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You are on page 1of 55

Ru-Li Lina ,

Chien-Ching Mab,*

Tainan County, Taiwan 71008, R. O. C.

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

10617, R.O.C.

Abstract

By using the Mellin transform technique in conjunction with the image method, the

two-dimensional full-field solutions of dissimilar isotropic composite annular wedges

subjected to anti-plane concentrated forces and screw dislocations are presented in

explicit forms. The composite wedges consist of two materials that have equal apex

angle and are bonded together along an interface. The explicit full-field solutions are

presented in series forms for combinations of traction and displacement boundary

conditions. For the special case of composite sharp wedges with finite radius or

infinite extent, the solutions with functional forms are obtained and only consist of

simple trigonometric functions. Explicit solutions of the stress intensity factors are

obtained for a semi-infinite interface crack and a circular composite disk with an

interface crack. With the aid of the Peach-Koehler equation, the explicit forms of the

image forces exerted on screw dislocations are easily derived from the full-field

solutions of stresses. Numerical results of full-field stress distributions and image

forces exerted on screw dislocations are presented and discussed in detail.

Keywords: Image method; Composite annular wedge; Mellin transform; Interface crack;

Screw dislocation

E-mail address: ccma@ntu.edu.tw (C. C. Ma)

1. Introduction

The stress analysis for the wedge problem with infinite length has been investigated

by many authors. Some authors devoted efforts on deriving the full-field stress

distribution in the wedge and others investigate the stress singularities near the apex of

the wedge. The isotropic wedge problem was first considered by Tranter (1948) by

using the Mellin transform in conjunction with the Airy stress function representation of

plane elasticity. Williams (1952) obtained the solution of dissimilar materials with a

semi-infinite interface crack and observed the stress oscillation near the crack tip.

Chou (1965) investigated the screw dislocation near a shape wedge boundary by means

of the conformal mapping technique. In his study, the method of image for anti-plane

single wedge and image force on screw dislocation was discussed in detail. Bogy

(1971, 1972) used complex function representation of the generalize Mellin transform

to obtain the solution of the plane problem of dissimilar wedge and single wedge with

infinite extent. Ma and Hour (1989) investigated the problem of dissimilar anisotropic

wedge subjected to anti-plane deformation and discussed the stress singularity near the

apex of wedge. Ting (1984, 1985) discussed the paradox which existed in the

elementary solution of an elastic wedge. Zhang et al. (1995) studied the problem for

the interaction of an edge dislocation with a wedge crack. Kargarnovin et al. (1997)

solved the problem of an isotropic wedge with finite radius subjected to anti-plane

surface traction. The solution of anisotropic single wedge was obtained by Shahani

(1999). However, both of the solutions were represented with an infinite series form.

Kargarnovin (2000) studied the dissimilar finite wedge under anti-plane deformation

and obtained only the near-tip field solution. Wang et al. (1986) investigated the stress

intensity factor for the rigid line inclusion under anti-plane shear loading. He and

Hutchinson (1989a, 1989b) analyzed several problems which provided insight and

quantitative information on the role an interface between dissimilar elastic materials

plays when approached by a crack. The condition that a crack impinging on an

interface will pass through the interface or be deflected into the interface was discussed

in detail.

For engineering applications, layer and wedge configurations are two problems that

are commonly analyzed in the literature. The use of the image method in solving

two-dimensional anti-plane problems is well-known. The anti-plane full-field solution

of a single layer can be obtained by using an infinite array of image singularities to

account for the boundary conditions of the two free or fixed surfaces. The results are

identical to the work by using the method of Fourier transform in conjunction with

2

series expansion. Chou (1966) used the technique of image method to construct the

full-field solution of three phase lamellar structure subjected to a screw dislocation.

The anisotropic case was obtained by Lin and Chou (1975). Chu (1982) used the

conformal mapping technique to construct the closed-form solution of two phase

isotropic thin film subjected to screw dislocation. The image method plays the

essential role in these works. The method of image has been successfully extended to

solve the problem of multilayered media with anti-plane shear deformation. By using

a linear coordinate transformation and the Fourier transform technique, an effective

analytical methodology was developed by Lin and Ma (2000) to obtain explicit

analytical solutions for an anisotropic multilayered medium with n layers subjected to

an anti-plane loading or a screw dislocation in an arbitrary layer. However, the image

method for wedge problem under anti-plane deformation is restricted for special apex

angles (Chou, 1965).

In this study, the finite annular dissimilar composite wedge with equal apex angle

subjected to anti-plane concentrated loadings and screw dislocations is investigated by

analytical methods. The boundary conditions prescribed on radial edges, either

tractions or displacements, are discussed in detail. In each problem, different

boundary conditions prescribed on the circular segments are presented with the aid of

the image method. The analytical solutions of composite sharp wedges with infinite

length along the radial direction are first solved by a straightforward application of the

Mellin transform, and the solutions are expressed in simple explicit functional forms.

Based on the image method, the full-field solutions for composite sharp wedges with a

finite radius are also presented in explicit functional forms. The analytical solution of

the stress intensity factor of the circular composite disk with an interface crack is also

obtained. In order to solve the finite annular dissimilar wedge problem, the image

method is used to satisfy the boundary conditions on two circular segments based on the

available solutions with functional forms of the infinite wedge problem. Base on the

complete analytical solutions of stress fields for the wedge problem, the image forces

exerted on screw dislocations are given in explicit forms with the aid of the

Peach-Koehler equation. Numerical calculations of stress distributions are provided

for traction or displacement boundary conditions. The full-field stress distributions

and image forces exerted on screw dislocations for composite sharp wedge with finite

radius and finite annular dissimilar composite wedge are studied in detail from

numerical investigations.

Consider an isotropic composite sharp wedge with infinite length along the radial

direction and with an apex angle ( 0 2 ) as shown in Fig. 1. Let 1, 2 denote

the open two-dimensional regions which occupies the same apex angle / 2 . The

composite wedge is perfectly bonded together along a common edge.

For the

z-axis, w(r , ) , which is a function of in-plane coordinates r and . In the absence

of body forces, the equilibrium equation for a homogeneous isotropic material in terms

of displacement is given by

2 w 1 w 1 2 w

0

r 2 r r r 2 2

The nonvanishing shear stresses are

(1)

w

w

,

z (r , )

r

r

where denotes the shear modulus of an isotropic material. In addition, we shall

rz (r , )

(2)

Mellin transform method is convenient for solving the problems in polar coordinate.

Let the Mellin transform of a function f (r ) be denoted by f ( s) , then

f ( s) M f (r ), s f (r )r s 1dr ,

1 ci

f (r ) M 1 f ( s), r

f ( s)r s ds

0

2i ci

where s is a complex transform parameter. The Mellin transform of w(r, ), r rz (r , )

and r z (r , ) in the transform domain are given by

w ( s, ) w(r , )r s 1dr

0

rz (s, ) rz (r , )r s dr

0

z (s, ) z (r , )r s dr

0

(3a)

(3b)

(3c)

By use of the inversion theorem for the Mellin transform, the stresses and

displacement components are given by

1 i

w ( s, )r s ds

2i i

(4a)

rz (r , )

1 i

rz ( s, )r s 1ds

2i i

(4b)

z (r , )

1 i

z ( s, )r s1ds

2i i

(4c)

w(r , )

Because of condition (2), the path of integration in the complex line integrals

Re (s)= in (4a), (4b) and (4c) must lie within a commom strip of regularity of their

intergrands, the choice of is taken to be

0 ( Re( s1 ) )

where s1 denotes the location of the pole in the open strip 1 Re( s) 0 with the

largest real part and Re denotes the real part of the complex argument.

