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You are on page 1of 143

MODULE # 9:

SLURRY PUMPING

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

Objectives

Introduction

1

2

Capacity

Head / Pressure

System elements

Bernoulli's equation

Static pressure

Velocity head

Vertical lift

Friction loss

Total dynamic head

System capacity versus head curve

4

5

16

17

22

25

33

38

45

63

79

Major components

Slurry pump performance

Manufacturer's pump performance curves

Pumping system adjustments

79

81

82

106

Progress Review 1

122

Closing word

133

References

134

Appendix A

135

Glossary

139

SLURRY PUMPING

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

page

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

18

Figure 3.

63

Figure 4.

64

Figure 5.

65

Figure 6.

system (example #1).

76

equation for the pumping system

(example #2).

77

Figure 8.

79

Figure 9.

slurry pump.

80

Figure 7.

pump impeller speed (reduced TDH).

82

pump impeller speed (increased TDH).

83

84

85

86

90

suction head" for a pump.

92

98

SLURRY PUMPING

iii

LIST OF TABLES

page

Table 1. Conversion factors for the units of

pressure or head

losses for slurry pumping

26

valves and fittings

39

SLURRY PUMPING

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this module is for you to become familiar with slurry

pumping systems. You will learn how to obtain the desired

performance from these systems by learning how to:

Evaluate the elements of the total dynamic head of a

pumping system.

Specify required adjustments to slurry pumps to achieve

desired capacity and head.

Before completing this module, you must have completed the module

entitled "Introduction to the Metcom System". If you have not completed

the module entitled "Hydrocyclone Performance" or if you do not

know how to quickly calculate the specific gravity of a slurry, refer to

Appendix A of this module before moving on.

This module has two parts and you will need a calculator. The estimated time for completion is four hours including a Progress Review

at the end.

SLURRY PUMPING

INTRODUCTION

The slurry pumping systems which are the subject of this module are

the typical systems found in a mineral processing plant. Figure 1

shows such a pumping system feeding an installation of

hydrocyclones.

SLURRY PUMPING

The components of a typical slurry pumping system are:

The pump box where slurry (and sometimes water) is

collected.

The pump.

The piping system including elbows, valves, etc.

The terminal apparatus, in this case, a hydrocyclone

installation.

In Part II of this module, you will learn about centrifugal pumps since

these are generally used in the mineral processing plant.

Right now, let's turn to Part I where you will learn about slurry

pumping system capacity and head.

SLURRY PUMPING

PART I - PUMPING SYSTEM CAPACITY AND HEAD

CAPACITY

The pumping system capacity is the volumetric flow rate of slurry

that flows from the pump to the terminal apparatus of the pumping

system. "System capacity", "pump capacity", and "system slurry flow

rate" are interchangeable terms.

SLURRY PUMPING

HEAD / PRESSURE

The pump provides the desired slurry capacity by exerting the fluid

pressure required to overcome all the resistances to flow of the

system at the prevailing flow rate. These resistances are measured

in head * or pressure * .

"Pressure" and "head" are interchangeable expressions. They both

represent energy per unit weight of the fluid being transported by

the system.

In the context of this module, a "fluid" may be any non-viscous fluid

such as water or most solids/water slurries encountered in mineral

processing plants. Pumping oils and highly viscous fluids required

special considerations not covered in this module.

In the case of slurry pumping, you need to know the specific gravity *

of the slurry in order to carry out pumping system calculations. The

specific gravity, SG, of a fluid is the ratio of its density (g/cc) and the

density (g/cc) of water (at 4C):

Specific gravity

of the slurry

Density of water (g/cc)

Since the density of water is 1.0 g/cc, the SG of a given slurry can be

easily calculated. For example, if the density of a slurry is 1.85 g/cc,

then its specific gravity is simply 1.85. Note that SG is unitless as

opposed to density which has units of g/cc or t/m3.

In most of your work on slurry pumping, you will have to calculate

results in height of slurry. However, in some calculations, you will

encounter values of head or pressure that are initially in "height of

water".

SLURRY PUMPING

The relation between "height of slurry" and "height of water" is

expressed as follows:

illustrated.

Example

A column of water is 10 meters high. The equivalent height of this

column in meters of slurry (SG = 2.0) is:

2.0

5-meter column of slurry (SG = 2.0). This is illustrated in the figure

below.

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

A vertical pipe contains water to a height of 9.5 meters. If another

pipe was to contain slurry (SG = 1.8), how high should the slurry level

be to exert the same pressure as the column of water?

SLURRY PUMPING

Answer

5.3 meters

Solution

Height of slurry

Height of water

Slurry SG

Height of slurry

1.8

Height of slurry

There are several units for head or pressure, e.g. meters of slurry,

meters of water, kiloPascals, pounds per square inch, etc. The

conversion factors for the most commonly used units are presented

in Table 1.

SLURRY PUMPING

1 atmosphere

=

=

=

=

=

101 kPa

14.7 psi

29.92 inches of mercury

33.9 feet of water

10.33 meters of water

1 psi

=

=

=

=

=

6.9 kPa

0.068 atmosphere

2.036 inches of mercury

2.307 feet of water

0.703 meter of water

1 kPa

=

=

=

=

=

0.01 atmosphere

0.145 psi

0.295 inches of mercury

0.334 feet of water

0.102 meter of water

1 meter of water

=

=

=

=

=

9.8 kPa

0.097 atmosphere

1.422 psi

2.896 inches of mercury

3.281 feet of water

your answers to one decimal place.

SLURRY PUMPING

10

Since you have already learned how to convert "height of slurry" into

"height of water", you can convert any "height of fluid" into any of the

equivalent units of head or pressure in Table 1.

Here are some examples on how to use the factors in Table 1.

Example 1

The pressure exerted by a three-meter column of water can be

expressed in:

kiloPascals:

3 m water x 9.8

kPa

m water

= 29.4 kPa

psi:

3 m water x 1.422

psi

= 4.3 psi

m water

Example 2

A column of slurry (SG = 1.7) is 15.8 meters high. The pressure it

exerts may first be expressed in meters of water:

15.8 m slurry x 1.7 = 26.9 m water

Then it can also be expressed in other units of pressure:

kiloPascals:

26.9 m water x 9.8

kPa

m water

= 263.6 kPa

feet of water:

26.9 m water x 3.281 ft water = 88.3 ft water

m water

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise 1

A column of slurry is 7.5 meters high. The slurry SG is 1.8. Using

the factors in Table 1, convert this information into the following units

of pressure.

meters of water:

atmosphere:

kiloPascals:

psi:

inches of mercury:

feet of water:

11

SLURRY PUMPING

12

Answers

meters of water:

7.5 m slurry x 1.8

= 13.5 m water

atmospheres:

13.5 m water x 0.097 atmosphere

m water

= 1.3 atm

kiloPascals:

13.5 m water x 9.8

kPa

m water

= 132.3 kPa

psi:

13.5 m water x 1.422

psi

m water

= 19.2 psi

inches of mercury:

13.5 m water x 2.896 inches of mercury

m water

= 39.1 inches of

mercury

feet of water:

13.5 m water x 3.281 ft water

m water

= 44.3 ft water

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise 2

A column of water is 4.3 meters high and exerts a pressure of

42.1 kPa.

a) If the water were replaced by slurry (SG = 2.1) to the same height

of 4.3 meters, what would be the new pressure of this column:

In kPa?

In atmospheres?

In kPa?

In inches of mercury?

13

SLURRY PUMPING

14

Answers

a) The equivalent height of the 4.3-meter column of slurry (SG = 2.1)

is 9.0 meters of water:

Height of slurry x Slurry SG =

4.3 m slurry x 2.1 =

Height of water

9.0 m water

9.0 m water x 9.8

kPa

m water

84.3 kPa

9.0 m water x 0.097

atm =

m water

0.9 atm

is 8.6 meters of water:

4.3 m slurry x 2.0

8.6 m water

84.3 kPa

8.6 m water x 9.8

kPa

m water

8.6 m water x 2.896 inches of mercury

m water

24.9 inches

of mercury

SLURRY PUMPING

In this module, we will ask you to use the units of "kPa" and "meters

of fluid" in your calculations. However, feel free to use whichever

system you prefer when you perform calculations for the pumping

equipment in your plant.

