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English course

Arabian Conqueror
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Pronouns

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

English course

He
She
It
We
They
You
You


possessive
pronouns

reflexive
pronouns

me

my

mine

myself

him

his

his

himself

her

her

hers

herself

it

its

its

itself

us

our

ours

ourselves

them

their

theirs

themselves

you

your

yours

yourself

you

your

yours

yourselves

Objective
pronouns

((
()
/)

((
()
)
(( )
/
(( )
)
(/)

(
(/" )
/
()
( /)
/
)
(/()
/
)
( /()

Mr. Ahmed Kamal


possessive
adjectives

subject
pronouns

Arabian Conqueror

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror


( ) :

aP
str
fo
ps
ee
hc

1
noun
2
pronoun
3
adjective
4
verb
5
adverb
6 conjunction
7 preposition
8 interjection

Sentence types

:

statement

-1

.
:

*+ Subject

verb

object

rest of the sentence.

auxiliary + main

Hamza is a teacher.
Hamza is speaking English now.
Hamza speaks English well.
Hamza doesnt speak English well.
Hamza has a car.

*+ Object

(negative)

verb to be Main verb


P.p
According to the tense

by + subject.

According to the object

English is being spoken now by Hamza.


English is well spoken by Hamza.
: interrogative


.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

-2

English course

Arabian Conqueror

: *
:( 1
" / "" "
:

Auxiliary verb

+ to the tense
According

subject

main verb rest of the sentence?

According to the tense

According to the subject

1. Is Hamza a teacher?
- Yes, he is.
No, he isnt.
2. Is Hamza speaking English now?
- Yes, he is.
No, he isnt.
3. Does Hamza speak English well?
- Yes, he does.
No, he doesnt.
4. Does Hamza have a car?
- Yes, he does.
No, he doesnt.
5. Can you swim?
- Yes, I can.
No, I can't.
:

:

*+

auxiliary
Question
word
According
to the verb
tense

subject main verb

According to the tense

According to the subject

1.What is Ahmed speaking now?


- English.
2.How does Ahmed speak English?
- Well.
3.Where have you been?
- To England.
4.How many cars do you have?
- Four.
5.When will you leave?
- Next Sunday.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

rest of the sentence?

(2

English course

Arabian Conqueror

. : Command
:

rest of the sentence. .

*+ Verb in infinitive
Study hard.
Open the door.
Stop.

*+

Dont
Never

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

-2

. :
.

What a wonderful picture!


Really!
How dare you!
Wow!
Ah!
Oh!

-1

verb in infinitive rest of the sentence.

Dont hurt yourself.


Dont waste your time.
Never scream loudly.

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Other kinds of explanations

-1

:
verb

People work.
Ahmed eats.

noun

* .
Our employees work.
My son Ali eats.
-2 :
noun

verb

noun

.
John plays football.
The boys are watching TV.
-3 :
adverb

verb

noun

.
Thomas drives quickly.
Ali doesn't sleep deeply.

-4

:
noun

verb

noun

.
" " " " ""
Jack is a student.
This seed will become an apple.
-5 :
adjective

verb

noun

4 .
My computer is slow.
Her parents seem unhappy.

-6 :
noun

noun

verb

noun

6 .
I bought Heba a gift.
Ali showed Huda his toy.
English Tutor

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Main question
( ) words
/

What
Who
( )
Why
Where
( )
When
( )
( )
Which
Whose
( )
How
( / )
How many ( )

( )

How much ( / ) /
How often ( )
How long ( / ) /
How far ( )

How many times

Put the suitable question word:


1-............ are you going to do now?
2-............ have you been all your life?
3-............ were you to this morning?
4-............ did you last go to the dentist?
5-............ was he so upset?
6-............ team do you support?
7-............ car is parked on a double yellow line?
8-............ will you get home tonight?
9-............ is this building?
10-............ have you known each other?
11-............ dogs did you say she had?

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Primary auxiliary verbs

It
Singular
noun



. .

Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

are

1. Hamza is a child.
2. She is a student.
3. Ali and Olaa are pupils.
4. We aren't at home.
5. Is Aya tall?
- Yes, she is.

No, she isn't.

Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

were

1. Hamza was a baby.


2. She was a child.
3. Ali and Olaa weren't at the market.
4. They weren't at the zoo yesterday.
5. Were they at school yesterday?
-Yes, they were.

Notes:
If I were rich, I would buy a car.

In past :
I
He
She
was
It
Singular
noun

Notes :
I'm a teacher, aren't I?

11
-VV
..
t the present :
tIn
oo
am
I
bb He
is
ee She

No, they weren't.

. .1
. .2
. .3

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

1) Put (am is are):


1.The shop ..... open.
2.I ...... six years old.
3.I ...... a pupil.
4.Nader ...... an English teacher .
5.We ...... in primary three .
6.Tamer and Hany ...... good friends .
7.Elephants ...... big animals.
8.The baby ...... crying now .
9.We ...... at school now .
10. My mother ...... in the kitchen now .
11.My father ...... at work now .
12. Mr. Salim ...... a policeman .
13. You ...... a good boy .
14. The cats ...... in the box .
15. The books ...... in the bag.
16. Grandpa ...... very tall.
17. I have a cat it ...... black.
18. Your dog ...... brown.
19. How old ...... you?
20. How old ...... your sister?