Applying the Mellin transform (3a) to (1) yields an ordinary differential equation for

w ( s, ) , the general solution of this ordinary differential equation is readily known to

be

(s, ) c1 sin(s ) c2 cos(s )

w

(5)

The general

(6a)

(6b)

3.1. Free-free boundary condition

Consider a composite sharp wedge with infinite length along the radial direction and

possess the apex angle subjected to a concentrated loading fz located at

(r, ) (d , ) in material 1 as shown in Fig. 2. Perfect bonding along the interface

/ 2 is ensured by the stress and displacement continuity conditions, and the

traction free boundary conditions on the two radial edges are considered first in this

section. The region of the wedge is divided into three parts along the apex of wedge

and the location of concentrated loading as shown in Fig. 2. The general solutions for

material 1 are expressed as

for 0

(7a)

for / 2

(7b)

for / 2

(8)

w

(1) (s, ) c1 sin( s ) c2 cos(s )

w

The associated traction free boundary conditions on the two radial edges are given by

(1z )

0,

(z2) 0

(9)

(1z )

(1z )

fzd s ,

w(1)

w(1)

(10)

w(1) (r , / 2) w( 2) (r , / 2) ,

(11)

From Eqs. (7a), (7b) and (8) with the aid of conditions (9), (10) and (11), the complete

solutions in the transform domain for materials 1 and 2 are

w (1)

coss( ) coss( )

fzd s

21s sin( s ) k coss( ) k coss( )

rz(1)

f z d s coss( ) coss( )

2 sin( s ) k coss( ) k coss( )

(1z )

f z d s sin s( ) sin s( )

2 sin( s ) k sin s( ) k sin s( )

w ( 2)

fzd s

coss( ) coss( )

( 1 2 ) s sin( s )

rz( 2)

2d s f z

coss( ) coss( )

( 1 2 ) sin( s )

(z2)

2d s f z

sins( ) sins( )

( 1 2 ) sin( s )

(12a)

(12b)

a real positive number and 1/ 2 n . When n 1/ 2 , we have 2 , and this

corresponds to the bimaterial interface crack problem.

n

sin(

s

)

r n sin( n )

M 1

n

2n

sin( s ) 1 2r cos(n ) r

n

n

cos(

s

)

1 r n cos(n )

M 1

n

2n

sin( s ) 1 2r cos(n ) r

n

0 Res 1 , 0 / n , n 1/ 2 (13)

concentrated loading are obtained with the formulations given in Eqs. (12a) and (13) as

follows

(1)

n

f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

41 k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(1)

rz

n

nf z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2r k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(1)

z

n

nf z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2r k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(14a)

(14b)

(14c)

w( 2 )

rz( 2)

(z2)

fz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

2 ( 1 2 )

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(15a)

(15b)

(15c)

where

( R, ) ln 1 2R cos R 2 ,

( R, )

R 2 R cos

1 2 R cos R 2

R sin

1 2 R cos R 2

The full-field solutions of displacement and stresses for a screw dislocation with

( R, )

and the results are

bz

2

rz(1)

n1bz

2r

(1z )

n1bz

2r

w( 2 )

(16a)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(16b)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(16c)

1bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )

(17a)

rz( 2)

(z2)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

w(1)

n1 2bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

n1 2bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(17b)

(17c)

where

( R, ) tan -1

( R 1) sin

( R 1)(1 cos )

(18)

It is surprising to note that the exact full-field solutions for materials 1 and 2 consist

of only four and two terms, respectively. Each term is only a combination of simple

trigonometric functions. These basic solutions will be used to construct the analytical

solutions for the composite wedge with finite radius and the finite annular composite

wedge problems in the next two sections. The asymptotic displacement and stress

fields near the wedge apex for applying a concentrated load can be easily derived from

Eqs. (14) and (15) by taking the limit r 0 . The singular fields near the wedge apex

of material 1 are

2 f z

(r / d ) n cosn( ) cosn( )

1 ( 1 2 )

n 2 f z

lim rz(1) (r , )

(r / d ) n cosn( ) cosn( )

r 0

( 1 2 )r

lim w(1) (r , )

r 0

lim (1z ) (r , )

r 0

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n sin n( ) sin n( )

( 1 2 )r

fz

lim w( 2) (r , )

(r / d ) n (cosn( ) cosn( )

r 0

( 1 2 )

(19a)

(19b)

(19c)

(20a)

lim rz( 2) (r , )

r 0

lim (z2) (r , )

r 0

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n (cosn( ) cosn( )

( 1 2 )r

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n sin n( ) sin n( )

( 1 2 )r

(20b)

(20c)

It is clearly shown in Eqs. (19) and (20) that the order of the stress singularity is

1 / and is independent of the two material constants. The stress fields are

bounded for the composite wedge with 0 . The angular dependence of

displacement and stresses near the wedge apes as presented in Eqs. (19) and (20) are the

same as those obtained by Ma and Hour (1989).

For the special case of a semi-infinite interface crack, i.e., n 1/ 2 , the solutions of

shear stress z for materials 1 and 2 for applying a concentrated load are reduced to

simple formulations as follows

(1z )

(r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

(r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

f z 1 2(r / d ) cos ( ) / 2 r / d 1 2(r / d ) cos ( ) / 2 r / d

4r

k (r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

k (r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1 2(r / d ) cos ( ) / 2 r / d 1 2(r / d ) cos ( ) / 2 r / d

(21a)

(z2)

2 f z

(r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

(r / d )1 / 2 sin ( ) / 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

2 ( 1 2 )r 1 2(r / d ) cos( ) / 2 r / d 1 2(r / d ) cos( ) / 2 r / d

(21b)

The solutions for applying a screw dislocation are

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1bz 1 2(r / d ) cos( ) / 2 r / d 1 2(r / d ) cos( ) / 2 r / d (22a)

(1)

z

4r

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2

k

k

1/ 2

1 2(r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2 r / d

1 2(r / d ) cos ( ) / 2 r / d

(z2)

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2

1 2 bz

r / d (r / d )1 / 2 cos( ) / 2 (22b)

The well-known result of square root singularity near the interface crack tip is clearly

indicated in Eqs. (21) and (22). The corresponding result of mode stress intensity

factor can be derived from Eqs. (21) and (22) and are expressed as

K III lim 2r z

fz

(1 k ) cos( / 2)

2d

(23)

K III lim 2r z

1bz

(1 k ) sin( / 2)

2d

(24)

r 0

r 0

It is noted that for special apex angles, i.e. / n , where n is an integer, the solutions

expressed in Eqs. (14) and (15) can be decomposed into a finite number of Greens

functions of an infinite plane subjected to concentrated forces. For these special angles,

the Greens function of the infinite composite wedge problem can be obtained by the

method of image. The numbers (N) and locations (r , ) of image singularities of

materials 1 and 2 can be expressed as follows:

For material 1,

N 4n 1

d ,

r , d , m

(25)

m 1, 2, , 2n 1

N 2n

r , d , 2m

(26)

m 0,1, , n 1

In fact, the numbers and locations of image singularities of material 1 and 2 are

dependent only on the apex angle of the composite wedge. For example, the geometry

configuration of image singularities for material 1 and material 2 of the composite

wedge with apex angle 90 are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, respectively. There

are seven and four image singularities for material 1 and material 2, respectively.