We have just presented you with the topics of "capacity" and

"head/pressure". In the next section, we will better define the four

elements that make up slurry pumping system head.

15

SLURRY PUMPING

SYSTEM ELEMENTS

The pump in a slurry pumping system must overcome all resistances

to flow in order to deliver the desired volume of slurry. There are

four sources of head or pressure in a pumping system:

1. The change in static pressure * (P) from the initial boundary

(surface of the slurry in the pump box) to the terminal boundary of

the system.

2. The change in velocity head * (V) from the initial to the terminal

boundary of the system.

3. The change in elevation, or vertical lift * (Z) from the initial to the

terminal boundary of the system.

4. The total friction loss * (hf ) from the initial to the terminal boundary

of the system.

selected to facilitate calculations. The initial boundary is generally

the surface of the slurry in the pump box; this is indicated by the digit

"1" in a triangle. The terminal boundary is generally at the feed to the

terminal apparatus (if the terminal apparatus is a hydrocyclone) or at

the surface of the slurry (if the terminal apparatus is an open tank);

this is indicated by the digit "2" in a triangle.

These four elements add up to form the total dynamic head * , or

TDH, of the system. This is also the total dynamic head that must be

provided by the pump. Therefore the TDH of the system equals that

provided by the pump!

static

velocity

elevation

loss

pressure

head

16

SLURRY PUMPING

17

BERNOULLI'S EQUATION

In mathematical form, Bernoulli's equation is as follows based on the

initial (1) and terminal (2) boundaries of a pumping system:

where

V2

- V1

2g

+ (Z2 - Z1) + hf

TDH

by the pump (height of slurry).

system (atm, kPa, or psi).

system (atm, kPa, or psi).

the system (m/sec).

of the system (m/sec).

Z1

Z2

hf

relative to the pump intakea (height of slurry).

Elevation of the terminal boundary of the

system relative to the pump intakea (height of

slurry).

Total friction loss of the system (height of

water).

SLURRY PUMPING

As you can see, the units of TDH and of the elements are not

common at this stage; however, each unit is one of head or pressure

and all elements will eventually be converted to the common unit of

height of slurry.

The elements in Bernoulli's equation are illustrated in Figure 2.

18

SLURRY PUMPING

Because of the conditions normally found in pumping systems in a

mineral processing plant, Bernoulli's equation can be simplified.

When the initial boundary of a pumping system is at the surface of

the slurry in the pump box, the static pressure, P , is atmospheric, or

1

will give a "zero" gauge pressure. Also, since the velocity of the

slurry, V , will be negligible at this point, we can say that:

1

P1 =

V1 =

0

0

2g

expressed in various units of head or pressure. However, TDH must

eventually be expressed in "height of slurry".

Here is a very simple example which will introduce you to Bernoulli's

equation.

19

SLURRY PUMPING

20

Example

Joe, the metallurgist, was asked to determine the TDH for a slurry

pumping system. Here is the information he is given:

The static pressure gauge reading at the hydrocyclone inlet is

148 kPa.

The velocity (average across the pipe diameter) of the slurry at

the hydrocyclone inlet is 1.94 m/s (this will be covered later).

The vertical distance between the level of slurry in the pump box

and the pump intake is 2.0 m (slurry head).

The vertical distance between the pump intake and the

hydrocyclone inlet is 12.0 m (slurry head).

The piping system has a total friction loss, h , equivalent to

f

2.0 m water.

Here is Bernouilli's equation again:

TDH = P

+ V2 + (Z2 - Z1) + hf

2g

TDH = 148 kPa + 1.942 m slurry + (12.0 - 2.0) m slurry + 2.0 m water

2g

SLURRY PUMPING

21

system, the slurry SG is 1.73:

P2 = 148 kPa x 0.102 m water

kPa

P

= 15.1 m water

1.73

V

2

2

2g

(1.94 m/sec)2

= 0.2 m slurry

2 x 9.81 m/sec2

Z2 - Z1 = 10.0 m slurry

For the friction loss he has:

hf = 2.0 m water = 1.2 m slurry

1.73

So finally:

TDH = 8.7 + 0.2 + 10.0 + 1.2

TDH = 20.1 m slurry

20.1 m in order to transport the given volumetric flow rate of slurry

through the system.

SLURRY PUMPING

22

more detail.

STATIC PRESSURE

Static pressure is measured at the selected terminal boundary of the

system. When the terminal boundary is the surface of an open tank,

then the static pressure, P2, is atmospheric. If the terminal boundary

is at the inlet of a hydrocyclone, then the static pressure, P , is

2

indicated by a pressure gauge at that point.

Here is an example.

Example

Slurry (SG = 1.60) is being pumped from an open vessel (P1 = 0) into

a tank pressurized at 170 kPa. Therefore P2 is 170 kPa. This static

pressure can also be expressed in other units:

Meters of water:

Meters of slurry:

1.60

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

You are pumping slurry (SG = 1.90) from a pump box to a cluster of

hydrocyclones. The pressure gauge at the slurry distributor indicates

a static pressure of 13.0 psi.

If the terminal boundary of the slurry pumping system has been

selected at the inlet to the cluster, what is P for this system in:

2

a) Feet of slurry?

b) Atmospheres?

23

SLURRY PUMPING

24

Answers

a) 15.8 ft slurry

Solution

13.0 psi x 2.307 ft water

psi

= 30.0 ft water

30.0 ft water

1.90

= 15.8 ft slurry

b) 0.9 atmosphere

Solution

13.0 psi x 0.068 atm

psi

= 0.9 atm

Next, let's look at the velocity head of a pumping system.

SLURRY PUMPING

VELOCITY HEAD

While V2 is the velocity of the slurry at the terminal boundary of a

slurry pumping system, the expression "V22/2g" is the velocity head

element of the total dynamic head. When the initial boundary of the

system is the surface of the fluid in an open pump box, we can assume that V1 equals zero.

The velocity head is always expressed in "height of the fluid being

pumped ". If the pump is pumping water, then the units are in

"height of water". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units are in

"height of slurry". In this case, the slurry SG must be specified.

The "velocity" component of the velocity head is calculated based on

the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system (usually

at the terminal boundary) and the inside diameter of the pipe through

which it flows. These calculations have already been done for you

and are found in Table 2. (Values for hf-factor are also displayed in

Table 2; we will examine those later.)

25

26

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

NOMINAL

DIAMETER OF

SCHEDULE 40

STEEL PIPE

(INCHES AND MM)

SLURRY FLOW

RATE

(cubic meters/hour)

50

60

70

80

90

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

5 inches

(127 mm )

4 inches

(102 mm )

V

(m/sec)

1.70

2.03

2.37

2.70

3.05

3.40

4.06

4.73

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

0.0

4.3

5.7

7.3

9.2

11.2

16.0

21.6

V

(m/sec)

1.94

2.16

2.58

3.01

3.44

3.86

4.29

4.72

6 inches

(152 mm )

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

2.9

3.6

5.1

6.8

8.8

11.0

13.6

16.3

V

(m/sec)

2.09

2.38

2.68

2.98

3.27

3.57

3.87

4.17

4.46

4.76

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

2.7

3.5

4.4

5.3

6.4

7.5

8.8

10.2

11.6

13.2

SLURRY PUMPING

27

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

NOMINAL

DIAMETER OF

SCHEDULE 40

STEEL PIPE

(INCHES AND MM)

SLURRY FLOW

RATE

(cubic meters/hour)

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

400

450

500

550

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

8 inches

( 203 mm )

10 inches

( 254 mm )

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.72

1.89

2.06

2.24

2.41

2.58

2.76

2.93

3.11

3.27

3.43

3.86

4.29

1.3

1.6

1.9

2.2

2.6

2.9

3.3

3.7

4.1

4.6

5.0

6.3

7.8

V

(m/sec)

1.86

1.97

2.08

2.18

2.46

2.73

3.01

3.29

3.82

4.36

4.92

12 inches

(305 mm )

