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Chapter 4


Review Questions:

1. What are lipids?

 Lipids are important constituents of protoplasm, characterized

by being insoluble in water but soluble in ether, chloroform, and
other fat solvents.

2. Classify lipids and characterize each class.

 I. Simple lipids – ester of fatty acids and alcohols.

1. Fats and oils – esters of fatty acids and glycerol. Fats are
solids, whereas

oils are liquids at room temperature.

2. Waxes – esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain


alcohols or sterols.

II. Compound lipids – esters of fatty acids and alcohols in

combination with

other compounds.

1. Phospholipids – fatlike compounds containing phosphoric

acid and a

nitrogen base.

2. Glycolipids – compounds containing a fatty acid, a

carbohydrate, a

complex alcohol, and nitrogen, but no


III. Derived lipids – compounds that simple and compound

lipids give on


1. Fatty acids

2. Alcohols
3. Sterols

3. Name four classes of fatty acids. Give examples of each class.

Name Formula Occurrence

I. Saturated Acids

1. Butyric C3H7COOH Butter

2. Caproic C5H11COOH Butter

3. Caprylic C7H15COOH Coconut

4. Capric C9H19COOH Palm nut

5. Lauric C11H23COOH Laurel and coconut


6. Myristic C13H27COOH Nutmeg and mace

7. Palmitic C15H31COOH Palm oil and lard

8. Stearic C17H35COOH Tallow

9. Arachidic C19H39COOH Peanut

10. Behenic C21H43COOH Ben oil

11. Lignoceric C23H47COOH Peanut

12. Cerotic C25H51COOH Waxes

13. Melissic C29H59COOH

II. Unsaturated acids

1. Oleic

4. Give a proof for the position of the double bond in oleic acid.

5. What is meant by geometric isomerism? What other type of isomerism

may exist in fatty acids?

6. What is the difference between hard and soft soaps?

7. What is Gardinol? What are its advantages compared to soap?

8. Write the formula for glycerol. Name and write the formula for some of
its oxidation products.
9. What is acrolein? How is it made from glycerol?

10.Write the formula for a fat. How do fats differ from oils?

11.What is the difference between a simple and a mixed glyceride?

12.Discuss animal fats.

13.What is oleomargarine? How does it compare with butter in food value?

14.Name three classes of vegetable oils. Give several examples of each


15.Discuss the hrdrogenation of oils. How and why is it done?

16.Discuss the chemistry involved in the drying of oils.

17.What is boiled linseed oil? Should it be used internally?

18.Distinguih between the old and the new process for making linseed oil.

19.Name several ways of hydrolyzing a fat.

20.Write an equation showing what happens when a fat is saponified with


21.What is lipase?

22.Distinguish between hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity. What is the

chemistry involved in each type?

23.What is meant by the induction period of a fat?

24.What is an antioxidant? Name several.

25.What is the Kreis test?

26.How many fat acids be separated into four groups?

27.Name several physical constants of fats.

28.Define and state the significance of the following chemical constants of

fats: 1. Saponification number, 2. Acid number, 3. Ester number, 4.
Acetyl number, 5. Iodine number, 6. Unsaponifiable matter, 7.
Reichert-Meissl number, 8. Polenske number.

29.Discuss the physiological importance of fats and oils.

30.Indicate how a wax differs from a fat in chemical structure.

31.Disccuss the physiological importance of waxes.

32.Name three types of phospholipids and indicate the chemical structure
of each.

33.How do a-lecithin, and B-lecithin, and lysolecithin differ from each


34.Name several uses of lecithin.

35.Why does snake venom hemolyze blood?

36.Write the formulas for choline and acettlcholine. What are their
functions in the body?

37.What is muscarine?

38.Indicate the chemical structure of glycolipid.

39.Name five types of compounds of boilogical importance that are


40.What is the hydrocarbon from which sterols are derived?

41.Indicate the chemical structure of cholesterol and ergosterol.

42.Name and indicate the chemical structure of the bile acids .

43.Why is the term “essential” applied to the essential oils?

44.Name several types of chemical compounds found in the essential oils.

45.Why is it incorrect to classify essential oils as lipids?