LEVEL 2
MATHEMATICS
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
P J Kane
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CONTENTS
2.1
Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2
Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3
Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4
Coordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.5
Sample Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.6
2.7
Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.8
2.9
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Each chapter begins with a schedule of the requirements for that achievement standard. As you read
down each schedule, you will see that the challenges become more complex.
In most chapters a preliminary set of exercises has been provided to set in motion the set of skills
required for the achievement objectives. Once you think that you have mastered the skill set progress
onto the first model assessment.
For external achievement standards allow 45  60 minutes.
For internal achievement standards allow 45 hours as these are more project orientated.
Check the solutions, and if yours do not quite match these, rework your calculations, or check with
friends or teachers until you are satisfied.
Attempt the second model assessment 12 weeks later to see if the themes you covered still click.
Again, check the solutions at the back of the book with yours. Remember, you can still learn from your
mistakes .... this side of the final exams.
It is worth recognising that in Year 12 your mathematics may appear to have begun at a roundabout.
It introduces new themes which seem to go down different roads. One of the strengths of this subject,
however, is that these themes or roads are connected, though this may not be evident just yet.
Therefore as you are being assessed in discrete themes or standards, try to develop an eye for the
bigger picture. As always mathematics is about solving problems and finding patterns and reasons.
Hopefully your experiences this year will provide you with confidence and judgement for future
challenges.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Did you know that Mahobe added equation solving to
make this an even more powerful calculator?
eTOOL
100
50
www.mahobe.co.nz.
50
100
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Algebra
MATHEMATICS 2.1
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90284
Manipulate algebraic expressions and solve equations
From the
straightforward
logarithmic statements
(less steps)
C
cases
to
situations
involving
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
more depth,
more steps
and
growing complexities
with
sensible interpretations
of the solutions(s).
Algebra
ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE
Rearrange (change the subject of) these formulae:
a.
x, in y = 3x  7
b.
r, in A = 4r2
2.
3.
4.
5.
c.
d.
5x2(1  3x)2(x + 8) = 0
2x(3x + 1)(3x  5)
c.
(x + 3)(2x  7)2
x2  19x + 84
b.
10x2  x  21
c.
a2  av + aw  vw
Write
b.
Simplify
c.
Simplify
log 15  log 3
ii.
3 log 2 + 2 log 3
iii. 2 log 6 c.
log 36 + log 5
Simplify
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
6.
Algebra
b.
c.
d.
7.
8.
x3=x+7
b.
c.
3(2x + 1) < 2x + 9
d.
2(x + 3) >
3x2  7x + 2 = 0
c.
5x = 2x3 + 3x2
9.
e.
x2 + 4x  2 = 0
f.
8  x  x2 = 0
logx 343 = 3
c.
7x1 = 26
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
10
10.
Algebra
b.
2x + y = 5
Line and curve
c.
y = x2  3x
y = 2x  6
11.
y=x+5
3y + 4x = 1
d.
xy = 2
yx=1
QUADRATIC ROOTS
a.
Find the nature of the roots of:
b.
i.
4x2  13x + 7 = 0
ii.
25x2  30x + 9 = 0
Use the discriminant of 2x2  2nx + 5 = 0 to find the values of n for which
there will be no real roots (i.e. imaginary).
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
1.
Simplify:
2.
Simplify fully:
3.
4.
a.
b. logx 44 = 5
c. 3x2  x = 4
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
11
Algebra
12
QUESTION TWO
A suburb in a major city has been infected by a foreign moth which could have devastating effects on
neighbouring farms and forests. An aerial spray campaign is launched where an aeroplane flies over the area
and spreads an insecticide, which though fatal to the moth is harmless to humans and other creatures.
The formula M = M0(0.85)t gives the number of moths (M) in the spray zone t days after the plane has sprayed.
M0 is the initial number of moths that the Ministry officials believe were in the zone. If they believe that 800
moths were present in the zone, how many days after spraying would it take the population to fall to 500
moths?
QUESTION THREE
A circular traffic island in the middle of an intersection is planned. The circle is represented by x2 + y2 = 36.
Also in the plan is a path of an electrical cable which runs underneath the traffic island. The cable path may
be shown by y = 2x + 6.
a.
Find the x ordinates of the points where the cable meets the perimeter of the traffic island.
b.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
13
QUESTION FOUR
A team of netballers and their supporters are fundraising in order to attend a Golden Oldies tournament in the
Cook Islands. One of their activities is a social at a local hall. The team has two options for pricing tickets to
this event.
Option Price A
PA =
Option Price B
PB =
Solve PA = PB and find the minimum number of tickets which need to be sold so that the price of Option B
tickets would be less than the price of Option A tickets.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
14
Algebra
QUESTION FIVE
The quadratic equation x2  (k + 1)x + 4k = 0 has 2 roots.
If the difference between the roots is 1, find the value of k.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
15
2.
3.
4.
5.
b. 3x2  8x = 4
c. 6x = 31
At the movies during the weekend, Moira served ice creams to a group of children from a birthday party.
Of the 9 she served, 7 wanted chocolate dipped while the other 2 wanted plain. If it cost a total of
$19.25 with a chocolate dipped ice cream being 50 cents more than a plain one, calculate the cost of
a plain ice cream.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
16
Algebra
QUESTION TWO
Show that there is only one point of intersection between: x2 + y2 + 2x  7 = 0 and y = x  3.
QUESTION THREE
The height of a door is 1 metre longer than its width. The area of the door is 1.7 m2.
What are the dimensions of the door? (Give your answer to 1 dp.)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Algebra
17
QUESTION FIVE
After t hours of use, the value (V) of a certain brand of jetski (which was purchased new for $19 995) may be
estimated by: V = P(0.993)t where P is the retail price.
After how many hours of use would the jetski be worth
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
18
Algebra
QUESTION SIX
A certain aeroplane can cover a distance of 5000 km travelling over a time, t hours, at a velocity v =
If the same aeroplane flew the 5000 km again, this time increasing its speed by 250 km/h (i.e. v + 250), and
cutting the travelling time by an hour (i.e. t  1), what would its speed have been in both instances?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Did you know that Mahobe added equation solving to
make this an even more powerful calculator?
eTOOL
100
50
www.mahobe.co.nz.
50
100
MAHOBE
Graphs
19
MATHEMATICS 2.2
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90285
Draw straightforward nonlinear graphs
C
C
C
C
C
or
From more
straightforward
relations
and their
graphs
to
graphs
with more
complexity
C
C
C
C
C
C
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Relations
given may have
coefficients
constraints and exponents
other than 1.
20
Graphs
y = x2 + 3x  4
ii.
y = (x + 3)2  4
iii.
(x + 1)(x  2)(x + 3)
b. i.
y=
ii. y =
x2 + y2 = 49
d. i.
y = 5x
ii. y = 5x  3
e. i.
y = log8 x
ii. y = log8 *x  3*
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
21
22
Graphs
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
2.
c.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
d.
23
24
3.
Graphs
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
y = x2  4x 5
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
b. y =
c. y = 4x
25
26
Graphs
QUESTION TWO
1.
2.
Millie bought a car for $11995 some years ago. She knows that the current value of her car may be
modelled by the equation: V = $11995(0.82)t, where V is the current value of her car and t is the number
of years since she bought her car.
a. Plot the graph of this equation of the cars current value over the six years since she bought it.
b. During which year did the value of the car fall under half of the purchase price?
1.
2.
V
(Value in $)
t(years)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
QUESTION THREE
Draw graphs of these equations:
a.
(x  2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9
b.
y=
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
= 3+
27
28
Graphs
QUESTION FOUR
Another car depreciation model that Millie discovered is given as: V =
What does the graph tell us about the rate at which the value of the car decreased?
b.
What does the graph indicate about the value of the car after many years?
c.
What does the y intercept tell us about the purchase price of the car?
V (Value in $)
t(years)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
29
QUESTION FIVE
For each of the graphs, write the equation.
a.
b.
c.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
30
Graphs
QUESTION SIX
Millies geology class has been studying volcanic crater lakes of the central North Island. One crater lake that
she studied had suddenly filled then burst one of its walls sending a torrent of water, mud and rock down the
mountain side. The data from the seismic monitoring station at the lake gave these figures:
Time
Lake Depth
4pm, 10 Feb
6.6m (initial)
7am, 11 Feb
15.2m (burst)
15
10am, 13 Feb
8.0m
66
Millie models this situation with two hyperbolae (see graph below).
After the first 15 hours, the depth of the lake could be modelled by this hyperbole:
D is the depth of the crater lake (in metres) and t is the time (in hours) since the lake began to fill.
a.
Write the equation for the (second) hyperbola which models the lakes depth after 15 hours.
b.
Use your model equation above to estimate the time and the date when the crater lake returns to its
initial depth of 6.6 metres.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
b.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
31
32
Graphs
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
QUESTION TWO
Write the equation of each of the following graphs.
a.
c.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
b.
33
34
Graphs
QUESTION THREE
Draw graphs of EACH of the following:
a.
y = 2x2  3x  5
b.
y = x3 + 1
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
QUESTION FOUR
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
35
36
Graphs
QUESTION FIVE
Helen and Don invest a sum of money into an education fund which compounds at 8% annually. The amount
in the account after t years may be given by the equation y = 45(1.08)t, where y the amount of money is in
hundreds of dollars. Below, a graph is given for the first 11 years.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Graphs
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
37
38
Graphs
QUESTION SIX
In the year of a general election a certain government department has been ordered to trim its spending (S)
according to this model equation: S = A  B log10 (x + 0.5), where S is in dollars, and x is the number of weeks
since the order was given.