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.6

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.7

6.1

7.6

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.73

1.92

2.12

2.31

2.69

3.07

3.47

3.85

4.22

4.61

5.00

5.39

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.2

3.8

4.6

5.5

6.4

7.4

SLURRY PUMPING

28

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

NOMINAL

DIAMETER OF

SCHEDULE 40

STEEL PIPE

(INCHES AND MM)

SLURRY FLOW

RATE

(cubic meters/hour)

550

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2500

14 inches

( 356 mm )

16 inches

( 406 mm )

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.75

1.91

2.23

2.55

2.86

3.19

3.51

3.83

4.13

4.45

5.09

0.8

0.9

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.9

3.4

4.0

4.6

5.9

V

(m/sec)

1.95

2.19

2.44

2.68

2.93

3.17

3.41

3.90

4.38

4.86

18 inches

(457 mm )

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.7

2.0

2.3

3.0

3.8

4.6

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.73

1.92

2.12

2.31

2.50

2.70

3.07

3.47

3.85

4.22

4.82

0.6

0.7

0.8

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.7

2.1

2.5

3.1

3.9

SLURRY PUMPING

29

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

NOMINAL

DIAMETER OF

SCHEDULE 40

STEEL PIPE

(INCHES AND MM)

SLURRY FLOW

RATE

(cubic meters/hour)

1100

1200

1300

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

20 inches

(

(508

mm) )

24 inches

(

(610

mm) )

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.70

1.86

2.01

2.17

2.48

2.79

3.10

3.40

3.87

4.65

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.7

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.3

3.2

V

(m/sec)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

1.72

1.93

2.14

2.36

2.68

3.22

3.76

4.29

4.83

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.9

1.3

1.7

2.2

2.8

V

(m/sec)

inches

)

hf factor

(m of water)

(100 m pipe)

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

30

Notes

1. Select the value of Q in the table which is the closest to yours.

2. If your value of Q falls right between two values of Q in the table,

select the bigger one of the two.

head of a pumping system.

Example

Water is being pumped from an open reservoir to a nearby pump box

at a rate of 100 m3/h. The discharge pipe is 5 inches in diameter.

The velocity head in the pipe can be determined as follows.

"V" from Table 2 is 2.16 m/sec. Therefore the velocity head is:

V

2

2g

2.162

2 x 9.81

= 0.2 m water

relatively small part of it.

Solve the problem in the following exercise.

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

Slurry (SG = 2.2) is being pumped to a set of hydrocyclones at the

3

volumetric flow rate of 250 m /h through a 6-inch pipe.

31

SLURRY PUMPING

32

Answers

0.8 meters of slurry

Solution

From Table 2, "V" is 3.87 m/sec. Therefore:

V

2

2g

3.872

2 x 9.81

SLURRY PUMPING

VERTICAL LIFT

The vertical lift of a pumping system is the net height over which

the fluid must be transported. Its units are always in "height of the

fluid being pumped ". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units

are "height of slurry".

Here is an example.

Example

Slurry (SG = 1.8) is being pumped to an installation of hydrocyclones

from a pump box. The slurry level in the pump box is 2.5 m above

the pump inlet (Z1). The vertical distance between the pump and the

inlets of the hydrocyclones is 8.2 m (Z2). This is illustrated in the

following figure.

33

SLURRY PUMPING

34

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

Water is pumped from an open vessel to an open tank as shown in

the figure below.

35

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

Based on the vertical distances indicated in the figure:

the vertical lift?

36

SLURRY PUMPING

37

Answers

a) 11.0 m water

= 10.4

+ 3.9 - 3.3

+ 3.9 - 3.3

Note that the vertical lift can be expressed in kPa, inches of mercury,

etc. However, when you calculate the total dynamic head (TDH) in

Bernouilli's equation, the units must eventually be in "height of the

fluid being pumped".

Now, let's look at the last of the four elements of total dynamic head:

friction loss.

SLURRY PUMPING

FRICTION LOSS

The total friction loss in a pumping system is due to the friction of

the fluid against the pipe walls as the fluid flows through the piping

system; it is also due to the interference to flow that is created by

elbows, valves, and fittings which are part of the piping system

between the initial and terminal boundaries of the system. We

assume that pump boxes do not create any friction.

The friction loss, h , in a piping system depends on the nominal

f

diameter of the pipe in the piping system and on the volumetric flow

rate of slurry that flows through it. The piping system consists of two

general parts:

1. The total length of straight pipe.

2. The equivalent length of straight pipe created by the presence

of valves (fully open) and fittings.

The former can be measured directly in the plant. The latter can be

determined from tables based on the nominal diameter of the pipe.

Table 3 lists the equivalent length of pipe created by several types of

open valves and fittings.

38

39

Table 3. Equivalent length of pipe for open valves and fittings (meters)

NOMINAL DIAMETER OF

SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE

(INCHES AND MM)

18 in.

6 in.

8 in.

10 in.

12 in.

14 in.

16 in.

4 in.

20 in.

24 in.

5 in.

(102 mm) (127 mm) (152 mm) (203 mm) (254 mm) (305 mm) (356 mm) (406 mm) (457 mm) (508 mm) (610 mm)

FITTINGS

1. Regular 90 elbow

1.8

2.2

2.7

3.7

4.3

5.2

5.5

6.4

7.0

7.6

9.1

2. Long-radius 90 elbow

1.3

1.5

1.7

2.1

2.4

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.4

3.7

4.3

3. Regular 45 elbow

1.1

1.4

1.7

2.3

2.7

3.4

4.0

4.6

4.9

5.5

6.7

0.85

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.9

5. Tee-branch flow

(branch flow 90 turn)

3.7

4.6

5.5

7.3

9.1

10.4

11.3

13.1

14.3

15.8

18.9

6. Gate valve

0.88

0.94

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

7. Non-return valve

4.0

4.9

6.1

8.2

9.2

12.2

14.6

15.9

17.7

18.9

24.4

8. Bell-mouth inlet

0.29

0.40

0.49

0.70

0.88

1.1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.9

2.3

9. Square-mouth inlet

2.9

4.0

4.9

7.0

8.8

10.7

12.2

14.3

16.2

18.6

23.2

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

In Table 3, we can see, for example, that a regular 90 elbow in a

4-inch piping system is equivalent to 1.8 meters of 4-inch pipe.

Once you know the equivalent length of a piping system, you can

establish the friction loss in the system by using a friction factor,

hf-factor. "hf" stands for "head due to friction" and depends on the

volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system.

These factors are listed in Table 2 on page 26.

Have a second look at Table 2.

Notes

1. The h -factors quoted in Table 2 are for the pumping of slurry

f

even though the units are "height of water per length of pipe".

2. The h -factors quoted in Table 2 include an additional 10% to

f

account for the additional loss due to pumping slurry instead of

water. This factor is assumed to be the same for all slurries,

independent of slurry SG, % solids, solids size distribution, etc.

Different correction factors may be used by others. However, for

pumping over the relatively short distances encountered in mineral

concentrators, the net effect of the correction factor on the calculated

TDH is negligible.

40

SLURRY PUMPING

41

Use the following equation to calculate the friction loss, hf, caused by

the piping system:

in the system

m water

(m pipe)

100 m pipe

Here is an example on how to use the h -factors to solve for the total

f

Example

3

A piping system delivers 160 m /h of slurry to a set of hydrocyclones.

The piping system is composed of the following items:

One square-mouth inlet (at the pump box wall)

One pinch valve

Two long-radius 90 elbows

created by the presence of the fitting, valve, and elbows:

For the square-mouth inlet, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe

is 4.9 meters of pipe.

For the pinch valve, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe is

1.2 meters of pipe.

For the two elbows, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe is

(2 x 1.7) 3.4 meters.

SLURRY PUMPING

42

The total equivalent length of 6-inch pipe for this system is:

55.0 + 4.9 + 1.2 + 3.4 = 64.5 meters of 6-inch pipe

To determine the total friction loss in this piping system, we must go

to Table 2.

In Table 2, the value of h -factor associated with a slurry volumetric

f

flow rate of 160 m3/h is 3.5 meters of water per 100 meters of pipe.