Therefore, the full-filed solutions of a composite sharp wedge with special apex angles

can also be represented by a series with finite terms. For material 1, the solutions of

series form can be summarized as

w(1)

r / d , 2(m 1) / n ) r / d , 2(m 1) / n )

41 m1 k r / d , (2m 1) / n ) k r / d , (2m 1) / n )

fz

(27a)

rz(1)

f z n r / d , 2(m 1) / n r / d , 2(m 1) / n

2r m1 k r / d , (2m 1) / n k r / d , (2m 1) / n

(27b)

(1z )

f z n r / d , 2(m 1) / n r / d , 2(m 1) / n

2r m1 k r / d , (2m 1) / n k r / d , (2m 1) / n

(27c)

For material 2, the solutions are

10

w( 2)

n

fz

r / d , 2(m 1) / n ) r / d , 2(m 1) / n )

2 ( 1 2 ) m1

(28a)

rz( 2)

2 f z

r / d , 2(m 1) / n r / d , 2(m 1) / n

( 1 2 )r m1

n

(28b)

(z2)

n

2 f z

r / d , 2(m 1) / n r / d , 2(m 1) / n

( 1 2 )r m1

(28c)

Equations (27) and (28) present the solutions for the same problem as that in Eqs. (14)

and (15) for the special case that n is an integer. Obviously, the solutions in Eqs. (14)

and (15) have simple forms and are also valid for the case that n is not an integer.

By using the similar method, the solutions of composite wedge with fixed

displacement boundary condition at the two edges, i.e., 0 and , subjected to

a concentrated load can be obtained and summarized as follows

(1)

n

f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

41 k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(1)

rz

n

nf z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2r k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(1)

z

n

nf z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 r k (r / d ) n , n( ) k (r / d ) n , n( )

(29a)

(29b)

(29c)

w( 2 )

fz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

2 ( 1 2 )

rz( 2)

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(z2)

n 2 f z

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(30a)

(30b)

(30c)

11

rz(1)

(1)

z

bz

2

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(31a)

n1bz

2r

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(31b)

w(1)

n1bz

2r

(r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(31c)

w( 2 )

rz( 2)

1bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )

n1 2bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(z2)

(32a)

(32b)

n1 2bz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

( 1 2 )r

(32c)

for material 2. It is interesting to note that the elementary functions appear in the

solutions are the same for the free-free (Eqs. (14) - (17)) and fixed-fixed (Eqs. (27) (30)) boundary conditions.

Consider an isotropic composite wedge with a finite radius b and equal apex angle

/ 2 subjected to a concentrated force fz applied at the location (r, ) (d , ) as

shown in Fig. 5. In order to obtain the closed form solution of this problem without

using the mathematic derivation, the image method for circular configuration is used.

Based on the result presented by Lin and Ma (2003) for the problem of single wedge

with finite radius that for the loading applied at the location (d , ) , the location of the

corresponding image singularity for the circular boundary is (b 2 / d , ) and is

indicated in Fig. 6. The magnitude of the image singularity depends on the boundary

condition at the circumference segment. The summation of the solutions for the

applied loading at (d , ) and (b 2 / d , ) (the image point) for the composite wedge

with infinite length will satisfy the boundary condition (traction free or fixed) on the

circular segment r b . Since the analytical solution for composite wedge with

infinite length has been developed in the previous section, the solution for the

composite wedge with a finite radius can be easily obtained without difficulty. The

12

solutions of the stress field z are presented for various boundary condition as

follows.

4.1. Free-free-free boundary condition

Consider the wedge are traction free for all boundaries, and one pair of

self-equilibrium forces fz are applied on the wedge at locations (r , ) (d1 , 1 ) and

(d 2 , 2 ) in material 1. The solutions for shear stress z are

(1z )

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

n

nf z 2

m 1 k ( r / d m ) , n( m ) k ( r / d m ) , n( m )

1

2 n

2 n

2r m1

(rd m / b ) , n( m ) (rd m / b ) , n( m )

k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m ) k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m )

(33)

( 2)

z

2

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

n 2 f z

m 1

1

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r m1

(rd m / b ) , n( m ) (rd m / b ) , n( m )

(34)

for material 2.

For a special apex angle that n = 1/2, which represents the problem of a

composite circular disk with an interface crack length b, the associated shear stresses

z are

(1z )

(r / d m )1 / 2 , ( m ) / 2 (r / d m )1 / 2 , ( m ) / 2

1

/

2

1

/

2

, ( m ) / 2 k (r / d m ) , ( m ) / 2

fz 2

m 1 k ( r / d m )

1

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

4r m1

(rd m / b ) , ( m ) / 2 (rd m / b ) , ( m ) / 2

k (rd m / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( m ) / 2 k (rd m / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( m ) / 2

(35a)

2

(r / d m ) , ( m ) / 2 (r / d m ) , ( m ) / 2

2 f z

1m1

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

2 ( 1 2 )r m1

(rd m / b ) , ( m ) / 2 (rd m / b ) , ( m ) / 2

( 2)

z

1/ 2

1/ 2

(35b)

The corresponding stress intensity factor of this problem is

fz

1 k 1 d1 / bcos(1 / 2) 1 d 2 / bcos( 2 / 2)

K III lim 2r z

r 0

2d

(36)

For the problem that a screw dislocation with Burgers vector bz is applied at the

location (r, ) (d , ) in material 1. The solutions for shear stress z are

13

(1z )

( 2)

z

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

n1bz k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(37)

n1 2bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

( 1 2 )r (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(38)

for material 2. For a special apex angle that 2 (n = 1/2), the associated shear

stresses

z are

(1z )

(r / d )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2 (r / d )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1bz k (r / d ) , ( ) / 2 k (r / d ) , ( m ) / 2

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

4r (rd / b ) , ( ) / 2 (rd / b ) , ( ) / 2

k (rd / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2 k (rd / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2

(z2)

(39a)

1/ 2

1/ 2

1 2 bz (r / d ) , ( ) / 2 (r / d ) , ( ) / 2

2 ( 1 2 )r (rd / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2 (rd / b 2 )1 / 2 , ( ) / 2

(39b)

K III lim 2r z

r 0

1bz

1 k 1 d / bsin( / 2)

2d

(40)

Consider the composite wedge is fixed along the circular segment r = b and is

traction free on the radial edges 0 and . A concentrated loading fz is

applied at the location (r, ) (d , ) . The full-filed solution for material 1 is

(1z )

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(41)

(z2)

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

( 1 2 )r (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(42)

14

For the special case that n = 1/2 ,a composite circular disk with an interface crack length

b, the stress intensity factor is

fz

1 k 1 d / bcos( / 2)

(43)

K III lim 2r z

r 0

2d

4.3. Fixed-fixed-free boundary condition

Let the composite wedge be traction free at the boundary r = b, and the boundaries

0 and are fixed. The concentrated loading fz (or the screw dislocation bz)

is applied at the location (r, ) (d , ) , the full-field solutions are

(1z )

n1bz

2r

(44)

(r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

(rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b ) , n( ) k (rd / b ) , n( )

(1z )

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2r (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

2 n

2 n

2 n

(45)

2 n

( 2)

z

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

( 2)

z

n1 2bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

for material 2.

(46)

(47)

fz

1 k 1 d / bsin( / 2)

K III lim 2r rz

r 0

2d

K III lim 2r rz

r 0

1bz

1 k 1 d / bcos( / 2)

2d

(48)

(49)

The composite wedge is fixed for all boundaries, a concentrated forces fz is applied

on the composite wedge at the location (r, ) (d , ) . The solution of material 1 is

15

(1z )

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(50)

For material 2, it is

( 2)

z

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

(51)

For the special case that n = 1/2, a composite circular disk with an interface crack length

b, the stress intensity factor is

fz

1 k sin( / 2)1 d / b

K III lim 2r rz

(52)

r 0

2d

The full-field solutions of displacement w and shear stress rz are presented in the

appendix A and appendix B for applying a concentrated load and a screw dislocation,

respectively. The anti-plane deformation of a single isotropic wedge with a finite

radius was studied by Kargarnovin et al. (1997) using the finite Mellin transform and

the full-field solution was presented by complicated formulation with an infinite series

form. However, the explicit full-field solutions for a composite wedge with a finite

radius presented in this section only consist of finite terms. The solutions for a single

wedge with a finite radius can be easily obtained by setting 1 2 and k 0 .

