friends, Ph. (0651) 2212447

Maharashtra

AHMEDNAGAR : Heera Book Store, Ph.: (0241) 2418770


AURANGABAD : Maya Book Centre, Ph. (0240) 2360150
Aarti Book Centre, Ph.: (0240) 2333366
CHANDARPUR : Novelty Book Depot, Ph.: (07172-277418
JALGAON
: Sharma Book Depot, Ph.: (0257) 6958794
KOLHAPUR
: Jai Book Co., Ph.: (0231) 2651003
MUMBAI
: Student Agencies, Ph.: (022) 40496161
Shivam Book &Stationer, Ph.:(022)28381014, 28236000
Anjali Trading Co., Ph.: (022) 28714025, 28714024
Vidyarthi Sales Agencies, Ph.: (022) 23897279
NAVI MUMBAI : Krishna Book Store, Ph.: (022) 27744962
NAGPUR
: Novelty Book Depot, Ph.: (0712) 2534884
Vijay Book Depot, Ph.: (0712) 2534217, 2520496
NANDED
: India Book Agencies, Ph. : 9890489460
PUNE
: New Venture, Ph.:(020) 24485054
Sai Shubham, Ph.: (020) 69498635
WARDHA
: Unique Traders, Ph.: (07152) 243617
YAVATMAL
: Dilip Book Agencies, Ph.: (07231) 245450

Haryana

GURGAON

Student Book Depot, Ph.: (0731) 2535892, 4053333


S.P. & SONS, Ph.: (0731) 2452680, 2451933
Akash Book Distributors, Ph.:(0761)4063099, 2653200
Ayush Prakashan,Ph.: (0761) 4068295, 2651337
Sangam General Store, Ph.: (0761)2412592, 2413673
Agrasen Stationers, Ph.: (07622) 403377
Mahaveer Agencies, Ph.: (07622) 400683
Old & New Book Centre, Ph.: 9827075062
Siddharth Enterprises, Ph.: (07662) 404019
Sri Nath Book Depot, Ph.: (0734) 2556903,2556902

Rajasthan

Sunil Book Centre, Ph. (05644) 233777


Nakoda Book Depot, Ph. : (01482) 239653
Goyal Book Distributors,Ph.: (0141) 2571673
Bhandari Stationers, Ph.: 0744-2391958

Tamil Nadu

Tripura

ALIGARH
ALLAHABAD
AZAMGARH
BILASPUR
DHAMPUR
GHAZIABAD
GORAKHPUR
KANPUR
LUCKNOW

MATHURA
MEERUT
NOIDA
VARANASI

Uttar Pradesh

Uttarakhand

HALDWANI

: Arvind Book Agencies, Ph.: (05946) 250581

KOLKATA

: Oriental Publishers,Ph.:(033) 22191591, 22198367


Saha Book House, Ph.: (033) 22193671
Eureka Book Emporium, Ph.: (033) 25934001
KathaOKahani Pvt. Ltd., Ph.: 22419071, 22196313
: Novelty Books, Ph.: (0353) 2525445

SILIGURI

West Bengal

For more Book-shops visit www.OswaalBooks.com


Publisher
Typeset by : Jhalak Computers

Code: 0112

Disclaimer :
Oswaal Books has exercised due care and caution in collecting the
data before publishing this book. Inspite of this if any omission,
inaccuracy or printing error occurs with regards to the data
contained in this book, Oswaal Books will not be held responsible or
liable. Oswaal Books will be grateful if you could point out any such
error or your suggestion which will be of great help for other readers.

FOREST SOCIETY AND COLONIALISM

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET1

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Railway.
1
Dutch.
1
Rice production.
1
Lading.
1
The Kalangs of Java were known as a community of skilled forest cutters because of
the following reasons :
(i) The Kalangs of Java were a community of skilled forest cutters and shifting
cultivators.
(ii) They were so valuable that in 1755 when the Mataram kingdom of Java split, the
6000 Kalang families were equally divided between the two kingdoms.
(iii) Without their expertise, it would have been difficult to harvest teak and for the
kings to build their palaces.
3
Ans. 6. The colonial government started commercial forestry in India due to the following
reasons :
(i) British needed forest wood in order to build ships and railways.
(ii) For the development of plantation.
(iii) They wanted more income from forest.
3
Ans. 7. Dietrich Brandish was appointed as the First Director General of Forests in India.
He set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864.
Three main features of scientific forestry are as follows:
(i) Natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down.
(ii) One type of trees was planted in straight rows.
(iii) Forest officials surveyed the forests and made working plans for forest management
every year.
1+1+3=5
Ans. 8. Local names of shifting cultivation in South East Asia Lading, in Central America
Milpa, in Africa Chitemene or Tavy and in Sri Lanka Chena.
Features of shifting cultivations are as follows:
(i) This is a traditional agricultural practice.
(ii) In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation.
(iii) Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested
by OctoberNovember.
(iv) Such plots are cultivated for a couple of years and then left fallow for 12 to 18
years for the forest to grow back.
(Any three) 2 + 3 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

WORKSHEET2

Sleepers.
1
Kalangs of Java.
1
Forest having trees suitable for building ships and railways.
1
Chhattisgarh.
1
(i) Forest Act was enacted in 1865.
(ii) It was amended twice, once in 1878 and then in 1927.
(iii) 1878 Act, divided the forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village
forests.
3

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-1

Ans. 6. The efforts made by the Dutch to win over labour to cut trees and transport the logs
were :
(i) The Dutch first imposed rent on land being cultivated in the forest and then
exempted some villages from paying these rents if they worked collectively to
provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber.
(ii) Later instead of rent exemption forest villagers were given small wages but their
right to cultivate forest land was restricted.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 7. The Saminist Movement in Indonesia :
(i) This movement started in the last decade of the 19th century against the restriction
by the colonial state. Surontiko Samin headed the movement.
(ii) The Dutch Government forced the farmers to pay taxes on land etc.
(iii) Even for the collection of fire wood taxes, were imposed.
(iv) The Dutch Government implemented welfare programmes and projects without
their concern. So, they started the movement.
(v) It was a non-violent movement.
5
Ans. 8. The British suppressed the revolt of Bastar in the following ways :
(i) The Adivasi leaders tried to negotiate but the British surrounded their camps and
fired on them.
(ii) The British sent troops to suppress the rebellion.
(ii) Most villages were deserted as people fled into the jungle out of fear.
(iv) It took three months for the British to regain control on the people of Bastar.
(v) But the British could never manage to capture Gunda Dhur.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET3

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

1860s.
1
Dhya, Podu, Kumri.
1
Dehradun.
1
Milpa.
1
Plantation was promoted in India at the cost of forest during British Period in the
following ways :
(i) Large areas of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber
plantation in order to meet Europes growing need for these commodities.
(ii) The colonial government took over the forests and gave vast areas to the European
planters at cheap rates.
(iii) These areas were enclosed and cleared off forests and planted with tea or coffee. 3
Ans. 6. The three special features of the life of the wood cutters of Java were :
(i) The Kalangs of Java were skilled forest cutters and they practised shifting
cultivation.
(ii) They were so valuable that when the kingdom of Java split, the Kalang families
were equally divided between two kingdoms.
(iii) Without them, it was difficult to harvest teak and for the kings to build their
palaces.
(iv) The Dutch tried to make the Kalangs work under them.
(v) In 1770, the Kalangs resisted by attacking a Dutch fort but they were
suppressed.
(any three) 3
Ans. 7. (a) The Kalangs were a community of skilled cutters and shifting cultivators. They
were so valuable that in 1755, when the Mataram Kingdom of Java split, the
6,000 Kalang families were equally divided between two kingdoms. Without their
expertise it would be difficult to harvest teak or build palaces.

P-2

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(b) The Dutch imposed rents on lands being cultivated in the forests. They
exempted some villages from these rents on condition that they provided free
labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This is known as the
Blandongdiensten System.
2 +2 = 5
Ans.8. The ve special features of the life of the people of Bastar are :
(i) Bastar is a district of the state of Chhattisgarh in central India.
(ii) Different communities live in Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurvas,
Bhalras, etc.
(iii) They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.
(iv) They believe that each village is given its land by the Earth and in return, they
look after the earth by making offerings during the festivals.
(v) In addition to the Earth, they pay respect to the spirits of river, forest and
mountain.
(vi) Since each village knows its boundaries, they look after their natural resources
within the boundary.
(vii)If they want to take some wood from another village, they pay a small fee called
Devsani in exchange.
(viii)Some village protects their forests by keeping watchmen and each house
contributes grains to pay them.
(ix) They meet once a year to discuss issues of concern, including forest. (Any ve) 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET4

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Dutch.
1
1864.
1
Dietrich Brandis.
1
9.3%.
1
Reasons :
(i) The British saw the large animals as the signs of wild, primitive and savage
society.
(ii) They believed that by killing dangerous animals, the British would civilize India.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 6. Dietrich Brandis introduced scientific Forestry in India. In scientific forestry :
(i) Natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down.
(ii) One type of tree is planted in straight rows.
(iii) Forest officials surveyed the forests and made working plans for forest management
every year.
3
Ans. 7. Causes :
(i) The colonial government proposed to reserve two third of the forest in 1905.
(ii) Stopped shifting cultivation.
(iii) Hunting and collection of forest product were stopped.
(iv) People were displaced without any notice or compensation.
(v) Villagers suffered due to increased land rent, demand for free labour and goods by
colonial officials.
(Any three)
Consequences :
(i) Work on reservation was temporarily suspended.
(ii) The area to be reserved was reduced to roughly half of that planned before 1910.
3+2=5
Ans. 8. The ve suggestions proposed by Dietrich Brandis for forest management were :

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-3

(i) Setting up of Indian Forest Service in 1864.


(ii) Scientific forestry taught at IFRI Dehradun.
(iii) Removal of a variety of trees from an area replaced by one type of trees planted in
straight rows.
(iv) Made working plan for forest management.
(v) Fixed plan about cutting portions of plantations and replanting.
(Any five) 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET5

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Reserved forest.
1
Dehradun, 1906.
1
Baigas.
1
Reserved forests.
1
Dietrich Brandis was a German expert.
Brandis was invited to India to set up the Indian Forest Service and helped to formulate
the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
His two major contributions were as follows :
(i) Scientific forestry was introduced.
(ii) He introduced proper system to manage the forests.
(iii) Rules about the use of forest resources where laid down.
(Any two) 1 + 2 = 3
Ans. 6. The spread of railways during the British period adversely affect the forest wealth of
India in the following ways :
(i) The spread of railways created a new demand of various goods.
(ii) To run locomotives wood was needed as fuel.
(iii) Wood was also needed for sleepers to lay tracks.
(iv) A large number of trees were cut down to meet the requirement of wood.
(v) Contracts were given to the individuals who cut down trees indiscriminately.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. Fears of the people :
(i) With the stopping of shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest produce
the people of Bastar were worried very much.
(ii) Some villages were allowed to stay in the reserved forests if they worked free for
the forest department. Later on they were known as forest villages.
(iii) People of other villages were displaced.
(iv) Villagers were suffering from increased land rents.
(v) Reservations proved to be the last straw.
51=5
Ans. 8. The First Inspector General of forests was a German expert named Dietrich Brandis.
His Contribution :
(i) He ensured that people had to be trained in managing and conserving the forests.
He framed rules about the use of forest resources. Set up Indian Forests Service
in 1864 and helped in formulating Indian Forests Act in 1865.
(ii) The Imperial Forests research institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.
(iii) The system of Scientific Forestry was introduced.
(iv) Restricted indiscriminate felling of trees to be preserved for timber productions.
1+4=5

P-4

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET6

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Forests did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state.


1
Kalangs.
1
Dietrich Brandis was the First Inspector General of Forests in India.
1
Dutch.
1
Reasons :
(i) The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute,
sugar, wheat and cotton.
(ii) Colonial states thought that forests were unproductive. They considered that the
forests should be cleared and brought under cultivation.
(iii) They saw the expansion of cultivation as sign of progress.
3
Ans. 6. Some people benefitted from the control of forests by the colonial rulers :
(i) New opportunities had opened up in trades.
(ii) Many people left their traditional occupation and started trading in forest
products.
(iii) In Assam both men and women from forest communities were recruited to work
on tea plantations.
3
Ans. 7. The First and Second World War had a major impact on forests :
(i) In India working plans were abandoned at this time and the forest department cut
trees freely to meet British wars needs.
(ii) In Java just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed Scorched
Earth policy, destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that
they would not fall into Japanese hands.
(iii) The Japanese then exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries,
forcing forest villagers to cut down forests.
(iv) Many villagers used this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forest.
(v) After the war, it was difficult for the Indonesian forest service to get this land
back.
(vi) As in India peoples need for agricultural land has brought them into conflict with
the forest departments desire to control the land and exclude people from it.
(Any ve) 5
Ans. 8. Shifting Cultivation is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa
& South America. In Shifting Cultivation parts of the forest are cut and burnt in
rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains, and the crop is
harvested by October-November.
Colonial impacts on Shifting Cultivation :
(i) Europeans regarded this practice harmful for the forests. They felt that the forest
burnt would destroy timber and the danger of the flames would spread and burn
valuable timber.
(ii) Shifting Cultivation made it harder for the government to calculate taxes so
British government decided to ban Shifting Cultivation.
(iii) As a result, many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in forest.
(iv) Some had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small
rebellions.
(Any three) 2 + 3 = 5

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET7

MAP WORK
Ans. 1.

16=6

Ans. 2.

15=5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET8

All the activities have to be done by the students on their own. It will help them to develop
their power of observation and reasoning. It also helps to develop creative expression.

P-6

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

PASTORALISTS IN THE MODERN WORLD

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Ans. 7.

Ans. 8.

Ans. 9.

Rajasthan.
1
Craftsmen, traders and pastoralists.
1
East Africa.
1
The Massai and other pastoral groups were forced to live within the confine of special
reserves.
1
1871.
1
The two ways in which the forest acts changed the lives of the pastoralist were :
(i) They were now prevented from entering many forests which earlier provided
livelihood to them.
(ii) Even in the areas where they lived, their movements were restricted. They needed
permits to move out of their area.
1
The three restrictions imposed on the pastoral groups of Africa were :
(i) The Massai and other pastoral groups were forced to live within the confine of
special reserves.
(ii) They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits.
(iii) The pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in white areas.
3
In pre-colonial period the Maasai society was divided into two social categories elders
and warriors.
Role :
(i) The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the
affairs of the community and settle disputes.
(ii) The warriors, consisting of young people were mainly responsible for the protection
of the tribe.
1+2=3
Main provisions of Forest Laws :
(i) Pastoralists now were prevented from entering many forests that has earlier
provided valuable forage for their cattle.
(ii) Even in the areas where they were allowed to enter, their movements were now
restricted. Permit had to be taken in advance.
(iii) Timing of their entry and exit was specified.
(iv) Many pastoralists had to move away because of extensive restrictions.
(Any three)
Main provisions of Criminal Tribes Act :
(i) In 1871, the colonial government in India passed Criminal Tribes Act. According
to this many communities of craftsman, traders, pastoralists were classified as
criminal tribes.
(ii) They were stated to be criminal by nature and by birth. These communities
were expected to live only in notified village settlements. The village police kept
continuous watch on them.
3+2=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

WORKSHEET9

WORKSHEET10

It helps in commercial activity.