64.5 meters of 6-inch pipe, the total friction loss in this system is:

64.5 m of pipe x 3.5

m water

100 m pipe

= 2.3 m water

dynamic head of the system. If the pump is transporting slurry

(SG = 1.50) instead of water, then the friction loss, hf, becomes

(2.3/1.50) 1.5 m slurry.

SLURRY PUMPING

43

Exercise

Calculate the total friction loss, hf, in a system which is pumping

3

slurry (SG = 1.44) at 300 m /h. The piping system consists of:

One square-mouth inlet

One pinch valve

Two non-return valves

Six regular 90 elbows

SLURRY PUMPING

44

Answer

2.0 m water (or 1.4 m slurry)

Solution

For the valves and fittings, the equivalent length of 8-inch pipe, from

Table 3, was:

20.5 m

7.0 m

1.4 m

2 x 8.2 m

6 x 3.7 m

67.5 m water

From Table 2, the friction loss associated with 8-inch piping and a

300 m3/h flow rate of slurry is 2.9 meters of water per 100 meters of

pipe.

m water

= 2.0 m water

100 m pipe

Now you know how to determine the value of each element of the

total dynamic head of a pumping system.

Take a break and when you return, you will practice calculating the

total dynamic head of pumping systems.

SLURRY PUMPING

45

To summarize what you have learned so far in this module, here is

the simplified Bernouilli's equation:

TDH = P

+ V2 + (Z2 - Z1) + hf

2g

Each of the four elements in this equation carries its own units of

head or pressure. However, the total dynamic head of the pump

must be expressed in "height of slurry".

We have already presented an example on the use of this equation

on page 20. Solve the following exercise.

Exercise

Determine the total dynamic head, TDH, of the slurry pumping

system illustrated in the following Worksheet 1. This worksheet

contains all the information you need to obtain your answer.

Give your final answer in "meters of slurry". Use this space and the

blank page that follows the worksheet for your calculations.

46

WORKSHEET

SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG

Vol. flow rate of slurry

Pressure gauge reading

= 1.60

= 205 m3/h

= 55 kPa

Pipe nominal diameter

Length of straight pipe

Valves and fittings:

= 6 inches

= 50.0 m

One non-return valve

Two 45 elbows

One long-radius 90 elbow

One pinch valve

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

47

SLURRY PUMPING

48

Answer

TDH = 19.0 m slurry

Solution

TDH = P

+ V2 + (Z2 - Z1) + hf

2g

55 kPa x 0.102 m water

kPa

= 5.6 m water

5.6 m water

1.60

= 3.5 m slurry

From Table 2, V2 is approximately 2.98 m/sec based on a slurry

volumetric flow rate of 205 m3/h and a nominal pipe diameter of

6 inches.

Therefore the velocity head equals:

2.982

2 x 9.81 m/sec

= 0.5 m slurry

2

15.8 - 3.0

= 12.8 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

49

Answer (continued)

The friction loss equals 2.2 m slurry:

The equivalent length of pipe for the piping system is

67.3 meters:

Straight 6-inch pipe:

One square-mouth inlet:

One non-return valve:

Two 45 elbows:

One long-radius 90 elbow:

One pinch valve:

50.0 m

4.9 m

6.1 m

3.4 m

1.7 m

+ 1.2 m

67.3 m

f

pipe:

67.3 m pipe x 5.3 m water

100 m pipe

= 3.6 m water

3.6 m water

1.60

= 2.3 m slurry

Finally we have:

TDH = 3.5 + 0.5 + 12.8 + 2.2

TDH = 19.0 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

How did you do in this exercise?

Well? Good work!

Not so well? Study the solution carefully to make sure that you

understand each step.

50

SLURRY PUMPING

Up to now, we have defined the boundaries of a pumping system as

the level of slurry in the pump box and the point where the slurry is

discharged to atmosphere or enters a set of hydrocyclones.

In fact, it doesn't matter where you decide to set the boundaries on

each side of the pump: the total dynamic head of the pump will be

the same regardless of the location of the boundaries.

Here is an example.

Example

A slurry pumping system is illustrated in the following Worksheet 1.

In this system, there is one initial boundary (1); however, two

terminal boundaries (2 and 3) have been identified so that we can

calculate the total dynamic head of the pump in two different ways.

51

52

WORKSHEET

SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG

Vol. flow rate of slurry

Pressure gauge reading

= 1.60

= 300 m3/h

= 95 kPa

Pipe nominal diameter

Length of straight pipe

Valves and fittings:

= 6 inches

= 42.5 m

One non-return valve

Two long-radius 90 elbows

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53

We are going to calculate the TDH for this pump in two ways:

from point "1" to "3" and from "1" to "2".

Since the slurry is at atmospheric pressure at point "3", P3 equals

zero. Since the velocity of the slurry at point "3" is negligible, V is

3

also zero.

Here is the starting equation:

TDH = 0 + 0 + (17.8 - 4.1) + h

Straight 6-inch pipe:

One square-mouth inlet:

One non-return valve:

Two long-radius 90 elbows:

42.5 m

4.9 m

6.1 m

+ 3.4 m

56.9 m

56.9 m pipe x 11.6 m water

100 m pipe

= 6.6 m water

6.6 m water

1.6

= 4.1 m slurry

Finally we have:

TDH = 0 + 0 + 13.7 + 4.1

TDH = 17.8 m slurry

Now let's see what we get if we use points "1" and "2".

SLURRY PUMPING

54

Since there is a pressure gauge at point "2", P2 has a value. And

since the slurry velocity at point "2" is significant, V2 also has a value.

Here is the starting equation:

2

2g

The static pressure is 6.1 m slurry:

95 kPa x 0.102 m water

kPa

= 9.7 m water

9.7 m water

1.60

= 6.1 m slurry

From Table 2, V is 4.46 m/sec based on a slurry volumetric

2

2

4.46

= 1.0 m slurry

2 x 9.81 m/sec2

The vertical lift equals only 6.6 m slurry this time.

The friction loss, h , remains at 4.1 m slurry since there are

f

no valves nor fittings between points "2" and "3".

Finally we have:

TDH = 6.1 + 1.0 + 6.6 + 4.1

TDH = 17.8 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

As you can see, the total dynamic head of this pump is 17.8 m slurry

no matter where the system boundaries are located. In fact, you

can select any two practical boundary locations to calculate the TDH

of a pumping system.

Solve the following exercise.

Exercise

The pumping system for a closed-grinding circuit is shown in the

following worksheet.

55

56

WORKSHEET

SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG

Vol. flow rate of slurry

Pressure gauge reading

= 1.90

= 200 m3/h

= 100 kPa

Pipe nominal diameter

Length of straight pipe

Valves and fittings:

= 5 inches

= 22.8 m

One non-return valve

Two regular 90 elbows

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

Questions

a) What is the TDH for this pump from points "1" to "2"?

57

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

b) What is the TDH of this pumping system from points "1" to "3"?

Hints:

a pressure drop of 100 kPa. Convert this pressure as

necessary.

Consider the average elevation of the two discharge

points of the hydrocyclone to be approximately equal

to the elevation at the hydrocyclone inlet

(i.e., Z = Z ).

3

2

Consider the average slurry velocity at the

discharges of the hydrocyclones to be approximately

equal to that at the inlet (i.e., V3 = V2).

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

58

SLURRY PUMPING

59

Answer

TDH for both questions (a) and (b) is 18.1 m slurry.

Solutions

a) Here is the starting equation:

TDH = 100 kPa +

V 2 + (12.0 - 2.5) + h

2

2g

The static pressure is 5.37 m slurry:

100 kPa x 0.102 m water

kPa

10.2 m water

1.90

= 10.2 m water

= 5.4 m slurry

From Table 2, V2 is 4.29 m/sec based on a slurry volumetric flow

rate of 200 m3/h and a nominal pipe diameter of 5 inches.

Therefore the velocity head equals:

2

= 0.9 m slurry

4.29

2 x 9.81 m/sec

SLURRY PUMPING

60

Answer (continued)

The friction loss, hf , equals 2.3 m slurry:

Straight 5-inch pipe:

One bell-mouth inlet:

One non-return valve:

Two regular 90 elbows:

22.8 m

0.40 m

4.9 m

+ 4.4 m

32.5 m

32.5 m pipe x 13.6 m water

100 m pipe

= 4.4 m water

4.4 m water

1.90

= 2.3 m slurry

Finally we have:

TDH = 5.4 + 0.9 + 9.5 + 2.3

TDH = 18.1 m slurry

3

We have stated that V is equal to V and that Z equals Z .