2) Change the following sentences into questions :


1. The shops are open.
2.It is hot in Aswan.
3.I am thirsty.
4.This sentence is correct.
5.Your answer is wrong.

..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................

3) Find the mistake in these sentences:


1. Ali were a baby.
2. He always is late.
3. They not are happy.
4. Are they here yesterday?
5. Were he a baby?

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................
..................................................................................

English Tutor

English course
22
-VV
..
ttIn the present :
oo
He
dd
She
does
o
o

Arabian Conqueror


.
.

I
Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

It
Singular
noun

do

1. Ali does his homework.


2. She doesnt do her homework.
3. Ali and Olaa do the job.
4. The maids dont do the housework.
5. Does he do his homework?
- Yes, he does.

No, he doesn't.

In past :
I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

did

We
They
You
Plural
noun

1. Ali did his homework.


2. She didnt do her homework.
3. Ali and Olaa did the job.
4. They didnt do the housework.
5. Did he do his homework?

- Yes, he did.

No, he didn't.

. .1

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

10

English Tutor

33
-VV
..
In
tt the present :
oo
He
hh
She
has
aa
It
vv
ee Singular
English course

Arabian Conqueror


.
.

I
Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

noun

have

1. Ali has a car.


2. She doesnt have a kitten.
3. Ali and Olaa have a break.
4. The girls have housework.
5. I have the job.
6. Does Ali have a car?

In past :
I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

had

We
They
You
Plural
noun

1. Ali had homework.


2. She didnt have a kitten.
3. Ali and Olaa had a rest.
4. They didnt have a flat.
5. Did Ali have homework?

. .1

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

11

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

: have
(own) -1
She has a villa.
(suffer from) -2
She has a headache.
(face)
They had problems in this project.
(eat)
Sarah had a sandwich.
(take)
Have a cup of tea.
I had a shower.
(enjoy)
We had a good time at the beach.
(receive) /
Ahmed often has letters from his friends.

-3
-4
-5

-6
-7

have & have got


. ( got ) have has

1. A camel has four legs.


2. I have ten fingers.

3. The poor woman has five children.


( )( )Does she have any
legs?
)( -Yes, she does.
) )( )-No, she doesn't.
have got has got
.
1. All the pupils have got pencils.
2. The doctor has got a new car.
3. Ali and his brother have got new shoes.
) ( )( -

Has she got any


legs?
-Yes, she has.
-No, she
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

( )( )) ) ( ) 12

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

have got has got *


.

1)

Put in ( have has ):


1. I ...... got a blue pencil .
2. Mother ...... got fair hair .
3. Father ...... got a car .
4. We ...... got a lovely doll .
5. The boys ...... got a big room .
6. I ...... got many friends .
7. I ...... got a new school bag.
8. An elephant ...... got a long nose.
9. Monkeys ...... got long tails .
10. We ...... got a big garden .
11.We ...... got lovely flowers in the garden.
12. The baby ...... got one tooth .
13. The rabbit ...... got a short tail .
14. The old man ...... got one leg .
15. Grandma ...... got gray hair .

2) Put in ( havent got hasnt got )


1. Maged ...... much money .
: 12 -1
2. Tamer ...... any friends .
( 1
3. The children ...... any sandwiches .
4.We
-4...... any homework
-3 .
-2
-1
5. I ...... any pencils in my bag .
( 2
6. They ...... any chairs in their room .
7.My
-4father ...... a
-2
-1
car-.3
8. Dalai ...... a school bag .
(5
We ...... a garden in our house .
9.

-4
-3
-2
-1
10. Manal ...... a white dress .
11.Khalid ...... a black car .
I ......
a green
shirt
. -2
.12.


13. We ...... a brown cat .
: -3

( / ) . :( 1
. : (2
( ) .( 3
.( 4
-4
Mr. Ahmed Kamal
13
English Tutor
.

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Primary auxiliary verbs


past
participle
)(4

past

present

)(3

)(2

been

was
were

done

did

had had

had

am
is
are
do
does
have
has

)verb(1

verb to be

verb to do

verb to have

Modal auxiliary verbs

past

present

verb

/ /

could

can

Can

/ /
.
- / /

should

shall

Shall

/ /
/
/ /

would
might
must have

will
may
must

Will
May
Must

/ /
/


)(

ought to

Ought to

(be) going to

(be) going to

Going to

used to

)(be) used to+(ing

Used to

had to

has to
have to

Have to

English Tutor

14

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

Arabian Conqueror

verb
)(Present

I
We
They
You
Plural
noun

English course

1- The present simple



Formation
He
s
verb
She
(ch sh ss o -x) es
)(Present
It
)(consonant + Y
ies
Singular
noun

).(s/es/ies .

-1 ) (ss sh- ch o x es.


.es
washes
fixes
wash
watch
watches
goes
cross
crosses
-2 y y .ies

fix
go

carries

carry

studies

study

-3 y y s.
Vowels
)(a e- i o u
-4 s .

leaves
rises

English Tutor

plays

play

obeys

obey

leave
rise

15

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Usage
:

- The earth moves around the sun.


- Geologists study rocks.

Scientific or general facts

:( )

Habits in the present time

- She usually goes to work at 7 am.