The image method used in this section for the circular boundary will be extended in the

next section to solve the more complicated finite annular composite wedge problem.

Consider an annular composite wedge with equal apex angle / 2 and finite radii

at r a and r b as shown in Fig. 7.

analytical solution for this complicated problem is similar to that used in the previous

section. By using the closed form solution of a composite wedge of infinite extent

presented in section 3 and the method of image to satisfy two circular boundaries at r =

a and r = b, the complete solutions for the composite annular wedge can be easily

constructed for various boundary conditions. Since two circular segments are involved

in this problem, the infinite number of image singularities should be used to satisfy the

two boundary conditions at r a and r b .

16

The first case considered in this section is an annular composite wedge subjected to

one pair of self-equilibrium forces fz at (r , ) (d1 , 1 ) and (d 2 , 2 ) in material 1

with traction free boundaries. The four boundary conditions are

z (r ,0) z (r , ) 0

rz (a, ) rz (b, ) 0

for

ar b

for

(53)

To avoid the tedious expression of the full-field solutions for this problem, only the

stress component z is presented in this section. The full-field solutions of

displacement w and stress component rz are summarized in the appendix C.

The full-field solutions z are

(1z )

nf z 4 2

1m1 rj , rj , k rj , k rj ,

2r 0 j 1 m1

(54)

(z2)

4 2

n 2 f z

1m1 rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1 m1

(55)

n

r (b / a) 2 r / d n ,

r2 (b / a) 2( 1) rd m / b 2 , n( m )

m

1

n

2

2 n

2 ( 1)

r / d m , n( m )

r3 (a / b) rd m / b , r4 (a / b)

(56)

The explicit solutions presented in Eqs. (54) and (55) are infinite series with only

one summation. The solutions in Eqs. (54) and (55) for 0 and j 1 represent

the Greens function of a composite wedge with infinite length which is discussed in the

section 3. All the other terms are superimposed to satisfy the circular boundary

conditions along r a and r b . The locations of image singularities along the

radial direction can be determined and summarized as follows

2 ( 1)

,

d m a / b

r

2 ( 1)

,

d m b / a

a / b2(1) (b 2 /d m )

b / a 2 (b 2 /d m )

for r a

m 1, 2 and 0, 1, 2, (57)

for r b

For the case that an annular composite wedge subjected to a screw dislocation with

Burgers vector bz at (r, ) (d , ) in material 1 with traction free boundaries. The

full-field solution z is

(1z )

n1bz

2r

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

(58)

17

(z2)

n1 2bz 4

1 j rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(59)

n

r (b / a) 2 r / d n ,

r2 (b / a) 2( 1) rd / b 2 , n( ),

1

n

n

2 ( 1)

r / d , r4 (a / b) 2 rd / b 2 , n( ).

r3 (a / b)

(60)

the appendix D.

5.2. Fixed-fixed-free-free boundary condition

Consider an annular composite wedge with two fixed and two free boundaries

subjected to a concentrated force located at r = d and . For the case that the

boundary is fixed along the radial edges and is free along the circular segments, the

boundary conditions are

rz (a, ) rz (b, ) 0

ar b

0

for

for

(61)

Follow a similar procedure as indicated in the previous case, the full-filed solutions are

presented as follows. For material 1, the full-filed solution is

(1z )

nf z 4

r j , r j , k r j , k r j ,

2r 0 j 1

(62)

For material 2,

(z2)

4

n 2 f z

r j , r j ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(63)

n

r (b / a) 2 r / d n ,

r2 (b / a) 2( 1) rd / b 2 , n( )

1

n

2

2 n

2 ( 1)

r / d , n( )

r3 (a / b) rd / b , r4 (a / b)

(64)

An annular composite wedge subjected to a concentrated force is fixed along one

radial edge r a and the other three boundaries are traction free; the boundary

conditions are

18

z (r , 0) z (r , ) 0

w(a, ) rz (b, ) 0

for

ar b

for

(65)

(1z )

nf z 4

1 j 1 rj , rj , k rj , k rj ,

2r 0 j 1

(z2)

4

n 2 f z

j 1

1 rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(66)

(67)

.

5.4. Fixed-fixed-free-fixed boundary condition

Consider an annular composite wedge with three fixed and one free boundaries

subjected to a screw dislocation located at r = d and in material 1. The

boundary is free along one radial edge r = a and the other three boundaries are fixed.

The boundary conditions are

w(r ,0) w(r , ) 0

rz (a, ) w(b, ) 0

ar b

0

for

for

(68)

Follow a similar procedure as indicated in the previous case, the full-filed solutions are

presented as follows. For material 1, the full-filed solution is

(1z )

n1bz

2r

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

(69)

(z2)

n1 2bz 4

1 j rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(70)

The full-field stress distributions of composite wedges subjected to screw

dislocations are analyzed in detail in previous sections. The image forces exerted on

screw dislocations will be investigated in this section. According to the Peach-Koehler

equation, the image force exerted on the screw dislocation can be obtained from the

stress filed at the location of the dislocation minus the self-stresses of the dislocation in

an infinite plane. In polar coordinate, the relations between image forces and stress

fields are

19

Fr iz

F i bz

rz

(71)

where Fr and F denote the image force exerted on a screw dislocation along the

radial and circumferential directions, respectively, and iz z sz , rzi rz rzs in

which sz and rzs are the self-stresses of the screw dislocation. The self-stresses of

a screw dislocation in an infinite plane are

bz

r d cos( )

sz

2

2 r 2rd cos( ) d 2

rzs

bz

d sin( )

2

2 r 2rd cos( ) d 2

(72a)

(72b)

The image forces exerted on the dislocation for different boundary conditions are

summarized as follows.

6.1. Image forces exerted on screw dislocations for infinite composite wedges

6.1.1. Free-free boundary condition

From Eqs. (16), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on a screw dislocation

located at (d , ) for the traction free boundary condition are

Fr(1) (d , )

1bz2

4d

(73a)

F(1) (d , )

1bz2 n cos n

sin n

k

4d sin n

cos n

(73b)

2bz2

4d

(74a)

Fr( 2) (d , )

F( 2) (d , )

2bz2 n cos n

sin n

k

4d sin n

cos n

(74b)

for material 2. It is shown in Eqs. (73a) and (74a) that the radial image force Fr(1) in

material 1 is independent on the apex angle and circumferential location of the

screw dislocation.

interesting to note that the image force Fr(1) is always negative in the wedge, the image

force F(1) is zero along (tan 1 1/ k ) / n for k > 0 (i.e. 1 2 ).

However, the

image force F(1) is nonzero in the wedge for the case k < 0. Similar features occur

for the screw dislocation located in material 2.

6.1.2. Fixed-fixed boundary condition

From Eqs. (31), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on a screw dislocation

20

1bz2

2n(1 k ) 1

F (d , )

4d

(1)

r

F(1) (d , )

n1bz2 cos n

sin n

k

4d sin n

cos n

(75a)

(75b)

Fr( 2) (d , )

2bz2

1 2n(1 k )

4d

(76a)

F( 2) (d , )

n 2bz2 cos n

sin n

k

4d sin n

cos n

(76b)

for material 2. It is quite different from traction free boundary that the radial image

force Fr for the fixed boundary condition is dependent on the apex angle and the

material constant of material 2. The image force Fr(1) is zero in the situation that

2n(1 k ) 1 for k > 0 (i.e. 1 2 ).