3

2

3

2

We have:

TDH = 0 +

4.292

+ (12.0 - 2.5) + hf

2 x 9.81

SLURRY PUMPING

61

Answer (continued)

The friction loss, hf, from points "1" to "3" equals 7.70 m slurry.

This equals the value of hf in (a), i.e., 2.3 m slurry plus the

equivalent height of slurry created by the added "fitting" which is

the hydrocyclone between points "2" and "3". This fitting creates a

pressure drop of 100 kPa (the pressure gauge reading at the

hydrocyclone inlet):

100 kPa x 0.102 m water

kPa

10.2 m water

1.90

= 10.2 m water

= 5.4 m slurry

2.3 + 5.4

= 7.7 m slurry

Finally we have:

TDH = 0 + 0.9 + 9.5 + 7.7

TDH = 18.1 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

Note

For multiple-diameter piping systems, you can consider the various

pipe diameters in your calculations:

To determine the value of V2, use the diameter of the pipe at

the terminal boundary (point "2").

To determine the total value of h , calculate h for each pipe

f

f

diameter, including valves and fittings. Then simply add them

up.

Those steps are only necessary if the presence of various pipe

diameters is significant in relation to the entire piping system. For

example, you don't have to do this if one out of twenty meters of pipe

is six inches instead of five inches in diameter.

You have just learned how to determine the total dynamic head,

TDH, for a particular pumping system which is transporting a specific

volumetric flow rate of slurry. This defines one point on the "system

capacity versus head" curve which is presented in the following

section.

62

SLURRY PUMPING

SYSTEM CAPACITY VERSUS HEAD CURVE

The total dynamic head of a system (and therefore of the pump in the

system), corresponds to a specific volumetric flow rate of slurry, Q.

This TDH versus Q relationship represents a single operating point

for this system. Look at Figure 3.

In this figure, point "a" represents the total dynamic head of the

3

system, 20.0 m slurry, at a slurry volumetric flow rate of 630 m /h.

63

SLURRY PUMPING

If the flow rate of slurry were reduced to zero, but the system was

kept full of slurry, there would still be a total dynamic head. This TDH

would be solely attributable to the vertical lift, (Z2 - Z1), in the

system. Since Q would equal zero, the other three elements of

Bernouilli's equation would also equal zero since they depend on Q.

The vertical lift (at Q equal to zero) is illustrated by point "z " in

a

Figure 4.

15.0 m slurry for this system at a slurry flow rate of zero.

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SLURRY PUMPING

Points "a" and "za" are possible operating points for the pumping

system. Both points therefore belong to a curve called the "system

capacity versus head" curve or "system" curve. See Figure 5.

volumetric flow rate of slurry changes within a particular pumping

system, TDH changes. Now, let's see how we can draw this curve

for any slurry pumping system.

65

SLURRY PUMPING

66

As you can see, the system curve is not a straight line. The

relationship between TDH and Q is non-linear because static

pressure (P), velocity head (V2/2g), and friction loss (h ) are each

f

proportional to Q2.

In order to draw the system curve, you can use Bernoulli's equation.

In this equation, the only element which is independent of Q is the

vertical lift of the system, (Z2 - Z1). Since the other three elements

are proportional to Q2, we can group the elements as follows:

TDH = (Z

- Z ) +

1

+ V2 + h

f

2g

2

relationship can be expressed by a single constant for a given

system:

TDH = (Z

- Z ) + Constant x Q

1

You can use this equation and the information you have on one

operating point such as "a" to determine the value of the constant in

the above equation. Once you have evaluated the constant, you can

draw the curve that goes through "za" and "a" for that particular

system.

Please note: This equation will have to be modified (a) if the system is

changed (e.g. the number of operating cyclones is changed); or, (b) if

the static pressure is determined by a head tank (e.g. the system on page 52).

Otherwise, follow this procedure.

SLURRY PUMPING

67

Procedure

1. Start with the information you used to determine the operating

point of the system:

Total dynamic head

TDH (m fluid)

Vertical lift

(Z

3

Q (m /h)

- Z1) (m fluid)

2. Using the values in step (1), solve for the constant in Bernoulli's

equation for this system:

2

TDH = (Z2 - Z1) + Constant x Q

system by substituting the values of (Z2 - Z1) and the constant.

TDH

(m fluid)

4. Use the equation from step (3) to calculate the value of TDH for

several arbitrary values of Q. Tabulate the results.

Q (m /h)

TDH (m fluid)

SLURRY PUMPING

Procedure (continued)

5. Plot the values from Step (4) on the TDH versus Q graph.

6. Draw the system curve.

Here is an example.

68

SLURRY PUMPING

69

Example

The total dynamic head of a pump is 15.2 m slurry for a slurry flow

3

rate of 300 m /h. Bernoulli's equation, with all its elements

expressed in "m slurry", is as follows:

TDH

= P

+ V2 + (Z2 - Z1) + hf

2g

The operating point of the system and its vertical lift are illustrated in

the figure below.

SLURRY PUMPING

70

TDH

15.2 m slurry

(Z2 - Z1)

Q

6.6 m slurry

3

300 m /h

We have this rearranged equation to solve for the constant (step 2):

- Z1) + Constant x Q2

TDH

= (Z

15.2

Constant

= 15.2 - 6.6 =

8.6

3002

300

in this fractional form.

TDH

6.6 m slurry +

( m slurry)

8.6

300 2

x Q2

SLURRY PUMPING

71

(step 4):

Q (m3/h)

TDH (m slurry)

0

100

200

300

400

6.6

7.6

10.4

15.2 (reference point)

21.9

SLURRY PUMPING

72

Exercise

Here is Bernoulli's equation with its four elements (m slurry) for a

3

system with a volumetric flow rate of slurry of 200 m /h.

TDH

= P2 + V2

2g

+ (Z2 - Z1) + hf

19.1

= 3.5 + 0.5 + 12.8 + 2.3

m slurry

From this information, draw the system curve for this pump in the

following TDH versus Q graph. Use the next page for your

calculations.

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

73

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

Question

What would be the total dynamic head of this system if the slurry

throughput rate of the pump were increased to 275 m3/h?

74

SLURRY PUMPING

Answers

TDH would be approximately equal to 25 m slurry.

Here is the equation that represents the system curve:

TDH = 12.8 m slurry + 6.3 x Q2

(m slurry)

2002

If Q equals 275 m3/h, TDH equals 24.7 m slurry. This is shown by

the system curve illustrated below.

75

SLURRY PUMPING

You now know how to draw the system curve for a particular system

starting from one operating point. However, if any of the

characteristics of the pumping system change, the curve for the

system will also change.

In Figure 6 below, study the system curve "A" for a pumping system.

The vertical lift of the system, "za", is 15 m slurry.

(example #1).

by lowering the discharge tank, point "zb" will result. There will be a

new system curve, "B"; in this case, the shape of the curve will

remain the same but the curve will be lower on the graph.

76

SLURRY PUMPING

Take another situation. Suppose that the hydrocyclone feed

pressure increases at the inlet of the hydrocyclones (because you

have inserted smaller vortex finders). In this case, the vertical lift

remains constant but the system curve will change. You will then

have a new constant in Bernoulli's equation for this system. The new

system curve "B" will result from this change to the system. It is

shown in Figure 7.

pumping system (example #2).

With the new operating point and vertical lift for the system, you can

determine the new system curve using the procedure on page 67.

77

SLURRY PUMPING

This concludes Part I of this module. Take a break and when you

come back, you will learn about slurry pumps and how to

characterize their performance.

78

SLURRY PUMPING

PART II - CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMPS

Centrifugal slurry pumps are one of the most economical means of

transporting slurries in mineral processing plants.

Here is a brief description of these pumps.

MAJOR COMPONENTS

Figure 8 shows major components of a typical centrifugal slurry pump

assembly.

