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TRNG AI HOC M TP.

HCM

TRUNG TAM CPA

QUAN LY CHI PH D AN
(PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT)

Bai giang lu hanh noi bo cua lp Boi dng kien thc va


ky nang Quan Ly D An xay dng tai Trung tam CPA
Giang vien: Tran Trung Hau, M. Eng
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CAC QUA TRNH CHNH


 Hoach nh nguon lc (Resource planning): Xac
nh cac nguon lc g (con ngi, thiet b, vat lieu)
va so lng cua moi loai nen c dung e thc
hien cac cong viec cua d an.
 c lng chi ph (Cost estimating): phat trien mot
c tnh xap x cua nhng chi ph cua cac nguon lc
can e hoan thanh cac cong viec cua d an
 Lap ngan sach d an (Cost budgeting): phan bo chi
ph en tng hang muc rieng
 Kiem soat chi ph (Cost control): Kiem soat cac thay
oi ma tac ong en ngan sach d an
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CAC QUA TRNH CHNH CUA QUAN LY CHI PH (tiep)


 4 qua trnh tren cua quan ly chi ph tng tac lan nhau va tng
tac vi cac qua trnh khac cua quan ly d an.
 Ngoai ra trong thc te, 4 qua trnh noi tren co the chong lap
nhau (overlap) va tng tac vi nhau theo mot cach thc ma
khong c chi tiet hoa trong bai giang nay.
 Quan ly chi ph d an nen can nhac nhu cau thong tin cua
cac oi tac tham gia d an. Cac oi tac khac nhau co the o
lng chi ph trong nhng cach khac nhau va tai nhng thi
iem khac nhau.
 Quan ly chi ph d an cung co the bao gom d bao va phan tch
s chi tieu tai chnh cua san pham d an. Luc nay quan ly chi
ph d an cung bao gom cac ky thuat nh: ROI (return on
investment), ngan lu chiet khau (discounted cash flow), phan
tch hoan von (pay-back analysis),
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HOACH NH NGUON LC (RESOURCE


PLANNING)
Inputs
1- WBS
2- Historical
information
3- Scope statement
4- Resource pool
description
5- Organizational
policies

Tools
1- Expert
judgment
2- Altinatives
identification

Outputs
1- Resource
requirements

HOACH NH NGUON LC (RESOURCE


PLANNING)
 AU VAO (INPUTS):

 Work Break-Down Structure (WBS)


 Thong tin qua kh: Thong tin ve loai nao cua nguon lc la
c yeu cau cho nhng cong viec tng t cua nhng d an
trc o nen c dung neu co san
 Bao cao quy mo (Scope statement): cha ng s can thiet
au t va cac muc tieu d an
 Resource pool description: Kien thc ve nhng tai nguyen
nao la co san th can thiet cho hoach nh nguon lc
 Cac chnh sach cua to chc: Cac chnh sach cua to chc
thc hien d an ve nhan vien, ve thue hoac mua thiet b phai
c can nhac trong qua trnh hoach nh nguon lc.
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HOACH NH NGUON LC (RESOURCE


PLANNING) tiep theo
 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and
techniques):
 Y kien chuyen gia (Expert judgment): Y kien chuyen
gia thng c yeu cau e anh gia au vao cho tng
qua trnh. Cac chuyen gia nh the co the c cung cap
bi cac cac phong ban khac cua to chc thc hien d an,
bi cac cong ty t van, bi cac hiep hoi nghe nghiep,
 Nhan dang cac giai phap thay the (Alternatives
identification):

HOACH NH NGUON LC (RESOURCE


PLANNING) tiep theo

 AU RA (Outputs):

 Cac nhu cau nguon lc (Resource

requirements):

au ra cua qua trnh hoach nh nguon lc la s mieu ta


cua loai nguon lc nao la can va vi so lng bao nhieu
cho moi phan t cua WBS.
 Cac nguon lc nay se at c thong qua bieu o nhan
lc (staff accquisition) va qua trnh cung ng
(procurement)

C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


Inputs
1- WBS (Input cua
hoach nh n.lc)
2- Resource
requirements
(Output cua hoach nh
n.lc)
3- Resource rates
4- Activity duration
estimates