Maharashtra.
The people who do not have a permanent place to live in are pastoral nomads.
Massai.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

1
1
1
1

P-7

Ans. 5. Under the colonial rule, the life of pastoralists was changed in the following ways :
(i) Grazing grounds shrank as it was transformed into cultivated farms which meant
the decline of pastures.
(ii) Forests Acts enacted, pastoralists were prevented from entering many forests that
had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.
(iii) In 1871, the colonial government, in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act by
which many pastoral communities were classified as criminal tribes.
(iv) Taxes were imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even
on animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the
pastures.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 6. Gujjars Bakarwals are the herders of goats and sheep living in the region of Jammu
and Kashmir. Their herds moved out of this area between summer and winter and
travel in groups of Kafilas.
(i) They earned their livelihood by selling milk, ghee, and other products or their
herds.
(ii) Women went to the markets and sold home made products like pots filled with
buttermilk, honey, etc. while the men took the cattle to graze.
1+2=3
Ans. 7. The forest lands were considered as waste land because :
(i) These lands did not yield agricultural product nor any other revenue.
(ii) They considered these lands as unproductive and referred these as waste lands.
Reasons to transform these lands into cultivated farms :
(i) By expanding cultivated land, the British wanted to increase their revenue.
(ii) For increasing production of commercial crops like jute, cotton wheat etc.
(iii) Since uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive, the Britishers thought it to
be unproductive and as a waste land.
(Any three) 2 + 3 = 5
Ans. 8. British officials were suspicious of nomadic people due to the following reasons :
(i) They did not like mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages.
(ii) British tried to settle them as they wanted to rule over a settled population which
was easy to identify and control.
(iii) They wanted them to be peaceable and law abiding.
(iv) Britishers passed the Criminal Tribes Act. According to this many communities
of craftsmen, traders and pastoralist were classified as criminal tribes. They were
stated to be criminal by nature and birth.
(v) These communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. They
were not allowed to move out without a permit. Village police kept a continuous
watch on them.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET11

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Vast meadows in the high mountains.


1
Dhangars.
1
Central plateau of Maharashtra.
1
Sheep and goats.
1
The two problems faced by the maasai community in Africa due to colonialism were :
(i) The best grazing land were taken over for the white settlers.
(ii) The Maasais were pushed into a small area. They were confined to an arid zone
with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
1
Ans. 6. Drought.
1
Ans. 7. Maru.
1
Ans. 8. The life of Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir :
(i) Even today the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of
goat and sheep.

P-8

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(ii) Many of them migrated to this region in 19th century. They settled down here and
moved annually between their summer and winter resorts.
(iii) When the higher mountains are snow bound in winter, they shift to the lower hills.
By the end of April, they begin their northern march for their summer grazing
grounds.
31=3
Ans. 9. Banjaras were well known group of graziers. He were to be found in the villages of
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
The life of Banjaras :
(i) They used to move long distances for selling their products and to bring back
necessary item for their use.
(ii) They sold plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and
foods.
(iii) Their livelihood was depend on their movement to right areas where they could
find the sources of their livelihood.
1+1+3=5
Ans.10. Drought affected the pastoral life in Africa during the colonial period in the following
ways :
(i) Due to dry Pastures, cattle starve because there was lack of forage.
(ii) Pastoralist had to migrate to far away areas.
(iii) During the colonial period the Massai were forced to live within a reserve and
hence lacked pastures.
(iv) Loss of human lives and cattle due to starvation and diseases. As the area of
grazing lands shrank the adverse effect of the drought increased repidly.
(v) There was a steady decline of the animal stock of the pastoralists.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET12

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

The Criminal Tribes Act.


1
Elders and Warriors.
1
My people.
1
Pastoral Communities of the Himalayas.
1
The best grazing lands were taken over for the white settlers.
1
Grazing lands of Africa turned into use for other activities by the following ways :
(i) Since the late nineteenth century, the British colonial government in east Africa
encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation
expanded, pasture lands were turned into cultivated field.
(ii) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserve like the Massai.
Mara and Sanburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania.
(iii) Best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement.
3
Ans. 7. (i) They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area.
(ii) They needed to calculate the timing of their movement and move through different
territories.
(iii) They had to set up a relationship with the farmers so that the herds could graze
and manure the soil.
3
Ans. 8. Gujjars Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir moved annually between their summer
and winter grazing grounds. In winter, when the high mountains were covered with
snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub
forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April they began their
northern march for their summer grazing grounds. In the deserts of Rajasthan lived
the Raikas. The rainfall in the region was meagre and uncertain. On cultivated land,
harvests fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches no crop could be grown. So, the
Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism. During the monsoons, the Raikas of
Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE COMTEMPORARY WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-9

was available. By October, when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, they
moved out in search of other pasture and water, and returned again during the next
monsoon. One group of Raikas known as the Maru (desert) Raikas herded camels
and another group reared sheep and goat.
5
Ans. 9. The following colonial laws affected the lives of postoralists :
(i) Waste land rules :
According to this Act, uncultivated lands were taken and given over to selected
individuals. They were granted concessions. Some of them were made Headmen.
Impact : Grazing grounds shrank and livestock decreased.
(ii) Forest Acts :
According to this Act, the forests were divided into reserved and protected.
Pastoralists were not allowed to access reserved forests. Customary Grazing
rights were granted for protected forests.
(iii) Criminal Tribes Act :
According to this Act, pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. They were
asked to live in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out
without a permit.
(iv) Grazing Tax :
According to this Act, pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed
on the pastures. Tax per head went up rapidly. System of collection was made
efficient. To enter a grazing track, a cattle herder had to show a pass or pay the
tax. So number of cattle herds decreased.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET13

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Pastoral Communities of the Himalayas.


1
East Africa.
1
Because Maasais were confined to a small area.
1
Jammu and Kashmir.
1
1871.
1
The life of Raikas community of Rajasthan :
(i) Raikas lived in the desert of Rajasthan.
(ii) The rainfall in the region was meagre and uncertain. On cultivated land, harvest
fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown. So, the Raikas
combined cultivation with pastoralism.
(iii) During the monsoons the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner
stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
(iv) By October, when these grazing grounds were dry and exhausted. They moved
out in search of other pastures and water, and returned again during the next
monsoon.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. The three features of the life of African pastoralists were :
(i) African pastoralist community includes Bedouins, Barbers, Massai, Somali, Boran
and Turkana.
(ii) Most of them are in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rain-fed
agriculture is difficult.
(iii) They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys and they sell milk, meat,
animal skin and wool.
3
Ans. 8. Criminal Tribes Act and its effects on people :
(i) The Britishers were suspicious of nomadic people. They wanted the rural people
to live in villages, in fixed places with fixed rights on particular fields.
(ii) They felt that such a population would be easy to identify and control.
(iii) Nomadic people were considered to be criminal. Therefore in 1871, the Criminal
Tribes Act was passed.

P-10

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(iv) By this Act, many communities of traders, craftsmen and pastoralists were stated
to be criminals by nature and birth. These communities were expected to live only
in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move without a permit.
A continuous watch on them was kept by the village police.
4 1 = 5
Ans. 9. The pastoral nomads are found in different parts of India such as in the mountains, on
plateaus, plains and deserts :
(i) The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and
sheep. They move annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
In summer, the Gujjar herders go up to the high meadows of the Bugyals, and in
winter they come down the dry forests of the Bhabar.
(ii) The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh have a similar cycle of seasonal
movement. They too spend their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range grazing
their flocks in scrub forests. By April, they move north and spend the summer in
Lahul Spiti. When the snow melts and the high passes are clear, many of them
move on to the higher mountain meadows. By September, they begin their return
movement.
(iii) Dhangars are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them
are shepherds, blanket weavers and other are buffalo herders. They grow kharif
and rabi crops like bajra, rice.
(iv) The Gollas, Karumas and Kurubas are pastoral communities that live in
Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Gollas herded cattle. The Kurumas and
Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sell woven blankets. They cultivate small
patches of land and get engaged in a variety of petty trades also.
(v) Banjaras are yet another well known groups of grazers. They are found in many
states of India, especially in the North.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET14

Ans. 1. These lands did not yield agricultural product nor any other revenue.
1
Ans. 2. The life of Dhangars of Maharashtra :
(i) The Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.
(ii) Most were shepherds and some were blanket weavers or buffalo herders.
(iii) During monsoon they stayed in central plateau of Maharashtra.
(iv) In October they harvested bajra.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 3. Grazing lands of Africa turned into use for other activities by the following ways :
(i) Since the late nineteenth century, the British colonial government in east Africa
encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation
expanded, pasture lands were turned into cultivated field.
(ii) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserve like the Massai.
Mara and Sanburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania.
(iii) Best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement.
3
Ans. 4. The various advantages to the environment due to continuous movement of nomadic
tribes are :
(i) It allows the pastures to recover and prevent their overuse as pastures are not
rendered completely barren by exploitative and long use.
(ii) This helps in making effective use of pastures available in different areas.
(iii) This also allows nomadic tribes to practise many occupations such as cultivation,
trade and herding.
(iv) Their cattle help in manuring the soil.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 5. Main provisions of Forest Laws :
(i) Pastoralists now were prevented from entering many forests that has earlier
provided valuable forage for their cattle.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-11

(ii) Even in the areas where they were allowed to enter, their movements were now
restricted. Permit had to be taken in advance.
(iii) Timing of their entry and exit was specified.
(iv) Many pastoralists had to move away because of extensive restrictions. (Any three)
Main provisions of Criminal Tribes Act :
(i) In 1871, the colonial government in India passed Criminal Tribes Act. According
to this many communities of craftsman, traders, pastoralists were classified as
criminal tribes.
(ii) They were stated to be criminal by nature and by birth. These communities
were expected to live only in notified village settlements. The village police kept
continuous watch on them.
3+2=5
Ans. 6. Problems :
(i) The best grazing land were taken over for the white settlers.
(ii) The Massais were pushed into a small area. They were confined to an arid zone
with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
(iii) Local peasant communities were encouraged by the British colonial government
to expand cultivation and pasture lands were turned into cultivated fields.
(iv) Large areas of Massai grazing lands were converted into game reserves and
pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves.
(v) They were dominated by agriculturist.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET15

MAP WORK
Ans. 1

P-12

15=5

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans.2.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

15=5

WORKSHEET16

All these activities has to be done by the students on their own. The imaginary interview task
will help to develop the creative ability and improve the logical expression.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-13

FARMERS AND PEASANTS

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET17

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Portuguese.
1
Cyrus McCormick.
1
Captain Swing.
1
1/6.
1
The three factors which led to the enclosures in England were :
(i) From the mid-eighteenth century, the English population expanded rapidly which
increased demand for foodgrains.
(ii) Due to industrialization, urban population grew and the market for foodgrain
increased.
(iii) Due to Anglo-French war by the end of 18th century, trade and import of food
grain from Europe disrupted which encouraged land owners to enclose lands in
England.
3
Ans. 6. The impect of the westward expansion of settlers in the USA were :
(i) The white setters moved westward and cleaned forests for cultivation in U.S.A.
(ii) Forest timber could be cut for export, animals hunted for skin and mountains
mined for gold and minerals.
(iii) The American Indians had to be cleared from the land.
3
Ans.7. Causes of unwillingness :
(i) Planting opium in their best land could adversely affect the production of pulses.
(ii) Landless cultivators could have to pay rent and lease for which they were to take
loans from the money lenders at very high rates.
(iii) Cultivation of opium was a difficult process as it required constant nurturing.
(iv) The price paid by the British government was very low.
(v) The cultivators had to spend long hours for growing opium.
5
Ans. 8. The people of England started enclosing the land in the late eighteenth century due to
the following reasons :
(i) From the mid-eighteenth century, the English population expanded rapidly which
increased demand for foodgrains.
(ii) Due to industrialization urban population grew and the market for foodgrain
increased.
(iii) Due to Anglo-French war by the end of 18th century, trade and import of food
grain from Europe disrupted which encouraged land owners to enclose lands in
England.
The new enclosure was different from the old in the following ways :
(i) Unlike the sixteenth century enclosures promoted sheep farming and the land
being enclosed in the late eighteenth century was for grain production.
(ii) The new enclosure was happening in a different context. It became a sign of a
changing time.
3+2=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

P-14

WORKSHEET18

Indigo.
Terrifying dust storms.
Overproduction and subsequent fall of agricultural prices.
Captain Swing.

1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 5. A mythic name.


1
Ans. 6. Because they feared the shortage of labor.
1
Ans. 7. Opium price was not reduced because :
(i) To earn more profit.
(ii) The difference between the buying and selling price was governments revenue.
Impact :
(i) Angry peasant began agitating and refused to take advances.
(ii) They gave up opium cultivation and started growing sugarcane, potatoes etc.
(iii) They started selling their crops to private traders at higher price.
(Any two)
1+2=3
Ans. 8. Problems :
(i) England at that time produced nothing that could be easily sold in China.
(ii) The Confucian rulers of China and the Manchus, were suspicious of all foreign
merchants. They feared that the merchants would meddle in local politics and
disrupt their authority.
(iii) British could buy tea only by paying silver coins or bullion. This meant an outflow
of treasure from England, a prospect that created widespread anxiety. 3 1 = 3
Ans. 9. (i) Rich farmers wanted to expand wool production to earn profits.
(ii) They wanted to have compact blocks to allow improved breeding.
(iii) Common land was divided and enclosed and hedges were built to separate their
property.
(iv) They drove the villagers who had small cottages on the commons and prevented
the poor from entering the closed fields.
(v) They were supported by the State or the Church.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET19

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Advances.
1
The entire ploughed landscape was stripped of all grass.
1
They wanted to reduce their dependence on labourers.
1
Lamoures of England were the Swing rioters.
1
China.
1
The mechanisation of a agriculture affected the agricultural labours and formers is the
following ways :
(i) For poor farmers and agriculture labourers machines brought misery. Since
mechanisations reduced the need for labourers. Many lost their jobs.
(ii) Many farmers bought machines hoping that wheat prices would remain high and
profit would flow. By late 19th century when the boom ended they faced troubles.
(iii) Those who borrowed money from the bank, could not pay back the loan, got
bankrupt deserted their farms and looked for employment elsewhere.
3
Ans. 7. Reasons :
(i) In early eighteenth century, farmers began cultivating turnips and clover
regularly. These crops became part of the cropping system.
(ii) Later findings showed that these crops had the capacity to increase the nitrogen
content of the soil. Nitrogen was important for crop growth.
(iii) Cultivation of the same soil over a few years depleted the nitrogen in the soil and
reduced its fertility. By restoring nitrogen, turnip and clover made the soil fertile
once again.
3
Ans. 8. The conditions of the English countryside at the time of open fields :

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-15

(i) The countryside was not partitioned into enclosed lands privately owned by
landlords.
(ii) Peasants cultivated on strips of land around the village they lived in. These strips
were allotted in a public meeting varied in quality and size and were scattered at
different places.
Life of the farmers :
(i) Besides the strips for cultivation, all the farmers had access to the commons.
(ii) Here, they pastured their cows, grazed their sheep, collected the fuel wood for fire
and berries and fruit for food.
(iii) They fished in the rivers, ponds and hunted rabbits in common forests. 2 + 3 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET20