- They always play football every Friday.


:
/ / / / / )
: ( /

- The train to Aswan leaves at 8 Time


am tomorrow.
Tables
- The final exam happens on 7th June.
:

With time conjunctions

Present simple
Future simple

after, if, unless, when, before,


till, until, as soon as,
as long as, by the time, in case

present simple
future simple
future perfect

- If he comes early tomorrow, I'll meet him.


- They will go home after they play.
- They won't sleep till they eat.

Guiding words

always

usually

100%
90%

every ( day week year )


every ( Sunday April )

.....

80%
often
Once / twice a ( day week year )
60%
sometimes

/
20%
occasionally
rarely

generally
seldom 10%


never 0%
He always comes
early.
He is always early.
ever

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

16

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

- He goes to school by bus every day.


- I go to school on foot every day.
I
We
verb
(inf)
They
do not
You
Plural
noun
- He doesnt go to school by bus every day.

He
She
does not
It
Singular
noun

:
verb
(inf)

- I dont go to school on foot every day.


1-

: :
1-

." "
." "
Do
Does subject

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(infinitive)
* Does he go to school by bus every day?
- Yes, he does.

- No, he doesnt.

* Do you go to school on foot every day?


- Yes, I do.

- No, I dont.
2-

: :
2-

Question do
word does Subject

main verb
(infinitive)

rest of the sentence?

* How does he go to school every day?


- By bus.
* How do you go to school every day?
Ahmed Kamal
- OnMr.
foot
.

17

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Notes
- Ali doesnt go to school late.
* Where is Tom from?

- He is from England.

- Ali never goes to school late.

* Where does Tom come from?

- He comes from England.


Passive voice

a verb
by subject.
object
m
P.p
is
arthe car.
* Ali drives
e
- A car is driven
(by Ali).
* People use English everywhere.
- English is used everywhere (by people).
:
(stative verbs)
Some verbs are only (or mostly) used in simple tenses, and are not used in
continuous tenses. These verbs are called stative, or state verbs. A verb which isnt
stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action. Often stative verbsare
about liking or disliking something, or about a mental state, not about an action.
agree
contain
feel
include
mean
prefer
sound

appear believe
belong
depend deserve
disagree
fit
hate
hear
involve know
like
measure mind
need
promise realise reconginse
suppose surprise understand

Stative Verbs List

wish

Im understanding you.
Im needing English.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

concern
dislike
imagine
love
owe
remember
want

I understand you now.


I need English.
18

English Tutor

consist
doubt
impress
matter
own
seem
weigh

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Some verbs can be both stative and dynamic:


( )
be
taste

have
smell

see
feel

stative

think
look

dynamic
You're being stupid.
I'm having a party.
I've been seeing my teacher for two years.
I'm seeing her tomorrow.
The chef is tasting the soup.
What are you thinking about?
- I'm thinking about my holiday.

You're stupid.
I have a car.
I see what you mean.
I see her now.
This soup tastes great.
I think this coffee is great.

1) Choose:
1. Adel rarely ...... breakfast.
a. have
b. has
c. is having
d. having
2. On Fridays we ...... to the mosque.
a. go
b. gone
c. are going
d. have gone
3. He never ...... the words in the dictionary.
a. looks up
b. look up
c. looking up
d. is looking up
4. They generally ...... pretty hard.
a. are working
b. is working
c. working
d. work
5. On Thursdays I ...... to Luxor.
a. traveling
b. travel
c. travels
d. am traveling
6. ...... you ever ...... Fawzi for help?
a. Do - depending on
b. Are - depending on
c. Do - depend on
d. Do - depends on
7. What classes' ...... you ...... on Tuesdays?
a. is - having
b. does - have
c. was having
d. do - have
8. I know a lot about cars, but he seldom ...... my advice.
a. takes
b. taking
c. take
d. is taking
9. That officer doesnt ...... from Aswan.
a. comes
b. come
c. coming
d. is coming
10. Susan sometimes ...... downtown to shop.
a. go
b. is going
c. going
d. goes
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

19

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

11. From time to time we ...... our friends in Cairo.


a. visit
b. visits
c. are visiting
d. visiting
12. Water always ...... at 100C
a. boiling
b. is boiling
c. boils
d. are boiling
13. I seldom ...... fish but my brother ...... it.
a. eat loves
b. eats - love
c. eat love
d. am eating - is eating
14. They always ...... tennis on Thursdays.
a. plays
b. play
c. is playing
d. are play
15. She ....... four languages.
a. speak
b. speaking
c. speaks
d. spoken
16. The hotel manager ....... a lot of people in his job every day.
a. met
b. meet
c. 's met
d. meets
17. He ....... his teeth twice a day.
a. clean
b. cleans
c. cleaning
d. to clean
18. We all ....... our country.
a. loving
b. 'll love
c. love
d. loves
19. Heat and light ....... to us by the sun.
a. given
b. gives
c. is giving
d. is given
20. Ahmed is playing with Samy, so he ...... play with you now.
a. will
b. can
c. shall
d. should

2) Finish the following dialogue.


