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Measuring the effectiveness of other program elements

Measuring effectiveness of non-traditional media

Marketers who are open to the use of nontraditional media are those looking for something
innovative, something that not only attracts their target but that also encourages the consumer to
research, visit a brick and mortar store, or just share their experiences virally or through word of
mouth. Reaching the target where they are with a message that they will respond to is one of the
many aspects that makes nontraditional media so attractive to both advertisers and marketers. Its
personalized approach and ability to get the product into the hands of consumers helps build a
relationship between the buyer and seller, encourages interaction on updates, service, and new
product launches, as well as helping to quickly address or avoid any adverse comments or
publicity before they become a public relations issue. Most forms of nontraditional advertising
are relatively inexpensive, requiring more creative ingenuity, time, and energy than anything
else. The idea that nontraditional messages can literally appear anywhere and at any time allows
this form of advertising the best chance to be innovative without becoming routine or expected.
Its very exceptionality not only makes the encounter a part of the promotional experience but
also a part of the brands image, making it a great way to attract consumer attention.
Nontraditional media has continued to increase because 1) traditional media does not have the
power to attract and hold a viewers attention by itself, in the same way it once did, 2) it is
versatile, 3) it can be very creative and engaging, 4) it is often less expensive than traditional
vehicles, 5) it is highly targetable, and 6) many options allow for personalization.

The New Interactive Media

The new interactive media as media that provide the opportunity to instantaneously advertise,
execute a sale, and collect payment. With the advent of the Internet and other technologies, the
interaction between and among consumers and marketers is becoming increasingly more
pronounced. Consumers can collect and provide information by searching and navigating
through commercial Web sites, they can post and customize their preferences, and they can
communicate with other consumers as well as product and service providers. Use of interactive
advertising through new media such as the Internet, also draws attention to the contrast between
traditional assumptions about advertising and its effects and the realities of communication in the
market place. Traditional approaches to advertising practice and research implicitly assume that
advertising is something the firm does to the consumer. Interactive advertising makes it clear that
this is a very limited view of advertising and highlights the need to understand what consumers
do to advertising. The reasons consumers seek information, self-select information for attention,
process and use information, and respond to information are critical for understanding the effects
of advertising and for designing measures of advertising effectiveness in an interactive context.

Self-selection of both the sources from which information may be obtained, and the way this
information is processed, is an increasingly important determinant of consumer behavior. Market
information systems that fail to consider the impact of customer control of information will, at
best, be incomplete, and potentially misleading. Interactive advertising poses new and difficult
challenges related to the measurement of its effects and effectiveness. The reciprocal
communication between marketer and consumer will make it difficult to isolate the influence of
any one advertising exposure. This means that the focus of advertising evaluation will need to
shift from a focus on outcomes to a focus on both process and outcome. The role of the consumer
in selecting advertising, in choosing when and how to interact (if at all), and the goals and
purposes of consumers involved in the interaction will be especially important dimensions of
advertising that will require new measures and new conceptualizations of how advertising works.
It is also likely that as the marketing mix becomes increasingly integrated and the same vehicles
assume multiple functions (communication, distribution etc.), it will become increasingly
difficult to conduct relevant research on advertising without consideration of the larger context of
the full marketing mix.
This does not mean that research on advertising in isolation from other elements of the marketing
mix will disappear. It does mean that the study of advertising in the context of the larger mix will
need to complement such research. In addition, the consumers' use of other information sources,
especially the consumers' interaction with other consumers, will be important for understanding
how and why consumers respond as they do to interactive advertising. Despite the challenges
posed by interactive advertising, its wide scale use will provide new opportunities for research
and enrich the understanding of advertising effects. Advertising has always been interactive at
some level; the consumer has never really been the passive recipient of advertising. Interactive
advertising simply makes obvious that the consumer must be the focal point for understanding
the effectiveness of advertising.

Measuring effectiveness of sponsorships

Sponsorship is being used as a communication tool. A firm uses sponsorship to support an event
in order to reach a specific or a wider target group and achieve corporate and commercial
objectives. There are three main methods to evaluate sponsorship effectiveness. The evaluation
can be based on:
a) Effectiveness of sales- Despite the fact that the increase of sales cannot be derived directly
from the use of sponsorship a number of firms associate sponsorship effectiveness with
effectiveness of sales.
b) Media coverage of the event- Nevertheless evaluating sponsorship effectiveness depending
on the time and inches (for the press) that the media have dedicated for covering the event can be

misleading, since this technique measures only the length of exposure on the media and not the
effects of sponsorship on consumers.
c) Communicational effect- This technique examines the communicational effects (awareness,
attitude amd perceptions) of sponsorship on consumers.
According to Cornwell and Maignan (1998) the measurement methods can be summarized to
a) Exposure Based Methods, which examines the media coverage and estimates the audience
b) Tracking Measures, which constitutes the most popular method used in research studies and
involves the evaluation of awareness, familiarity and preferences

Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotions

Advertisement being a one sided communication with the target customers, does not render itself
easily to measurements. The effects of sales promotion are more easily measurable than the
effects of advertising.
Today with the vast improvement in technology retailers have all the data available in their
systems which they can share with the respective manufacturers.
This makes it easier for the manufacturers to record the results of any promotional offer.
The Kuehn-Rohloff model:

This is the learning brand-switching model that are designed to evaluate promotions in several
ways first they show who is attracted by the promotions, and then separate the ones that have
higher pre-purchase probability. The authors also demonstrate how to use the model to study the
relationship among deal type, brand, and product-to-product repurchases for both new buyers
and for existing customers.
Littles Brandaid Promotional Model:

This is part of the Brandaid aggregate marketing model developed by Little. He actually looks at
two contracts promotional time and promotional response function. The idea behind the model
is that when consumers know that there is a promotion coming they might postpone the buying
of the product.