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Cotton.
1
Before 16th century.
1
Piece of land enclosed from all sides.
1
They were deprived of common lands.
1
Dead bodies of birds and animals were strewn all over the landscape.
1
(i) Sensitivity towards environment.
(ii) Concern for sustainable use of resources.
(iii) Concern for fellow countrymen.
3
Ans. 7. The causes for dramatic expansion of wheat production in the USA are as follows :
(i) The urban population in the USA was growing and the export market was
becoming bigger.
(ii) The spread of the railways made it easy to transport the grain from wheat growing
regions to the eastern coast for export.
(iii) During the First World War the world market boomed. The dramatic expansion
was made possible by the coming of new technology.
3
Ans. 8 Features of the Open Field :
(i) The countryside in England was open and peasants cultivated on strips of land
around the village they lived in.
(ii) Beyond the strips of land was the common land. All the villagers had access to it.
(iii) Common land supplement low incomes, sustained their cattle and helped them to
overcome bad harvests.
(iv) Strips of land of varying quality were allotted to each villager.
(v) They fished in the rivers and ponds and hunted rabbit in common forest.
5
Ans. 9. The expansion of wheat agriculture in the great plains created many problems :
(i) In the 1930s, terrifying dust storms began to blow over the southern plains. Black
Blizzards rolled in very often 7,000 to 8,000 feet high, rising like monstrous waves
of muddy water. They came day after day and year after year through out the
1930s.
(ii) Cattle were suffocated to death, their lungs caked with dust and mud sand, buried
fences, covered fields, and coated the surface of rivers till the fish died.
(iii) Dead bodies of birds and animals were strewn all over the landscape.
(iv) Tractors and machines that had ploughed the earth and harvested the wheat in
the 1920s were now clogged with dust and got damaged beyond repair.4 1 = 5

P-16

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET21

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Wilson.
1
U.S.A.
1
Turnip.
1
Indigo and Opium.
1
For sheep farming.
1
Reasons :
(i) On the night of 28 August, 1830 a threshing machine of a farmer was destroyed by
labourers in East Kent in England.
(ii) In the subsequent two years, riots spread over southern England and about 387
threshing machines were broken. During this period, farmers received threatening
letters urging them to stop using machines that deprived workmen of their
livelihood.
(iii) Most of these letters were signed in the name of Captain Swing.
3
Ans. 7. Advantages of enclosures :
(i) Enclosures had become necessary to move long term investments on land and plan
crop rotation to improve the soil.
(ii) Enclosures also allowed the rich farmers to expand the land under their control.
(iii) They could produce more for the market to earn more profit.
3
Ans. 8 Effects of Enclosure Movement :
(i) When fences came up, the enclosed land became the exclusive property of one land
owner.
(ii) The poor could no longer collect firewood from the forests or graze their cattle on
the commons.
(iii) The poor could no longer collect apples and berries and hunt small animals for
meat.
(iv) They could not gather the stalks that lay on the fields after the crops were cut.
(v) In places where enclosures happened on an extensive scale, particularly the
midlands and countries around the poor were displaced from the land.
5
Ans. 9. Reasons :
(i) The history of opium production in India was linked up with the story of British
trade with China.
(ii) They searched for a commodity they could sell in China, something they could
persuade the Chinese to buy. Opium was such a commodity.
(iii) They made a determined effort to produce opium in the lands of Bengal.
(iv) As the market for opium expanded in China, larger volumes of opium flowed out
of Bengal ports.
(v) Supply had to be increased to feed this booming export trade. But this was not
easy. Unwilling cultivators were made to produce opium through a system of
advance.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

WORKSHEET22

7000 to 8000 feet.


1
These deprived the workers of their livelihood.
1
The poor peasants were deprived of the common land.
1
September and October.
1
(i) Expansion of wheat agriculture turning large tracts of land into grounds of
cultivation.
(ii) Uprooting of vegetation and tractors had turned soil over and broken the sod into
dust.
1 + 1 = 3

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-17

Ans. 6. Capitain Swing was a mythic name used in the threatening letters issued after attack
on threshing machines in England and the symbol of danger for landlords. Captain
Swing represented the deprived workmen who were struggling for their livelihood due
to the use of machines in agriculture.
3
Ans. 7. The demand of foodgrains increased due to the following reasons :
English population increased rapidly between 1750 to 1900. It mounted over four
times from 7 million to 30 million. This led an increased demand for foodgrains to feed
population.
The production of foodgrains increased rapidly in the following ways :
(i) At this time Britain was industrializing. More people began to live and work in
urban area.
(ii) By the end of eighteenth century, France was at war with England. This disrupted
trade and the import of foodgrains from Europe.
(iii) Foodgrain production increased by agricultural technology.
(iv) By bringing new lands under cultivation landlords sliced up pasture lands curved
up open fields, cut up forest, commons took over marshes, and turned larger areas
into agricultural fields.
(v) By simple innovations in agriculture.
(Any three) 2 + 3 = 5
Ans. 8. Reasons of the use of threshing machines :
(i) During the Napoleonic wars price of foodgrains increased and the farmers
expanded their production.
(ii) Due to the fear of shortage of labour, threshing machines were introduced.
Impact of using threshing machines :
(i) After Napoleonic wars had ended, thousands of soldiers returned to the villages.
They want alternative jobs to survive.
(ii) After war, price of foodgrains declined and due to uncertain job labourers lived in
fear of a loss of their livelihood.
(iii) The Captain Swing riots spread.
2+3=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET23

MAP WORK
Ans. 1.

P-18

14=4

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 2.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

1 4=4

WORKSHEET24

Activity 1 is to be done by the child on his own on individual basis or in the form of a group
activity.
Activity 2 deals with the movement of commodities like opium. The British Traders took
opium from India to China to England. Between India and England trade flowed both ways.
By the early 19th century exports of handloom declined from India while the exports of raw
materials and food grains increased. From England, manufactured good flowed into India
leading to a decline of India artisanal production.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-19

SPORTS AND POLITICS

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET25

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

The Parsis.
1
England and Australia.
1
1774.
1
Technological advances changed cricket in the following ways :
(i) Kerry Pecker, an Australian TV tycoon, introduced world series cricket. He signed
up 51 of worlds leading cricketers against the wish of national cricket board and
for about 2 years staged one day international and test matches.
(ii) The innovation he used to make cricket more attractive to television audiences
endure and changed the nature of the game.
(iii) He introduced coloured dress, protective helmets, field restrictions and cricket
under light.
(iv) He made cricket a commercial marketable sport which could earn huge revenues
through live television coverage and product endorsements by celebrity
cricketers.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 5. Test cricket is a unique game because of the following reasons :
(i) Its uniqueness can be attributed to the social economic history of England in the
18th century.
(ii) A Test cricket match can continue for five days and still end in a draw. No other
game can take so much time to complete.
(iii) Cricket was the earliest modern team sport to be codified.
Difference between Cricket and Hockey or Football :
Cricket : Length of the pitch is specified to be 22 yards, but the shape and size of the
ground is not specified.
Hockey / Football : The dimensions of playing area is fixed.
3
Ans. 6. The television audience endured and changed the nature of the game :
(i) Coloured dresses, protective helmets, field restrictions and cricket under lights
became standard post Packer game.
(ii) Cricket became marketable game to generate huge revenues.
(iii) Cricket boards became rich and started selling television rights to television
companies.
(iv) Television channels made money and started selling television sports to companies.
(v) Cricketers became celebrities and commercials.
5
Ans. 7. (i) The establishment of the Parsi Gymkhana led to the establishment of other
Indian clubs based on religious communities, e.g., Hindu Gymkhana and Muslim
Gymkhana.
(ii) The team that played was colonial Indias greatest and most famous first class
cricket tournaments, represented religious communities.
(iii) The tournament was initially called the Quadrangular as it was played by four
teams, the Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus and the Muslims. It later became
Pentangular when a fifthteam added to it namely, The Rest. It comprised of all
the remaining communities.
(iv) Journalists, cricketers and leaders criticized the racial and communal foundations
of the pentangular tournament.
(v) A rival first class cricket tournament on regional lines, the National Cricket
Championship (Ranji Trophy) was established and replaced pentangular later. 5

P-20

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET26

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

22 Yards.
1
1932.
1
Race and religion.
1
The battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton. Supporting
arguments are :
(i) Britains military success was based on the values taught to school boys in its
public school.
(ii) The English boarding school trained English boys for careers in the military, civil
service and the Church.
(iii) Thomas Arnold, the headmaster of Rugby School and founder of the Modern
Public School saw team sport like cricket and rugby teaching discipline the
importance of hierarchy, the skills, the codes of honour and the leadership
qualities.
3
Ans. 5. The tournament was initially called Quadrangular, because it was played by four
teams :
The Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus and the Muslims.
Later on it was given the name pentangular when a fifth team was added to it, namely,
the Rest which comprised all the communities left over.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 6. Amateurs :
(i) The amateurs were the rich who played cricket not for money but for enjoying
leisure.
(ii) They played it for pleasure.
(iii) Amateurs were called Gentlemen.
(iv) Amateurs tended to be batsmen.
(v) They enjoyed social superiority.
Professionals :
(i) The professionals were the poor who played this game for money. The wages of the
professionals were paid by patronage or subscription or gatemoney.
(ii) They played it for living.
(iii) Professionals were called players.
(iv) Professionals were given hard work of fast bowling.
(v) They were considered inferior.
5
Ans. 7. Major sub-continental cricket teams :
India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Pakistan pioneered the advances in bowling.
Innovations :
(i) The doosra was invented in response to aggressive batsmen with heavy modern
bats.
(ii) The reverse swing was to move the ball in on dusty and unresponsive wickets
under clear skies.
Both these innovations were greeted suspiciously by Britain and Australia.
2+1+2=5

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-21

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET27

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

The Oriental Cricket Club.


1
The community of Zoroastrians.
1
A person who popularized cricket through television.
1
South Africa followed the policy of racial segregation.
1
India became independent in 1947 but the colonial impact continued to be
reflected in cricket till after 1960 :
(i) It reflected in the organization of the world cricket.
(ii) The regulation of international cricket remained the business of the Imperial
Cricket Conference ICC, which was dominated by its founder members from
Australia and England.
(iii) During 1950s and 1960s England and other white common wealth countries,
Australia and New Zealand continued to play cricket with South Africa while
others boycotted South Africa for its policy of racial discrimination.
31=3
Ans. 6. In the matter of the protective equipments cricket has been influenced by
technological change as :
(i) The invention of vulcanized rubber led to introduction of pads in 1848.
(ii) Protective gloves were introduced.
(iii) Helmets made of metal and light weight materials began to be used.
3
Ans.7. One hundred and fifty years ago, the first Indian cricketer the Parsis had to struggle
to find open space to play cricket. But now, i.e., today, they are the best paid cricketers
of the world. This transformation is due to :
(i) The replacement of the gentlemen amateur by the paid professionals.
(ii) The triumph of the one day games as it has over shadowed the test cricket in
terms of popularity.
(iii) Changes in the global commerce and technology.
2+3=5
Ans.8. (i) The expert refers to the steady growth of the game of cricket in India and how the
game transformed India into the global market place of cricket and produced best
paid and competent cricket players.
(ii) The history that brought about this transformation was made up of many smaller
challenges. The replacement of gentleman amateur by the paid professional and
the triumph of the one day game as it has overshadowed test crickets popularity
and the global commerce and technology.
(iii) Well-known cricketer of early period who was fortunate to play test cricket was C.
K. Nayudu, an outstanding batsman, who caught the imagination of his fans. He
was the captain of Indian team which played first test match against England in
1932. With this game India made its entry into the world of Test Cricket.
(iv) Even after Independence of India the colonial domination continued. Indian
cricket made a steady progress and emerged as a strong team after winning world
cup in 1983.
(v) Because of the large population and their support cricket has become the most
important and lucrative sport in India.
(vi) India also excelled in world series cricket. With cricket being a television sport,
revenue collected in these games made India a global market for the game.
(Any ve) 5 1 = 5

P-22

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET28

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Kerry Packer.
1
1744.
1
England .
1
Cricket.
1
Cricket was first played by Indians in Bombay.
The first community to play cricket was of Parsis (Zoroastrians).
Difculties faced were :
(i) Cricket elite gave no help.
(ii) Conflict over public park.
(iii) Colonial authorities prejudiced.
(Any two) + + 2 = 3
Ans. 6. The provisions are as follows :
(i) The principals were to choose two umpires from among the gentlemen present,
who would absolutely decide all disputes.
(ii) The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches.
(iii) The ball must be between 5 and 6 ounce and the two sets of stumps apart.
3
Ans. 7. Pentangular tournament was built on the concept of racial and communal foundation.
It is the divisive conception of British.
It continued till 1947.
Gandhiji condemned it as a communally divisive competition. Nationalists at this
time, were trying to unite India.
MCC or Ranji Trophy replaced it.
1+ 1 + 2 + 1 = 5
Ans. 8. Meaning of De-colonisation :De-colonisation means independence of colonized
countries of Asia and Africa.
Impacts of Decolonisation on cricket are as follows :
(i) Decolonisation led to the decline of British influence in trade, commerce, military
affairs and also the sporting matters.
(ii) After the disappearance of the British empire ICC renamed as International
Cricket Conference.
(iii) By 1989, the privileged position of England and Australia scrapped in favour of
equal membership.
(iv) The newly independent countries of Africa and Asia forced the English cricket
authorities to cancel a tour by South Africa in 1940 because South Africa practised
apartheid.
1+4=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET29

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Technological change.
1
Batsman.
1
The player who was rich but played only for pleasure.
1
Pakistan.
1
(i) Parsis were the first Indian community to play the game. It slowly became
westernised.
(ii) Parsi clubs were sponsored by Parsi businessmen.
(iii) Hindu and Muslims collected funds and set up Hindu and Muslim Gymkhana. 3
Ans. 6. The changes introduced in the game of cricket in the 19th century were :
(i) The rule about wide balls was applied.
(ii) The exact cricumference of the ball was specified.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-23

(iii) Protective equipments like pads and gloves became available.


(iv) Boundaries were introduced where previously all shots had to be run.
(v) Over-arm bowling became legal.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. (i) In the beginning cricket was played by all British players and Indians were not
considered fit and without the talent to play.
(ii) The Britishers promoted the game on racial grounds only.
(iii) Cricket in the colonial India. The history of Gymkhana cricket led to first class
cricket being organised on communal and racial lines.
(iv) The first class cricket tournament represented religious communities. The
tournament was originally called quadrangular because it was played by four
teams the Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus and the Muslims.
(v) Later it became pentangular team when a fifth team was added, namely, The
rest which comprised all the communities left over such as Indian Christians. 5
Ans.8. (i) It has been rightly said that cricket during the fifties had the colonial flavour.
(ii) Even after Indian independence in 1947, the regulation of international cricket
remained the business of the Imperial Cricket Conference (ICC).
(iii) It was being controlled by the founder members of England and Australia. They
also had the right to vote. The colonial flavour of the world cricket can also be
seen from the fact that England and other white Common Wealth Countries,
Australia and Newzealand continued to play test cricket with South Africa, a
Racist State. When the political pressure to isolate South Africa was applied by
the newly decolonised nations of Asia and Africa combined with liberal feelings
in England, the English cricket authorities was forced to cancel a tour by South
Africa in 1970.
5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET30

All these activities are to be done by the student on his own.


Activities like forming class cricket team will help the child to gain self confidence and
awareness for the social concern.