Nagi meets a Chinese guest
Nagi : What is your name?
Guest: My name is Wendy Mok.
Nagi : (1).............................................................................................................?
Guest: I'm Chinese.
Nagi : (2).............................................................................................................?
Guest: I'm interested in the history of Egypt.
Nagi : Why are you here in Cairo?
Guest: To (3) ....................................................................................................... .
Nagi : Do you find it easy to learn Arabic?
Guest: (4)............................................................................................................. .
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

20

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

3) Write a paragraph about four of your favourite


habits, and your favourite subjects. (at least 10 sentences)
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4) Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) between


brackets to give the same meaning:
1- She comes early regularly.
(always)
............................................................................................................................
2- He doesn't drink coffee at all.
(never)
............................................................................................................................
3- It's my habit to get up early.
(usually) ...............................................................................................................
.............
4- She cleans the house every Friday.
(The house)
............................................................................................................................
5- Nada never does the shopping.
(not)
............................................................................................................................
6- We visit our uncle from time to time.
(occasionally)
............................................................................................................................
7- Is it true that he usually to bed early?
(Does)
............................................................................................................................
8- It is my habit to help the poor.
(usually)
............................................................................................................................
9- She comes early all the times.
(never/always)
............................................................................................................................
10- He doesn't get up early.
(never)
............................................................................................................................
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

21

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

2- The present continuous


Formation

- be .ing

am

He
She
is
It
Singular
noun
Wee
They
are
You
Plural
noun

verb
)(inf

ing

Notes
-1 e .ing

driving

drive

leaving

leave

-2 ie y .ing

dying

lying

die

lie

-3 "" .ing

swimming

beginning

swim

drop

dropping

begin

- 4 " "
.ing
read
reading
eating
eat
sleep
lead
sleeping
leading
-5 ing.

open

opening
happening

happen

-6 W Y ing.
throwing

throw

drawing

draw

playing

play

-7 e i ing.
canoeing

canoe
English Tutor

skiing

ski
22

dyeing
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

dye

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Usage
:

- We are speaking English now.

- He is sleeping now.
- Look at the picture. The girl is smiling.


:
: " "
- He is travelling to France next week. He has got the tickets.
- We are moving to a new flat tomorrow.

I'm visiting my aunt tomorrow.
- Look! The boy is running after the dog.

- They are watching the TV at the moment.


:
."be" " not"

- Look! The boy isnt running after the dog.


- They arent watching the TV at the moment.


." "
Am
Is

Subject

Are

"
."
main verb rest of the sentence?
(ing)

* Is the boy running after the dog?


- Yes, he is.
- No, he isnt.
* Are they watching TV at the moment?
- Yes, they are.

- No, they arent.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

23

English Tutor

1-

1: :

English course

Question
word

Arabian Conqueror

2-

: :
2-

am
is subject
are

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

* What is the boy running after?


- The dog.
* What are they watching at the moment?
- TV.

Guiding words
Look
Be quiet
now
at the moment
at present

in the present

still time

Passive voice

am
object is being
are

Verb
by subject.
P.p

* They are building a new school in our city.


- A new school is being built in our city by them.
* Ali is driving a car now.
- A car is being driven by Ali.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

24

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

1) Choose:
1. Salwa ...... dinner now. She can't help you with your homework.
a. is cooking
b. cooks
c. was cooking
d. has cooked
2. They ...... to Aswan next Monday.
a. travel
b. travelled
c. are travelling
d. were traveling
3. Soha ...... the floor at present.
a. sweep
b. is sweeping
c. swept
d. sweeps
4. What ...... doing at the moment?
a. are they
b. they are
c. were they
d. they were
5. Look! That boy ...... his bike too fast.
a. ride
b. rides
c. is riding
d. rode
6. ''How ....... you feeling today?" I asked her.
a. were
b. are
c. much
d. many
7. My mother ...... the dinner now?
a. cooks
b. is cooked
c. is cooking
d. has cooked
8. Look! Our team ...... well, I think they will win.
a. play
b. plays
c. is playing
d. played
9. My mother ...... the dishes now.
a. washes
b. is washed
c. is washing
d. has washed
10. At the moment, they ...... in a very small flat.
a. live
b. lived
c. are living
d. living

2) Write a paragraph about what you are doing now. (at least 10 sentences)
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....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

25

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

3- The past simple


Formation

regular

irregular

:
d/ ed / ied
arrive
arrived
play
played
carry
carried


:
go
went
read
read
cut
cut

Note
s
.e d

behave behaved
change changed
borrow

borrowed

fail

failed

.e ed

.ied y y
bury buried
study studied

.ed
drop dropped
travel travelled

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

26

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Usage
.
- I ate fish yesterday.
- They played football yesterday.
. .
- She played tennis twice a week when she was young.
= She usually played tennis twice a week when she was young.
= She used to play tennis twice a week when she was young.
- Ali swam in the sea every night when he was in Alexandria.
= Ali always swam in the sea every night when he was in Alexandria.
= Ali used to swim in the sea every night when he was in Alexandria.

Guiding words
ago ( )

last night Sunday summer April - year


in . (2010)
yesterday
for

(2010) ....

( )
:

- He went to school by bus yesterday.


- They went to school on foot last Monday.
I
He
didnot
She
It
Singular verb
noun
(inf)

You
Plural
noun

- He didn't go to school by bus yesterday.