By the end of Week 1, the Department has spent $107 449 for that week, but by the end of the tenth week,
their weekly spending was $64 011.
a.
Find A and B (to the nearest $10), then rewrite the model equation with these values.
b.
If the election was held seven months (30 weeks) after the order was given to the government
department, use your model equation to estimate how much had been spent by them in that election
week.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Mahobe have added some amazing technology into
their new eTool advanced scientific calculator.
Equation solving.
Enhanced statistics.
Improved powers and fraction display.
This calculator is designed to handle even the toughest
assignments. If you use any other calculator then good
luck. With a Mahobe Resource you can have an added
confidence that the answer will be correct.
eTOOL
MAHOBE
www.mahobe.co.nz.
Calculus
39
MATHEMATICS 2.3
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90286
Find and use straightforward derivatives and integrals
C
C
C
C
C
C
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
From more
straightforward
uses of
calculus techniques
and applications
and familiarity with
, f!(x)
and Idx notations
to
wider ranging
applications and contexts
involving those
techniques requiring
interpretation of the
solutions.
40
Calculus
2.
3.
= 18x5 +
+1
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
4.
5.
6.
3x2 . dx.
b. Find the area between the curve, y = 2x  x2 and the x axis between x = 0 and x = 2.
c. Find the total area between y = x(x  1)(x + 3) and the x axis.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
41
42
7.
Calculus
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
8.
43
A large model rocket is fired vertically into the air with an initial velocity of 245 m/s. After t seconds
the height of the rocket (h metres) is given by: h = 245t  4.9t2.
a. Find an expression for the instantaneous velocity, v, of the rocket after t seconds.
b. What is the velocity of the rocket after 5 seconds?
c. What is the height of the rocket at the same time?
d. Show that the acceleration of the rocket is constant.
e. When does the rocket reach its maximum height above the ground, and what is this height?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
44
9.
Calculus
Optimisation situations require the use of calculus to find the maximum or minimum solution.
For example, in a new subdivision the developers wish to create rectangular sections, each having a
total boundary (or perimeter) of 108 m. What are the dimensions of such a rectangle, so that its area
could be a maximum?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
QUESTION TWO
The graph shown below has the equation y = 3x2 + 1.
Calculate the shaded area.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
45
46
Calculus
QUESTION THREE
The gradient function of a curve is f!(x) = 6x2  4x + 5.
The curve passes through the point (2, 11).
Find the equation of the curve.
QUESTION FOUR
Find the x coordinates of the two points on the graph of y = 2x3  6x + 8 where the gradient is parallel to the
xaxis.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
47
QUESTION FIVE
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x3  3x2  7x + 1 at the point (1, 4).
QUESTION SIX
Graeme returns to his car at the end of work and realises that he left the lights on, draining the battery.
Fortunately he parked on a slight slope earlier in the day, so he can roll the manual geared vehicle to push
start it.
As the vehicle slowly rolls forward, its velocity is given by v = 0.75t (m/s) where v = velocity in metres per
second and t = time in seconds from when the car begins to roll.
How far has the car rolled over the first 8 seconds?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
48
Calculus
QUESTION SEVEN
Graeme designs rest areas along the edges of major highways. One of his more recent designs was the
computer designed area (part of which is shown as the shaded region on the graph below). As edges for the
area, he used these three equations:
y = 12  3x2
y = 36
and
x = 1,
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
49
QUESTION EIGHT
To prevent flooding near a rural school the local council asked Graeme to design a drain along the rear
boundary. Graeme saves costs by designing a concrete structure to fit into an existing ditch.
Together the floor (width) and the heights of the two walls have a total
length of 5.6m.
Find the width of the floor which will allow the greatest flow of
stormwater through the crosssectional area shown. Also, give this
maximum crosssectional area.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
50
Calculus
b.
Find the equation of the function which passes through the point (1, 1) and whose gradient function
is
= 8x3 + 6x2  4x  1.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
c.
Find the area under the curve, y = x3 + 2 for the values of x between 0 and 2.
d.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
51
52
Calculus
QUESTION TWO
Find the area between the x  axis and the
curve y = (x + 1)(x  4)
= x2  3x  4
for values of x between 0 and 5.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Calculus
53
QUESTION THREE
3.
An electronic powered model boat is being sailed on a small lagoon. Its velocity, in cm/s is given by:
v = 18 + 15t  3t2 for 0 # t # 6
where t is the time in seconds after the boat is started.
a. After 2 seconds the boat is 65 cm from its owner who is controlling it from shore. How far was the
boat from the owner at the start?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
54
Calculus
QUESTION FOUR
A manufacturer produces car polish in tin cans which have a volume of 335 cm3. Find the radius of the tin can
which requires the least amount of metal.
Note  for a cylinder V = r2h and SA = 2r2 + 2rh.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Some advanced technology
has gone into the Mahobe
DS742ET to make it one
of the most powerful
calculators available.
If you use anything else
then good luck!
planned orbit
eTOOL
actual orbit
C1
C2
www.mahobe.co.nz.
MAHOBE
Coordinate Geometry
55
MATHEMATICS 2.4
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90287
Use coordinate geometry methods
From
straightforward contexts
in two dimensions
to
of 2 lines
situations with
more complexity
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
three dimensional
possibilities
and
extended chains of
reasoning.
56
Coordinate Geometry
2.
3.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
4.
Find the equation of the line which passes through (3, 2) and (1, 5).
5.
A line
b. Perpendicular to
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
57
58
6.
Coordinate Geometry
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
7.
P(1, 5), Q(3, 2) and R(3, 1) are the vertices of a triangle.
a. Find the equation of the median drawn from R to the midpoint of
b. Find the equation of the altitude from P to
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
59
60
8.
Coordinate Geometry
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
61
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
62
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION ONE
a.
Calculate the distance along the length of the back straight between N(4, 11) and S(10, 2).
b.
c.
A fence line passes through the point (2, 8) and follows a path parallel to the line y =
x + 5.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION TWO
A drain runs along a straight line equidistant between the points (1, 2) and (3, 4).
Find the equation of the line which the drain follows.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
63
64
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION THREE
The ends of the back straight N(4, 11) and S(10, 2) form a triangle with a trough at T(2, 0).
Find the equation of the median of this triangle through N(4, 11).
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
65
QUESTION FOUR
The equation of the road between the ends S(10, 2) on the back straight, and P(2, 10) on the front straight
is x + y + 12 = 0.
The altitude of the triangle SPT, through the horse trough (2, 0) is given by the equation: x  y  2 = 0.
Calculate the length of the altitude of the triangle SPT through vertex T(2, 0).
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
66
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION FIVE
The farmer who owns the property wishes to move the back straight of the track so that it now runs along the
line y =
x + 8.
Calculate the closest distance this new piece of track comes to a new trough planned at the position (6, 0).
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
67
68
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION ONE
a.
A solar light, L2, is located halfway between the second tee T2 (25, 15) and the second
hole H2 (11, 28). Find the coordinates of L2.
b.
What is the equation of the line from T2 (25, 15) to T3 (1, 24)?
c.
The equation of the path from hole two at H2 to the third tee, T3 is y =
x
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
69
QUESTION TWO
An old cable running from the bend at C(19, 12), under the pond, meets the service path at the midpoint
between the two tees, T1(11, 2) and T3(1, 24). What is the length of this underground cable?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
70
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION THREE
Consider a triangle formed by the three points T3, H2 and T2.
Show how the equation of the altitude of the triangle T3, H2, T2 which passes through the vertex at T2 is
5x + 2y  155 = 0.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
71
QUESTION FOUR
The path for the fifth hole has two legs. The first leg starts at T5(9, 0) and runs perpendicular to the line T1
H1 until it gets to the bend at D. From D, the second leg runs along a path which is perpendicular to the line
BH3, ending at the hole H5 (3, 15).
What are the coordinates of the bend at D?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
72
Coordinate Geometry
QUESTION FIVE
Another light is going to be located halfway between T3 and B so that the area of the north side of the
pond can be lit up. A cable will run from this point and be connected to the existing cable which runs
between T3 and T2.
What will be the shortest distance between the new light and the line T3 T2?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Mahobe have added some amazing technology into
their new eTool advanced scientific calculator.
Equation solving.
Enhanced statistics.
Improved powers and fraction display.
This calculator is designed to handle even the toughest
assignments. If you use any other calculator then good
luck. With a Mahobe Resource you can have an added
confidence that the answer will be correct.
eTOOL
MAHOBE
www.mahobe.co.nz.
Sample Statistics
73
MATHEMATICS 2.5
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90288
Select a sample and use this to make an inference about the population
From
more straightforward
inferences
taken from a sample
about the population
to
fuller justification
of the method(s) used
leading to
a more critical
evaluation
of the whole sampling
process
and
the results.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
74
Sample Statistics
2.
The number of nosetotail accidents during Labour weekend along a particular stretch of motorway
is given below for each direction. The results have been recorded over the last 2 decades.