6.2. Image forces exerted on screw dislocations for composite wedges with finite radius

6.2.1. Free-free-free boundary condition

From Eqs. (37), (B2), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on screw dislocations

for traction free boundary condition are

1

2n

4n

2n

2

1bz 2 (d / b) 1(d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(1)

Fr (d , )

2d

nk (d / b) 2 n 1 (d / b) 2 n (1 cos 2n )

2n

4n

2n

(d / b) 1(d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(77a)

1 cos n

(d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4

n

2

n

n1bz2 2 sin n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(1)

F (d , )

2d k sin n

k (d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2 cos n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(77b)

2n

4n

2n

2

2bz 2 (d / b) 1(d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

( 2)

Fr (d , )

2d

nk (d / b) 2 n 1 (d / b) 2 n (1 cos 2n )

2n

4n

2n

(d / b) 1(d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(78a)

1 cos n

(d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4

n

2

n

n 2 bz2 2 sin n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

( 2)

F (d , )

2d k sin n

k (d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2 cos n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(78b)

21

for material 2. The first term in Eqs. (77a) and (78a) represents the image force

induced by the radial edges while the second and third terms in (77a) and (78a) are

image forces induced by the circular boundary r = b.

6.2.2. Fixed-fixed-free boundary condition

From Eqs. (45), (B6), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on screw dislocations

with two fixed and one traction free boundary conditions are

1

n(1 k )

2

2n

2n

4n

2n

b

n

(

d

/

b

)

(

3

(

d

/

b

)

1

)

cos

2

n

2

(

d

/

b

)

(

d

/

b

)

1

Fr(1) (d , ) 1 z

(79a)

2n

4n

2n

2d

(d / b) 1 (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(d / b) 2 n 1 (d / b) 4 n 2(d / b) 2 n cos 2n 1

1 cos n

(d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2

n1bz 2 sin n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(1)

F (d , )

2d k sin n

k (d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2 cos n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(79b)

1

n(1 k )

2

2n

2n

4n

2n

b

n

(

d

/

b

)

(

3

(

d

/

b

)

1

)

cos

2

n

2

(

d

/

b

)

(

d

/

b

)

1

Fr( 2) (d , ) 2 z

(80a)

2n

4n

2n

2d

(d / b) 1 (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(d / b) 2 n 1 (d / b) 4 n 2(d / b) 2 n cos 2n 1

1 cos n

(d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2

n 2 bz 2 sin n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

( 2)

F (d , )

2d k sin n

k (d / b) 2 n sin 2n

4n

2n

2 cos n (d / b) 2(d / b) cos 2n 1

(80b)

for material 2.

6.3. Image force exerted on screw dislocations for annular composite wedges

6.3.1. Free-free-free-free boundary condition

From Eqs. (58), (D2), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on screw dislocations

for annular composite wedges with traction free boundary condition can be expressed as

r j ,0 r j ,2n

1bz2 n1bz2 4

F (d , )

(1) j

4d

2d 0 j 1

k r j ,0 k r j ,2n

(1)

r

(81a)

22

r j ,2n

n1bz2 cos n

sin n n1bz2 4

j

F (d , )

k

(1) k r ,2n

4d sin n

cos n 2d 0 j 1

j

(1)

(81b)

r j ,0 r j ,2 2n

2bz2 n 2bz2 4

j

F (d , )

(1) k r ,0 k r ,2 2n

4d

2d 0 j 1

j

j

( 2)

r

(82a)

r j ,2 2n

b 2 cos n

sin n n 2bz2 4

F (d , ) 2 z

k

(1) j

(82b)

4d sin n

cos n 2d 0 j 1

k r j ,2 2n

( 2)

r1 (b / a) 2 n(1) , r2 (b / a) 2( 1) (d / b) 2 , r3 (a / b) 2 n(1) , r4 (a / b) 2 (d / b) 2

(83)

The second term with summation represented in Eqs. (81) and (82) are image forces

exerted on screw dislocations by circular boundaries at r = a and r = b.

6.3.2. Fixed-fixed-free-fixed boundary condition

From Eqs. (69), (D6), (71) and (72), the image forces exerted on screw dislocations

for annular composite wedges with three fixed and one traction free boundary

conditions are

r j ,0 r j ,2n

1bz2

n1bz2 4

2n(1 k ) 1

F (d , )

(1) j

4d

2d 0 j 1

k r j ,0 k r j ,2n

(84a)

n1bz2 cos n

sin n n1bz2

F (d , )

k

4d sin n

cos n 2d

(84b)

(1)

r

(1)

(1)

0 j 1

r j ,2n

k r j ,2n

Fr( 2) (d , )

( 2)

2 4

r ,0 r j ,2 2n

2 bz2

2n(1 k ) 1 n 2bz (1) j j

(85a)

4d

2d 0 j 1

k r j ,0 k r j ,2 2n

n b 2 cos n

sin n n 2 bz2

(d , ) 2 z

k

4d sin n

cos n 2d

(1)

0 j 1

r j ,2 2n

(85b)

k r j ,2 2n

The second term with summation presented in Eqs. (84) and (85) are image forces

exerted on screw dislocations by circular boundaries at r = a and r = b.

From the available solutions of full-field stresses presented in this study, it is easy to

construct the image forces exerted on screw dislocations in analytical forms. Although

we only present the results for two different boundary conditions for each case in this

23

section, the image forces exerted on screw dislocations for other boundary conditions

can be obtained without difficulty.

The analytical full-field solutions of shear stresses for various boundary conditions

are explicitly presented in section 4 for composite sharp wedges with finite radius and

in section 5 for composite annular wedges. The solutions are functions of wedge angle

, finite radii a and b, material constants 1 and 2 , and the location of the

concentrated load (or screw dislocation) (d , ) .

composite wedges with a finite radius subjected to concentrated loads are calculated and

shown in Figs. 8-10 for wedge angles 120 and the ratio of shear modulus for

materials 1 and 2 is 1 / 2 1/ 2 .

different boundary conditions. It is indicated in these figures that the traction free

boundary condition along the two edges for z and along the circular segment for rz

are satisfied.

singularities near the apex of the composite wedge are found for Figs. 8-10. The

full-field distributions of shear stresses for composite wedges with a finite radius

subjected to a screw dislocation is shown in Fig. 11 for a wedge angle 120 . The

boundary conditions for Fig. 11 are fixed along two edges and traction free along the

circular segment, and 1 / 2 1/ 2 .

composite wedge with largest apex angle 360 which is the problem of a

composite disk with an interface crack. In this case, the apex of the composite wedge

is equivalent to an interface crack tip and the well known square root stress singularities

in the crack tip are clearly presented in these figures. Figures 15-17 are stress

distributions of composite annular wedges subjected to concentrated loads for three

different boundary conditions indicated in Eqs. (53), (61) and (65), respectively. The

apex angle and radial length of the composite annular wedge is 120 and a 0.5b .

The ratio of shear modulus for materials 1 and 2 is 1 / 2 2 .

It is worthy to note

that the stresses distributions satisfy all the corresponding boundary and continuity

conditions. Figures 18 and 19 are stress distributions of composite annular wedges

subjected to a screw dislocation for two different boundary conditions. The apex angle

and radial length of the composite annular wedge are 120 and a 0.4b . The

ratio of shear modulus for materials 1 and 2 is 1 / 2 2 .