- They didn't go to school on foot last Monday.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

27

We
They

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

." "
." "

1-

: :
1-

Did

subject

main verb
(infinitive)

rest of the sentence?

* Did he go to school by bus yesterday?


- Yes, he did.

- No, he didnt.

* Did they go to school on foot last Monday?


- Yes, they did.

- No, they didnt.


2-

: :
2-

Question
did
word

subject

main verb
(infinitive)

rest of the sentence?

* How did he go to school yesterday?


- By bus.
* How did they go to school last Monday?
- On foot.

object

Passive voice

was
were

verb
P.p

by subject.

* Ali ate fish yesterday.


- Fish was eaten yesterday (by Ali).
* They watched two movies last night.
-Two movies were watched last night (by them).

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

28

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

4- The past continuous


Formation

I
.ing be He
was
She
It
Singular
verb
noun
ing
(inf)
We
They
e
You
Plural
noun

were

Notes

Usage
. -1
- She was watching TV yesterday evening.
- I was studying all night yesterday.
. -2
- She was watching TV yesterday evening when the light went out.
- The light went out while I was studying yesterday.
. -3
- While I was watching TV yesterday Mum was cooking.
- People were running as they were watching.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

29

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

- He was playing games all night.


- They were watching TV during the night.

:
."be" " not"

- Look! The boy wasnt running after the dog.


- They werent watching the TV at the moment.

." "
Was
Were subject

1-

1: :

"
main verb rest of the sentence?
."
(ing)

* Was he playing games all night?


-* Yes,
hethey
was.watching
- No,
wasnt.
Were
TVhe
during
the night?
- Yes, they were.

- No, they weren't.


2-

: :
2-

Question
word

was
subject
were

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

* What was he playing all night?


*- Games.
What were they watching during the night?
- TV.

Passive voice

ver
was
being
by subject.
object
b
were
P.pschool in our city.
* They were building a new
Mr.
Ahmed
Kamal
30 in our city
English
Tutor
- A new school was being built
by them.

English course

Arabian Conqueror

* Ali was driving a car yesterday.


- A car was being driven yesterday by Ali.

Present simple

Past simple

1- She usually plays tennis.


2- It's her habit to play tennis.
3- She is in the habit of playing tennis.

1- She usually played tennis.


2- It was her habit to play tennis.
3- She was in the habit of playing tennis.

am
is
used to
are

(verb + ing)

4- She is used to playing tennis.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

31

used to

verb(inf)

4- She used to play tennis.

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

1) Choose:
1. When I was eight, I ...... a programme about a famous Egyptian doctor.
a. was seeing
b. saw
c. see
d. have seen
2. We ...... a meeting at work this morning when suddenly all the office
lights went out.
a. were having
b. have had
c. had
d. have
3. What ...... at four o'clock yesterday afternoon?
a. did you do
b. have you done
c. do you do
d. were you doing
4. I was so tired last night that I fell asleep while I ...... a film on TV.
a. am watching
b. was watching
c. watch
d. watched
5. ...... I was out shopping; I saw three of my friends from school.
a. Because
b. While
c. If
d.
Although
6. I first ...... my best friend when we were both about 4 years old.
a. meet
b. have met
c. met
d. meeting
7. What ...... at 7 o'clock yesterday?
a. were you done
b. do you do
c. were you doing
d. you were doing
8. While I ...... for work I saw an advertisement for my dream job.
a. was looking
b. looked
c. have looked
d. looks
9. Why ...... away last weekend?
a. didn't you go
b. won't you go
c. are you going
d. haven't you gone
10. Susan was at my house when you ...... .
a. arrive
b. arrived
c. have arrived
d. arriving

2) Find the mistake in these sentences:


1- I only buy a new camera last week.
.........................................................................................................................................
2- When did you first met your best friend?
.........................................................................................................................................
3- I start to learn english when I was 6 years old.
.........................................................................................................................................
4- It's three weeks since I last visiting my aunt.
.........................................................................................................................................
5- My mother cooked dinner when I arrived home.
.........................................................................................................................................
6- I did my homework while my brother was watching TV.
.........................................................................................................................................
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

32

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

5- The present perfect simple


Formation

He
She
It
Singular
noun
I
Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

has

. has have -

verb
P.p

have

Usage
. -1
- She has washed the dishes. They are clean now.
( ) . -2
- They have worked hard this week.
(This week isn't over yet.)
. -3
- We have just passed the test.
- He has always enjoyed fishing.
. -4
.( ) -5
- Aya has broken her leg.
- I have won this cup three times.

Guiding words
already /
just /
ever

/ ( )

never

/ ( )

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

yet ( / )
up till now / so far
recently / lately

since ( )
for ( )
33

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Since
-Present prefect (since) Past simple

For
a day

Sunday / Friday
April / July
2010
7 o'clock
+his childhood
last (week)
then

weeks
several weeks
five years
7 hours
ages
the last (week)
a long time

. have / has ever/ never / just / already -1


- I have just finished studying.
- He has never played basketball.
.Nothing / No one /Nobody ever -2
- Have you ever been abroad?
- Nothing like this has ever happened to us.
(superlative) . ever -3
- This is the most exciting film I have ever seen.
. never -4
- No, I have never been to France.
- I've never seen such a beautiful house.
. yet -5
- Have they arrived yet?
- He hasn't finished studying
yet.
. already -6
- Have you already cooked the food?
- He has already had the dinner.
. lately recently -7
- I have bought a new flat recently.
- I haven't studied English lately.
. always -8
- I have always enjoyed working with my students.
. since ago -9
- I haven't seen him since five years ago.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

34

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

: -10
This the first time / this is the second time
It's + time period + since + past simple.
- This is the first time Hamza has visited a European country.
- It's ages / five years since I visited Luxor.