P-24

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

CLOTHES AND CULTURES

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET31

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Durban.
1
They were considered a subordinate caste.
1
A closely fitted and stiff inner bodies.
1
Shanar women.
1
The Tagore family experimented with designs for a national dress for both men and
women in India. Tagore suggested that instead of combining Indian and European
dress, Indias national dress should combine elements of both the Hindus and the
Muslims dresses. The Chapkan was a long-buttoned coat considered to be the most
suitable dress for men. Jnanadanandini Devi, wife of Satyendra Nath Tagore adopted
the Parsi style of wearing the sari.
3
Ans. 6. Mahatma Gandhi felt Khadi would be a means of reducing difference between religions
and classes. But it was difficult to achieve such a unity. Nationalist such as Moti Lal
Nehru gave up his expensive western style suits and adopted Indian dhoti and kurta,
but it was not made of coarse cloth. Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru wore coloured sarees
instead of coarse cloth.
Reasons :
(i) Expensive than mill made cloth.
(ii) Difficult to obtain in remote places.
3
Ans. 7. Changes in European women clothing :
(i) Many European women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes.
(ii) Clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity.
(iii) Several women got employed in ammunition factories, which made them wear
working uniform.
(iv) Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worne as the war went
on.
(v) Thus clothes became simpler and shorter.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET32

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Tilted cap.
1
Short dhoti without a shirt.
1
Government of Travancore.
1
Chintzes.
1
Sumptuary laws in France :
(i) From 1294 to 1789, people of France were expected to follow Sumptuary laws. The
law tried to control the behaviour of those considered socially inferiors.
(ii) Preventing them from wearing clothes, consuming certain beverages and hunting
game in certain areas.
(iii) Material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed.
3
Ans. 6. Objective : The law tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors.
Restrictions :
(i) Preventing them from wearing certain clothes.
(ii) They were not allowed to consume certain food and beverages.
3

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-25

Ans. 7. Mahatma Gandhi used Swadeshi clothes as a powerful weapon against


British Rule :
(i) He made spinning on the charkha and used Khadi as very powerful symbol of selfreliance and also of resistance to the use of British mill made cloth.
(ii) He adopted the short dhoti in 1921 and wore it until his death because according
to him it was the dress of a poor Indian.
(iii) Khadi, white and coarse were a sign of purity, simplicity and poverty to him.
Wearing it became also a symbol of nationalism and a rejection of western millmade clothes.
(iv) In 1973 at Durban, he wore lungi and Kurta with his head shaved as a sign of
morning to protest against the shooting of Indians coal miners.
(v) Rough homespun was glorified in songs and poems.
5
Ans. 8. Many Indians reacted differently to the introduction of western style clothing:
(i) The wealthy Parsis of western India were among the first to adopt the western
style clothing.
(ii) Baggy trousers and the phenta were added to long collarless coats with boots
and a walking stick to look like a gentleman. Some western clothes were sign of
modernity and progress.
(iii) There were others who were convinced that western culture would lead to a loss of
traditional cultural identity.
(iv) The use of western style clothes was taken as sign of the world turning upside
down.
(v) Some men resolved this dilemma by wearing western clothes without giving up
their Indian ones.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET33

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

The Parsis.
1
In 19th century.
1
National Women Suffrage Association.
1
Satyendra Nath Tagore.
1
Reasons :
(i) The women reformers got fed up with persistent attacks. They could not change
social values.
(ii) The conservatives ridiculed them and became hostile.
(iii) They lamented that women who gave up traditional norms of dressing, no longer
looked beautiful and lost their feminity and grace.
3
Ans. 6. European dress codes :
(i) In Europe, dress codes were enacted social economic unfairness.
(ii) The lower classes in Europe were barred from wearing specific materials.
(iii) Europeans used to wear hats which had to be removed before their superiors.
Indian dress code :
(i) In India, norms were followed due to caste system.
(ii) The lower caste women were not allowed to cover thier upper bodies like high
caste women.
(iii) For Indians turbans protect them from the heat. It couldnt be removed at will. 3
Ans. 7. The Major Changes :
(i) Before the 17th century, most ordinary women in Britain possessed very few
clothes made of flax, linen or wool which were difficult to clean.
(ii) After 1600, trade with India brought cheap, beautiful and easy to maintain Indian
chintzes within the reach of many Europeans.

P-26

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(iii) During the Industrial Revolution, in the 19th century Britain began the mass
manufacture of cotton textiles which became more accessible to a wider section
of the people. By early 20th century artificial fibers made clothes further cheaper
and easy to wash.
(iv) In the late 1870s, heavy restrictive underclothes were gradually discarded. Clothes
got lighter and simpler.
(v) Changes in women clothing also took place as a result of two World Wars.
5
Ans. 8. (a) The turban was a head gear in India not just for protection from the heat, but was
a sign of respectability which could not be remove at will.
(b) In the late 1870s Jananadanandini Devi wife of Satyendranath Tagore the first
Indian member of the ICS returned from Bombay to Calcutta. She adopted the
Parsi style of wearing. The saree pinned to the left shoulder with a brooch and
worn with a blouse and shoes. This was quickly adopted by the Brahmo Samaj
women and came to be known as the Brahmika saree.
2 + 2 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET34

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

In twentieth century.
1
Coloured saree with design.
1
Upper Caste Nairs.
1
Christian missionaries.
1
(i) The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of
respectability and could not be removed at will.
(ii) In the western tradition the hat had to be removed before Social superiors as a
sign of respect.
(iii) Europeans were forbidden from wearing Indian clothes at official functions, so
the cultural identity of the white masters was not under mined. At the same time
Indians were expected to wear Indian clothes to office and follow Indian dress
codes.
3
Ans. 6. (i) The French Revolution put an end to the sumptuary laws to distinguish
themselves from the aristocracy who were knee breeches members of the Jacobin
clubs called themselves the Sans Culottes.
(ii) Sans Culottes literally meant those without knee breeches. From now on, both
men and women began wearing loose and comfortable clothing.
(iii) The colours of France-blue, white and red became popular as they were regarded
as signs of a patriotic citizen.
(iv) Other political symbols too became a part of dressthe red cap of liberty, long
trousers and the revolutionary cockade pinned on to a hat.
(v) The simplicity of clothing was meant to express the idea of equality. (any three)
31=3
Ans. 7. Shoe respect :At the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was customary of
British officials to follow Indian etiquette and remove their footwear in the courts of
ruling kings or chiefs.
(i) From 1824 to 1828, Governor General Amherst insisted that Indians should take
their shoes off as a sign of respect when they appeared before him, but this was
not followed strictly.
(ii) When Lord Dalhousie became Governor General, shoe respect was made stricter
and Indians were made to take off their shoes when entering any government
institution. Those who wore European clothes were exempted from this rule.
Many Indian government servants were increasingly uncomfortable with these
rules.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-27

(iii) In 1862, Manockjee Cowasjee Entee, an assessor in the Surat Fouzdaree Adawlat,
refused to take off his shoes in the court of the Sessions Judge. He was debarded
from entry into the court room and he protested against his exclusion by sending
letters to the Governor of Bombay.
(iv) The British insisted that since Indian took off their shoes when they entered a
sacred place or home. They should do so when they entered the courtroom.
(v) Though apparently the shoe respect was for showing respect to superior. It had a
dupermotive that is to discriminate between an Indian and an European.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET35

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Because they were neither cheap nor easy to clean.


1
Kathiawadi.
1
Lord Dalhousie.
1
Hat.
1
The qualities or ideals of womanhood in Victorian England was grained in the mind of
the girls through the education and literature they read, at home and in school. These
were :
(i) The women should have a small waist.
(ii) The essential qualities of women were to endure suffering and pain.
(iii) To be seen attractive, women had to wear corset. The pain it inflicts was considered
normal.
3
Ans. 6. (i) Brahmika style of saree was introduced by Jananadanandini Tagore in 1870s.
(ii) In this style, the saree is pinned on the left shoulder with a brooch and has to be
worn with a blouse and shoes.
1+2=3
Ans. 7. Differences between qualities/nature of men and women :
(i) Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile, dutiful
and obedient.
(ii) The ideal woman was one who could bear pain and suffering.
(iii) While men were expected to be serious, strong, independent and aggressive on the
other hand women were seen as delicate passive.
3
Ans. 8. Women continued wearing of traditional dress because :
(i) India was a patriarchal society where women were subservient to men.
(ii) It also shows respect for the opinion of the elders in the family.
(iii) They wanted to remain within the boundaries of the expected norms.
(iv) Wearing western clothes was regarded as a sign of shamelessness.
(v) It was a reaction to uphold ones own cultural identity.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

P-28

WORKSHEET36

Hindu and Muslim dress.


Baba Saheb Ambedkar.
1921.
Lord Amherst.
Cotton cloth printed with designs and flowers derived from the Hindi word chint.
Values :
(i) Self-reliance.
(ii) Self government.
(iii) Patriotism.

1
1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 7. Values :
(i) Dignity of labour.
(ii) Respect for fellow country men.
(iii) Simplicity.
(iv) Love for Nation.
(any three) 3
Ans. 8. Initially, it was difficult to come out of the ingrained ideas of womanhood in
Victorian England :
(i) By 1830s, women in England began agitating for democratic rights. As the suffrage
movement developed, many women began campaigning for dress reforms.
(ii) Women magazines described how tight dresses and corsets caused deformities
and illness among young girls.
(iii) Such clothings restricted body growth and hampered blood circulation.
(iv) In America similar movement developed among the white settlers on the east
coast. They argued that long skirts swept grounds, were unhealthy and hampered
the movement.
(v) In 1970s, National Womens suffrage Association headed by Mrs. Stanton
and Womens Suffrage Association dominated by Luey Stone continued the
movement.
5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET37

All these activities have to be done by the student on their own. It will help them to develop
creative expression and skills of developing drawing and sketching.

UNIT - I : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY

WORLD - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-29

CLIMATE

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET38

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Mussoorie.
1
Delhi.
1
It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats.
1
October to November.
1
The factors which help us to understand the mechanism of monsoon are :
(i) The differential heating and cooling of land and water.
(ii) The shift in the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone [ITCZ].
(iii) The presence of the high pressure East of Madagascar.
(iv) The Tibetan Plateau gets intensely heated during summer.
(v) The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and
easterly jet stream of the Indian Peninsula.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 6. Climatic conditions during Retreating Monsoons :
(i) This is the transition period during the months of October and November.
(ii) Low pressure all over north becomes weaker. Temperature reduces and replaced
by high pressure when monsoon retreats, clear skies and temperature rises.
(iii) Low pressure conditions get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November.
(iv) Cyclonic depressions in Andaman sea cause heavy rainfall and are destructive
tropical cyclones.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. (i) Mawsynram is located in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills at a height of 1500
m above sea level. It receives the highest rainfall of the world. Annual rainfall is
about 1140 cms.
(ii) This place receives the highest amount of rainfall because it is enclosed by hills on
three sides. The relief features give this place tunnel shaped location. The Bay of
Bengal monsoon is trapped in these hills. Winds try to get out of it, but forced to
pour down there.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 8. Cold Weather Season :
(i) It begins from mid November in north India and stays till February.
(ii) The temperature decreases from South to North.
(iii) Days are warm and nights are cold.
Hot Weather Season :
(i) It begins from March and stay till May.
(ii) Experiences rising temperature and falling air pressure in North India.
(iii) Hot and dry wind called loo blow during the day.
2 + 2 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

P-30

WORKSHEET39

Drass.
1
It decreases.
1
Tropic of Cancer.
1
Due to the Himalayas.
1
(a) Loo : Strong, dusty, hot and dry winds blowing during the day over the North and
North Western India.
(b) Kaal Baisakhi : Localised thunder storms, associated with violent winds and
torrential down pours. In West Bengal these storms are known as Kaal Baisakhi.
(c) Mango showers : Pre-monsoon showers which help in the early ripening of
mangoes are called mango showers.
3

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 6. Hilly and forest areas get heavy rainfall because of high altitude and abundance of
trees. On the other hand, those areas which have no mountains to check the rain
bearing winds get scanty rainfall.
Example : Aravalli hills standing parallel to the monsoon. Area which comes in the
rain shadow, like eastern side of the Western Ghats or Ladakh, does not get much
rainfall. Rain-bearing winds get more rainfall as compared to areas which come last of
all.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. Characteristics of Jet streams :
(i) Jet streams are located approximately over 27-30 north latitude.
(ii) Jet streams blow towards south of Himalayas all throughout the year except in
summer.
(iii) The western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north western
parts of the country are brought in by this westerly flow.
3
Ans. 8. Temperature :
(i) In May, 45 Celsius temperature is common in north-western parts of India.
(ii) In December and January, the temperature decreases from south to north, e.g.,
Chennai 25C and in Northern plains 10C.
Precipitation :
(i) In June and July, windward side of Western Ghats receive very heavy rainfall.
(iii) Mawsynram receives the highest average rainfall in the world.
(iii) Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall.
(Any two) 2 + 2 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.
Ans. 7.

Ans. 8.

Ans. 9.

WORKSHEET40

Mawsynram.
1
Trade winds.
1
Western disturbances.
1
Early June.
1
It is the rain shadow area and lies on the side which is away from the direction of the
wind, e.g., Deccan Plateau is on the leeward side of the Western ghats.
1
Delhi.
1
Monsoons act as a unifying bond for India in the following ways :
(i) The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, its entire agriculture calendar and
the life of the people including their festivals revolve around this phenomenon.
(ii) Year after year people of India from north to south and from east to west, eagerly
await the arrival of the monsoon.
(iii) These monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the
agriculture activities in motion.
3
Reasons :
(i) Mumbai receives rainfall in summer from Arabian sea branch from June to
September.
(ii) Located on the Western Coast.
(iii) Located on the windward side of Western Ghats.
Chennai receives rainfall in winter as it is :
(i) Located on the Eastern Coast.
(ii) Arabian Sea branch becomes off shore.
(iii) Bay of Bengal branch moves parallel to the Eastern Coast.
(iv) Chennai receives rain fall from north-east monsoons and by cyclone from October
to December.
(any three) 3
Burst of Monsoons : When monsoons arrives in India, the normal rainfall increases
suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is called burst of monsoons.
(i) Cold weather season November to February.

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-31

(ii) The temperature decreases from South to North.


(iii) Days are warm and nights are cold.
(iv) North-east trade winds prevail over the country.
(v) The weather is marked by clear sky, low temperature, low humidity and feeble
variable winds.
(vi) Low pressure system of Mediterranean sea move into India and cause rainfall
over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
(Any four) 1 + 4 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET41

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Climate.
1
It is the difference between maximum and minimum temperatures.
1
Dumping of garbage.
1
Drass.
1
Reasons :
(i) Both eastern and western parts of northern India receive rainfall from the Bay of
Bengal branch of the monsoons.
(ii) As this branch reaches the eastern parts first, the eastern parts receive more
rainfall as compared to the west.
(iii) The western parts are away from the sea, so the monsoon gets drier.
3
Ans. 6. InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) :
(i) It is a broad through of low pressure.
(ii) This zone lies more or less parallel to the equator.
(iii) Moves north or south with apparent movement of the Sun.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 7. The iuence of Himalayas on Indias climate :
(i) Himalayas the lofty mountains, have provided India with a compact physical
setting.
(ii) Himalayas protect the sub-continent from the northern winds.
(iii) These cold and chilly winds originate near the Arctic circle and blow across central
and eastern Asia.
3
Ans. 8. Features of Hot Weather Season :
(i) Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts
northward. As such from March to May, it is hot weather season in India.
(ii) In March highest temperature is about 38C on the Deccan Plateau in April,
Gujarat and M.P. receives around 42C, in May 45C temperature is common in
the north-west part of country.
(iii) In May an elongated low pressure area develops in the regions extending from the
Thar desert in the north-west to Patna and Chhota Nagpur plateau.
(iv) A striking feature of the hot weather season is the Loo. These are strong hot dusty
winds blowing during the day-over the north and north-western India.1 4 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

P-32

WORKSHEET42

Shillong.
1
Leh.
1
June to September.
1
Jet Stream.
1
Jet streams are a narrow belt of high altitude westerly winds in the troposphere. Their
speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter.
Relation of Jet Streams with Western cyclonic disturbances :
(i) Little amount of winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains are
an impact of western cyclonic disturbances from the Mediterranean sea.