24

the stresses distributions satisfy all the corresponding boundary and continuity

conditions. The theoretical solutions of image forces Fr and F exerted on screw

dislocations are presented in Eqs. (73)-(76) for infinite wedge, in Eqs. (77)-(80) for

wedges with finite radius and in Eqs. (81)-(86) for annular wedges. The numerical

results for composite wedges with finite radius are shown in Figs. 20 and 21 for

120 . It is found that there exist an equilibrium point (i.e. Fr F 0 ) for the

traction free boundary condition and the location for the equilibrium point in material 1

is indicated in Fig. 20. However, no equilibrium point is found for the case that fixed

boundaries along two radial edges and free along the circular segment as shown in Fig.

21. The results of annular wedge with traction free boundary condition and apex angle

120 are shown in Fig. 22. The location of the equilibrium point is also indicated

in Fig. 22 which has only a slight difference to that indicated in Fig. 20.

8. Conclusions

In this study, a complete investigation on concentrated anti-plane forces and screw

dislocations applied in isotopic composite annular wedges is presented. The explicit

closed form solutions for displacement and shear stresses are obtained by using the

Mellin transform technique and the image method. Many possible boundary

conditions on radial edges and circular segments are taken into account. The special

case of interface crack problem, which is intersected for many applications, is also

presented in detail. It is worthy to note that even for the complicated geometrical

configuration as the composite annular wedge, the full-field solution consists of only

one infinite summation. Each term presented in the solution is only a combination of

simple trigonometric functions.

The explicit solutions with simple forms of

displacement and stresses presented in this study are very easy to use for numerical

investigations and theoretical analysis. The stress distributions for composite wedges

with a finite radius and annular wedges are discussed from numerical calculations.

The image forces exerted on screw dislocations are derived and the equilibrium points

are identified base on the numerical calculations for special boundary conditions.

Acknowledgements

The financial support of the authors from the National Science Council, Republic of

China, through Grant NSC 90-2212-E002-230 to National Taiwan University is

gratefully acknowledged.

25

wedges with finite radius (concentrated loads)

A.1. Free-free-free boundary condition

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

n

fz 2

m 1 k ( r / d m ) , n( m ) k ( r / d m ) , n( m )

1

(A1)

2 n

2 n

41 m1

(

rd

/

b

)

,

n

(

(

rd

/

b

)

,

n

(

)

m

m

m

m

k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m ) k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m )

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

n

nf z 2

m 1 k ( r / d m ) , n( m ) k ( r / d m ) , n( m )

1

2 n

2 n

2r m1

(rd m / b ) , n( m ) (rd m / b ) , n( m )

k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m ) k (rd m / b 2 ) n , n( m )

(A2)

2

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

fz

m 1

1

(A3)

2 n

2 n

2 ( 1 2 ) m1

(rd m / b ) , n( m ) (rd m / b ) , n( m )

rz( 2)

2

(r / d m ) n , n( m ) (r / d m ) n , n( m )

n 2 f z

m 1

1

(A4)

2 n

2 n

(1 2 )r m1

(rd m / b ) , n( m ) (rd m / b ) , n( m )

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

f z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

41 (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A5)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A6)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

fz

2 ( 1 2 ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

rz( 2)

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

( 1 2 )r (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A7)

(A8)

26

w(1)

rz(1)

(A9)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A10)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

fz

2 ( 1 2 ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

( 2)

( 2)

rz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

f z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

41 (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A11)

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

(A12)

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

( 2)

rz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

f z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

41 (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A13)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

nf z k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(A14)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

fz

(A15)

2 ( 1 2 ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

n 2 f z (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

(A16)

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

27

wedges with finite radius (screw dislocations)

B.1. Free-free-free boundary condition

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

( 2)

rz

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

bz k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2 (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(B1)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

n1bz k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(B2)

1bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

( 1 2 ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

n1 2bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

(B3)

(B4)

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

bz k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2 (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(B5)

(r / d ) n , n( ) (r / d ) n , n( )

n

n1bz k (r / d ) , n( ) k (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

2r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( ) k (rd / b 2 ) n , n( )

(B6)

1bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 ) (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

rz( 2)

n1 2bz (r / d ) , n( ) (r / d ) , n( )

2 n

2 n

( 1 2 )r (rd / b ) , n( ) (rd / b ) , n( )

(B7)

(B8)

28

wedge (concentrated loads)

C.1. Free-free-free-free boundary condition

rz(1)

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

fz

w(1)

41

m1

0 j 1 m1

nf z 4 2

m1

1 rj , rj , k rj , k rj ,

2r 0 j 1 m1

w( 2 )

4 2

fz

1m1 rj , rj ,

2 ( 1 2 ) 0 j 1 m1

4 2

n 2 f z

1m1 rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1 m1

rz( 2)

(C1)

(C2)

(C3)

(C4)

fz

w(1)

rz(1)

41

0 j 1

4

fz

r j , r j ,

2 ( 1 2 ) 0 j 1

4

n 2 f z

r j , r j ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(C5)

nf z 4

rj , rj , k rj , k rj ,

2r 0 j 1

w( 2 )

rz( 2)

r , r , k r , k r ,

(C6)

(C7)

(C8)

fz

w(1)

rz(1)

41

j 1

r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

nf z 4

j 1

1 rj , rj , k rj , k rj ,

2r 0 j 1

w( 2 )

rz( 2)

4

fz

1 j 1 rj , rj ,

2 ( 1 2 ) 0 j 1

4

n 2 f z

1 j 1 rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(C9)

(C10)

(C11)

(C12)

29

wedge (screw dislocations)

D.1. Free-free-free-free boundary condition

w(1)

rz(1)

( 2)

bz

2

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

n1bz

2r

(D1)

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

j 1

0 j 1

4

1bz

1 j rj , rj ,

( 1 2 ) 0 j 1

rz( 2)

n1 2bz 4

1 j 1 rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(D2)

(D3)

(D4)

w(1)

rz(1)

w( 2 )

rz( 2)

bz

2

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

n1bz

2r

(D5)

1 r , r , k r , k r ,

0 j 1

4

1bz

1 j rj , rj ,

( 1 2 ) 0 j 1

n1 2bz 4

1 j rj , rj ,

( 1 2 )r 0 j 1

(D6)

(D7)

(D8)

30

Reference

Bogy, D. B., 1971. Two edge-bonded elastic wedges of different materials and wedge

under surface tractions. Journal of Applied Mechanics 35, 460-466.

Bogy, D. B., 1972. The plane solution for anisotropic elastic wedge under normal and

shear loading. Journal of Applied Mechanics 39, 1103-1109.

Chou, Y. T., 1965. Screw dislocations near a wedge-shaped boundary. Acta Metallurgica

13, 1131-1134.

Chou, Y. T., 1966. Screw dislocations in and near lamellar inclusions. Physica Status

Solidi 17, 509-516.

Chu, S. N. G., 1982. Screw dislocation in a two-phase isotropic thin film. Journal of

Applied Physics 53, 3019-3023.

He, M. Y., Hutchinson, J. W., 1989a. Kinking of a crack out of an interface.

of Applied Mechanics 56, 270-278.

Journal

dissimilar elastic material. International Journal of Solids and Structures 25,

1053-1067.

Kargarnovin, M. H., Shahani, A. R., Fariborz, S. F., 1997. Analysis of an isotropic finite

wedge under antiplane deformation. International Journal of Solids and Structures 34,

113-128.

Kargarnovin, M. H., 2000. Analysis of a dissimilar finite wedge under antiplane

deformation. Mechanics Research Communications 27, 109-116.

Lin, L. S., Chou, Y. T., 1975. Screw dislocations in a three-phase anisotropic medium.

International Journal of Engineering Science 13, 317-325.

Lin, R. L., Ma, C. C., 2000. Antiplane deformation for anisotropic multilayered media

by using the coordinate transform method. Journal of Applied Mechanics 67, 597-605.