Not
es

1- He has been to Alexandria. He is at home now.


2- He has gone to Alexandria. He is still there.
3- I've been to France for six months. I remember everything.
4- I've been in France since six months. Life here is wonderful.
5- Have you finished already? You're so fast.
6- Have you finished yet? You're too slow.

- They have just finished working.

- She has been to Aswan for three weeks.

."have" " not"

- They havent finished working yet.


- She has never been to Aswan.
- She hasnt been to Aswan for three weeks.


." "

1-

1: :

"
."
main verb
rest of the sentence?
(P.p)

Have
subject
Has
- Has he telephoned you yet?

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

35

- Yes, he has.

English Tutor

- No, he hasnt.

English course

Question
word

Arabian Conqueror

have
subject
has

main verb
(P.p)

2-

: :
2rest of the sentence?

* Where have you been before?


- To Luxor.
* How many times has he called?
- Three times.
Passive voice

object

have
has

been

verb
P.p

by subject.

* They have written the reports.


- The reports have been written.
She has already eaten fish.
- Fish has already been eaten.

Present perfect
1- She has studied English. She
answered all the questions.

2- My friend has broken his arm.


Mr. Ahmed Kamal

36

Past simple
1- She studied English. She can't
remember anything.

2- My friend broke his arm


yesterday.
English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

6- The present perfect continuous


Formation

He
She
It
Singular
noun
I
Wee
They
You
Plural
noun

has

been has have .(ing)

been

verb + (ing)
(inf)

have

Usage
. -1
- They have been studying English for three hours now.
) ( -2
.
- He is dirty. He has been playing football.
- I've been running that's why I'm so tired.

. -3

. -4
stayrunstudyplayrainsleepwriteteachlearncookreadpai
nt
- Mum has been cooking since three oclock.
.
.

They have been studying English since three oclock.


They have studied English since three o'clock.
They have studied English three times now.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

37

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

- They have been working all day.

- She has been living in Cairo for three years.

."have" " not"

- They haven't been working all day.


- She hasn't been living in Cairo for three years.


." "
Have
Has

subject

-1
-1
: :

." "
been main verb rest of the sentence?
(ing)

- Have you been working all day? - Yes, I have.


- Has she been living in Cairo for three years?
- Yes, she has.

- No, I havent.
- No, she hasnt.

-2
-2
: :

Question have subject been main verb rest of the sentence?


(ing)
has
word
- What have you been doing all day?
- I've been working all day.
- Where has she been living for three years?
- In Cairo.

Present perfect simple

Present perfect continuous

1- Hamza has studied English.

1- Hamza has been studying English.

2- Aya has ironed nine shirts.

2- Aya has been ironing shirts since


seven o'clock.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

38

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

1) Choose:
1. I ...... to phone you since this morning.
a. 've been trying
b. was trying
c. am trying
d. try
2. I ...... the Olympic Games all day.
a. have watched
b. have been watching
c. am watching
d. watch
3. He ...... really hard since the last exam.
a. studied
b. is studying
c. 's been studying
d. studies
4. How many books have you ...... this week?
a. reads
b. read
c. been reading
d. reading
5. My brother ...... his exams, thats why he looks so happy.
a. has just been passing
b. has just passed
c. passed
d. is passing
6. The author of this book ...... three other novels.
a. has written
b. has been writing
c. wrote
d. writes
7. I have been travelling round Europe. I ...... France, Italy and Spain.
a. have visited
b. have been visiting
c. visited
d. am visiting
8. She ...... to contact her mother for a long time now.
a. had tried
b. tried
c. tries
d. has been trying
9. He has been learning English ...... six years.
a. for
b. ago
c. since
d. just
10. I ...... three cups of tea up till now.
a. have been drinking
b. have drunk
c. drink
d. am drinking

2) Find the mistake in these sentences:


1- How long are you been learning English?
.........................................................................................................................................
2- I'm been studying English for nine years.
.........................................................................................................................................
3- My father is travelled abroad six times in the last two years.
.........................................................................................................................................
4- I'm so hungry. I didn't eaten yet.
.........................................................................................................................................
5- I haven't worked for last April.
.........................................................................................................................................
6- I'm sorry my clothes are dirty. I clean my room.
.........................................................................................................................................
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

39

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

7- The past perfect



I
He
She had
It
Singular
noun

Formation
verb
(P.p)

We
They
You
Plural
noun

. had -

Usage
.( ) ( ) - 1
- They had studied English before they played football.
.( ) ( ) -2
- He was happy because he had succeeded.

Guiding words
after
as soon as
just

when

before

by the time

till
until

already

presen
t
Past
perfect
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

Past
simple
40

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

1-After I had eaten fish, I studied.