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(ii) They have immense importance for the cultivation of Rabi crops in North India.
1+2=3
Ans. 6. (i) The rainiest month of the year is July. The rainfall in this month is 19.3 cm.
(ii) The annual range of temperature here is 33.3C 14.4C = 18.9C.
(iii) The hottest month of the year is June and the temperature is 33.3C. 1 3 = 3
Ans.7. Western disturbances are the temperate cyclones which originate over Mediterranean
Sea and Western Asia, and move into India, along with the westerly glow of jet streams.
Their effects are :
(i) They disturb the calm and quite weather of north and north western India by
causing cyclonic rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
(ii) Winter rainfall caused by them locally known as Mahawat is of immense
importance for the cultivation of Rabi crops.
1+2=3
Ans. 8. The climate and associated weather conditions in India are governed by the following
atmospheric conditions :
(i) Pressure and Surface Winds : Pressure and surface wind conditions in India
are unique. During winters, there is high pressure area in north of the Himalayas.
In summers, a low pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over northwestern India.
(ii) Upper Air Circulation : The upper air circulation in the oceans are dominated
by westerly flow. An important component of this flow is Jet Streams.
(iii) Western Cyclonic Disturbances : The western cyclonic disturbances
experienced in the north and north-western parts of the country are brought in by
the westaly flow.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET43

MAP WORK
Ans. 1

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

12=2

P-33

Ans. 2.

1 11 = 11

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET44

All these activities has to be done by the students on their own.

P-34

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET45

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Trees are scattered and roots are long.


1
Montane forests.
1
Kachnar.
1
Tropical evergreen.
1
Features of Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs :
(i) These forests occur in areas which have less than 70 cm of rainfall annually.
(ii) They are found in the north-western parts of the country including semi-arid
areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
(iii) The commonly found trees in these forests are short, stunted and scattered.
(iv) Besides Acacia (Babul) dateplams, cupharbies and cactus trees, different shrubs
and grasses commonly grow in between these trees.
3
Ans. 6. (i) Human beings are an integral part of ecosystem.
(ii) They utilize vegetation and wild life.
(iii) They create ecological imbalance like cutting of trees.
3
Ans. 7. Vegetation :
(i) Dense mangrove forests are found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta/Sunderbans.
(ii) The roots of these plants are submerged under water.
(iii) The sundari trees are found and they have durable hard timber.
(iv) Palm, coconut, keora, agar also grow here.
Wild life :
This region is the natural habitat of the Royal Bengal Tiger. Turtles, crocodiles and
gharials. Snakes are also found here.
2+1=3
Ans. 8. Features of Temperate Forests and Grasslands :
(i) In the foothills of the Himalayas, tropical deciduous forests are found and trees
like teak, shisam, sal and rosewood etc. predominate. They flourish upto height of
about 1000 metres.
(ii) Above the tropical decidous forests, between 1000 to 2000 metres wet temperate
type of forests flourish. Here, evergreen broad-leave trees like oaks and chestnuts
predominate.
(iii) Above that, upto a height of 3000 metres, temperate forests fluorish. Here
coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are commonly found.
(iv) At still higher elevation, temperate forests grasslands are quite common.
(v) The common animals found in these forests are wild sheep and goats, antelopes,
yaks, snow leopards, rabbits, squirrels etc.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

WORKSHEET46

Virgin Vegetation.
Southern.
About 47,000.
Tropical rain forests.
Flora :
(i) The flora of a country consists of plant kingdom of that country.

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

1
1
1
1

P-35

(ii) It covers trees in the forests, other flowering and Non-flowering trees grown by
man, grassland, scrubs, ferns, etc.
(iii) India possesses about 47,000 different species of plants and 5,000 of them are
exclusively found in India.
Fauna :
(i) The fauna of a country consists of birds, fish and animals of that country.
(ii) It includes amphibians, reptiles, mammals, small insects and worms.
(iii) The fauna of India is quite rich and varied. There are about 89,000 species in
India.
3
Ans. 6. Tropical Vegetation : Tiger and Elephant.
Montane Vegetation : Kashmir Stag and Yak.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 7. Wildlife in India :India is rich in its wildlife. It has more than 89,000 of animal
species, more than 1200 species of birds and about 2500 species of fish. Elephants
are found in the wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. One-horned rhinoceros
live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and North-west Bengal. Rann of Kutch
and Thar desert are habitat of wild asses and camels. Lions are found in Gir hills of
Gujarat and Tigers in the Sunderbans of West Bengal. The Himalayas harbour have
wide variety of animals, e.g., yaks, snow-leopards, bear, tibetan antelope [bhral (blue
sheep) and musk-deer, kiang (Tibetan wild ass)]. Siberian cranes migrate in large
number during winter in marshy areas of Rann of Kutch and Bharatpur (Rajasthan).
India is also famous for variety of deer species, e.g., Chinkara, Barasingha, Sambhar,
Chowsingha, Black buck, etc.
3
Ans. 8. Features of Montane or Alpine and Tundra Vegetation :
(i) Here temperate forests and grasslands are replaced by Alpine type of vegetation
of forests.
(ii) In these Alpine type of forests, trees like silver fir, junipers, birches and pines etc.
are found.
(iii) As these trees approach the snow line, they get progressively stunted.
(iv) They ultimately, through scrubs and shrubs merge into the Alpine grasslands.
These grasslands provide superb grazing fields to the nomadic tribes like the
Bakarwals and Gujjars to feed their sheep and goats etc.
(v) The common animals are leopards, yaks, sheeps and goats etc.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET47

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Neem.
1
One-horned Rhino.
1
Rosewood.
1
Periyar (elephant).
1
Endangered species of wildlife :
(i) Tiger (ii) Lion (iii) Elephant (iv) Rhino (v) Indian Bustard
(Any two)
Project Tiger has been a great success. Periodic census are undertaken to find out the
latest position. Tiger reserves are at Jim Corbett Park and Simlipal, etc. In Assam, the
two Rhino reserves are Kaziranga and Manas.
3
Ans. 6. Three biosphere reserves in India are :
(i) Sunderbans in West Bengal.
(ii) Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand.
(iii) Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu.
13=3
Ans. 7. Mechanism of monsoons :
(i) Differential heating and cooling of land and water.

P-36

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(ii) The shift of ITCZ in summers to Ganga Plain.


(iii) High pressure is developed in the east of Madagascar.
3
Ans. 8. Features of Tidal Forests :
(i) The tidal forests are the most important vegetation in areas near the coasts and
rivers where tides are common.
(ii) Such forests are covered by mangrove trees with their roots submerged under
water.
(iii) The deltas of the Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna are covered by such
forests.
(iv) Sunderi is the well-known mangrove tree, after the name of which the forest parts
of Ganga-Brhamaputra delta are known as Sunderbans.
(v) Besides the Bengal Tiger, other animals found are crocodiles, gharials, turtles and
snakes etc.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET48

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

1972.
1
Tropical evergreen.
1
Less than 75 cm annual rainfall.
1
Sarpagandha.
1
Tropical Deciduous :
(i) Rainfall between 70-200 cm.
(ii) Trees shed their leaves during summer season.
(iii) Examples : Sal, Teak.
Tropical Evergreen :
(i) Heavy rainfall.
(ii) No fixed time to shed their leaves.
(iii) Examples : Ebony, Mahogany.
3
Ans. 6. Characteristics of the Mangrove Forests :
(i) The mangrove forests are mostly found in Delta regions.
(ii) Mangrove forests support trees which can survive in salt water as well as in fresh
water.
(iii) The mangrove forests have Sundari tree. The animal commonly found in these
forests is the Royal Bengal Tiger.
3
Ans. 7. Importance of Forests :
(i) They enhance the quality of environment.
(ii) They modify local climate.
(iii) They control soil erosion.
(iv) They regulate stream flow.
(v) They support a variety of industries.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 8. Reasons :
(i) Land affects bio-diversity. Different type of vegetation occurs in mountains,
plateau and plain areas or in dry wet regions. Each type of terrain and vegetation
gives habitat to different types of animals.
(ii) Different types of soils provide basis for different types of vegetation. For
example, sandy soils support cactus and thorny bushes while wet marshy, deltaic
soils support mangroves.
(iii) Temperature, humidity and precipitation also affect the type of vegetation and
wildlife. In hot wet regions of Assam and Kerala, elephants and tropical evergreen

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-37

trees are found. In high mountains, coniferous forests are seen. In Alpine, tundra
region mosses and lichen grow and snow-leopards are found.
(iv) Varying amount of rainfall from 20 cm to 300 cm. Duration of rainfall period also
varies and gives variety of vegetation. The variation in duration of sunlight at
different places due to difference in latitude and altitude, season and duration of
the day also affect vegetation. Due to long duration of sunlight, trees grow faster.
1 4 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET49

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Tropical evergreen forests.


1
Rajasthan.
1
14.
1
Ladakh.
1
Factors responsible for diversification of Flora :
(i) Land Nature of land influences the type of vegetation. Fertile land for agriculture
and undulating land for forests.
(ii) Soil Different type of soils provide basis for different vegetation.
(iii) Temperature Vegetation differs from low temperature to high temperature. 3
Ans. 6. The evergreen forests Are found in Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands,
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coasts.
(Any two)
Characteristics of these forests :
(i) The trees reach great heights upto 60 meters or even above.
(ii) As the region is warm and wet through out the year, it has a luxuriant vegetation
of all kinds trees, shrubs and creepers giving it a multilayered structure.
1+2=3
Ans.7. Two sub-types of Tropical Deciduous Forests are :
(i) Moist deciduous, (ii) Dry deciduous.
(i) Moist deciduous : Rainfall 100-200 cms. Located in the eastern parts of the
country,
Species : Teak, Bamboo, Sal and Shisham.
(Any two)
(ii) Dry deciduous : Rainfall 100-70 cms. Found in rainier parts of peninsular
plateau, Bihar and U.P. plains ; open stretches with Sal, Teak, Peepal, Neem ;
major part cleared for grazing.
(Any two) 1 + 2 = 3
Ans. 8. Major reasons for deforestation :
(i) With the increase in population, there is an increase in demand for forest products.
(ii) Several forests have been cleared for agriculture.
(iii) Due to practice of shifting agriculture, especially in North-Eastern parts of our
country, intensive damage has been done to forests.
(iv) Overgrazing and cutting trees for fuel.
1 4 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

P-38

WORKSHEET50

Ranganathitto.
Sundarbans.
Dachigam.
Gujarat.
Characteristics of Tropical Rain Forests :
(i) They are wet evergreen forests.
(ii) They are found in areas having hot and humid climate.

1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(iii) Trees of these forests are tall, thick and have vigorous growth.
(iv) Trees have hardwood and have large number of species.
(v) Trees of particular species are highly scattered.
(Any three) 3 1 = 3
Ans. 6. India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world :
(i) India has about 47000 species of plants.
(ii) India occupies tenth place in world and fourth place in Asia.
(iii) It has 15000 flowering plants.
(iv) It is a home of 89000 species of animals.
(Any three) 3
Ans.7. Mangrove forest : The forest found in the coast influenced by the tides.
(i) Succession of forest in the same order as we see from tropical to tundra region.
(ii) Wet temperate forests from 1000 to 2000 meters.
(iii) Temperate forests containing trees like Pine, Deodar at 1500 to 3000 meters.
(iv) Temperate grasslands in between 3000 to 3600 meters.
(v) Alpine Vegetation above 3600 meters.
1+2=3
Ans. 8. Measures to conserve forests :
(i) Planting fast growing trees and preventing the felling of young trees.
(ii) Preventing forest fires.
(iii) Create public awarness about the importance of forests.
(iv) We must celebrate ``Van Mahotsava and plant trees in those areas which are not
suitable for agriculture.
(v) All National Day celebration programs should follow a programme of tree
plantation.
15=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET51

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Assam and Karnataka.


1
One of twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world.
1
Fauna.
1
Odisha.
1
Rann of Kutch.
1
They are relatively large area where one or several ecosystem exist and where plant
and animal species, geo morphological sites and habitats are of special educative and
recreative interests, e.g., Jim Corbett Park.
1
Ans.7. Features of Thorn Forests :
(i) Areas with an annual rainfall of less than 70 cm have thorny bushes.
(ii) Babul, Khair, Plums, Cactus and Dates are important species of trees.
(iii) These forests have long roots and sharp thorns.
3
Ans. 8. Examples of humans interference, destroying natural ecosystem are :
(i) Deforestation leading to soil erosion, floods and droughts and rise in desertification.
(ii) Excessive hunting of animals has led to extinction of species.
(iii) Rapid rise in population leading to over-exploitation of resources.
Steps to protect the ecosystem are :
(i) Proper planning to conserve the forest resources and undertaking afforestation.
(ii) Steps should be taken to control environmental pollution.
(iii) Setting up of national parks, zoological gardens and bio-reserves to protect the
wildlife.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 9. Measures undertaken by the Government :
(i) Various biosphere reserves have been set up in various parts of India where wild
animals and birds are kept in their natural habitat. Nilgiri at the junction of
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand are such
biosphere reserves.

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-39

(ii) Government has made 89 national parks, 490 wildlife sanctuaries and zoological
gardens to protect wildlife.
(iii) Periodic census are being taken to find out the latest position of some rare species
so that they can be preserved for our future generations.
(iv) Tigers and Rhinoceros are some endangered species of wildlife in India, so for
them special projects have been prepared. Tiger Project has proved to be very
successful. About 16 tiger reserves have been set up in different parts of India.
Likewise Rhino Project is also being implemented in the Kaziranga bird-reserve
of Assam.
(v) The killing of wildlife has been banned by the Government. Special Forest Officers
have been appointed to catch unlawful animal hunters.
15=5
Ans.10. The following are the Medicinal Plants found in India and their uses are as follows :
(i) Sarpagandha, it is used to treat blood pressure. It is found in India.
(ii) Jamun, the juice from ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar and has digestive
properties. The powder of the seeds is used in controlling diabetes.
(iii) Babool, the leaves are used to cure eye sores. Its gum is used as tonic.
(iv) Neem, it has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties.
(v) Tulsi, it is used to cure cough and cold.
15=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET52

MAP WORK
Ans. 1.

P-40

15=5

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 2.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

3+2=5

WORKSHEET53

All these activities has to be done by the students on their own. They will help them to
understand the correlation between climate and vegetation.. It also help them to understand
the change in the climate environment is affecting natural existence of wild life.

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-41

POPULATION

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Ans. 6.

Ans. 7.

Ans.8.

P-42

WORKSHEET54

The size of its adolescent population.


1
Transport, communication and commerce.
1
324 person / km2.
1
Population density is calculatal as the number of persons per unit area. The Population
density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per square Km.
1
Process of Population change :
(i) Birth rate : The number of live births per thousands persons in a year.
(ii) Death rate : It is the number of deaths per thousands in a year.
(iii) Migration : Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
It can be internal and International.
13=3
The population of a nation can be categorized as :
(i) Children (generally below 15 years)
They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing,
education and medical care.
(ii) Working age (15 to 59 years)
They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise
the working population.
(iii) Aged (above 59 years)
They can be economically productive though they may have retired.
They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment
through recruitment.
13=3
Occupational Structure : The distribution of the population according to different
types of occupations is referred to as occupational structure.
Relation with development :
(i) The preportion of people working in different activities. Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary varies in developed and developing countries.
(a) Primary : agriculture and animal husbandry.
(b) Secondary : manufacturing.
(c) Tertiary : service sector like banking and transport.
(ii) Developed : high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities.
(iii) Developing : higher proportion engaged in primary activities.
(iv) Occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors due to
industrialization and urbanization.
1+4=5
(i) In India, most migrations have taken place from rural to urban areas because of
the push factor in rural areas. The urban population has increased from 17.29%
of the total population in 1951 to 51.80% in 2011. There has been a signicant
increase in the number of million plus cities from 35 to 53 in just one decade, i.e.
2001 to 2011.
(ii) There are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas.
(iii) The pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better
living conditions also led to migrations.
(iv) Migration is an important determinant of population change.
(v) It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of the
urban and rural population in terms of age and sex composition.
15=5

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET55

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Rugged terrain and unfavourable climate.