North Bound Lanes: 14, 11, 25, 19, 10, 8, 23, 34, 21, 15, 20, 12, 25, 11, 13, 31, 10, 5, 33, 22
South Bound Lanes: 16, 18, 8, 14, 24, 2, 18, 13, 11, 21, 29, 17, 5, 16, 14, 20, 10, 9, 16, 30
a. Create a back to back stem and leaf plot for each data set.
b. List the five point summary for each data set (high, median, quartiles, low).
c. Form box and whisker plots for each on the same grid.
d. Calculate the mean number for each direction.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
3.
13
4.
The cost of a single person to stay one night at a motel in an east coast city varies considerably.
This frequency table shows the tariffs which were charged in 2005.
a. In which interval does the median price lie?
Price
Midpoint
of Interval
Frequency
$50 
$55
$60 
$65
$70 
$75
$80 
$85
$90 
$95
$100 
$105
$110 
$115
$120  130
$125
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
75
76
Sample Statistics
Each table below has columns to assist the manual calculation of the sample mean and sample standard
deviation.
a.
Complete each table, then use the formulae to find each sample statistic.
b.
5.
6.
x
Totals
(x  )2
25
11
14
15
13
16
16
21
22
25
x
5
2
10
14
56
36
x.f
(x  )2
f.(x  )2
Totals
S =
S =
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
77
Describe your sampling process clearly so that someone else can follow it.
c.
Justify your choice of sampling method by describing the decisions made and the reason for these
decisions.
d.
List the data for your sample that you gathered from the data sheet.
e.
Explain whether your sample is actually representative of your population or not. (You do not have
to select another sample if it is not.)
f.
Check appropriate statistics for your sample and use this to estimate when in the day there were
significant earthquakes.
g.
Write a short paragraph outlining what you have found (from your estimates), and what you could
conclude about when a significant earthquake occurred. Comment on the reliability of your estimate
and therefore your conclusion.
h.
Evaluate the sampling and statistical processes you have used. Comment on things such as:
C
the accuracy of your estimate  when an earthquake of this size was most likely
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
78
Sample Statistics
Magnitude
Magnitude
6.7
5.4
6.1
5.7
5.5
6.8
W. Turkey
Centralmid Atlantic Ridge
7.8
6.8
Tarapaca, Chile
Aleutian Is, Alaska
6.6
6.6
Yap, Micronesia
off E. Honshu, Japan
7.2
6.5
6.3
4.8
Sulawesi, Indonesia
Yunnan, China
4.9
6.7
5.9
4.7
4.8
6.6
Java, Indonesia
Anatchan, N.Mariana Is
6.6
6.7
7.1
6.8
Celebos Sea
Vanuatu
2.7
6.0
S. Africa
off S. Honshu, Japan
6.1
6.6
S. Xinjiang China
Kepulauan, Indonesia
7.3
5.0
5.5
6.6
5.2
Yunnan, China
6.5
6.4
Sulawesi, Indonesia
Central Iran
4.8
7.2
Yunnan, China
off E. Honshu, Japan
6.8
Simeulue, Indonesia
5.1
7.1
4.9
Banda Sea
Pakistan
7.7
5.6
5.8
5.0
Taiwan
S.Africa
7.5
6.7
N. Peru
New Britain region, PNG
5.7
5.8
E.Turkey
E. Turkey
5.3
S. Peru
4.9
6.6
Maharashtra, India
Kyushu, Japan
7.6
5.2
Pakistan
SW Kashmir
6.9
8.7
Salta, Argentina
N.Sumatra, Indonesia
6.5
5.1
NE of Taiwan
E. Honshu, Japan
6.7
Kepulauan, Indonesia
5.9
4.2
off W. Turkey
Guangxi, China
6.5
6.7
Kepulauan, Indonesia
N. Coast of N.Guinea
6.5
6.8
5.5
5.2
5.1
Pakistan
S.China Sea
4.5
Kyushu, Japan
7.0
6.9
4.9
6.5
W. Iran
S. of Panama
6.5
5.2
Simeulue, Indonesia
HuberJiangxi, China
6.5
6.8
PacificAntartic Ridge
Nias Region, Indonesia
6.0
S. Iran
6.6
6.9
S. of Kermadec Islands
Nias Region, Indonesia
6.5
6.8
4.3
S. Africa
6.6
6.6
6.7
4.5
Fiji region
W. Honshu, Japan
Location
Location
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
79
80
Sample Statistics
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
81
10
11
12
13
14
15
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
214
213
186
185
158
157
130
129
102
101
74
73
46
215
212
187
184
159
156
131
128
103
100
75
72
47
216
211
188
183
160
155
132
127
104
99
76
71
48
217
210
189
182
161
154
133
126
105
98
77
70
49
218
209
190
181
162
153
134
125
106
97
78
69
50
219
208
191
180
163
152
135
124
107
96
79
68
51
220
207
192
179
164
151
136
123
108
95
80
67
52
221
206
193
178
165
150
137
122
109
94
81
66
53
222
205
194
177
166
149
138
121
110
93
82
65
54
223
204
195
176
167
148
139
120
111
92
83
64
55
224
203
196
175
168
147
140
119
112
91
84
63
56
225
202
197
174
169
146
141
118
113
90
85
62
57
226
201
198
173
170
145
142
117
114
89
86
61
58
227
200
199
172
171
144
143
116
115
88
87
60
59
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
255
254
253
252
251
250
249
248
247
246
245
244
243
242
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
82
Sample Statistics
YOUR TASK
The owners of the marine farm have asked you to help estimate the average mass of shell fish per rope in
the farm.
By selecting a sample of the ropes:
1.
Choose a sampling method and use it to design a sampling process to obtain a representative sample
of at least 30 shellfish ropes. Explain your process clearly so that someone else could follow it.
2.
Justify your choice of sampling method taking into account the population and considerations of
bias. You may like to describe any decisions you made and the reasons for these decisions.
3.
4.
List the data for your sample which you gathered from the data sheet.
5.
Explain whether your sample is representative of your population or not. You do not have to select
another sample if it is not.
6.
7.
Use your sample and the statistics you have calculated to:
a. Estimate the average mass of shellfish per rope for the whole farm.
b. Estimate a suitable measure of spread for the mass of shellfish per rope for the whole farm.
8.
Use your estimate to inform the marine farm owners of your conclusion as to the average mass of
shellfish per rope in the farm. Justify your estimates and therefore your conclusion.
9.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
83
404
38
488
75
165
112
358
149
159
186
370
223
429
413
39
187
76
168
113
269
150
480
187
208
224
446
160
40
449
77
508
114
504
151
394
188
139
225
331
451
41
397
78
227
115
291
152
257
189
520
226
314
337
42
309
79
207
116
189
153
187
190
357
227
180
477
43
357
80
186
117
164
154
248
191
499
228
401
499
44
255
81
395
118
310
155
378
192
174
229
360
186
45
185
82
459
119
195
156
389
193
411
230
219
445
46
509
83
191
120
479
157
135
194
504
231
208
10
108
47
185
84
247
121
178
158
407
195
463
232
352
11
216
48
307
85
279
122
484
159
220
196
458
233
267
12
173
49
345
86
468
123
207
160
249
197
285
234
409
13
286
50
175
87
247
124
161
161
281
198
308
235
190
14
191
51
143
88
366
125
252
162
192
199
348
236
167
15
458
52
309
89
336
126
264
163
257
200
240
237
480
16
145
53
365
90
207
127
518
164
294
201
348
238
375
17
425
54
506
91
225
128
210
165
485
202
257
239
385
18
447
55
361
92
275
129
158
166
139
203
381
240
251
19
306
56
490
93
177
130
195
167
460
204
190
241
310
20
327
57
440
94
164
131
338
168
501
205
507
242
428
21
240
58
336
95
458
132
406
169
409
206
214
243
228
22
385
59
359
96
493
133
311
170
350
207
460
244
177
23
438
60
159
97
456
134
411
171
167
208
338
245
201
24
447
61
498
98
168
135
403
172
506
209
464
246
355
25
447
62
291
99
501
136
367
173
298
210
208
247
196
26
405
63
155
100
305
137
490
174
373
211
447
248
265
27
248
64
158
101
413
138
362
175
149
212
191
249
408
28
318
65
429
102
307
139
176
176
334
213
268
250
506
29
165
66
370
103
361
140
195
177
381
214
452
251
177
30
316
67
476
104
489
141
461
178
393
215
295
252
236
31
379
68
257
105
472
142
486
179
232
216
208
253
325
32
354
69
187
106
468
143
348
180
407
217
465
254
297
33
445
70
184
107
175
144
278
181
446
218
260
255
434
34
245
71
344
108
343
145
411
182
160
219
162
35
202
72
440
109
399
146
287
183
155
220
259
36
407
73
187
110
516
147
396
184
274
221
416
37
500
74
410
111
479
148
404
185
362
222
382
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
84
Sample Statistics
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sample Statistics
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
85
86
Sample Statistics
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Mahobe have added some amazing technology into
their new eTool advanced scientific calculator.
Equation solving.
Enhanced statistics.
Improved powers and fraction display.
This calculator is designed to handle even the toughest
assignments. If you use any other calculator then good
luck. With a Mahobe Resource you can have an added
confidence that the answer will be correct.
eTOOL
MAHOBE
www.mahobe.co.nz.
