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Embedded system in embedded system

The number of computer based functions embedded in vehicles has increased
significantly in the past two decades. An in-vehicle embedded electronic architecture is a
complex distributed system; the development of which is a cooperative work involving different
manufacturers and suppliers. There are several key demands in the development process, such as
safety requirements, real-time assessment, schedulability, composability, etc. Intensive research
is being conducted to address these issues. This paper reviews recent technology advances in
relevant aspects and covers a range of topics highlighted above.


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Embedded system in embedded system

Embedded System- Definition?

An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software which creates a
dedicated computer system that performs specific, pre-defined tasks and which is encapsulated
within the device it controls (if it is part of a larger device).
Embedded system components

Challenges during Design Process

Power Consumption

Automotive Systems: Technology in today's vehicle

Air Bags
Rain-sensing Wipers
Emission Control
Traction Control

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Embedded system in embedded system

Automatic Parking
Back-up collision sensor
Navigation Systems
Tire Pressure Monitor
Climate Control

Air Bags : Principle of function

It is from the Newton's 2nd law of motion
AIR BAGS are among the most important safety improvements added to cars and light
trucks in recent years, providing extra protection for front-seat occupants in head-on
And of late, every passengers protection.


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Embedded system in embedded system

Event Data Recorder-EDR or the The "Black Box

The Event Data Recorder (EDR) in an automobile is based upon the sensors and microprocessor
computer system that are used to activate the airbag in the vehicle during a crash.
The SDM, which is controlled by a microprocessor, has multiple functions:
(1) It monitors the air bags components;
(2) It permanently records information.

As the demand for computing power is becoming higher and higher, multicore ECUs
are getting popular in car electronic architecture and promise to be a solution for the current
situation of over-numbered single core ECUs. Whats more, several new attracting features such
as higher levels of parallelism are brought to the designers by multicore ECUs, which ease the
respect of the safety requirements such as the ISO 26262 and the implementation of other
automotive use-cases. Of course the drawbacks of these new features including more complexity
in the design, development, and verification of the software applications also come along. Hence,
OEMs and suppliers will require new tools and methodologies for deployment and validation.

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Embedded system in embedded system

Anti-lock Braking System(ABS)

Up until the seventies, hitting the brakes too hard could lead to an accident.
On preventing wheel lock-up:

Reduces the total braking distance as far as possible

Increase vehicle stability

Principle of functioning of an ABS

The function of an anti-lock brake system is to minimize skidding by releasing brakes
on wheels(it does so when wheels are moving slowly)


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Embedded system in embedded system

An ABS is placed between brakes and hydraulic pump
It uses sensor for each wheel ,so that the speed of the wheel can be measured,then these
speeds are used by the abs to identify the amount of hydraulic fluid pressure that needs
to be varied to reduce skidding

Automatic Stability Control

The function of ASC+T system is to improve the stability of the car during its movement.
Gear shifting ,ignition timing ,throttle and different brake are the four systems controlled
by ASC+T system
It plays an important role different tire snows operation.
This can be turned ON or OFF by the driver.

Intelligent Cruise Control

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Warning (CACC + CW)
CACC: Cruise at given speed when the road is clear (cruise control) otherwise follow the
car in front, using radar (adaptive) and/or communications (cooperative).
CW: Warn the driver when an object is being approached too fast, or is too close

How it works :
Uses forward-looking radar, installed behind the grill of a vehicle, to detect the speed and
distance of the vehicle ahead of it.
Can automatically adjust speed in order to maintain a proper distance between vehicles
in the same lane
Drive by wire
Drive-by-Wire replaces mechanical connections push rods,rack & pinion, steering
columns, overhead cams, cables by mechatronic connections sensors, actuators,
embedded microprocessors, control software


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Embedded system in embedded system

Embedded systems, especially in-vehicle embedded systems, are ubiquitously related to
our everyday life. The development of embedded systems greatly facilitates the comfort of
peoples life, changes our view of things, and has a significant impact on society. On the other
hand, even though embedded systems technologies are becoming more and more mature,
currently there still exist many challenges in technique and will be more with the ever growing
speed and reliability demand from market. We expect more enlightening researches in this area.



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