1
10 Years.
1
Sex ratio.
1
Delhi.
1
The role of National Population Policy 2000 in life of adolescents :
(i) NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population
that need greater attention.
(ii) Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other
important needs of adolescents like protection from unwanted pregnancies and
sexually transmitted diseases.
(iii) It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriages and
child-bearing.
(iv) It aimed at providing food supplements and nutritional services.
(v) It also aimed at strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 6. Absolute numbers : The magnitude of increase in population in each year or decadesubtract the earlier population from the later population.
Annual Growth Rate : Increase of persons for every 100 persons in the base
population in a given year.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 7. Working Population
(i) Population engaged in economic production.
(ii) Age group 15-60 years.
(iii) Population takes care of the dependent population.
Dependent Population
(i) Population not engaged in economic production.
(ii) Age group 0-15 and 60+
(iii) Depends on the working population.
Ans.8. Distributions of population in India is uneven because of following reasons:
(i) Physical factors : Rugged and mountaneous terrain J & K and Arunachal
Pradesh etc. lack means of transport. Thus, population is less.
(ii) Harsh climate conditions : Snow covered J & K and very hot regions
Rajasthan hence, sparse population.
(iii) Plain terrain : rich in fertile soil, good rainfall and moderate climate- Kerala and
U.P., hence high population.
(iv) Business, industries, transport trade and communication.
(v) Political factors : Security, peace and stability.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET56

Ans. 1. Uttar Pradesh.


1
Ans. 2. 2000.
1
Ans. 3. Activities that provide support to primary activities and offer aid in the production
process through various services and help in the development of the primary sector are
called tertiary activities. For example, banking and insurance.
1
Ans. 4. Number of births in a year per thousand person.
1
Ans. 5. The three main questions on which census is primarily concerned with are:
(i) Population size and distribution. (Indias population as on march 2011 stood at
1,210 million which accounts which accounts for 17.5% of the world population.
These 1.02 billion people are unevenly distributed over our countrys vast area of
3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4% of the worlds area. Now, as per

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-43

the 2011 consensus, Indias share of population is 17.5 wheras rest of the world
population share is 82.5).
(ii) Population growth and processes of population change (Indias population has
been steadity increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210 million in 2011).
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the population.
13=3
Ans. 6. The three population density zones of India are :
(i) High density zone Northern plains, above 500 people per sq. km.
(ii) Low density zone Mountain region, 250-500 people per sq. km.
(iii) Medium density zone Plateau region, below 250 people per sq. km. 1 3 = 3
Ans.7. Growth of population : Refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a
country /territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. If we
compare the population growth rate from 1901 to 2011, we will discover that the datas
have changed drastically. The progressive growth rate was 5.75 in 1911 and now it has
increased up to 407.64 in 2011.
Indias population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210
million in 2011. Population change can be expressed in the following ways :
(i) In terms of absolute numbers and
(ii) In terms of percentage change per year.
(iii) The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increases. It
is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the later population it is
referred to as the absolute increase.
(iv) The rate or the pace of population increase is the other important aspect. It is
studied in percent per annum this is referred to as the annual growth rate.

3+2=5
Ans. 8. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories.
Migration can be internal or international.
In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the push
factor in rural areas.
These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and
the pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living
conditions.
1+2+2=5

P-44

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET57

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Kerala.
1
1921.
1
The number of persons added each year.
1
Internal migration.
1
Arunachal Pradesh (Density raises from 1102 person per squar Km in Bihar and only
17 person in Arunachal Pradesh.
1
Ans. 6. Sex Ratio : The number of women per thousand men is called sex ratio.
Census Year

Sex Ratio (female per 1000 males)

1901
1911
1921
1931
1941
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

972
964
955
950
945
946
941
930
934
927
933
940

It is clear from the given data that the population of females per thousand males is
decreasing year by year when compared. Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per
1000 males, while Delhi has 866 females per thousand males and Haryana has just
877 females per thousand males.
Reasons :
(i) Lesser care of female children.
(ii) Greater risk to their lives especially at the time of child birth.
(iii) Women are also killed or forced to die by the dowry seekers.
(iv) Due to illiteracy.
1+2=3
Ans. 7. National population policy was implemented in the year 2000. It is a culmination
of year of planned efforts. It provides a policy framework for imparting free and
compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
Other aims or significant features of NPP 2000 are as follows :
(i) NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population
that need greater attention.
(ii) Its main objective is to cater to their nutritional requirements.
(iii) To impart free and compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
3
Ans. 8. (A) The literacy rate of the male population has gone up from 29% in 1951 to 74%
in 2004 approx. The literacy rate in the country as per the consensus of 2011 is
74.04%, 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.
1
(B) (i) Girls are historically and culturally expected to stay at home and look after
domestic chores.
(ii) Girls are not educated as compared to the boys.
(iii) Drop out rates of girls are higher than boys. (Any two)
2
(C) (i) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
(ii) Mid day meal scheme.
(iii) Back to school campus.
2

UNIT - II : INDIA LAND AND PEOPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-45

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET58

MAP WORK
Ans. 1.

13=3

Ans. 2.

13=3

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET59

All these activities has to be done by the child on his own.

P-46

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

ELECTORAL POLITICS IN DEMOCRACY

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET60

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Conducts all elections.


1
President of India.
1
Chowdhary Devi Lal.
1
The voters can choose the candidate who belongs to their own community or religion.1
All the political parties in our country have agreed to a model code of conduct for
election campaigns. All of them have to abide by certain rules and regulations which
are supposed to follow after the announcement of Elections.
Pestrictions :
(i) No candidate should bribe or threaten voters.
(ii) Appeal to them in the name of religion.
1+2=3
Ans. 6. (i) The country is divided into different areas for purpose of elections. These areas
are called electoral constituencies.
(ii) For Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into 543 constituencies at present.
(iii) The basis of the division of the constituencies is population.
3
Ans.7. Challenges faced by election system :
(i) Candidates and parties with money have unfair advantage over smaller parties.
(ii) Candidates with criminal connection push others out of electoral race.
(iii) Some families tend to dominate political parties and distributes tickets to
relatives.
3
Ans. 8. Essential conditions for a democratic election :
(i) Everyone should have one vote and every vote should be of equal value.
(ii) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.
(iii) Elections must be held regularly.
(iv) The candidates preferred by the people should be elected.
(v) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET61

Ans. 1. Refers to a process by which a candidate tries to persuade the voter to vote for him
rather than for others.
1
Ans. 2. Indian National Congress.
1
Ans. 3. Election Commission.
1
Ans. 4. The list of those who are eligible to vote.
1
Ans. 5. Nyaya Yudh.
1
Ans. 6. Setting up of polling booths.
1
Ans. 7. All adults have the right to vote and the value of votes are same, this is known as
Universal Adult Franchise.
Reasons :
(i) Political equality.
(ii) It establishes a fair and true democratic government.
(iii) It makes a responsible government.
1+2=3
Ans. 8. Reserved Constituencies :
Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled castes (SC)
and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In these constituencies, only one who belongs to these
categories can stand for election.

P-47

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Arguments for justication of the concept :


(i) Certain weak sections may not have a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha
and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) The influential and resourceful people may prevent SC/ST condidates from
winning elections and Legislative Assembly would be deprived of the voice of a
significant section of our population.
(iii) Weaker section may not have sufficient resources like education, contacts to
contest and win elections against others.
(iv) This would make our democracy less representatives and less democratic.
(Any two) 1 + 2 = 3
Ans. 9. (i) The name of this movement was Nyaya Yudh.
(ii) The popular promise was, if his party won the elections, his government would
waive the loans of farmers and small businessmen.
(iii) The name of the political party was Lok Dal .
3
Ans.10. Reasons :
(i) Political executive is elected by the people.
(ii) Political executives are answerable to the people.
(iii) The non-political executives are the experts in their field but political executive
have to see the welfare of all.
(iv) All the decisions are taken by the political executives.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET62

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

He is appointed by the president but he is not answerable to anyone.


1
Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time.
1
Election Commission of India.
1
Independent Election Commission.
1
Parliamentary Constituency :
(i) Each member of the Central Legislature represents one area. Thus, the whole
country is divided into 543 areas. Each of these areas is called a parliamentary
constituency.
(ii) Each constituency has roughly the same population in order to ensure that each
vote has the same value.
Assembly Constituency :
(i) In the same way, the states are divided into areas that elect one member each.
These are called Assembly constituencies.
(ii) Depending on the population of the state, theAssemblies vary in size. The largest
Vidhan Sabha is for U.P. which has 403 members while a small state like Goa has
only 40 members.
Ans. 6. Declaration is made because :
(i) Serious criminal cases pending against the candidates.
(ii) Details of the assets and liabilities of candidate and his or her family.
(iii) Educational qualifications of the candidates.
3
Ans.7. Difference between Political and Permanent Executive :
(i) In a democratic country, one that is elected by the people for a specific period is
called the Political Executive. Political leaders who take the big decisions fall in
this category.
(ii) In the second category people are appointed for a long term basis and are called
Permanent Executive or civil services. Persons working in civil services are called
Civil Servants who remain in office even when the ruling party changes. These
officers work under political executives and assist them in carrying out the dayto-day administration.
2 + 2 = 5

P-48

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 8. Need of elections : Election is a mechanism by which people choose their


representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so. Therefore,
elections are considered essential for representative democracy.
Three demerits of Electoral Competition :
(i) Creates sense of disunity and factionalism in every locality.
(ii) Political parties and leaders level allegation at each other.
(iii) Political parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections. 2 + 3 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET63

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Election Commission.
1
543.
1
Janta Party.
1
No party or candidate is bound by the model code of conduct.
1
For independent and fair election following restrictions are imposed :
(i) For fair election, code of conduct has been issued by the government according to
which any place of worship will not be used for propaganda.
(ii) Government vehicles, aircrafts and officials will not be used for election.
(iii) Once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any
projects, take any big policy decision or make any promise of providing any
facilities to public facilities.
3
Ans. 6. (i) More than 1/3rd voters participate in campaign related activities.
(ii) More than half of the people identify themselves as being close to one or the other
political party.
(iii) One out of every seven voters is a member of a political party.
31=3
Ans.7. It is necessary to regulate campaign to ensure that every political party and candidate
gets a fair and equal chance to compete. According to our election law, no party or
candidate can :
(i) Bribe or threaten voters.
(ii) Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion.
(iii) Use government resources for election campaigns.
(iv) Spend more than Rs. 25 lakhs in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10
lakhs in a constituency in a Assembly election.
1+4=5
Ans.8. Elections : It is a process by which representatives get elected, who will further make
policies and rule our country.
Nomination Process :
(i) Party tickets are given.
(ii) Nomination form is filled.
(iii) Security amount is deposited.
(iv) Nomination papers are scrutinised.
1+4=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

WORKSHEET64

Uttar Pradesh.
Electronic Voting Machine.
Voting.
Serious criminal cases pending against the candidate.
BP Election.
5 Years.

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

1
1
1
1
1
1

P-49

Ans. 7. Reasons :
(i) In an election the voters make many choices. They can choose the one who will
make laws for them.
(ii) They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
(iii) They can choose the one the party whose policies will guide the government and
law making.
3
Ans.8. (A) A list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared by a door to door survey. It is
officially called the Electoral Roll but commonly known as the Voters List. The
list is revised after every five years. This is done to ensure that the list remains
up-to-date.
(B) A photo-identity card contains all the relevant information regarding the voter.
The voters are required to keep this card, when they go to vote. It prevent a person
from voting for someone else.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans. 9. (i) Institutions make rules and regulations.
(ii) It provides an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decisions.
(iii) It implements decisions, if disputes arise there should be some one to determine
what is right and what is wrong.
3
Ans.10. (i) Educational qualifications are not relevant to all kind of jobs.
(ii) Relevant qualification for being an M.L.A. or an M.P. is the ability to understand
peoples concerns, problems and the way to solve them.
(iii) Putting an educational qualification would go against the spirit of democracy.
(iv) If educational qualification was made compulsory it would mean depriving a
majority of the countrys citizen to contest elections.
4 1 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET65

Ans. 1. Electoral roll.


1
Ans. 2. Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government.
1
Ans. 3. 79.
1
Ans. 4. Code of conduct.
1
Ans. 5. 5 Years.
1
Ans. 6. Techniques of election compaign :
(i) Postering : A few days before the actual Election Day, the election campaign
begins with postering. These posters bear the photograph of the candidate along
with that of the national leaders of the party and appear on the walls of the bazaars
and streets.
(ii) Meetings : Candidates hold party meetings and corner meetings to get support of
various groups of people.
(iii) Processions : Processions are often taken out and large number of trucks, tongas,
cycles and scooters are used to carry the precisionists who shout slogans in favour
of their candidates.
3
Ans.7. The relationship between seat, constituency and representatives :
(i) Seat refers to the number of positions in any legislature. For example, there are
543 seats in the Lok Sabha. Each seat is occupied by an elected representative
who is either a MP (Member of Parliament) or MLA (Member of the Legislative
Assembly).
(ii) Each representative represents an area which is called a constituency.
(iii) When we speak about the strength of the Lok Sabha or Vidhan Shabha we speak
in terms of seats. This is because one seat is allotted to every member elected from
a constituency. So there are 543 Lok Sabha constituencies or seats that elect 543
members of the Lok Sabha.
3

P-50

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans.8. Reasons :
(i) In a secret ballot, the voters can express their choice freely and without any fear.
(ii) The voter is free from pulls and pressures under the secret ballot system.
(iii) It brings the desired changes but without any ill-feeling and wrong attitude.
3
Ans.9. Differences between Political and Permanent executive :
(i) In a democratic country, one that is elected by the people for a specific period is
called the Political Executive. Political leaders who take the big decisions fall in
this category.
(ii) In the second category people are appointed for a long term basis and are called
Permanent Executive or civil services. Persons working in civil services are called
Civil Servants who remain in office even when the ruling party changes. These
officers work under political executives and assist them in carrying out the dayto-day administration.
Political Executive is more powerful because :
(i) The ministers are elected by the people therefore is more empowered.
(ii) Finally, it is the ministers who is answerable to people therefore, he takes major
decisions.
(iii) In any organisation, those who understand the overall picture, take the most
important decision and not the experts. In democracy the political executive
performs this role.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET66

Ans. 1. Independent and powerful Election Commission.


1
Ans. 2. Electoral Roll.
1
Ans. 3. 250.
1
Ans. 4. A document published by every political party before elections containing the policies
and programmes of that party.
1
Ans. 5. Election Process :
(i) Announcement of election dates.
(ii) Selection of candidates.
(iii) Filing in the nomination papers their scrutiny, withdrawal of nomination papers
and publication of final list.
(iv) Allotment of symbols.
(v) Issuing of Election Manifesto.
(vi) Campaigning.
(vii) Voting, counting of votes and declaration of results.
(viii)Election petition.
3
Ans. 6. (i) Garibi Hatao by Congress in 1971. Removal of poverty by reorienting government
policies.
(ii) Save Democracy by Janta Party in 1977.
(Undo the excesses committed during Emergency and restore civil liberties.)
(iii) Land to the Tiller by Left Front in W. Bengal to safeguard the rights of
peasants.
3
Ans.7. Powers of Election Commission :
(i) Independent and powerful body.
(ii) Election commission takes independent decision on all aspects of election.
(iii) Election commission has power to implement code of conduct and punish any
party who violates it.
3

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-51

Ans.8. The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President of India.


Powers of Election Commission :
(i) Independent and powerful body.
(ii) Election commission takes independent decision on all aspects of election.
(iii) Election commission has power to implement code of conduct and punish any
party who violates it.
(iv) Govt. officials on election duty, work under its control.
(v) Election commission can order government to follow some guidelines to prevent
undue misuse of governmental powers during elections.
5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET67

All these activities will be done by the students on their own on individual basis or in the form
of group activity.