79

SLURRY PUMPING

You can better see the impeller and the rubber lining of such pumps

in the cross-sectional diagram in Figure 9.

pressure and velocity head in order to meet the total dynamic head

requirements of the system.

Now, let's see how to obtain the desired performance from these

pumps.

80

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMP PERFORMANCE

In this section, we will show you how to use pump performance

curves provided by pump manufacturers. These curves provide the

data needed to obtain the desired pump performance.

As you have seen in Part I, the pump provides the total dynamic head

required for a given slurry flow rate. The operating point, "a", falls on

the system curve "A".

Point "a" not only represents the TDH and Q for the system; it also

represents the TDH and Q for the pump. In addition, point "a"

corresponds to specific pump performance characteristics such as

impeller speed, efficiency, and net positive suction head * . Pump

manufacturers provide you with curves which enable you to

determine the performance characteristics of the pump at the

operating point.

You can draw the system curve and/or plot the operating point for the

pumping system on the set of manufacturer's curves for the pump.

The manufacturers' curves are covered in detail next.

81

SLURRY PUMPING

MANUFACTURERS' PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

Head-Capacity Curves

Let's say that a pumping system is operating at point "a" on the

system curve "A". If we decrease the vertical lift of this system, for

example, by decreasing the elevation of the hydrocyclones, a new

"system" curve, "B", will be defined. At the same impeller speed,

there will be a new operating point "b" in the new system: the pump

can handle more slurry at a reduced TDH.

speed (reduced TDH).

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Similarly, if the vertical lift of the system is increased, for example, by

increasing the elevation of the hydrocyclones, then at the same

impeller speed, there will be a new operating point, "c": the pump

can handle less slurry at a higher TDH. The corresponding system

curve "C" is illustrated in Figure 11.

impeller speed (increased TDH).

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SLURRY PUMPING

All three points "a", "b", and "c" are based on the same pump

impeller speed. This corresponds to the pump head-capacity curve

for that particular impeller speed. For example, if the impeller speed

is 530 rpm, then the curve can be identified as such. See Figure 12.

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SLURRY PUMPING

Now consider the original system curve "A" in Figure 13 below.

Increasing the pump impeller speed of this system from 530 to

650 rpm would cause the flow rate of slurry, Q, to increase to point

"aa" along curve "A". Therefore the pump head-capacity curve for

650 rpm is to the right and above the 530-rpm curve. Pump

head-capacity curves have similar shapes for a particular pump.

Study Figure 13.

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SLURRY PUMPING

The head-capacity curves (at different impeller speeds) for a pump

are determined by the pump manufacturer. The manufacturer also

provides you with two other types of curves for the pump: the pump

"efficiency" and "NPSH" curves. These are presented next.

Efficiency Curves

The efficiency curves for a pump are determined by design and

testing carried out by the pump manufacturer. The pump efficiency at

different impeller speeds and slurry volumetric flow rates depends on

the size and shape of the impeller, internal pump dimensions, etc.

New pumps should be selected to operate close to maximum

efficiency (target design performance) to minimize energy

consumption.

Study the various efficiency curves for a particular pump in Figure 14.

The operating point "a" is also illustrated.

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

86

SLURRY PUMPING

In Figure 14, you can see that the present operating point "a"

indicates that the pump is operating at approximately 75% efficiency.

This is the maximum efficiency of this pump.

If the system were modified and the pump impeller speed changed so

that the new operating point corresponded to a TDH of 15 m slurry for

the same Q, then the efficiency of the pump would decrease to

approximately 73%.

Exercise

Study Figure 14 again to determine the expected efficiency of the

pump if it were to operate at a TDH of 30 m slurry and a Q of

3

400 m /h.

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Answer

Approximately 62% efficiency.

88

SLURRY PUMPING

89

NPSH Curves

"NPSH" stands for "net positive suction head". This is the absolute

(as opposed to gauge) pressure at the feed inlet of the pump which is

actually forcing the fluid into the pump.

Gauge +

pressure

Atmospheric

pressure

Absolute

pressure

absolute pressure to feed a pump so that cavitation* of the fluid

inside the pump does not occur.

If the static pressure is too low, the fluid can vaporize into gas,

forming bubbles, as it enters the pump. As the fluid is pressurized by

the pump impeller these bubbles can collapse suddenly and violently,

sending shock waves that can cause serious damage to the internal

pump components. When cavitation occurs, it sounds like marbles

are passing through the pump.

Study the typical set of NPSH curves in Figure 15. Again, the

operating point "a" is shown.

SLURRY PUMPING

The NPSH curves in Figure 15 indicate that the required net positive

suction head for the operating point "a" is approximately 7 meters of

water.

90

SLURRY PUMPING

Notes

1. The pump impeller, which imparts the energy to the fluid, does not

distinguish between fluids of different specific gravities. Therefore

the units of TDH are in meters of fluid being pumped.

2. The unit of NPSH required is meters of water. The vaporization

of water (in the slurry) is what normally leads to cavitation. The

available NPSH must ensure that the static pressure throughout

the pumping system is high enough so that water does not

vaporize. This pressure, known as "water vapor pressure", is

normally quoted in standard pressure units such as meters of

water.

3. For all these calculations, we assume a relatively low water temperature (0 to 20C). At high temperatures, the vapour pressure of

water must be taken into account.

91

SLURRY PUMPING

The NPSH curves from the manufacturer tell us how much head of

fluid is required ahead of the pump in order to avoid cavitation. We

must establish the available NPSH in the pumping system to verify

that the available NPSH in the system exceeds that required.

The available NPSH in a pumping system has two components:

atmospheric pressure (P ) and fluid pressure (Z ). These are

1

1

illustrated in Figure 16.

Figure 16. The components of the "net positive suction head" for a

pump.

Friction losses from the pump box to the pump can normally be considered as negligible for the purpose of calculating NPSH available

(when the length of the suction pipe is short).

92

SLURRY PUMPING

93

NPSH-A, in a pumping system:

NPSH-A =

(m water)

Atmospheric

pressure

(m water)

Fluid head on

pump inlet

(m water)

Here is an example.

Example

An atmospheric pressure of one atmosphere exists in a mineral

processing plant. In the pump box, slurry of SG = 2.0 stands at four

meters deep. The NPSH available in this system is:

NPSH-A

1 atm + 4 m slurry

10.3 m water

18.3 m water

+ (4 x 2.0) m water

The next step is to check with the required NPSH curves from the

manufacturer to make sure that this available NPSH meets the

required NPSH for the pump while it operates at point "a".

If the curves shown back on page 90 in Figure 15 are those for this

pump, then the required NPSH is approximately 7 m water. Since

the system provides more than that, we can say that:

NPSH available

>

NPSH required

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

In a pumping system, the slurry level is 2.3 meters above the pump

intake. Slurry SG is 1.9.

This pumping system is located at very high altitude where the

atmospheric pressure happens to be 0.82 atm. Determine the NPSH

available in this system for the pump.

94

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

If the required NPSH for this pump is 8 m water, is the available

NPSH in this system sufficient?

95

SLURRY PUMPING

Answer

The answer is "yes".

The available NPSH is 12.8 m water:

NPSH-A = 0.82 atm + 2.3 m slurry (SG = 1.9)

NPSH-A = 0.82 atm x 10.33 m water + 2.3 x 1.9

atm

NPSH-A = 12.8 m water

Therefore:

NPSH available > NPSH required

Note

When the level of slurry in the pump box is above the pump intake

(as in Figure 16), the pump is said to be under "flooded suction".

This design is common in mineral processing plants. Flooded suction

helps prevent the collapse of the rubber liners into the pump.

96

SLURRY PUMPING

If you determine for any pump operating point that NPSH required is

less that NPSH available, you cannot operate the pump at that point.

You must either:

a) Choose another pump which has a lower NPSH required.

b) Modify the installation to provide a higher pressure at the pump

inlet.

Now we can present you with a complete set of curves, all on the

same diagram. These are similar to the ones you are given by pump

manufacturers.

Manufacturers' Charts

Figure 17 on the following page shows a manufacturer's

performance chart for a pump. On the graph, you can observe:

1. The head-capacity curves at impeller speeds ranging from 300 to

700 rpm.