Probability &
Normal Distribution
87
MATHEMATICS 2.6
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90289
Simulate probability situations and apply the normal distribution
use z =
transformation)
From
a straightforward
simulation process
and
normal distribution
calculations
to
using theoretical
probability
simulation
C
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
and
further interpretation of
the model and the results.
88
Probability &
Normal Distribution
2.
Region A?
b.
Regions C or E?
c.
Not in region B?
d.
In regions A, B or D?
ii. If the wheel was spun 150 times, how many hits would you expect in region
B?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
3.
89
Two dice are thrown and the sums of the top two faces are recorded.
a. What is the chance that the sum is an even number?
b. What is the probability that the sum is 7?
c. What is the probability that the sum has double digits?
d. What is the probability that the sum is a square number?
e. Find the probability that the sum is a multiple of three.
(First draw a table of possibilities.)
4.
Niko is a promising young school athlete who has been training on these throwing events  discus,
shot put and hammer throw for the local championships. He knows that he has a 70% chance of
winning the discus, an 80% chance of winning the shot put and a 75% chance of winning the hammer
throw. The order of the events is as above. Assume the result of each event is independent of the
others.
a. Draw a probability tree of the possible outcomes.
b. What is the probability that Niko wins all three events?
c. Find the probability that Niko wins any two of the three events.
d. Given that Niko wins the first event (discus) what is the chance that he loses the next two?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
90
5.
Probability &
Normal Distribution
A paint manufacturer supplies tins of paint which are normally distributed with a mean volume of
4120 ml and a standard deviation of 60ml.
a. What is the probability that a randomly chosen tin of paint has between 4000 ml and 4180 ml?
b. If the manufacturer claims that each tin contains 4 l, what is the chance that a randomly
selected tin has less than 4 l.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
6.
Use the Normal Distribution table (page 171) to help answer these questions.
a. Find:
b. Calculate:
Pr( x > 61 ).
ii.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
91
92
Probability &
Normal Distribution
Section B
Tests your knowledge of the Normal Distribution. For each question you should write
correct probability statements and show working to support your answer.
or
z=
The Good Garden Bag Company provides large bags for people to put their garden clippings into. These
large bags are then collected once a month and replaced by an empty bag. The clippings are tipped into a
truck which compacts then transports the clippings to a composting site.
The collectors on each truck monitor the clippings they pick up  they suspect that 10% of the bags will
have bamboo, while 25% will contain flax. When either bamboo or flax is discovered the homeowner is
given a warning letter which advises them to refrain from placing either of these (forbidden) items in their
bag.
The Good Garden Bag company asks you to investigate the situation. They believe that the presence of
bamboo and flax are independent of each other. (Both bamboo and flax are not wanted since these two
plants do not break down very readily and they may jam the auger at the composting plant).
SECTION A
Design a way to simulate the bag collection of a randomly selected truck, to find out how many of the next
80 homeowners will need to be given the written warning letter.
You need to:
1.
a. Describe a method you use in sufficient detail so that another person could repeat it again with
your help.
b. Carry out at least 80 trials of the simulation.
c. Record the result of each trial of the simulation, e.g. in a table.
d. Use the results of your simulation to find the number of homeowners who will receive a letter of
warning for placing these materials in their bags.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
93
94
2.
Probability &
Normal Distribution
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
3.
95
Compare the results of your simulation with the theoretical probability. Make at least one comment
about your simulation.
You could comment on any similarities or differences between the simulation results and the
theoretical probability, or you could comment on ways in which your simulation could be improved
so that it is a better model.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
96
Probability &
Normal Distribution
SECTION B
The operators also gather evidence on the masses of the bags they collect. The maximum limit for each
bag should be 100 kg because manoeuvring these down driveways and paths to a truck can be very
challenging. Analysis of the results showed that the masses of bags were normally distributed with a mean
of 84 kg and a standard deviation of 8.5 kg.
Note: A suitably shaded design or use of proper notation is the minimum working expected.
4.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
5.
97
ii.
which weighed over 105 kg, so that the homeowner receives a letter reminding them of the
weight limit.
b. Bags which weigh over 104 kg are monitored for statistical purposes. Out of a 4 day collection of
850 bags, how many would be expected to be over 104 kg?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
98
6.
Probability &
Normal Distribution
Very light bags are considered by some drivers as a waste of time, since they still require one person
to collect, replace and load the bag. If 8 bags out of a sample of 175 were found to be too light,
use the Normal Distribution and this information to describe a very light bag in terms of its mass.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
99
Design a simulation to predict the number of packets of Revita that are required to obtain a full set
of movie character wrist bands. Describe this simulation in sufficient detail so that another person
could repeat it without your help.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
100
Probability &
Normal Distribution
2.
3.
Use your simulation to work out how many packets of Revita are needed on average to get a
complete set.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
4.
101
In Vais class there are 28 students altogether (including Vai) trying to collect the 5 wrist bands.
Use the results of your simulation to estimate:
a. How many students will have 4 different wristbands in the set after collecting 5 wristbands.
b. How many students would be expected to have the full set of 5 wrist bands once they have
collected less than or equal to 10 wristbands?
5.
After a while, 25 of the 28 students in Vais class have only one wrist band to collect to make the
complete set.
a. Use theoretical probability to predict how many of these 25 students will complete their set with
the next packet of Revita.
b. Use theoretical probability to predict how many of these 25 students will complete their set
given that the next packet contains two wrist bands.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
102
Probability &
Normal Distribution
The weights of Revita Packs of cordial are normally distributed with a mean of 315 grams and a standard
deviation of 6 grams.
6.
What is the probability that a pack of Revita cordial weighs between 315 grams and 323 grams?
7.
A large carton delivered to a local supermarket contains 950 packets of Revita cordial.
8.
How many of these packets would you expect to weigh less than 310 grams?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Probability &
Normal Distribution
9.
How many of these packets would you expect to weigh between 310 grams and 321 grams?
10.
What is the chance that a packet of Revita cordial will weigh between 321 and 324.5 grams?
11.
The manufacturer of Revita regularly checks the machines which weigh the packets of cordial.
Packets under 300 grams or over 325 grams are rejected. What proportion of the packets will the
manufacturer reject?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
103
104
12.
Probability &
Normal Distribution
One day 599 packets are checked and 3 are found to be very light. If the machine is functioning
normally, what is the maximum weight of a very light packet according to this sample?
13.
Calculate the mean weight that the machine needs to be set at so that 85% of Revita cordial packets
exceed 308 grams? (Assume the same standard deviation.)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Some advanced technology
has gone into the Mahobe
DS742ET to make it one
of the most powerful
calculators available.
If you use anything else
then good luck!
planned orbit
eTOOL
actual orbit
C1
C2
www.mahobe.co.nz.
MAHOBE
Sequences
105
MATHEMATICS 2.7
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90290
Solve straightforward problems involving arithmetic and geometric
sequences
compare sequences
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Work
with straightforward cases
where a, d and r
are evident
to
situations
where other techniques
are used
to solve problems
which
require further
interpretation.
106
Sequences
Write the first four terms of the sequence whose nth term is defined by tn = n +
2.
3.
Find the first term, a, and the common difference, d, for the arithmetic progression which has
t4 = 4, t5 = 7 and t6 = 10.
4.
Find the eighth term and the sum of the first sixteen terms for the arithmetic progression
8, 14, 20, ......, .......
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sequences
5.
107
6.
How many terms of the series, 7+9+11+13+15+ ...... = 352 (i.e. find n when Sn = 352).
7.
For the Geometric Progression 3, 9, 27, ...... find the next two terms, and the eleventh term.
8.
A Geometric Progression has a fifth term of 80 and a sixth term of 160. Find an expression for the
general term, tn.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
108
9.
Sequences
a. Find the sum to twelve terms of the series 3200 + 1600 + 800 + ......
(Leave your answer as a fraction.)
10.
Evaluate:
a.
b.
3k + 1
(2n  n2)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sequences
b.
How much time will she spend texting on her new mobile phone over the first sixteen days?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
109
110
Sequences
QUESTION TWO
Carols friend, Tony, spends 24 minutes texting his friends and family on the first day he got his mobile
phone. Each day he increases the time spent texting by 5% from the day before (i.e. he spends 1.05 times
as many minutes as he did the previous day).
What is the total time Tony has spent on his phone in the first 20 days?
QUESTION THREE
The Hong family lease a home security system and make payments every month. The payments reduce
each month by the same percentage. They paid $68 in the second month. They paid $49.13 in the fourth
month and $35.50 in the sixth month and so on.
How much did they pay in the first month?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sequences
111
QUESTION FOUR
Tony buys a DVD for $495.
The DVD depreciates at the rate of 26% per year.
How many years to the nearest year, will it take for the DVD to reduce to onesixth of its original value?
QUESTION FIVE
One of Tonys uncles helps him to save money by employing him after school. In week 1 he pays Tony $96.
Each week, the uncle reduces the hours and the pay by 17.5% so that Tony can return slowly to full time
study. If this continued indefinitely, how much would Tonys uncle pay him in total?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
112
Sequences
QUESTION SIX
After several months of using her new mobile phone, Carol decides to reduce her texting by the same
number of minutes each week.