Tools
1- Analoguos est.
2- Parametric
modeling
3- Bottom-up est.
4- Computerized
tools

Outputs
1- Cost estimates
2- Suporting detail
3- Cost management
plan

C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


 AU VAO (INPUTS):

Work Break-Down Structure (WBS)


Cac nhu cau nguon lc (Resource requirements) = au ra cua qua
trnh hoach nh nguon lc
n gia nguon lc (Resource rates): Cac nhan vien am nhan c tnh
chi ph d an phai biet n gia (unit rate) cho tng loai nguon lc e tnh
toan cac chi ph d an. Neu khong co d lieu ve n gia th ho phai t
c tnh.
c lng thi gian hoan thanh cong tac (Activity duration
estimates) = au ra cua quan ly tien o d an (Project time
mamangement)
Thong tin qua kh (historical information)
Chart of accounts: S o cua cac khoan muc tai chanh mieu ta cau truc
ma hoa c dung trong to chc thc hien d an e ghi chep cac thong
tin tai chanh vao trong so cai ke toan (ledger)
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C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and
techniques):
c tnh tng t (Analogous Estimating):
 Con c goi la top-down estimating, tc la s dung
cac chi ph thc cua nhng d an tng t truc o nh
la c s cho viec c tnh chi ph cho d an hien hanh
 No thng c dung khi chung ta co rat t thong tin
ve d an
 t ton chi ph hn nhng cung t chnh xac hn

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C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and
techniques) tiep theo:
Mo hnh tham so (Parametric modeling):
 S dung cac ac tnh (parameters) d an trong mot
mo hnh toan hoc e d oan chi ph d an.
 Cac mo hnh nay co the n gian (xay dng chung c
thng c tnh da tren gia thanh 1m2 san xay
dng) hoac phc tap (mo hnh c lng chi ph phan
mem s dung 13 nhan to hieu chnh rieng biet)

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C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and
techniques) tiep theo:
c lng Bottom-up (Bottom-up estimating):
 Ky thuat nay lien quan en c lng chi ph cua cac
cong viec rieng, sau o se cong don len mc cao hn
e co c tong chi ph d an
 Khi cong viec c chia cang nho th o chnh xac
cua c tnh se gia tang

Cac cong cu vi tnh (Computerized tools): MS


Project, Primavera, WinEstimate,
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C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)

 AU RA (Outputs):

 c lng chi ph (Cost estimates):


 La anh gia nh lng cua cac chi ph kha d cua cac
nguon lc can thiet e hoan thanh d an.
 cac chi ph phai c c tnh cho tat ca cac nguon
lc ma d an ganh chu, bao gom: nhan lc, vat lieu,
cung cap, va cac loai ac biet nh tr cap do lam phat,
d phong ph.
 c lng chi ph mot cach tong quat thng c
tnh bay di dang tien te nhng oi khi cung co the
c phat bieu di dang tong gi cong cua nhan vien
can dung cho d an
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C LNG CHI PH (COST ESTIMATING)


 AU RA (Outputs) tiep theo:

 Cac chi tiet phu (Supporting detail):bao gom:

 Mo ta quy mo cong viec c lng = Tham khao en WBS


 Cac tai lieu dung lam c s cho c lng (tc la lam the nao
ma tong chi ph a c c lng)
 Tai lieu cua cac gia nh
 Dung sai cua c lng

 Ke hoach quan ly chi ph (Cost plan Management):


mieu ta lam the nao cac sai biet ve chi ph se c quan
ly. Mc o chi tiet da tren nhu cau cua cac ben tham gia
d an. No la mot phan cua ke hoach tong the d an (the
overall project plan)
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LAP NGAN SACH D AN (COST BUDGETING)


Inputs
1- Cost estimates
(Output cua c lng
chi ph)
2- WBS (Input cua
hoach nh nguon lc)
3- Project schedule

Tools
1- Cost estimating
tools and
techniques

Outputs
1- Cost baseline

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LAP NGAN SACH D AN (COST


BUDGETING)
 AU VAO (Inputs):

 c lng chi ph (cost estimates)


 WBS: giup nhan dang nhng phan t ma chi ph se c
phan bo
 Tien o d an (project schedule): giup ch ra ngay bat
au va ngay hoan thanh d an cho cac thanh phan d an
ma chi ph se c phan bo. Thong tin nay la can thiet e
phan cong chi ph en cac thi oan thch hp ma d an
phai ganh chu chi ph o.