P-52

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

10 INSTITUTIONS OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET68

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

5 Years.
1
The Prime Minister.
1
The members of the Lok Sabha.
1
Bills dealing with money matters like taxes, income, expenditure and grants.
1
Cabinet.
1
The Union Council of Ministers comprises of the three categories of ministers. These
are :
(i) Cabinet Ministers : constitute the inner ring of the Council of Ministers.
These are the top level leaders of the ruling party/parties who are incharge of
the important ministries. They usually meet to take decisions in the name of the
Council of Ministers.
(ii) Ministers of State with Independent Charge : are usually incharge of smaller
ministries. They participate in the cabinet meetings only when they are invited.
(iii) Ministers of state : are attached to and are required to assist the cabinet
ministers. It is headed by the Prime Minister.
3
Ans. 7. (i) Parliament is the final authority for making laws.
(ii) It exercises control over the working of government.
(iii) It controls all the money that government have.
3
Ans.8. Importance of political institutions :
(i) Political Institutions make rules & regulations.
(ii) They provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any
decisions.
(iii) They implement decisions, if disputes arise there should be some one to determine
what is right and what is wrong.
3
Ans.9. Prime Minister : Prime Minister is the most important political institution of
the country. He/She is the head of the government and all the important decisions
regarding the country are taken by him. He/she enjoys the real executive powers of the
Prime Minister as head of the state.
Powers and Function of Prime Minister :
(i) Allocation of departments and formation of council of ministers distribution of
portfolios.
(ii) Being the chairman of the cabinet, Prime Minister presides the meetings of the
cabinet.
(iii) Link between the President and Cabinet.
(iv) Leader of the Nation.
(v) Ex-officio chairman of Planning Commission.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

WORKSHEET69

The President.
1
The Lok Sabha.
1
The members of the Lok Sabha.
1
Political executive enjoys more powers than Permanent executive in following three
ways :
(i) Permanent executive works under the direction of the political executive.

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-53

(ii) Political executive is empowered to exercise the will of the people.


(iii) The final decision rests with the ministers
(iv) All policy decisions are decided by the political executive.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 5. Independence of the judiciary :
(i) Judiciary is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
(ii) The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes
of the party in power.
(iii) Constitution provides the security of service of the judges. Once appointed by the
President, their service cannot be terminated by will by any authority whatever.
(iv) There is a security of pay and allowances of the judges. Their salaries cannot be
reduced.
(v) The Supreme Court and the High Courts are free to decide their own procedure of
work and establishment.
(vi) Judge is not allowed to practice after retirement so that they cannot influence
judgements of the court.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 6. The procedure for the removal of judges of the Supreme Court :
Once a person is appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court, it is
very difficult to remove him or her from that position. A judge can be removed only by
an impeachment motion passed separately by two-thirds members of both Houses of
the Parliament.
3
Ans.7. Election Procedure of the two Houses of Parliament :
(i) Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people and enjoy real power on behalf of the
people.
(ii) Rajya Sabha is elected indirectly and mainly looks after the interest of the states.
Lok Sabha enjoys supreme powers :
(i) If there is a joint session of the two Houses than the will of the Lok Sabha prevails
due to its numerical supremacy.
(ii) In money matters Lok Sabha is supreme as Rajya Sabha can only delay a money
bill for 14 days or give suggestions.
(iii) Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers through No-Confidence Motion.
2+3=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET70

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

Minister of State for Home Affairs.


1
Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
1
The Union Parliament.
1
Coalition government is formed by an alliance of two or more political parties usually
when no single party enjoys majority support of the members in the legislature.
Limitations :
(i) The Prime Minister has to accommodate different groups and sections in his party
as well as among his alliance partners.
(ii) He also has to heed to the views and positions of coalition partners and other
parties, on whose support the survival of the government depends.
1+2=3
Ans. 5. The differences between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha :
(i) The Rajya Sabha is known as the Council of States and comprises of 250 members.
The Lok Sabha is composed of the representatives of the people comprising of 543
members plus 2 Anglo Indians nominated by the President of India called the
House of People.

P-54

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

(ii) Members of Lok Sabha are elected for 5 years, but 1/3rd of the members of the
Rajya Sabha retire after every second year.
(iii) The Vice President of India is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha while the
Speaker heads the Lok Sabha and is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
3
Ans. 6. Showing due respect to all religions is known as secularism.
India is a secular state because :
(i) It does not establish any one religion as official religion and is natural and
impartial in dealing with all religions.
(ii) It does not confer any privilege on any particular religion or discriminate against
people.
(iii) Government cannot compel any person to pay any taxes for the promotion of any
particular religion.
(iv) No religious instructions in government educational institutions.
(v) Private school cannot compel any person to participate in religious instructions.3
Ans.7. Election of the President of India :
The President is not elected directly by the people. The elected MPs and MLAs elect
her/him. A candidate has to get a majority of votes to win the elections.
Yes, Indian President has power to do on her own.
(i) Appoints Prime Minister only when he/she is assured of the majority.
(ii) He/She can delay his/her assent to the bills for some time.
(iii) When no party gets clear majority, the President can appoint a leader who in her
opinion can muster majority.
2+3=5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET71

All these activities will be done by the students on their own. They will help them to understand
the powers of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. They will also give a first-hand experience to see
and know how the local institutions perform their day to day activities.

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-55

11 CITIZENS RIGHTS IN DEMOCRACY


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET72

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Defame others.
1
Freedom to participate in armed revolution.
1
Right to Equality.
1
The people have no role in changing their ruler.
1
Every claim is a right.
1
Provisions :
(i) Judiciary is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
(ii) The Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the
President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consolation with the Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court.
(iii) Once appointed as Judge it is very difficult to remove him/her.
3
Ans. 7. Rights are essential in a democracy because :
(i) Every citizen has the right to vote and the right to be elected to the government.
(ii) For any democratic election to take place, it is necessary that the citizens should
have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in
political activities.
(iii) Rights protect the minority from the oppression of the majority. The right ensure
that the majority cannot do whatever it likes.
3
Ans. 8. The rights guaranteed by the Indian constitution are called fundamental rights
because of the following reasons :
(i) These rights are essential for the overall development of the citizens.
(ii) These are enforceable in the courts of law.
(iii) These have been given to all the citizens by the Constitution and the government
cannot abolish them.
List of Fundamental Rights :
(i) Right to Equality.
(ii) Right to Freedom.
(iii) Right Against Exploitation.
(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion.
(v) Cultural and Educational Rights.
(vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Ans.9. Second backward class commission of 1979 headed by BP Mandal was know as Mandal
Commission. It was set up to determine the criteria to identify the socially and
educationally backward classes.
Recommendation to the government :
(i) To reserve 27% of govt. jobs for SEBC because it would give a fair chance to rise
and progress for socially backward classes.
(ii) Socially backward classes should not be devied from equality of oppurtunity
because it increases the feeling of caste division amongst them.
5

P-56

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET73

Ans. 1. In 1993.
1
Ans. 2. Dalits were not allowed to use common hand pump or the hand pump was washed to
purify it .
1
Ans. 3. Right to have access to an environment that is not harmful to health.
1
Ans. 4. The Supreme Court of India.
1
Ans. 5. Taken into custody by the police on grounds of fear of breach of the peace.
1
Ans. 6. Five types of writs called quo warranto, habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and
certiorari.
1
Ans.7. The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the heart and soul of the Indian Constitution in
the following ways :
(i) When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is
a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High
Court of a State.
(ii) If any act of the Legislature or the Executive takes away or limits any of the
Fundamental Rights it will be invalid. We can challenge such laws of the central
and the state government in the court of law.
(iii) The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders
or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
3
Ans.8. Rights of a detained Person :
(i) To be informed of the reason of arrest and detention.
(ii) To be produced before the nearest magistrate within 24 hours of arrest.
(iii) Right to consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defence.
3
Ans.9. Suggestions :
(i) To reserve 27% of govt. jobs for SEBC because it would give a fair chance to rise
and progress for socially backward classes.
(ii) Socially backward classes should not be devied from equality of opportunity
because it increases the feeling of caste division amongst them.
1 + 1 = 3
Ans.10. (i) Saudi Arabia is ruled by hereditary king and the people in that country have no
role in electing and changing their rules.
(ii) The king selects the legislature as well as the executive.
(iii) He appoints the judges and can change any of their decisions.
(iv) It is one man rule. Citizens cannot form political parties.
(v) Media cannot report anything. There is no freedom of religion.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

WORKSHEET74

Right to Freedom.
1
Right to religious freedom.
1
The rights to instigate the violence against others.
1
Society and law.
1
When fundamental rights are violated.
1
PILAnyone can approach the court if public interest is hurt by the actions of the
government.
Importance of PIL :
(a) The courts intervene to prevent the misuse of the govt. powers to make decisions.
(b) They check malpractices on part of public officials.
1+2=3

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-57

Ans.7. The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the heart and soul of the Indian Constitution in
the following ways :
(i) When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is
a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High
Court of a State.
(ii) If any act of the Legislature or the Executive takes away or limits any of the
Fundamental Rights it will be invalid. We can challenge such laws of the Central
and the state government in the court of law.
(iii) The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to issue directions,
orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
3
Ans.8. Freedom means absence of constraints. In practical life it meansabsence of interference
by other individuals or by the government in our internal affairs.
Under the Indian constitution, all citizens have the following freedoms :
(i) Freedom of speech and expression.
(ii) Assembly in a peaceful manner.
(iii) Form associations and unions.
(iv) Move freely throughout the country.
(v) Reside in any part of the country.
(vi) Practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Besides the above mentioned ones, the constitution says that :
(vii) No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to
procedure established by law.
Even when they do so, they have to follow some procedure :
(viii)A person who is arrested and detained in custody will have to be informed of the
reasons for such arrest and detention.
(ix) A person who is arrested and detained shall be produced before the nearest
magistrate within a period of 24 hrs. of his arrest. Such a person has the right to
consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defence.
(Any ve) 5 1 = 5
Ans.9. The Right to culture and Education :
(i) The constitution specifies the cultural and educational rights of the minorities.
(ii) Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture has a right to conserve
it.
(iii) Admission to any educational institution maintained by government or receiving
government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or
language.
(iv) All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions
of their choice. Here, minority does not mean only religious minority at the
national level.
(v) In some places people speaking a particular language are in majority, people
speaking a different language are in a minority.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

P-58

WORKSHEET75

6.
1
Right against exploitation.
1
An international human rights organization.
1
Right against Exploitation.
1
The High Court and Supreme Court.
1
Challenges : The biggest challenge was to trust each other so that the interests of
both the black majority and the white minority were safeguarded. Blacks were keen

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted
substantial social and economic rights. The white minority was keen to protect its
privileges and property.
Compromise : Whites agreed to the principle of one man one vote. To accept some
rights for the poor and workers. Blacks agreed the majority rule will not be absolute.
Majority would not take away the property of the white minority.
2+1=3
Ans.7. The Right to Constitutional Remedies is heart and soul of our Constitution.
It is so called because under this right, courts are empowered to issue writs to ensure
proper enjoyment of rights by the people. Some writs which can be issued are as
follows:
Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Certiorari and Quo Warranto.
2+1=3
Ans.8. The Right to Equality :The constitution says that the government shall not deny
to any person in India equality before the law or equal protection of the laws.
The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion,
caste, ethnicity, sex or place of birth. Every citizen shall have access to public places
like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls. Or in the use of wells, tanks, bathing
ghats, roads, play grounds and places of public resorts maintained by the government
or dedicated to the use of general public.
All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or
appointment to any position in the governments But seats are reserved for SC, STs
and OBC.
Besides, various governments have different schemes for giving preference to women,
poor or physically handicapped in some kinds of jobs.
The practice of untouchability has been forbidden in any form, and it is a punishable
offence.
5
Ans.9. (a) Once Mandal Commission recommended 27% reservation for SEBC in government
jobs, widespread protests were staged. Writ petitions were filed in High Courts
and the Supreme Court questioning this measure. The Supreme Court examines
the issue and permitted the Union government to reserve 27% of jobs for the OBCs
subject to the exclusion fo creamy layer among OBCs.
(b) While resolving the issues, following values were kept in mind :
(i) Social justice to backward community.
(ii) To ensure equal representation and opportunities of all citizens of India
irrespective of caste or creed.
(iii) Socio-economic welfare.
2 + 2 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

WORKSHEET76

Begar.
1
Right to Vote.
1
Summon.
1
Right to constitutional remedy.
1
(i) By criticizing the activities of government in conversation with friends, relatives
and parents.
(ii) By publicizing your views through pamphlets, magazines and newspapers, songs,
painting or poetry.
Restrictions :
(i) You cannot incite people to rebel against the government.
(ii) You cannot instigate violence against others.
(iii) You cannot use this freedom to defame others by saying false and mean things
that cause damage to a persons reputation.
(Any one) 2 + 1 = 3

UNIT - III : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-59

Ans. 6. (i) The Right to Equality.


(ii) Even after more than 60 years of independence, when such words are still used,
it looks to me a slier on the name of the country. Every citizen of India is equal
in the eyes of law which means they should be equal politically, economically and
socially.
(iii) If equal opportunities are provided and availed of, it will raise and uplift the
status of the people which in turn restore them the dignity and freedom. So, all
our efforts should be made to bring social and economic equality.
13=3
Ans.7. Rights :Rights are claims of a person over other fellow beings, over the society and
over the government. All of us want to live happily without fear and without being
subjected to degraded treatment. For this we expect similar treatment from others.
You cannot have rights that harm others. The claims we make should be reasonable.
They should be such that can be made available to others in an equal measure.
Rights acquire meaning only in a society :
(i) Just because we claim some thing, it does not become a right. It has to be recognized
by the society we live in.
(ii) Every society makes certain rules to regulate our conduct. They tell us what is
right and what is wrong. What is recognised by society as rightful becomes the
basis of rights.
3+1+1=5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET77

All these activities will be done by the students on their own. They will help them to develop
understanding and analytical skill among the students about Right to Equality.
1.
a. Right to equality.
b. Right to freedom.
c. Right to equality.
d. Right to freedom and religion.
2.
a. Begaar is a practice where the worker is forced to render services to the master
free of charge.
b. Freedom is not unlimited license to do what one wants to do.
c. Citizens of India have the freedom to travel to any part of the country.
3.
a. Traffic.
b. reasonable, society, law.
c. 24.
4.
a. Fundamental rights are the basic rights without which no individual can
develop himself to the fullest extent possible. These rights are guaranteed by
the Constitution and are enforced by the court of law. However, these rights are
not absolute in nature. There are reasonable restrictions imposed on them in the
larger interest of the society.
b. Some of the important Features of the South African Constitution are as follows :
Discriminatory laws were repealed Ban on political parties and restrictions on the
media were lifted.
This constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in
any country aimed to a society based on democratic values, social justice and
fundamental human rights aimed the foundations for a democratic and open
society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is
equally protected by law.