In Week 7, she texted for 595 minutes and by the end of Week 21, her total texting had amounted to
11,235 minutes.
How many minutes did Carol text in Week 1 of her texting reduction plan?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sequences
113
QUESTION TWO
A painter, Moe, has just bought some roller blades and is keen to practise as much as he can. On the first
evening after work he roller blades 6 km. Each evening he increases this by 1.25 km more than the
previous evening. If his first day of roller blading was on October 1, what was the total distance Moe would
have roller bladed by the end of October (31 days)?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
114
Sequences
QUESTION THREE
On one of the painting jobs he had, Moe noticed a Yucca plant on the sundeck of the house. The height of
the Yucca was 95 cm and each week he noticed that it grew upwards by another 4% (i.e. 1.04 times taller).
Calculate the height of the Yucca at the end of week 10 (the nearest cm).
QUESTION FOUR
On another job, Moe saw the owner planting bamboo along a border. In week 1 it grew 48 cm after initially
being at ground level. Each week the bamboos extra growth length is 12.5% less than the previous week.
What is the maximum height the bamboo will ever grow?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Sequences
115
QUESTION FIVE
In a park a fountain and statue are surrounded by circular concrete rings.
Moe and his team must repaint the statue (S) with antigraffiti paint. The concrete rings are centred
around the fountain and have different concrete textures. The percentage increase in area from one ring
to the next is constant. The first ring has an area of 201 m2 while the third ring has an area of 547.22 m2.
What is the area of the outside ring (Ring 4)?
QUESTION SIX
In the same park as the statue and fountain, a retaining wall has been constructed to hold in an earth
bank. Twelve horizontal timber pieces have been used and each is 150 mm shorter than the one below.
If 25.5 metres of timber was used altogether what must the length of the lowest piece be?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
116
Sequences
QUESTION SEVEN
Moe plans to set up his own painting company so he has been looking for a tidy, recent model, second hand
van to transport his equipment to jobs. He sees one that will be perfect and notes that there are two
possible payment regimes.
PLAN A pay a deposit of $4950
first month pay $300
each successive month pay $20 more than the previous month
PLAN B pay a deposit of $7995
first month pay $615
each successive month pay $10 less than the previous month
Calculate how many months it will take before the total paid into Plan A would be the same amount paid
into Plan B.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Mahobe have added some amazing technology into
their new eTool advanced scientific calculator.
Equation solving.
Enhanced statistics.
Improved powers and fraction display.
This calculator is designed to handle even the toughest
assignments. If you use any other calculator then good
luck. With a Mahobe Resource you can have an added
confidence that the answer will be correct.
eTOOL
MAHOBE
www.mahobe.co.nz.
Trigonometry Problems
117
MATHEMATICS 2.8
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90291
Solve trigonometry problems requiring modelling of practical situations
From
measurements taken
lead to
straightforward
calculations
to
more complex
trigonometry situations
where
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
118
Trigonometry Problems
TRIGONOMETRY PROBLEMS
 Revision Summary
The exercises in this section have been specifically chosen to underpin the Achievement Criteria that will
be tested in this Achievement Standard. (Note, diagrams have not been drawn to scale.)
1.
c.
2.
Use the sine rule or cosine rule to find the missing lengths.
a.
b.
3.
Use the sine rule or cosine rule to find the missing angles.
a.
b.
4.
ii. 165E
iii. 238E
ii.
rad
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
119
120
5.
Trigonometry Problems
c.
6.
c.
d.
7.
Three fisherman are angling along the banks of a river. Two of them, F and G, are on the same bank
and are 50 metres apart. The third, H, is on the opposite bank of the river. It is known that pHFG is
62E and angle pFGH is 66E. How wide is the river estuary?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
121
From a reference point, X, inside this quadrilateral, you must begin your measurements. Note that
the point X is not allowed on any sides nor any diagonals of the quadrilateral.
3.
4.
Using the equipment, from point X, complete a radial survey. Indicate the measurements you will
need to take to calculate the area of the quadrilateral and mark these on your diagram.
NOTE
Usually you need to draw your diagram from scratch. If you use the diagram given, the highest grade
you will be awarded is Achievement. For the purpose of continuing PART A, assume that you have
drawn the shape below (to scale) and it is 1: 1500.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
122
Trigonometry Problems
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
123
PART B
Use the sketch and your measurements from PART A to complete this section of the task. You do not need
any other measurements to complete this.
1.
Council drainage contractors are to check the old pipe which lies diagonally across the quadrilateral
in Part A. Calculate the shortest distance between the pairs of opposite corners (i.e. the lengths of
both diagonals of the quadrilateral).
2.
A memorial rose garden is going to be set up in the NorthWest corner of this quadrilateral. To assist
with the planning, you are asked to find the size of the interior angle in that corner of the
quadrilateral.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
124
3.
Trigonometry Problems
As the contractors explore the old drainage pipe, they find that there is a thick layer of sludge and
sediment which covers the bottom of the pipe.
The radius of the pipe (OP or OQ) is known to be 1.25 m.
a. If the distance across the top of the sediment (i.e. chord
) is
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
125
If a pair of students couldnt identify the measurements which they needed to take, they
were supplied with a help sheet. This usually has the diagram of the triangle LQR,
supplied with labels L, R and Q.
If students use the help sheet, then the highest grade which they can be awarded for
this task is Achievement.
At the end of the session the measurements are usually handed in to the teacher.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
126
Trigonometry Problems
PART B
1.
For the position given (to one pair of students) and the measurements provided, calculate the angle
in the triangle on the blue line, pLQR.
2.
If a student was standing at point Q, looking towards the goal mouth, what would the apparent
width of the posts be to her? i.e. find the length
on the diagram.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
3.
127
a. A student, Wayne (W) is 4.29 m from the right goal post, R. The distance between the goal posts
(LR) is 1.83 m. The bearing of the left post, L, from Wayne is 093E
and the bearing of the right post, R, from Wayne is 118E.
Another student, Sheena (S) is standing further along the goal line,
leaning on the rink wall.
What is the bearing of Sheena (S) from the left goal post?
Note  round all angles to a nearest degree.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
128
4.
Trigonometry Problems
Near each goal line there are two face off spots. Each face off spot is the centre of a circle
with a 4.57 metre radius.
A sponsor usually paints their logo or one of their products inside these
circles before big games are played. One sponsor who imports sports
gear has painted a sports helmet inside the circle, and centred it at
the face off spot, O.
The angle (below) pAOC = 2.17 radians, while AO = OC = 3.36 metres.
Calculate the area inside the circle which has not been painted.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry Problems
5.
129
Just as the students are completing their measurements, an ice hockey team arrives for a training
session. The class decide to watch them practise. During one of the drills a player attempts to flick
the puck into the back of the net. (The height of the goal is 1.22 m.)
The player stands to the side of the goal mouth, so that the puck is:
3.5 metres
4.9 metres
5.3 metres
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
The DS742ET
Some advanced technology
has gone into the Mahobe
DS742ET to make it one
of the most powerful
calculators available.
If you use anything else
then good luck!
planned orbit
eTOOL
actual orbit
C1
C2
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MAHOBE
130
Trigonometry Problems
MATHEMATICS 2.9
ACHIEVEMENT STANDARD 90292
Solve straightforward trigonometry equations
From
straightforward
(simple step)
equations
to
equations requiring
several steps
in contexts
or
situations involving
more challenging
manipulations.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
131
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
 Revision Summary
The exercises in this section have been specifically chosen to underpin the Achievement Criteria that will
be tested in this Achievement Standard.
1.
30E
ii. 114E
iii.
268E
iii.
320E
30E
ii. 105E
0.92 radii.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
2.63 rad
iii.
rad
132
2.
Trigonometry Problems
a. Draw i.
and
ii.
y = 2 sin x.
y = cos x  1, on separate graphs.
b. On the first graph, draw the line y = 1.6 and find x where 2sin x = 1.6.
On the second graph, draw the line y =
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
3.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
133
134
4.
Trigonometry Problems
On the interval 0 # x # 4, which values of x would provide the greatest and least values
of y = 5 sin ?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
PRACTICE TEST 1
Show ALL working.
QUESTION ONE
Solve the following trigonometric equations:
a.
b.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
135
136
c.
Trigonometry Problems
3 tan x = 4.8 on 0 # x # 2
QUESTION TWO
Solve cos 2x = 0.78, 0E # x # 360E.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
QUESTION THREE
Millie hears a click  clack sound while riding her bike. She dismounts
and finds a small tack has embedded itself into the rubber tread.
She knows that her bike wheel has a 66 cm diameter and once she is
home, she turns it and observes how the tack on the tyre rotates around
the central wheel hub.
The height (H) of the tack relative to the centre hub may be given by:
H = 33 sin (45t)E
H = height in centimetres.
t = time in seconds after the wheel begins to rotate.
a.
After how many seconds will the tack first be 30 cm above the hub?
b.
How long will it take the tack to return to its starting position?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
137
138
Trigonometry Problems
QUESTION FOUR
While watching her piano being tuned, Millie notices a tuning fork for the note Middle C. The pure tone of
the tuning fork when struck, vibrates at 256 times per second.
Millie believes these vibrations may be modelled by the trigonometric function y = 0.6 sin (512 t), where
the amplitude (loudness) is 0.6.