2. The efficiency curves, ranging from 70% to a maximum of

approximately 82%.

3. The required NPSH curves (broken lines), ranging from 4 to 8

meters of water.

Study Figure 17 and make sure you can identify the three sets of

curves listed above.

97

98

1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

You can draw the system curve on this chart. By knowing the

present impeller speed of the pump, you can locate the operating

point of the system (and pump) along the system curve: it is the

intersect between the head-capacity curve (for that speed) and the

system curve.

Once the system curve is drawn on the chart, you can also move

along the system curve to see how a change in impeller speed would

change the operating point.

Exercise

The system curve for a pumping system has been drawn on the

manufacturer's pump performance chart. See the following figure.

99

100

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

Questions

From the manufacturer's performance chart:

1. Identify the coordinates of the present operating point of the pump:

4. If the impeller speed is increased to 700 rpm, what will be the new

flow rate of slurry (approximately) through the pump?

101

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

5. What will be the new pump efficiency at the new speed of 700

rpm?

20 m slurry (and no other physical characteristics of the system or

the pump has changed), what would be the new expected flow rate

of slurry through the pump based on the original pump speed?

(You must draw a new system curve to answer this question.)

102

SLURRY PUMPING

Answers

1. The coordinates for the operating point are:

3

(280 m /h, 37.5 m slurry)

3. Approximately 76%.

4. Approximately 300 m3/h.

5. Approximately 77%.

3

6. Approximately 330 m /h. Remember that the pump impeller

speed has not changed; it is still 670 rpm. The following

worksheet shows the new system curve.

103

104

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Now that you know how to use the manufacturer's pump performance

curves, let's see how we can adjust pump performance.

105

SLURRY PUMPING

PUMPING SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS

The most common change in performance for a pumping system is to

vary the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the system. This is

normally associated with a change in the total dynamic head of the

system. The solution is generally to vary the pump speed; this is

done by changing the drive sheaves on the motor and pump.

A change in the pump speed must also be done in conjunction with a

verification of the motor capabilities. When the change in speed is

acceptable for the pump but not for the motor, the motor must be

changed. If the change is not acceptable for the pump, then the

whole pump installation must be changed.

There are five pump characteristics to consider when adjusting pump

performance. For both the present and desired pump performance,

they are:

1. The total dynamic head of the pump.

2. The volumetric flow rate of slurry through the pump.

3. The efficiency of the pump.

4. The available NPSH for the pump.

5. The power draw of the pump motor.

You already know how to determine the first four characteristics. You

will now learn how to determine the power draw of the pump motor

for the new target performance since it must not exceed the

capability of the present motor.

106

SLURRY PUMPING

107

To calculate the power draw of the pump, use the following equation:

367.5 x Eff.

Where

Bkw

"Brake kilowatt" draw (kw)

Q

TDH

=

=

SG

367.5

Eff.

=

=

=

3

Volumetric flow rate of slurry (m /h)

Total dynamic head for the pump

(m slurry)

Specific gravity of the slurry

Constant

Pump efficiency (fraction)

horsepower" or BHP.

Here is an example on how to use this equation.

SLURRY PUMPING

108

Example

The present power draw of a pump must be calculated. Based on

information from its present performance, we have:

Q

TDH

SG

Eff.

=

=

=

=

300 m3/h

16.5 m slurry

1.8

73%

Bkw

367.5 x 73%

Bkw

33 kw

We have:

It happens that the motor for this pump is a 50 HP (37 kw) motor.

The present operating point of the pump is therefore already

demanding near the full capability of the motor.

Note

As a general rule of thumb, the power draw of the pump should not

be greater than approximately 90% of the rated power draw of the

motor.

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise

Refer back to Figure 17 on page 98 to determine the power draw of

the pump for the operating point (250, 35). The slurry SG is 1.6.

109

SLURRY PUMPING

Answer

The power draw of the pump is approximately 51 kw.

Solution

Bkw = 250 x 35 x 1.6

367.5 x 74%

Bkw = 51 kw

This operating condition is therefore well handled by the motor.

pumping system, you must determine whether or not the pump motor

is appropriately sized for the new target conditions.

Exercise

Study the figure on the following page and calculate the expected

power draw of the pump after a major change to the system which

is expected to operate at point (450, 25) instead of the existing point

(280, 37.5). Slurry SG is also expected to increase to 1.8.

110

111

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

Question

If this pump is connected to a 100-HP (75 kw) motor, would you feel

comfortable in operating the pump under the new conditions using

this motor?

112

SLURRY PUMPING

Answer

The expected power draw is 72 kw and the answer to the question is

"no".

Solution

Bkw = 450 x 25.0 x 1.8

367.5 x 77%

Bkw = 72 kw

The power draw of this pump is very close to the rated power of the

motor (75 kw). You should consider installing a more powerful motor,

for example, a 125-HP (93 kw) motor.

Major changes to a pumping system may require that the pump itself

be changed. When the expected operating point is outside the limits

set by the manufacturer's performance curves for a pump, you will

need to install a bigger (or smaller) pump for the application.

Here is an example.

Example

In the following figure, the present operating point for the pump is

(280, 37.5). Changes to the system call for a TDH of 32 m slurry and

3

a Q of 650 m /h. The new target operating point therefore falls

outside the operational range of this pump. The present pump is not

designed to handle this new target condition.

113

114

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

In this case, it was decided that a larger pump would be purchased.

Various pump curves from manufacturers were available; they were

studied and a new pump that could handle the new flow rate at the

new TDH was selected. Its performance curves are shown in the

following figure.

115

116

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

As you can see, the desired operating point "b" on the graph for the

new pump falls well into its operating range. The speed of the pump

will be approximately 740 rpm. It must be decided what size of motor

is required for this new pump. Therefore the power draw under the

new conditions must be calculated.

367.5 x 72%

Bkw = 141 kw

200-HP (149-kw) motor might do, but it is too close (<10%) to the

estimated power requirements.

Exercise

Continuing with the previous example (and corresponding figure), the

vertical lift of the system has increased by 8 meters. No other

characteristics of the system have changed.

Questions

3

1. In order to maintain a volumetric flow rate of slurry of 650 m /h,

what should be the new pump impeller speed, approximately?

117

SLURRY PUMPING

Exercise (continued)

2. Can the 200-HP (149-kw) motor handle the new conditions?

(Slurry SG = 1.8)

118

SLURRY PUMPING

119

Answers

1. The new impeller speed should be approximately 850 rpm. The

figure with both the actual and desired operating points follow.

2. The expected Bkw for the motor is 182 kw. This is above the rated

capacity of the motor. The motor should therefore be replaced by

a bigger one.

Bkw =

650 x 40 x 1.8

367.5 x 70%

Bkw = 182 kw

120

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

Each pump has an optimum operating point which approximately

corresponds to its average impeller speed and maximum pump

efficiency. For example, in the worksheet on the previous page, the

optimum operating point corresponds to a TDH of approximately 30

meters and a Q of 800 m3/h.

Here are some general guidelines for deciding whether or not you

should change the pump when you modify a pumping system:

If the new Q is more than 1.25 times the optimum Q for the

existing pump, select another pump.

If the new Q is less than 0.50 times the optimum Q for the existing

pump, select another pump.

You have completed the work for another module! Take a break and

then complete the Progress Review.

121

SLURRY PUMPING

PROGRESS REVIEW

Estimated time for completion: 25 minutes

Review.

processing plant.

122

123

WORKSHEET

SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG

Vol. flow rate of slurry

Pressure gauge reading

= 1.55

= 250 m3/h

= 66 kPa

Pipe nominal diameter

Length of straight pipe

Valves and fittings:

= 6 inches

= 29.0 m

One non-return valve

One pinch valve

Two 45 elbows

Four regular 90 elbows

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

2. The following figure shows the manufacturer's curves for the pump

in this system.

3. Draw the system curve for the pump. Use this space for your

calculations.

124

125

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

4. The slurry volumetric flow rate for the system must be increased to

3

300 m /h.

a) What will be the expected TDH for the system under the new

conditions?

b) What should the new pump impeller speed be to deliver the new

target flow rate at the new head?

conditions?

conditions? (Assume normal atmospheric pressure.)