Lin, R. L., Ma, C. C., 2003. Analytic full-field solutions of screw dislocation in finite

31

Ma, C. C., Hour, B. L., 1989. Analysis of dissimilar anisotropic wedges subjected to

antiplane shear deformation. International Journal of Solids and Structures 25,

1295-1309.

Shahani, A. R., 1999. Analysis of an anisotropic finite wedge under antiplane

deformation. Journal of Elasticity 56, 17-32.

Tranter, C. J., 1948. The use of the Mellin transform in finding the stress distribution in

an infinite wedge. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 1,

125-130.

Ting, T. C. T., 1984. The wedge subjected to tractions: A paradox re-examined. Journal

of Elasticity 14, 235-247.

Ting, T. C. T., 1985. Elastic wedge subjected to antiplane shear traction - A paradox

explained. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 38, 245-255.

Wang, Z. Y., Zhang, H. T., Chou, Y. T., 1986. Stress singularity at the tip of a rigid line

inhomogeneity under antiplane shear loading. Journal of Applied Mechanics 53,

459-461.

Williams, M. L., 1952. Stress singularities resulting from various boundary condition in

angular corners of plates in extension. Journal of Applied Mechanics 19, 526-528.

Zhang,T. Y., Tong, P., Ouyang, H., Lee, S., 1995. Internation of an edge dislocation

with a wedge crack. Journal of Applied Physics 78, 4873-8233.

32

Figure captions

Fig. 1

infinite length and equal apex angle / 2 .

Fig. 2

located at r = d and .

Fig. 3

/ 2 45 .

Fig. 4

/ 2 45 .

Fig. 5

wedge with a finite radius.

Fig. 6

The location of the image singularity with respect to the circular boundary.

Fig. 7

wedge.

Fig. 8a

with an apex angle 120 subjected to self-equilibrium forces located at

Fig. 8b

with an apex angle 120 subjected to self-equilibrium forces located at

(0.4b, 0 ) and (0.7b, 45 ) .

Fig. 9a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge with

an apex angle 120 subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 9b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge with

an apex angle 120 subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 10a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge with

an apex angle 120 subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 10b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge

with an apex angle 120 subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 11a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge with

33

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 11b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge

with an apex angle 120 subjected to a screw dislocation located at

(0.5b, 45 ) .

Fig. 12a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge with

an interface crack subjected to self-equilibrium forces located at (0.5b, 0 )

and (0.6b, 150 ) .

Fig. 12b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge

with an interface crack subjected to self-equilibrium forces located at

(0.5b, 0 ) and (0.6b, 150 ) .

Fig. 13a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge with

an interface crack subjected to a concentrated force located at (0.5b, 150 ) .

Fig. 13b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge

with an interface crack subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 150 ) .

Fig. 14a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite sharp wedge

with an interface crack subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 150 ) .

Fig. 14b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite sharp wedge

with an interface crack subjected to a concentrated force located at

(0.5b, 150 ) .

Fig. 15a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to self-equilibrium

forces located at (b, 45 ) and (0.7b, 0 ) .

Fig. 15b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to self-equilibrium

forces located at (b, 45 ) and (0.7b, 0 ) .

Fig. 16a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to a concentrated force

located at (0.8b, 45 ) .

Fig. 16b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to a concentrated force

34

located at (0.8b, 45 ) .

Fig. 17a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to a concentrated force

located at (0.8b, 45 ) .

Fig. 17b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.5b subjected to a concentrated force

located at (0.8b, 45 ) .

Fig. 18a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.4b subjected to a screw dislocation

located at (0.6b, 45 ) .

Fig. 18b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.4b subjected to a screw dislocation

located at (0.6b, 45 ) .

Fig. 19a The full-field distribution of shear stress rz for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.4b subjected to a screw dislocation

located at (0.6b, 45 ) .

Fig. 19b The full-field distribution of shear stress z for a composite annular wedge

with an apex angle 120 and a 0.4b subjected to a screw dislocation

located at (0.6b, 45 ) .

Fig. 20a Image force Fr exerted on a screw dislocation in a composite wedge with

apex angle 120 and finite radius r = b.

Fig. 20b Image force F exerted on a screw dislocation in a composite wedge with

apex angle 120 and finite radius r = b.

Fig. 21a Image force Fr exerted on a screw dislocation in a composite wedge with

apex angle 120 and finite radius r = b.

Fig. 21b Image force F exerted on a screw dislocation in a composite wedge with

apex angle 120 and finite radius r = b..

Fig. 22a Image force Fr exerted on a screw dislocation in an annular wedge with apex

angle 120 .

35

Fig. 22b Image force F exerted on a screw dislocation in an annular wedge with apex

angle 120

36

/2

y

2

/2

Fig. 1

y

/2

/2

fz

d

(1)

(1)