The speed of the vibrations suggests the number of cycles per second cannot be detected by us.
What is the least amount of time taken for the tuning fork to reach a loudness of 0.45?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
139
QUESTION FIVE
Over a long period of time, Millie has observed the depth (d) of water at Flints Stone, a large rock near
the entrance to the local harbour. She believes that the tidal cycle is about 12 hours. At low tide the
water depth beside the rock is only 1.5 metres, but at high tide it has reached 6.1 m.
Fishing boats may only enter the harbour when the water there is at least 3 metres deep. How long either
side of high tide, can boats safely travel in and out of the harbour?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
140
Trigonometry Problems
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
PRACTICE TEST 2
Show ALL working.
Solve the following trigonometric equations:
QUESTION ONE
a.
b.
c.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
QUESTION TWO
Solve the following trigonometric equations:
a.
b.
sin 2 = 0.61, 0 # #
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
141
142
Trigonometry Problems
QUESTION THREE
A patient with a fever is admitted to hospital for further observation. Her temperature varies from a low
of 37E to a high of 40.2E Celcius.
A model of the temperature has been suggested as: T = 38.6 + 1.6 sin
During which day, following her admission to hospital, does the patients temperature first reach 40E C?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Equations
143
QUESTION FOUR
The eleven weeks from the middle of July until early October is a profitable time for a local winter sports
retailer to sell snow boards. Sales of snow boards have been monitored over the same period of time for
some years. They have developed this trig formula to model the numbers of snowboards that they sell over
the 11 weeks.
S = 30  33 cos
According to the formula over how many weeks would they sell at least 45 snowboards?
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
144
THE ANSWERS
Note: the answers have been checked and rechecked. If your answer differs from the one listed then check with your
teacher, friends or write to Mahobe Resources. Due to space restrictions, we have not been able to set out all answers
as fully as we would have liked. Remember  in the exam you should put each step of your answer on a separate line.
Pages 610, ALGEBRA  Revision Summary
1. a. x =
b. r =
c. x =
or x = 11
2. a.
c.
3. a.
c.
12  9x
4x3  16x2  35x + 147
(x  12)(x  7)
(a  v)(a + w)
4. a.
b. 3x3y5
d. x = 0,
, 8
5. a. 35 = 243
b. i. log 5, ii. log 72, iii. log 30
c. 2
6. a. 3x  1
d. x >
8. a. x = 7, x = 6
c. x = 
, x = 0, x = 1
e. x = 0.45, x = 4.45
9. a.
c.
10. a.
c.
11. a.
b. n =
c. x < 1
b. x =
,x=2
d. x = 1.15, x = 0.65
f.
x = 3.37, x = 2.37
x = 3 = 2187
b. x =
=7
x = 2.67
(4, 3)
b. (2, 3)
(2, 2) and (3, 0)
d. (2, 1) and (1, 2)
i. = 57 > 0 2 real distinct roots
ii. = 0 1 real (repeated) root
<n<
b. x = 2.13 (2 dp)
QUESTION TWO
M = M0(0.85)t
500 = 800(0.85)t
= 0.85t
0.625 = 0.85t
log 0.625 = t log (0.85)
t
c. x =
QUESTION FIVE
Rule: + =
, =
d. 2n+10
7. a. x = 50
b. If x = 0, y = 6, first is (0, 6)
QUESTION FOUR
b.
c. a + b
x = 0 or x = 
If x = 
m6
c.
QUESTION THREE
a. By substituting, equations become
x2 + (2x + 6)2
= 36
x2 + 4x2 + 24x + 36 = 36
5x2 + 24x = 0
x(5x + 24) = 0
= 4k
= 4k
or x = 1
k2 + 2k = 16k
k2  14k = 0
k(k  14) = 0
possible values: k = 0 or k = 14
Check: if k = 0, x2  x = 0 Y x(x  1) = 0
k = 14, x2  15x + 56 = 0
Y (x  7)(x  8) = 0
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
QUESTION SIX
(A)
Second Instance
(B)
V + 250 =
+ 250
4. a. x = 3,
b. x =
or x = 2, c. x = 1.92
QUESTION TWO
By substitution
=0
x2 + (x  3)2 + 2x  7
x2 + x2  6x + 9 + 2x  7= 0
2x2  4x + 2 = 0
2(x2  2x + 1) = 0
(x  1)2 = 0
x =1
By back substitution, y = 2
there is only one coordinate set (1, 2)
only 1 point of intersection
QUESTION THREE
Set up 2 equations:
hw
h
(w + 1)(w)
w2 + w  1.7
By quadratic formula
or
QUESTION FIVE
ii. y = (x + 3)2  4
= 13330
= (0.993)t
log
= log (0.993)t
log
= t log (0.993)
=t
t
t
= 57.7 h
= 58h (2 sf)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
= 1.7
=w+1
= 1.7
=0
= 1250 km/hr
w = 0.896 or 1.896
Ignoring the negative result
width = 0.9 m (1dpf) and height = 1.9m (1dp)
of 19995
= 1000 km/hr
w=
w=
multiply by t(t  1)
(t  1)5000 + 250 t(t  1) = 5000t
5000t  5000 + 250t2  250t = 5000t
=0
250t2  250t  5000
=0
t2  t  20
(t  5)(t + 4)
=0
t = 5h (positive choice)
5. 7c + 2p = 1925
c = p + 50
by substitution, 7(p + 50) + 2p = 1925
9p + 350 = 1925
9p = 1575
p = 175
plain ice creams cost $1.75
or
or 1.2
3.
First Instance
145
146
Answers
Pages 20  24 cont
1. a. iii. (x + 1)(x  2)(x + 3)
b. i.
y=
c. x2 + y2 = 49
(x + 2)2 + (y  1)2 = 49
d. y = 5x
y = 5x  3
e. y = log8 x
y = log8 x  3 
ii. y =
2. a. y
b. y
= (x + 5)(x + 1)(x  2)
= (x  1)2  3
= x2  2x  2
c. y = 5x  2
d. (x  3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
c. y = 4x
Using a table of values
Pages 20  24 cont
3.
3
0.0156
2
0.0625
1
0.25
16
64
QUESTION TWO
1. Features can include:
< The two graphs meet at one point, (1, 3)
< y + x = 4 is a straight line
< y = x2  3x + 5 is a parabola
< y + x = 4 is a tangent to the curve y = x2  3x + 5
< y = x2  3x + 5 does not meet the x axis but does
intersect the y axis at (0, 5)
< Vertex of the curve y = x2  3x + 5 is (1.5, 2.75)
2. a.
t
b. y =
4
2
1
1
2
$11 955
9 836
8 065
6 614
5 423
4 447
3 647
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
147
Answers
148
Pages 25  30 cont
QUESTION THREE
a.
QUESTION SIX
a. Use the 2nd and 3rd lines of the data table with the
formula to attain two simultaneous equations.
15.2
8.0 =
15.2(15  b)= a
228  15.2b
=a
8.0(66  b) = a
528  8.0b = a
228  15.2b
8.0b  15.2b
 7.2b
b
or
b
= 528  8.0b
= 528  228
= 300
= 41.7 (1 dp)
= 42 (2 sf)
= 864
b. y
=
=3+
x = 0, y = 2
(0, 2)
y = 0, 3x + 2 = 0
(2/3, 0)
VA: x = 1 HA: as x 6 0, y 6 3
= 528  8(41.67)
= 861.6
b. Using
6.6 =
6.6(t + 41.7) = 861.6
6.6t + 275.2 = 861.6
6.6t
= 586.4
t = 88.8h
89 hours after the initial time (after 4pm, 10 Feb)
i.e. 3 days, 17 hrs later, 9am on 14 February.
Pages 31 38, GRAPHS  PRACTICE TEST 2
QUESTION ONE
a. intercepts at x = 0, x = 1, x = 3 or use a table
x
4
3
2
1
20
10
QUESTION FOUR
a. In the early years, the rate decreases the car value the
quickest i.e. it loses half its value, one third its value,
one quarter its value etc. In later years the value changes
less rapidly.
b. The car loses its value less rapidly in later years with the
value only changing marginally. The remaining value stays
above $1000.
c. The y intercept tells us that the car was bought for just
under $12,000 (i.e. $11, 995)
QUESTION FIVE
a. y = (x + 2)(x  1)(x  4)
or y = x3  3x2  6x + 8
b. x2 + y2 = 25
c. HA: y = 2, VA: x = 3
Intercepts (1.5, 0) and (0, 1)
y=
or y = 2 
b. vertex at (1, 4)
intercepts (0, 3), (3, 0) and (1, 0) or use a table
x
4
3
2
1
5
5
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
149
y = 2x2  3x  5
b. y = x3 + 1
c.
d. Features to include:
< diameter = 6 units radius = 3 units
< circle centre = (1, 0)
< equation is (x  1)2 + y2 = 32
< x intercepts at y = 0, (2, 0) and (4, 0)
< y intercepts at x = 0
(1)2 + y2 = 32
y2 = 9  1
y
at (0,
) (0,
QUESTION FOUR
Using a table of values:
x
5
4
3
2
1
128
64
32
16
QUESTION TWO
a. Equation y = (x  2)2 or y = x2  4x + 4
b. y = 2x
c. xy = 6 or y =
QUESTION THREE
a. Solve the equation first
2x2  3x  5 = 0
(2x  5)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2.5, x = 1
Intercepts (1, 0), (2.5, 0) and (0, 5)
Vertex:
= 2(
)2  3(
= 6
vertex = (
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
, 6
)5
QUESTION FIVE
a. Initial investment was $4 500
b. Since 4500(1.08)9 = $8995.52 is very close to double the
initial $4 500 then the end of year 9 is close.
during year 10 the sum would double.
c. At the end of year 12 there is $11 332 (nearest dollar) in
the fund. If $3000 was withdrawn and assuming no penalty
clause (early withdrawal) with the same interest rate as
before, the graph would plunge by $3 000, before
continuing to compound from the new balance of $8 332
Answers
150
= 2x + 5
4.
a. gradient 2+5 = 7
equation at (1, 6) is
y  6 = 7(x  1)
or y = 7x  1
or 7x  y  1 = 0
b. when x = 0, y = 0
equation at (0, 0) is y = 5x
= 2x  3
5.
gradient = 1 Y 2x  3 = 1
x =2
substituting x = 2 Y y = 4  6 + 2
=0
at (2, 0), gradient = 1
= 125  27
6. a.