P-60

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

12 POVERTY AS A CHALLENGE FACING INDIA


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET78

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

Illiteracy.
1
National Rural Employment Gaurantee Act (2005).
1
Kerala.
1
Odisha.
1
Poverty as seen by social scientists :
(i) Illiteracy level.
(ii) Lack of general resistance due to malnutrition.
(iii) Lack of access to healthcare.
(iv) Lack of job opportunities.
(v) Lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation etc.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 6. Poverty Trends :
(i) There is substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 55 percent in
1973 to 30 percent in 2009-10.
(ii) The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26 percent
in 2000. If the trend continues people below poverty line may come down to about
26 percent in 2000.
(iii) Although the percentage of people living under poverty declined in the earlier
decades (1973-1993) the number of poor remained stable around 320 million for a
long period.
(iv) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to
about 27 percent by 2004-05
(Any three) 3
Ans.7. The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty
dened by the World Bank as living on less than 1.25 dollars per day has fallen from
43 per cent in 1990 to 22 percent in 2008.
(i) Poverty declined subtantially in China and South-east Asian countries as a result
of rapid economic growth and massive investment. In Latin America, the ratio of
poverty remained the same.
(ii) In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Bhutan), the decline has not been as rapid. Despite decline the percentage of poor,
the number of poor has declined marginally from 61% in 1981 to 36% in 2008.
(iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact declined from 51 percent in 1981 to 47
percent in 2008.
(iv) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. It has declined from
11% in 1981 to 6.4% in 2008.
(v) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia,
where ofcially it was nonexistent earlier.
(vi) The millennium development goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the
proportions of people living in less than 1 dollar a day to half the 1990 level by
2015.
5
Ans.8. The government has introduced several measures for the removal of poverty. They
are :
(i) National Food for Work Programme (NFWP).
(ii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY).
(iii) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP).
(iv) Swarna jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
(v) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
(vi) Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).
(Any ve) 5

UNIT - IV : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-61

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET79

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Income or consumption levels.


1
2400.
1
World Bank.
1
Amartya Sen.
1
Poor.
1
Reasons :
(i) There has been a significant decline in poverty in Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir,
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal.
(ii) States like Punjab and Haryana have traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty
with the help of high agricultural growth rates.
(iii) Kerala has focused more on human resources development.
(iv) In West Bengal, land reform measures have helped in reducing poverty.
(v) In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu public distribution of food grains could have
been responsible for the improvement.
(Any three) 3
Ans.7. Poverty line : Poverty line is an imaginary line drawn by the economists by which
those who are all to fulfil their basic needs of food, clothing and shelter are above the
poverty line and those who are not able to fulfil it are below poverty line.
Methods of determining poverty line :
(i) Income Method : A person is considered poor if his or her income falls below a
given minimum level necessary to fulfil basic needs.
(ii) Consumption Method : A minimum multritional food requirement for survival
is estimated and energy obtained is measured in calories. The accepted average of
calory requirement in India.
(iii) Expenditure Method : While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum
level of food requirement, lothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical
requirement etc. are determined for subsistence.
(Any two) 1 + 3 + 1 = 5
Ans.8. Disparities of poverty in India :In India proportion of poor people is not the
same in every state. Recent estimates show that in 20 states and union territories,
the poverty ratio is less than the national average. While on the other hand, poverty
is still a serious problem in some of the states like Bihar, Assam, Uttar Pradesh etc.
Alongwith rural poverty, urban poverty is also high in Orissa, Bihar, UP etc.
3
Ans.9. The current anti-poverty strategy of the Indian govt. is based on two planks:
(i) Promotion of economic growth and
(ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes.
Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in
human development. Since the eighties, Indias economic growth has been one of the
fastest in the world.
Targeted anti-poverty programmes in India are formulated to affect poverty directly
or indirectly. Some of them are National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, National
Food for work programmse, Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana etc.
2 + 2 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.

P-62

WORKSHEET80

National Sample Survey Organisation.


Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana.
100.
Landless labourer.
Income method.

1
1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 6. The millennium development goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the
proportion of people living on less then $ 1 a day to half the 1990 level by 2015.
(i) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-East Asian countries as
a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource
development. Number of Poor in China has come down from 85% in 1981 to 14%
in 2008. In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
(ii) In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Bhutan), the decline has not been as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of
the poor, the number of poor has declined marginally from 61% in 1981 to 36% in
2008.
(iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact declined from 51 percent in 1981 to 47
percent in 2008.
(iv) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. It has declined from
11% in 1981 to 6.4% in 2008.
(v) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia,
where ofcially it was nonexistent earlier.
3
Ans.7. Indias most compelling challenge is poverty reduction. The measures that can be
adopted by the Government of India are :
(i) Higher economic growth : As economic growth widens the opportunity and
provides the resources needed to invest in human development.
(ii) Increasing stress on universal free elementary education : Human
resources are the biggest resources for any country. By educating the humans, we
can remove poverty to a great extent.
1+2=3
Ans.8. (a) The government has introduced several measures for the removal of poverty. They
are:
(i) National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
(ii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
(iii) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP)
(iv) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
(v) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
(vi) Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).
(Any five)
(b) Value that can be added to improve the result of these anti-poverty programmes :
(i) Population Control.
(ii) Create new employment opportunities.
(iii) Education.
(iv) Proper implementation and right targeting.
2 + 2 = 5
Ans.9. The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty
dened by the World Bank as living on less than 1.25 dollars per day has fallen from
43 per cent in 1990 to 22 percent in 2008.
(i) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-East Asian countries as
a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource
development. Number of Poor in China has come down from 85% in 1981 to 14%
in 2008. In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
(ii) In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Bhutan), the decline has not been as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of
the poor, the number of poor has declined marginally from 61% in 1981 to 36% in
2008.
(iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact declined from 51 percent in 1981 to 47
percent in 2008.
(iv) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. It has declined from
11% in 1981 to 6.4% in 2008.

UNIT - IV : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-63

(v) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia,
where ofcially it was nonexistent earlier.
(vi) The millennium development goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the
proportions of people living in less than 1 dollar a day to half the 1990 level by
2015.
5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET81

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

2015.
1
APS.
1
Unequal distribution of land.
1
People are engaged in physical labour.
1
Income level.
1
(i) On the positive side, the incidence of poverty has declined in India. There has been
significant fall in poverty ratio during the decades of 1980s and 2000s (2008).
(ii) On the negative side, poverty reduction remains Indias most compelling challenge.
About one fourth of Indias total population, that is about 260 million people lives
below the line of poverty.
(iii) The major weakness of these programmes is the lack of proper implementation,
lack of right targets, overlapping schemes.
3
Ans.7. (i) Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to
invest in human development.
(ii) It encourages people to send their children to schools in the hope of getting better
return.
(iii) It widens job opportunities and thus solves unemployment.
3
Ans.8. Causes of poverty :
(i) Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration.
(ii) High growth rate of population.
(iii) Huge income inequalities.
(iv) Lack of land resources.
(v) Land reforms have not been implemented properly.
(vi) Socio-cultural and economic factors also responsible for poverty. (Any three) 3
Ans.9. The two planks on which the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based
are :
(i) Promotion of economic growth.
(ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes.
The poverty alleviation programmes were not successful in most parts of India
because :
(i) Lack of proper implementation and right targeting.
(ii) Lot of overlapping of schemes.
(iii) Benefits of the schemes did not reach the deserving poors.
2+3=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

P-64

WORKSHEET82

Haryana.
Lack of proper implementation.
2005.
Scheduled caste.
West Bengal.
He introduced the concept of entitlement.

1
1
1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans.7. Punjab : Increases in farm yields helped Punjab to remove poverty.


Kerala : Human resources development helped Kerala to eradicate poverty.
West Bengal : Land Reform measures helped West Bengal to remove poverty
Andhra Pradesh : Well-organised public distribution system helped Andhra Pradesh
to remove poverty.
1 4 = 5
Ans.8. The results have been mixed up because of :
(i) Lack of proper implementation.
(ii) Lot of over lapping of schemes.
(iii) Over population.
(iv) Corruption.
(Any three) 3
Ans. 9. Social Exclusion : According to this concept poverty must be seen in terms of the poor
having to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people, excluded form enjoying
social equality with better-off people in better surroundings. It is a process through
which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities
that others enjoy. Example : Caste system.
2+1=3
Ans.10. (A) Punjab : Increases in farm yields helped Punjab to remove poverty.
(B) Kerala : Human resources development helped Kerala to eradicate poverty.
(C) West Bengal : Land Reform measures helped West Bengal to remove poverty.
(D) Andhra Pradesh : Well-organised public distribution system helped Andhra
Pradesh to remove poverty.
1 4 = 5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET83

All these activities will be done by the students on their own. The activities will be done either
on individual basis or in in the form of group activity.

UNIT - IV : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-65

13 FOOD SECURITY : SOURCE OF FOODGRAIN


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET84

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Milk.
1
Minimum Support Price.
1
Indira Gandhi.
1
Grain banks in different regions.
1
Traditional artisans.
1
The Food security is ensured in a country only if :
(i) Enough food is available for all the persons, i.e., no person should die because of
hunger. Everyone should get enough food for their livelihood.
(ii) All persons have the capacity to buy food. Food should be available to all, i.e., it
should be not so expensive that it becomes difficult for a person to buy it.
(iii) There is no barrier on access to food, i.e., food should be accessible to all ignoring
all the barriors of rich and poor or classes etc.
3
Ans.7. Food security is affected during a calamity as :
(i) Total production of food grains decreases.
(ii) It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas.
(iii) Due to shortage of food, price goes up.
(iv) At the high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food.
(Any three) 3
Ans.8. The role of co-operatives in food security in India :
(i) The co-operatives are playing an important role in food security in India especially
in the southern and western parts of the country.
(ii) The co-operative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people.
(iii) Out of all fair shops running in Tamil Nadu around 94 percent are being run by
the cooperatives.
(iv) In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables.
(v) In Gujarat, Amul is success story of co-operatives in milk and milk products. It
has resulted, White Revolution in the country.
(vi) In Maharastra, Academy of Development Science (ADS) has facilitated a network
of NGOs for setting up grain banks in different regions.
(Any ve) 5
Ans.9. Public Distribution System is ineffective because of the following reasons :
(i) The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration
shops among the poorer section of the society.
(ii) PDS dealers are found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open
market to get better margin.
(iii) Selling poor quality grains at ration shops.
(iv) Irregular opening of the shops.
(v) It is common to find the ration shops regularly have unsold stocks of poor quality
grains left.
1+4=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.

P-66

WORKSHEET85

Mother Dairy.
Indians in 1940s.
Cycles of food growing and harvesting.
2000.

1
1
1
1

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans. 5. Buffer Stock :Buffer stock is the stock of food grains wheat and rice procured by the
government through FCI.
Reasons :
(i) The MSP declared by the Govt. before sowing season to provide incentives hence
increasing production of their crops.
(ii) Purchased food grains stored in granaries and later distributed in deficit areas
lower than market price issue price.
(iii) Helps in shortage of food during periods of calamity.
1+2=3
Ans. 6. The different dimensions of food security :
(i) Availability of food means food production within the country, food imports and
the previous year stock stored in government granaries.
(ii) Accessibility means food is within reach of every person.
(iii) Affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe
and nutritious food to meet ones dietary needs.
3
Ans. 7. Public Distribution System (PDS) :
(i) Public Distribution system ensures food security.
(ii) To start, Public Distribution System was for all without any discrimination.
(iii) Now it has been made more efficient and targeted.
(iv) Targeted Public Distribution System was introduced to adopt the principle of
targeting the poor in all areas.
(v) Introduction of a different price policy was adopted for poor and non-poor.
5
Ans. 8. Positive Point of the P.D.S. :
(i) P.D.S. has helped in stabilizing pieces and making food available to consumers at
an affordable price.
(ii) Helped in averting wide spread hunger and famine by supplying food from surplus
region to the deficit one.
(iii) Prices have been under revision in favour of the poor household.
(iv) It has contributed to an increase in food grain production and provided income
security to farmers in certain regions.
(v) It is an important step taken by the govt. to ensure food security.
51=5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET86

Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

Wheat, Rice.
1
Delhi.
1
Food Corporation of India.
1
Availability, accessibility and affordability of food to all at all the times.
1
TTPDS.
1
Meaning of famine : Widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused
by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of resistance due to
weakening from starvation.
The most affected group : Agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers and
casual labourers.
2+1=3
Ans.7. (i) Hunger is not just an expression of poverty, it brings about poverty. The attainment
of food security therefore involves eliminating current hunger and reducing the
risk of future hunger.
(ii) Hunger has chronic and seasonal dimensions.
(iii) Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of
quantity or quality due to low income. Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food
growing and harvesting.
3

UNIT - IV : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-67

Ans.8. Public Distribution System :It is a system focusing on the subsidized distribution
of basic commodities to poor households through fair price shops nation wide.
Problems related to PDS :
(i) The food procured by the Food Corporation of India is distributed through
government regulated ration shops among the poorer sections of the society at a
price lower than the market price.
(ii) PDS has proved to be most effective instrument of government policy to ensure
food security.
(iii) Any family with ration card can buy a stipulated amount of grains, kerosene,
sugar, etc. every month from the nearby ration shop.
(iv) The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government regulated ration
shops among the poorer section of the society.
(v) PDS dealers are found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to open
market to get better margin.
(vi) Selling poor quality grains at ration shops.
(vii) Irregular opening of the shops.
(viii)It is common to find the ration shops regularly have unsold stocks of poor quality
grains left.
(xi) When ration shops are unable to sell, a massive stock grains piles up with the
FCI.
(Any four) 1 + 4 = 5
Ans.9. Different schemes launched by government to provide food security to the poor are :
(i) Public Distribution System (PDS) is the most important step taken by the
Government of India (GOI) towards ensuring food security.
(ii) In 1992, Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was introduced in 1700
blocks in the country. The target was to provide the benefits of PDS to remote and
backward areas.
(iii) In 2000, two special Schemes were launched, viz., Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
and the Annapurna Scheme (APS) with special target groups of poorest of the poor
and Indigent Senior Citizen respectively.
(iv) The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was introduced for the first time
differential price policy was adopted for the poor and non-poor.
4 1 = 5

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Ans. 1.
Ans. 2.
Ans. 3.
Ans. 4.
Ans. 5.
Ans. 6.

P-68

WORKSHEET87

In Dec., 2000.
1
Gujarat.
1
Minimum Support Price.
1
Issue price.
1
July, 1968.
1
Public Distribution System : It is a system focusing on the subsidized distribution
of basic commodities to poor households through fair price shops nation wide.
Roles of PDS :
(i) The food procured by the Food Corporation of India is distributed through
government regulated ration shops among the poorer sections of the society at a
price lower than the market price.
(ii) PDS has proved to be most effective instrument of government policy to ensure
food security.
(iii) Any family with ration card can buy a stipulated amount of grains, kerosene,
sugar, etc. every month from the nearby ration shop.
(Any two) 1 + 2 = 3

SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-9 TERM - II

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Ans.7. (i) In the rural areas food insecured people comprise of landless people, traditional
artisans, self employed workers and beggars.
In urban areas they include people employed in ill-paid occupations and casual
labour, and workers engaged in seasonal activities.
(ii) Largest number of food insecured people are found in the state of UP, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and
Maharastra states.
3
Ans.8. The main Provisions of P.D.S. :
(i) Government regulates ration shops.
(ii) Keep stock of grains to be sold at lower price.
(iii) Distribution of food grains.
(iv) PAPs (Poverty Alleviation Programmes).
(v) Stabilised prices.
5
Ans.9. Role of cooperatives is food security :
(i) The co-operatives are playing an important role in food security in India especially
in the southern and western parts of the country.
(ii) The co-operative societies set up shops to sell low priced goods to poor people.
(iii) Out of all fair shops running in Tamil Nadu around 94 percent are being run by
the cooperatives.
(iv) In Delhi, Mother Dairy is making strides in provision of milk and vegetables.
(v) In Gujarat, Amul is success story of co-operatives in milk and milk products. It
has resulted, White Revolution in the country.
(vi) In Maharastra, Academy of Development Science (ADS) has facilitated a network
of NGOs for setting up grain banks in different regions.
(Any ve) 5

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

WORKSHEET88

All the activities will be done by the students on their own on individual basis or in the form
of group activity.

UNIT - IV : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - I

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

P-69