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LAP NGAN SACH D AN (COST


BUDGETING)
 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and
techniques):
 Cac cong cu va ky thuat c lng chi ph (Cost
estimate tools and techniques):
 Giong nh cac cong cu va ky thuat a dung trong c lng chi
ph ( cost estimates)

 AU RA (Outputs):

 Cost Baseline: la ngan sach ng vi mot giai oan ma se


c dung e o lng va theo doi s thc hien cua chi
ph. No thng c cong don theo thi gian thanh cac o
th cong ch S. Nhieu d an (ac biet la d an ln) co the
co cost baseline boi (multiple cost baseline), chang han
nh: ke hoach chi tieu hoac d bao ngan lu la cost
baseline cho o lng chi tieu
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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST CONTROL)


Inputs
1- Cost baseline
(Output cua lap ngan
sach d an)
2- Performance
reports
3- Change requests
4- Cost
management plan

Tools
1- Cost change
control system
2- Performance
measurement
3- Additional
planning
4- Computerized
tools

Outputs
1- Revised cost
estimates
2- Budget updates
3- corrective
action
4- Estmates at
completion
5- Lesson learned

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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST CONTROL)


 AU VAO (inputs):

 Cost baseline
 Bao cao tien trnh (performance report): cung cap
thong tin ve tien trnh xay ra cua chi ph trong thc te. No
canh bao cho nhom quan ly d an nhng van e tiem
nang trong tng lai
 Cac yeu cau thay oi (Change request): co the xuat
hien trong nhieu dang thc. Cac thay oi co the lam cho
gia tang ngan sach nhng cung co the lam giam no.
 Ke hoach quan ly chi ph (Cost plan management)

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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST CONTROL)

 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and


techniques):
 He thong kiem soat thay oi chi ph (cost change

system control): xac nh cac quy trnh bi nhng g


ma cost baseline co the c thay oi. No bao gom:
paperwork, tracking system, va phan cap quyen giai
quyet thay oi.
 o lng tien trnh (measurement performance):
giup anh gia o ln cua cac sai biet ve chi ph.
Earned value analysis la hu ch e kiem soat cac
thay oi nay
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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST CONTROL)

 CONG CU VA KY THUAT (Tools and


techniques) tiep theo:
Ke hoach bo sung (Additional plan): Xem xet lai
chi ph a c lng hoac phan tch cac giai phap
thay the co the c yeu cau
 Cac cong cu may tnh (Computerized tools): Cac
phan mem QLDA co the dung e theo doi bien
ong chi ph a hoach nh, chi ph thc chi, d bao
chi ph cho phan cong viec con lai

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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST


CONTROL)
 AU RA (Outputs):

 Duyet lai c lng chi ph (Revised cost


estimates): Cac ben co lien quancan phai c
thong bao ve s phe duyet lai nay. No co the dan
en thay oi ke hoach tong the d an.
 Cap nhat ngan sach (Budget updates): la cac thay
oi trong revised cost estimate. No c cap nhat e
tng thch vi cac thay oi ve quy mo (neu co)
 Hanh ong hieu chnh (Corrective action): la
nhng cong viec can phai lam e a ket qua cuoi
cung cua d an ve gan vi ke hoach a d tru.
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KIEM SOAT CHI PH (COST


CONTROL)
 AU RA (Outputs):

c lng luc hoan thanh (Estimate at


completion=EAC): la d bao ve tong chi ph d an
luc hoan thanh ma da vao ket qua a thc thc
hien cua d an. Co 3 cach thong dung e c lng
EAC (se c thao luan e phan tch Earned Value)
 Bai hoc kinh nghiem (Lesson learned): Nguyen
nhan cac thay oi, ly do ang sau s la chon cac
corrective action, va cac bai hoc khac nen c tai
lieu hoa e tr thanh cac d lieu lch s cho cac d
an tng t ma chu d an se thc hien trong tng
lai.
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