2-I studied after I had eaten fish.
3-After eating fish, I studied.
4-Having eaten fish, I studied.
5-Before I studied, I had eaten fish.
6-I had eaten fish before I studied.
7-Before studying, I had eaten fish.
10- I didn't study till/until I had eaten fish.
8-Ali said that he had already done his homework.
9-Ali said that he had just finished his homework.

presen
t
Past
perfect

Past
simple

When I reached the station, the train had left.


I missed the train.
When I had reached the station, the train left.
I took the train.
When she saw the snake, she fainted at once.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

41

English Tutor

-2
-2
: :
English course

Arabian Conqueror

He no sooner started playing than it rained.


No sooner did he start playing than it rained.
He had no sooner started playing than it rained.
No sooner had he started playing than it rained.
He hardly started playing when it rained.
Hardly did he start playing when it rained.
He had hardly started playing when it rained.
Hardly had he started playing when it rained.
He scarcely started playing when it rained.
Scarcely did he start playing when it rained.
He had scarcely started playing when it rained.
Scarcely had he started playing when it rained.
- They had just finished working.

- She had been to Aswan for three weeks before school.

:
."had" " not"

- They hadn't finished working.


- She hadn't been to Aswan before school.


." "

Hadsubject

-1
-1
: :

." "
main verb rest of the sentence?
(P.p)

- Had you been to Luxor before school?

- Yes, I had.

- No, I hadnt.
2-

: :
2-

Question
word

had

subject

main verb
(P.p)

rest of the sentence?

* Where had you been before school?


- To Luxor.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

42

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

Passive voice

object

had

been

verb
P.p by subject.

- They had written the reports before the left.


- The reports had been written before they left.
- She played basketball after she had studied English.
- She played basketball after English had been studied.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

43

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

8- The past perfect continuous



He
She
had
It
Singular
noun

Formation

.(ing) been had -

I
Wee
They had
You
Plural
noun
Usage

been

verb + (ing)
(inf)

-1
since / for / when / all week / all day.
- They had been studying English for three hours before they slept.
. -2
- They were tired because they had been studying for a week.
. -3
stayrunstudyplayrainsleepwriteteachlearncookreadpai
nt
- They had been working all day.

- She had been living in Cairo for three years.

:
."had" " not"

- They hadn't been working all day.


- She hasn't been living in Cairo for three years.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

44

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

." "

Hadsubject

-1
-1
: :

." "
main verb
been
rest of the sentence?
been
(ing)

- Had you been working all day?

- Yes, I had.

- No, I hadnt.

-2
-2
: :

Question had
subject
word

been
been

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

- Where had she been living for three years before coming here?
- In Cairo.

Choose:
1. I was tired yesterday morning because I ...... until late the night before.
a. had been running
b. have been running
c. ran
d. had run
2. My friend and I ...... on the phone for more than an hour before I put
the phone down.
a. has been talking
b. had been talking
c. talked
d. had talked
3. Ali wasn't feeling well yesterday. He ...... hard all weekend.
a. has been studying
b. studied
c. was studying
d. had studied
4. By the time he finished reading the report, he ...... two bottles of water.
a. had been drinking
b. had drunk
c. drank
d. had drunk
5. When I met him, I knew I ...... him somewhere before.
a. has seen
b. have seen
c. saw
d. see
6. My clothes were dirty because I ...... the car all morning.
a. had repaired
b. had been repairing
c. repaired
d. am repairing
7. Before the match was over, the spectators ...... the stadium.
a. left
b. have left
c. had left
d. were leaving
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

45

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

8. By the time he had finished the report, he ...... two pots of tea.
a. has drunk
b. drank
c. has been drinking
d. had drunk
9. Although he ...... for six months, he didn't get the job.
a. had been training
b. was training
c. had trained
d. has been training
10. How long ...... before your bus arrived at the bus stop?
a. had been wait
b. have you been waiting
c. have been waited
d. had you been waiting

2) Find the mistake in these sentences:


1- When I was born, my parents have been living in their flat for three years.
.........................................................................................................................................
2- There were floods because it has been raining for three days.
.........................................................................................................................................
3- By the time I went to bed, I read four stories.
.........................................................................................................................................
4- We arrived late and by the time we sat down, the film starts.
.........................................................................................................................................
5- The children's clothes were dirty because they have been playing in the street
all morning.
.........................................................................................................................................
6- How long has she been learning English before she went to London?
.........................................................................................................................................

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

46

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

9- The future simple



Formation
I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

will
Verb
(inf)

We
They
You
Plural
noun
. will -

Usage
. -4
- I will buy this car.

. -1
- He will be forty next month.
. -2

. -5
- Stop or I will punish you.
- Study and I will give you a cake.

- It will rain tomorrow.


. -3
- Will you help me?
- Can I help you?
. -

. -

be sure
be afraid

perhaps
certainly
probably
possibly

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

47

English Tutor

. -6
think
believe
expect
promise
hope
predict

English course

Arabian Conqueror

going to

am
subject is
are

going to

verb rest of the sentence.


(inf)

Usage
Plans,Intentions,
Intentions,Decisions
Decisions&
&ambitions
ambitions::
Plans,
- Ali's going to buy another car.
(plan / intention)
- They're going to move to a bigger flat next month.
(decisions)
- Im going to become a great leader one day.
(ambitions)

Predictionwith
withevidence
evidencefrom
fromthe
thepresent
present::
Prediction
- There aren't any clouds in the sky. Its going to be a lovely day.
Notes
. When I reach home, I'm going to watch the news on TV.
.