= 98
b. A quick sketch helps
a. Using the two pieces of information, then equating with
each other.
Week 1:
107449 = A  B log(1 + 0.5)
Week 10:
64011 = A  B log(10 + 0.5)
Making A the subject of each equation:
107 449 + B log(1.5)
= 64 011 + B log (10.5)
107 449  64 011 = B log (10.5)  B log (1.5)
43 438 = B log
(2x  x2) dx
= B log 7
=B
= [4 B = 51 400 (nearest 10)
A = 107 449 + B log (1.5)
= 107 449 + 51 400 log (1.5)
= 116 500 (nearest 10)
Check A in other equation
A
= 64 011 + 51 400 log(10.5)
= 116 500 T
Model equation for spending is:
S = 116 500  51 400 log(x + 0.5)
b. If x = 30 then
S = 116 500  51 400 log(30.5)
= $40 207 (nearest $)
Using Week 1
]  [0]
units2
=
c. y = x3 + 2x2  3x
= 27x8  10x
Area =  y . dx  +  y . dx 
or y = 3x6 
+x+c
3. a. f!(x)
= 4x3  10x + 1
f!(2) = 32  20 + 1
= 13
b.
= 2x  2,
x4 +
x3 
x2
+
x4 +
x3 
0(
 18 
x2
gradient = 2  2
= 4
= 11
units2
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
Pages 40  44 cont
= 3x2  3
7. a.
= 3x2  6,
b. turning point is when
=0
= 69
3x  3 = 0
3(x2  1) = 0
3(x + 1)(x  1) = 0
x =1
substituting back into original equation y = x(x2  3)
x = 1, y = 2 and x = 1, y = 2 and using cubic shape,
(1, 2) is a local maximum
(1, 2) is a local minimum
c. y = x3  3x increases before the max i.e. x < 1
and after the minimum i.e. x > 1
decreases between the max and min
i.e. 1 < x < 1
8. h = 245t  4.9t2
=
QUESTION TWO
A
=  9.8 m/s2
5.
6.
x3 + x + c
(6x2  4x + 5) dx
QUESTION FOUR
Parallel to the xaxis implies the gradient = 0
= 6x2  6
= 3x2  6x  7
m = 3(1)2  6(1)  7
=2
equation at (1, 4) is
y  4 = 2(x  1)
y4
= 2x + 2
y = 2x + 6
or 2x  y + 6 = 0
at x = 1, gradient
Perimeter is 2x + 2y = 108
Area is xy (we need to optimise this)
Use the perimeter formula and make one of the
variables the subject
2y = 108  2x
y = 54  x
Substititute this whole expression into the Area.
This leaves just one variable to contend with.
A = xy
= x (54  x)
= 54x  x2
Differentiate
A! = 54  2x
Solve A! = 0 to find maximum or minimum
54  2x = 0
x = 27m
Substitute back into original equation
y = 54  27
= 27m
Since x = y = 27m, the rectangle is a square.
Maximum area is 272 = 729 m2
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
c cancels out
QUESTION THREE
If f!(x) = 6x2  4x + 5
4.
= [ 23 + 2 ]  [ 13 + 1]
= 10
2
= 8 units2
3.
(3x2 + 1) dx
= 2x2  2x2 + 5x + c
At (2, 11), f(x) = 11 and x = 2
11 = 2(2)3  2(2)2 + 5(2) + c
11 = 16  8 + 10 + c
c = 7
curve is f(x) = 2x3  2x2 + 5x  7
2.
then f(x)
= 245  9.8t
b. v(5) = 245  9.8(5)
= 196 m/s
c. h(5) = 245(5)  4.9(5)2
= 1102.5 m
d.
gradient = 3(5)2  6
a. v
151
QUESTION SIX
d
v . dt
= 0.75 t . dt
d
= 0.75
+c
or d = 0.375t2
Answers
152
Pages 45  49 (cont)
QUESTION SEVEN
The curve would be translated 36 metres upwards
from
to
a.
(8x3 + 6x2  4x  1) dx
1 =222+1+c
c =2
Area =
(x3 + 2) dx
+ 2x + c
+4
d. If y = x2,
(48  3x2)dx
48x  x3 + c
= 2x3 or
x3 =
= [128]  [47]
= 81 m2 (Area of the parking bay )
QUESTION EIGHT
First find some labels for dimensions
x3 = 8
x
x
y
= 8 units
(12  3x + 36) dx
=
= 2
=
=
x
x + 2y = 5.6 or x = 5.6  2y
To maximise the cross sectional area,
A = xy
= (5.6  2y)y
= 5.6y  2y2
= 5.6  4y
QUESTION TWO
y =
y = 1.4 m
substituting back into original equations
x = 5.6  2 1.4
x = 2.8 m
A = xy
= 2.8 1.4
= 3.92 m2
( x2  3x  4) dx
x2  4x
 24  16
 20
18
= 0 when 5.6  4y = 0
( x2  3x  4) +
A1 + A2 =
= 21
15
x2  4x
0

 24  16
18
units2
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
Pages 50  54 (cont)
QUESTION THREE
a. d
y =
t2  t3 + c
= 18t +
x+
m=
(2)2  23 + c
65 = 18(2) +
65 = 36 + 30  8 + c
7 =c
equation is y  5 =
t 2  t3 + 7
d = 18t +
t = 2.5s
maximum velocity
v = 18 + 15(2.5)  3(2.5)2
= 36.75 cm/s
QUESTION FOUR
V = 335, V = r2h
h=
S
= 2 r2 + 2 rh
= 2 r2 + 2 r .
S = 2 r2 + 670
To optimise, differentiate the surface area function.
= 4 r  670
0 = 4r 
4(y  5) = 3(x  1)
4y  20 = 3x  3
3x  4y + 17 = 0
x = 2 (2, 1)
Check 5(2) + 3(1) = 13 T
b. [0.1x  0.2y  0.7 = 0] 40 Y [4x  8y = 28]
[0.4x + 0.3y  0.6 = 0] 10 Y  [4x + 3y = 6]
11y = 22
Back substitute
=
= 7.2 (s 2f)
b. d
= (2, 8)
= (1.6, 0.8)
=
=
= 14.7 (1 dp)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
y = 2
=r
2. a. d
y=
= r3
b.
x+
a. Parallel line, 2x + 5y + c = 0
Using (1, 2)
2  10 + c = 0
c =8
2x + 5y + 8 = 0
b. perpendicular line 5x  2y + d = 0
(swap coefficients, reverse the sign)
Using (5, 6) 25  12 + d = 0
d = 13
5x  2y  13 = 0
6. Solving simultaneously
a. [3x + 4y = 10] 5 Y [15x + 20y = 50]
[5x + 3y = 13] 3 Y [15x + 9y = 39]
11y = 11
y =1
Back substitute 3x + 4(1) = 10
3x
= 10  4
= 4r
1. a. Mid point
(x  1)
5. Either use 2x + 5y  8 = 0 or y =
= 15  6t (acceleration)
m =
153
154
Answers
Pages 55  60 (cont)
7. a. Midpoint of
=
= (2, 3
a. d
=
=
Equation of median, m =
=
= 19.1 grid squares
true distance = 19.1 20 m
= 382 m
b. gradient
=
Gradient of median
y+1
equation is (y  2) =
(x + 3)
equation
x+c
using (2, 8)
(2) + c
8
c
= 1 + c
=9
m =
=
=
gradient of z line
(x  10)
10(y + 1) = 9(x + 3)
9x  10y + 17 = 0
Gradient of
fence equation is y =
x+9
=
QUESTION TWO
The drain line is a perpendicular bisector of the line which
joins the two points.