1

Fig. 2

37

y

Image point

fz

/4

1

d

Image point

Fig. 3

y

/4

d

Image point

Image point

d

Fig. 4

38

fz

b

Fig. 5

y

Image

point

fz

b 2/d

fz

d

x

b

Fig. 6

39

fz

d

Fig. 7

40

rz b

-0.1

0.0

1.0

fz

-0.2

0.8

-0.3

free

0.3

0.7

-0.4

1.8

0.1

0.6

0.0

-0.6

free

-2.0

-1.2

-0.8

0.4

-0.8

0.2

0.0

-0.1

-1.0

-0.8

-1.0

-0.3

0.0

0.5

0.7

1.8

-0.8

-1.2

-2.0

0.2

0.4

-0.3

-0.5

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

Fig. 8a

z b

1 .0

0.1

0.2

fz

0.3

0.5

0 .8

0.7

0.0

-0.3

1.0

free

1.6

0 .6

-2.0

0.0

free

-1.4

0 .4

-1.2

-1.4

-2.0

0 .2

-0.7

-1.0

-0.5

-0.3

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

Fig. 8b

41

rz b

fz

1 .0

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.6

0 .8

0.9

fixed

1.0

0.7

0 .6

0.5

1.0

1.5

free

0.2

0 .4

0.4

0.0

0 .2

-1.2

-0.7

-0.4

0.5

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.2

r/b

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

Fig. 9a

z b

fz

1 .0

0.1

0.6

0.2

0.05

fixed

0 .8

0.3

0.0

0.5

0 .6

1.0

0.7

1.5

free 0.4

-1.2

-0.2

-0.7 -0.4

0 .2

-0.1

-0.02

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

Fig. 9b

42

rz b

0.02

1 .0

fz

0.0

0.1

0 .8

free

0.2

0 .6

-0.02

-0.1

0.4

0.8

-0.3

0.2

1.5

0.1

-0.5

fixed 0.4

-0.7

-1.5

-1.0

-0.7

-0.5

-0.3

-0.1

0 .2

0.0

0.2

0.02

0.0

0.4

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 10a

z b

1 .0

fz

0.2

0.4

0.1

0 .8

free

0.0

-0.1

0.6

0 .6

0.7

1.0

1.5

fixed 0.4

-0.3

-1.5

0.6

-1.0

0 .2

-0.5

-0.7

0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.4

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 10b

43

0.03

1 .0

0.1

free

0.2

0 .8

0.03

0.0

0.1

0.4

0 .6

0.7

fixed

rz b

1b z

0.3

0.6

1.0

1.2

0 .4

-1.4

-0.8

-0.5

0 .2

-0.1

-0.3

-0.03

r/b

0.2

0.0

0.4

fixed

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

z b

1bz

Fig. 11a

1 .0

-0.6

-0.5

0 .8

-0.9

-1.4

0 .6

-2.0

-0.5

fixed

0 .4

-0.3

0.0

0 .2

1.0

-0.8

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

-1.1

0.2

-0.5

0.4

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 11b

44

rz b

0.0

fz

0.0

-0.01

0.01

-0.01

0.0

-0.1

free

0.01

0.1

-0.1

-0.3

0.3

-0.7

-1.2

0.1

-0.3

0.5

-0.7

1.2

0.8

0.5

0.8

-1.2

free

0.0

0.7

-2.0

0.2

0.3

r/b

1.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.03

Fig. 12a

z b

fz

0.6

0.5

free

0.8

0.3

1.0

0.0

1.2

1.0

0.3

-0.1

0.5

1.2

-0.2

-1.0

0.3

free

-0.6

0.0

-0.4

0.0

0.2

0.4

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

-0.3

-0.03

-0.2

-0.1

Fig. 12b

45

rzb

fz

0.2

0.4

fixed

0.3

0.5

0.6

0.1

0.8

1.2

0.07

0.1

-0.2

0.4

-1.0

0.07

0.0

-0.6

-0.4

0.3

free

0.0

-0.1

0.0

0.4

0.2

0.4

r/b

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

0.1

0.1

0.15

0.3

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.07

Fig. 13a

z b

fz

-0.01

fixed

-0.03

-0.1

0.0

-0.5

-0.3

-0.2

-0.7

-1.2

1.2

free

0.8

0.6

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/b

1.0

free

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.01

Fig. 13b

46

rz b

fz

0.0

0.01

-0.01

0.1

free

0.2

0.3

0.5

-0.1

0.7

-0.3

1.2

-0.5

-1.5

-1.0

-0.8

fixed

0.0

-1.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r/b

1.0

fixed

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

-0.1

-0.05

-0.01

Fig. 14a

z b

fz

-0.2

free

-0.4

0.0

-0.3

-0.2

-1.0

0.2

-0.6

-0.6

1.2

0.0

0.8

fixed

0.2

0.4

0.6

r/b

0.8

1.0

fixed

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.2

Fig. 14b

47

rz b

1 .0

fz

-0.05

-0.01

-0.1

free

-0.2

0 .8

-3.0

-1.6

free

0 .6

-1.0

-0.7

free

0 .4

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.5

1.0

2.0

0 .2

0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.2

-0.4

0.6

-0.7

-1.0

-1.6

-3.0

free

r/b

0.8

1.0

Fig. 15a

z b

0.05

0.01

1 .0

0.1

0.2 0.3

1.0

0.5 2.0

fz

0.0

0 .8

free

-0.01

free

-0.1

-3.0

-0.5

-2.3

0 .6

-1.2

-1.6

-2.0

free

0 .4

-2.0

-1.6

-2.3

0 .2

-1.2

-3.0

r/b

-0.5

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

free

0.8

1.0

Fig. 15b

48

rz b

0.05

0.01

1 .0

0.1

0.0

0 .8

-0.01

fixed

fz

0.2

0.8

1.0

-0.05

-0.1

1.6

-0.3

0 .6

fixed

0.7

0.4

-1.6

fixed

0 .4

0.3

-1.2

-0.8

-0.5

-0.3

0 .2

0.2

0.1

-0.1

0.0

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 16a

z b

fz

1 .0

0.01

0.05

0.1

0.2

0 .8

0.0

0.5

0.9

1.5

0.3

fixed

0 .6

fixed

-1.5

-0.9

-0.6

-0.4

fixed

0 .4

-0.2

0 .2

-0.1

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 16b

49

rz b

-0.03

fz

1 .0

-0.1

0 .8

-0.2

free

free

0.3

0.5

1.0

-0.4

0.1

-0.7

0 .6

0.0

-2.5

fixed

0 .4

-1.5

-1.0

-0.1

-0.7 -0.4

0 .2

-0.2

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

free

0.8

1.0

Fig. 17a

z b

1 .0

0.1

0.03

fz

0.2

0.3

0 .8

free

0.4

0.8

free

1.5

0 .6

-1.5

-0.8 -0.5

fixed

0 .4

-0.3

0 .2

-0.1

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

Fig. 17b

50

0.03

1 .0

0.3

free

0.1

0 .8

1.0

0.3

0.2

0 .6

0.7

rz b

2bz

0.1

0.0

2.4

0.5

1.6

0.03

0.6

free

0 .4

-2.0

-1.2

-0.8

free

0 .2

-0.5

-0.1

-0.3

0.0

0.2

0.4

r/b

free

0.6

0.8

1.0

free

z b

2 bz

Fig. 18a

-0.1

1 .0

-0.5

-1.2

0 .8

0.0

-2.2

-1.5

0 .6

-0.8

free

1.5 2.2

0 .4

free

0.9

-0.3

0.5

0 .2

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.4

free

0.6

0.0

r/b

0.8

1.0

Fig. 18b

51

1 .0

0.4

0.6

0.1

0.2

0 .8

0.8

0.03

0.0

1.2

fixed

-2.2

0.3

0 .4

rz b

2bz

1.8

0.9

2.8

0 .6

fixed

-1.3

free

-0.9

-0.6

0 .2

-0.4

-0.2

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

fixed

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 19a

1 .0

0.0

0.2

fixed

-0.2

0 .8

z b

2 bz

-1.0

0.7

-2.0

0 .6

0.0

1.5

fixed

2.6

0 .4

-0.5

3.5

free

2.0

0 .2

1.0

0.4

0.1

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

fixed

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 19b

52

Equilibrium point

1.6

d / b 0.611

37.3

0.7

1 .0

free

0.4

0.1

0 .8

Fr

2 bz2

0.2

0.0

0 .6

-0.1

free

0.6

-0.2

0 .4

1.3

0.3

0.0

-0.3

-0.2

-0.5

-0.6

0 .2

3.4

-0.3

-7

-1.4

0.0

0.2

r/b

0.4

free

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 20a

1 .0

0.03

free

F

2bz2

0.08

0 .8

0.15

0.4

1.0

0.25

0.1

0.0

0 .6

0.4

free

-0.06

0.7

0 .4

-0.2

-0.4

0 .2

-0.8

1.5

-1.4

r/b

-3.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

free

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 20b

53

1.6

1 .0

free

1.0

Fr

2 bz2

0.75 0.6

0 .8

0.44

0.48

0 .6

0.54

0.33

0.6

fixed

0.4

0.75

0 .4

1.0

0.5

1.5

0.65

1.6

0 .2

0.9

3.2

0.9 0.65

1.5

0.0

r/b

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

fixed

Fig. 21a

0.0

1 .0

free

-0.03

0.05

-0.1

0 .8

0.15

-0.22

F

2bz2

0.4

0 .6

0.02

-1.2

0.08

-0.5

fixed

0 .4

0.2

0.4

0.8

0 .2

1.4

3.0

0.0

0.2

r/b

0.4

fixed

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 21b

54

Equilibrium point

1.0

1 .0

Fr

2 bz2

0.15

0.0

-0.15

-0.35

-0.6

0 .6

3.0

0.6

-1.4

free

free

1.2

-0.6

0 .4

34.7

free

0.4

0 .8

d / b 0.695

-0.2

0.2

-1.2

-3.0

0.0

0 .2

r/b

0.0

0.2

0.4

free

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fig. 22a

0.02

1 .0

0.3

0 .8

F

2bz2

0.1

0.15

2.0

free

0.8

0.15

0.3

0.8

2.4

0.8

0 .6

0.1

0.02

0.06

0.4

0.2

free

0 .4

0.0

-0.06

-0.2

free

-0.5

-1.0

-2.0

0 .2

-6.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

free

0.6

r/b

0.8

1.0

Fig. 22b

55

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