This boy is clever. I think he will pass the test.


This test is easy. I think he is going to pass the test.

S-

Alliw ."t'now
)
- She won't be 30 next year.

( "
ton"

- They won't help me.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

48

English Tutor

:
"

English course

Arabian Conqueror

." "
Willsubject

-1
-1
: :

." "
main verb
rest of the sentence?
(inf)

- will you help me?

- Yes, I will.

- No, I won't.

-2
-2
: :

Question will
subject
word

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(inf)

- Where will she stay?


- In Cairo.
Passive voice

object will be

verb
P.p by subject.

- Ali will do the homework tomorrow.


- The homework will be done tomorrow.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

49

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

10- The future continuous



I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

will
be
verb
+
(ing)

Formation

We
They

be will .(ing)

You
Plural
noun

Usage
. -1
- I can't meet you between 5 to 8 pm tomorrow. I will be studying English.

- They will be working all day tomorrow.

- She will be playing volleyball from 7 to 9 next Monday.


:
will". " " not"
(won't)
- They won't be working all day tomorrow.
- She won't be playing volleyball from 7 to 9 next Monday.


." "

Willsubject

be

." "
main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

- Will they be working all day tomorrow?


- Yes, they will.
- No, they won't.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

-1
-1
: :

50

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

-2
-2
: :
Question will
subject
word

be

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

- What will she be playing from 7 to 9 next Monday?


- Volleyball.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

51

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

11- The future perfect



I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

will
have
verb
(P.p)

Formation
We
They

have will .

You
Plural
noun

Usage
. -1
- They government will have finished this project by 2020.

- They will have studied maths by 7 pm tomorrow.

- She will have cooked by the evening tomorrow.


:
will". " " not"
(won't)
- They won't have studied maths by 7 pm tomorrow.
- She won't have cooked by the evening tomorrow.


." "

Willsubject

-1
-1
: :

." "
main verb
have
rest of the sentence?
(P.p)

- Will they have studied maths by 7 pm tomorrow?


- Yes, they will.
- No, they won't.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

52

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

-2
-2
: :
Question will
subject
word

have

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(P.p)

- What will she have studied by 7 pm tomorrow?


- Maths.
Passive voice

object will have been

verb
P.p by subject.

- Ali will have done the homework by 6 pm tomorrow.


- The homework will have been done by 6 pm tomorrow.

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

53

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

12- The future perfect continuous


Formation

I
He
She
It
Singular
noun

will
have
been
verb
+
(ing)

We
They
You
Plural
noun

been will have


.(ing)

Usage
. -1
- At the end of this year, I will have been teaching English for ten years.

:
- They will have been studying maths for seven hours by 10 am tomorrow.
:
will". " " not"
(won't)
- They won't have been studying maths for seven hours by 10 am tomorrow.


." "

Willsubject

-1
-1
: :

." "
main verb
rest of the sentence?
have been
(ing)

- Will they have been studying maths for seven hours by 10 am tomorrow?
- Yes, they will.
- No, they won't.
Mr. Ahmed Kamal

54

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

have been
have been
Question will
subject have been
word

-2
-2
: :

main verb
rest of the sentence?
(ing)

- What will they have been studying for seven hours by 10 am tomorrow?
- Maths.

Choose:
1. If you are too tired to cut the grass, I ...... it for you.
a. will cut
b. am going to cut
c. cut
d. am cutting
2. I haven't tidied my room yet, but I promise ...... it this afternoon.
a. am going to do
b. do
c. will do
d. have done
3. Watch out! You ...... bang your head on the door frame.
a. are going to
b. will
c. shall
d. should
4. Look at those black clouds. It ...... this afternoon.
a. will rain
b. is raining
c. should rain
d. is going to rain
5. A: Chicken or meat, madam?
B: I ...... meat, please.
a. am having
b. will have
c. am going to have
d. have
6. My sister ...... 30 next April.
a. was
b. will be
c. is
d. is going to be
7. He ...... if you come late again.
a. will punish
b. is going to punish
c. is punishing
d. will be punishing
8. Hamza will love this present. Hamza ...... this present.
a. is going to love
b. loves
c. will be loving
d. is sure to love
9. I think my brother ...... a doctor. he is very clever.
a. is going to be
b. has become
c. is being
d. is
10. Don't worry. I'm sure you ...... them again soon.
a. see
b. are seeing
c. will see
d. are going to see

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

55

English Tutor

English course

Arabian Conqueror

2) Find the mistake in these sentences:


1- I've decided that I'm doing more exercise in the future.
.........................................................................................................................................
2- I expect he is getting the job soon.
.........................................................................................................................................
3- My brother is going to be 10 years old next month.
.........................................................................................................................................
4- I think he crashes. he is driving in a crazy way.
.........................................................................................................................................
5- The shirt is fashonable, I can buy it soon.
.........................................................................................................................................
6- There is a TV programme about wildlife. I think it is being good.
.........................................................................................................................................

Mr. Ahmed Kamal

56

English Tutor