126

SLURRY PUMPING

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

motor be safely used for the new operating conditions?

127

SLURRY PUMPING

128

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers

1. TDH for this pump is approximately 25.3 m slurry.

Solution

TDH = 66 kPa +

f

2 x 9.81

Straight 6-inch pipe:

One square-mouth inlet:

One non-return valve:

Two regular 45 elbows:

Four regular 90 elbows:

29.0 m

4.9 m

6.1 m

3.4 m

+ 10.8 m

55.4 m

55.4 m pipe x 8.8 m water

100 m pipe

= 4.9 m water

4.9 m water

1.55

= 3.2 m slurry

TDH = 25.3 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

129

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers (continued)

2. The figure on the following page shows the operating point and the

system curve to which it belongs.

3. To draw the system curve, you must solve for the constant that

relates "Q" to three of the elements of Bernouilli's equation.

Solution

25.0 = 17.0 + Constant x 250

Constant =

25.0 - 17.0 =

2

250

TDH = 17.0 +

8.0

8.0

250

2502

Q2

130

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

131

PROGRESS REVIEW

(continued)

Answers (continued)

4. a) Approximately 28.5 m slurry.

b) Approximately 570 rpm.

c) Approximately 81%.

d) The new required NPSH will be approximately 6.5 m.

e) The available NPSH will be close to 16.5 m water.

NPSH-A

f)

= 10.3 m water + 6.2 m water

= 16.5 m water

This is within a reasonable operating range for this motor.

Bkw

367.5 x 81%

= 45 kw

SLURRY PUMPING

How did you do in this Progress Review?

Well? Congratulations!

You had some problems? Make sure you understand the

solutions before you take the Certification Test.

132

SLURRY PUMPING

CLOSING WORD

Congratulations in completing another module of the Metcom

Instructional Program.

If you had problems using pump performance curves prior to

completing this module, we hope you can now work with them with

confidence. As you can see, the manufacturer's curves are not that

complex after all.

We cannot close this module without reminding you of the

importance of using the correct set of manufacturer's curves for

the pump under study. The pump model no. and impeller design for

which the curves apply are indicated on the manufacturer's

performance curves. Make sure they correspond to that of your

pump before doing your analyses.

What you have learned in this module is closely linked to the module

entitled "Hydrocyclone Adjustments". In that module, you learned

how to adjust hydrocyclone performance, often by adjusting the

volumetric flow rate of slurry and feed pressure to an installation of

hydrocyclones. In this module, you have learned how to adjust pump

performance in order to obtain the new target volumetric flow rate of

slurry and feed pressure to the hydrocyclones.

133

SLURRY PUMPING

REFERENCES

Anonymous, "Allis-Chalmers Horizontal Rubber-Lined Slurry Pumps,

Technical Data", Bulletin No. Acc-2196-83, 1983.

Anonymous, Standards of the Hydraulic Institute.

Fatzinger, J.E., "The Design and Application of a Centrifugal Slurry

Pump", Mineral Processing Plant Design, AIME,

1980, Chapter 32, pp. 665-678.

Hanney, K.E., "Selection and Sizing of Slurry Lines, Pump Boxes,

and Launders", Design and Installation of Comminution

Circuits, AIME, 1982, Chapter 30, pp. 560-572.

Jackson, L.D., "The Design and Selection of Linatex Anti-Abrasion

Centrifugal Slurry Pumps", Annual General Meeting of the

CIM, Ottawa, 1972.

Loretto, J.C., and Laker, E.T., "Process Piping and Slurry

Transportation", Mineral Processing Plant Design,

AIME, 1980, Chapter 33, pp. 679-702.

McElvain, R.E., "Selection and Sizing of Slurry Pumps for Grinding

Circuits", Design and Installation of Comminution

Circuits, AIME, 1982, Chapter 31, pp. 573-591.

Vennard, J.K., Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons,

New York, 1961.

Weiss, N.L. (editor), SME Mineral Processing Handbook, AIME,

1985, pp. 10-54 to 193.

134

SLURRY PUMPING

APPENDIX A

PROPERTIES OF A SLURRY STREAM

There are eleven properties of interest in a slurry stream. These are

presented in grid form and in detail in the following Worksheet A. In

the grid, the boxes are numbered so you can easily refer to certain

values. The boxes are not numbered in sequence but you will soon

find out why it is set up this way.

The following characteristics about a slurry stream should be known

in order to calculate all other properties:

1.

2.

3.

Percent solids by weight (box 9).

Solids density (box 10).

For the purpose of the grid, the density of water is 1.00 t/m3

so you also know the value in "box 11".

Look at Worksheet A where typical starting values have been

entered.

From these known properties, you can calculate all other values in

the grid. Let's see how the chart in the lower section of the

worksheet works by taking you through an example!

135

136

PROPERTIES OF A

SLURRY STREAM

WORKSHEET

Company:

Technician:

Stream:

Date:

Mass

flow rate

(t/h)

Volume

flow rate

3

(m /h)

Solids

Water

Slurry

8

2

1

100.0

% Solids

72.5% (w)

a

b

c

Density

3

(t/m )

3

4

5

b

10

11

7

2.75

1.00

(v)

t/m3 = g/cc

% Solids by weight

% Solids by volume

Calculate:

8 / 9

% solids by weight

1 - 8

- Mass flow of solids

8 / 10

Density of the solids

3 + 4

+ Volume flow of water

3 / 5

% solids by volume

Volume flow of slurry

1 / 5

Volume flow of slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

SLURRY PUMPING

137

Example

Refer back to Worksheet A on the previous page. Calculations of the

missing properties of that slurry stream are shown below. Values are

recorded to two decimal places during the calculations.

Box (1): (8) / (9) = 100.0 / 0.725 = 137.93 t/h (Mass flow of slurry)

Box (2): (1) - (8) = 137.93 - 100.00 = 37.93 t/h (Mass flow of water)

Box (3): (8)/ (10) = 100.0 / 2.75 = 36.36 m 3/h (Volume flow of

solids)

Box (4):

(2)

slurry)

Box (6): (3) / (5) = 36.36 / 74.29 = 48.94% (% solids by volume)

Box (7): (1) / (5) = 137.93 / 74.29 = 1.86 t/m3 (Density of the slurry)

for densities which are recorded to two. Conversion factors for water

volumetric flow rates are presented below.

1 tonne/hr water

=

1 short ton/hr water =

1 long ton/hr water =

4.404 USGPM

3.994 USGPM

4.474 USGPM

=

=

=

0.2778 liters/s

0.2519 liters/s

0.2822 liters/s

the solids or slurry respectively.

138

PROPERTIES OF A

SLURRY STREAM

WORKSHEET

Company:

Technician:

Stream:

Date:

Mass

flow rate

(t/h)

Volume

flow rate

3

(m /h)

Solids

Water

Slurry

8

2

1

100.0

37.9

137.9

% Solids

72.5% (w)

a

b

c

Density

3

(t/m )

3

4

5

36.4

37.9

74.3

10

11

7

48.9% (v)

2.75

1.00

1.86

t/m3 = g/cc

% Solids by weight

% Solids by volume

Calculate:

8 / 9

% solids by weight

1 - 8

- Mass flow of solids

8 / 10

Density of the solids

3 + 4

+ Volume flow of water

3 / 5

% solids by volume

Volume flow of slurry

1 / 5

Volume flow of slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

139

135

SLURRY PUMPING

GLOSSARY

Cavitation:

of vapor bubbles in the fluid passing through a

pump.

Friction loss:

forces on the fluid as it is transported

through a pumping system.

Head:

fluid which may take the form of static

pressure, vertical lift, velocity head, or

friction losses in a pumping system.

pump which forces the fluid into it.

Pressure:

which may take the form of static pressure,

vertical lift, velocity head, or friction losses in

a pumping system.

Specific gravity:

(g/cc) to that of water (g/cc).

Static pressure:

applied to compress a fluid.

elements in a pumping system and

delivered by the pump.

Velocity head:

due to the fluid velocity in a pumping

system.

Vertical lift:

increase in elevation of the fluid from the

initial to the terminal boundaries of a

pumping system.

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