= 2
Equation of z line
y  5 = 2(x  1)
2x + y  7 = 0
c. perpendicular bisector cuts
at the midpoint
Midpoint of
Midpoint
= (2, 3)
= (1, 2)
Gradient of
= 1
=
gradient of perpendicular
3(y  2) = 2(x + 1)
2x + 3y  4 = 0
8. Compare lengths of all three sides.
If two sides equate thenOPQ is isosceles
Length
QUESTION THREE
The median joins N(4, 11) to the midpoint of ST
midpoint
=
= (4, 1)
=
=
Length
(x + 1)
gradient
=
=
=
=
=
Length
=
=
equation
y  11
(x  4)
2(y  11)
= 3(x  4)
2y  22 = 3x  12
3x  2y + 10 = 0 is the equation of the median
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
QUESTION FOUR
Firstly, find where the altitude line intersects SP
x + y + 12 = 0
x y  2=0
2x
+ 10 = 0
2x
= 10
x = 5
x + y + 12 = 0
5 + y + 12 = 0
y = 7
the altitude meets line SP at point Q (5, 7)
the length of the altitude must be the distance
between Q(5, 7) and T(2, 0)
155
QUESTION TWO
The midpoint of T1 T3
=
= (6, 11)
=
Length from C to L3
=
= 13.04 m (2 dp)
Back substituting
QUESTION THREE
Altitude through T2 must be perpendicular to the other
side of the triangle T3H2
m of T3H2
d =
=
= 9.899 grid units
grid lines are 20m apart therefore multiply by 20
= 198 m (3 sf)
QUESTION FIVE
Find a line through (6, 0) which is perpendicular to
x + 8, mz =
y=
equation is y =
at (6, 0),
x+c
Mz
(x  25)
0 = 8 + c c = 8
x+8
Gradient of T1H1 is
Mz =
=
= 10 units ( 20)
= 200 m
(x  9)
4y = 27  3x
3x + 4y = 27
Gradient of BH3 is
b.
L2 =
= (18, 21
m =
=
equation is (y  15) =
8(y  15)
3x + 8y  195
(x  25)
QUESTION FIVE
= 3(x  25)
=0
c. If parallel, then m =
Midpoint of T3 B is
, equation is y
26 =
x+c
(10) + c
26  4 = c
c = 22
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
= 1, Mz = 1
parallel line is
y =
= (5
x + 22
, 25)
mz =
Answers
156
Pages 67  72 (cont)
equation of this line
(y  25) =
(x  5
)
)
or 8x  3y + 31 = 0
Lines meet at closest point to new light:
solve 8x  3y = 31
6 64x  24y = 248
3x + 8y = 195 6 9x + 24y = 585
73x
= 337
x = 4.616 (3 dp)
Back substituting
8y = 195  3 4.616
y = 22.644
coordinates are (4.616, 22.644)
Distance between new light and existing cable
= 2.516 (3 dp)
2.5 m is the closest distance
= 76.23
Northern
Southern
4 3 13 0
5 5 3 2 1 02 0 1 4 9
954321100
1 01344666788
85
0 2589
b. Nth 5 (Low), 11 (LQ), 17 (Med), 24 (UQ), 34 (High)
Sth 2 (Low), 10.5* (LQ), 16 (Med), 19 (UQ), 30 (High)
* should really be 1011 accidents
c. Box and whisker plot for Labour Weekend nose to
tails.
2. a.
Northern Direction
Southern Direction
10
20
30
40
Date
Time
R
Magnitude
17
19/02
00 04
6.5
06
23/01
20 10
6.3
46
14/06
17 10
6.8
76
14/11
21 38
7.0
51
20/06
04 03
4.7
96
02
10/01
23 48
5.5
57
25/07
15 43
5.0
18
22/02
02 25
6.4
36
03/05
07 21
4.9
41
19/05
01 54
6.9
58
05/08
14 14
5.2
51
75
8/11
07 54
5.1
46
64
26/09
01 55
7.5
84
12/12
21 47
6.6
34
19/04
21 11
5.5
91
93
44
06/06
07 41
5.7
93
95
93
59
13/08
04 58
4.8
63
24/09
19 24
5.6
55
23/07
07 34
6.0
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
Number
Date
Time
R
Magnitude
81
02/12
13 13
6.5
28
21/03
12 23
6.9
59
57
14
15/02
14 42
6.6
37
05/05
19 12
6.5
72
27/10
11 18
4.2
65
29/09
15 50
6.7
08
25/01
16 44
5.9
02
52
02/07
02 16
6.6
99
94
76
64
83
11/12
14 20
6.6
13
14/02
23 38
6.1
03
12/01
08 04
6.8
157
=
=
= 0.528
From this sample it would appear that the times are skewed
slightly to the later end of the day with a medium time of
13 : 43 : 30
The mean of the sample 0 . 12 26 and the standard deviation
of the sample . 7hr 18 min. This would support the above
result (box plot) with both the mean and median appearing as
p.m. times for this sample.
The distribution of the time in this sample appears to have a
reasonably even spread, i.e.
00 h  09 h
12 quakes
10 h  19 h
12 quakes
20 h  23 h
6 quakes
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
30 .5 in the sample
30 .7 in the sample
30 .7 in the sample
30 .8 in the sample
30 .3 in the sample
30 (Total)
158
Answers
Page 81  83 (cont)
e.g. 62 37 68 78 14 34 94 68 82 86 99 89 63 49 34 02 29
37, 14, 34, 02, 29 for the top end
Apply the same technique (using 3 digit numbers) to each of
the other four strata, with sensibly applied numbering to suit
each case. The goal is to finish with a total sample size of at
least 30 shellfish sites
Mass (kg)
37
500
14
191
34
245
02
413
29
165
Skew
508
59
359
49
345
107
175
47
185
109
399
88
366
378
160
249
158
407
145
411
148
404
137
490
156
389
393
227
180
189
520
180
407
174
373
196
458
188
139
200
240
267
254
297
230
219
= 0.889
The data is negatively skewed with the smaller masses
pulling the mean away from the median. The masses of
the shellfish lines are quite spread out. Both mean and
median point towards the mid 300 kg mass, so if the
owners of the farm were looking for a conservative
estimate of the mass of their crop, they should tend
towards the lower statistic of the two.
Another sample could produce a similar result, or not, but
the exercise could readily be repeated. It is important to
consider the sites of the areas and which are closer to
sea, to shore, to nutrients, affected more by weather etc.
Therefore the strata sampling would still be a sensible
option for this farm.
Pages 88  91, PROBABILITY AND NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Revision Summary
1. a.
b.
c.
2. a.
b.
d.
e. 150
c.
= 25 times
3. Table of possibilities
+
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
c.
a.
b.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
d. Pr( 4 or 9) =
e. Pr (3 or 6 or 9 or 12) =
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
Pages 88  91 cont
4. a.
= Pr (
<z<
159
= 13.5 + 34 + 34
= 81.5%
= 0.815
i.
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
745
754
854
097
259
636
155
348
643
247
970
632
580
012
791
685
331
550
355
292
211
761
630
671
175
728
867
515
511
445
033
744
954
850
773
257
763
127
944
557
801
926
556
923
719
814
423
303
795
237
541
744
739
986
301
464
460
121
B,F
007
688
938
683
592
790
167
583
730
623
189
863
421
793
329
361
865
684
254
569
315
897
160
Answers
Pages 92  98 (cont)
a. P(get letter)
Pr(
=
= 0.025 + 0.075 + 0.225
= 0.325,
expect 200 x 0.325 = 65 letters
b. P(both) = 0.025
expect 0.025 x 200 = 5 would have both
c. From the simulation, 21 out of 80 would get a letter
expect 200 x
= 52
<z<
=2
Section B
4. = 84 kg, = 8.5 kg
Use inverse normal
i.e. Pr(0 < x < W) = 0.4543
Pr(0 < z <
) + 0.5
5. a. i.
) + 0.5
) = 0.4543
or using x = z +
= 1.688 x 8.5 + 84
= 69.65 kg
= under 70 kg
Pages 99  104, PROBABILITY & NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
PRACTICE TEST 2
Possible Simulation
1. 70% of the packs will have 1 wristband use random
numbers 000  699
30% of the packs will have 2 wristbands use random
numbers 700  999
The packs with 2 wristbands could have 15 possibilities,
i.e. Band 1 & Band 1 etc
1&1 2&2 3&3 4&4 5&5
1&2 2&3 3&4 4&5
1&3 2&4 3&5
1&4 2&5
1&5
Assume that the bands are randomly selected before
being packed. For the pairs with one wristband, assign
these random numbers (700 5 = 140 possibilities)
Band 1
000  139
Band 2
140  279
Band 3
280  419
Band 4
420  559
Band 5
560  699
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
RAN#
406
347
991
5,5
814
2,2
737
1,2
969
4,5
307
065
507
679
637
665
301
938
3,5
596
715
459
578
297
836
2,3
246
662
227
223
135
112
597
740
1,3
021
494
Section B
6. = 315 g, = 6 g
= P( 0 < z <
P(z <
P(
<z<
950 x 0.6388
10. P(321 < x < 324.5)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
P(
<z<
161
Answers
162
S16 =
[2a + (n  1)d]
[ 2 x 8 + 11 x 6]
= 8[16 + 66]
= 656
P(
<z<
= 0.4938 + 0.4522
= 0.946
reject 1  0.946 = 0.054 or 5.4%
12. P(0 < x < W) = 0.495
5. T12 a + 11d = 41
T1 a
= 8
11d = 33
d=3
s13 =
=
[ 2 x 8 + 12 x 3]
[16 + 36]
= 338
6. a = 7, d = 2
Sn =
[ 2 x 7 + (n  1) x 2]
352 =
[ 14 + 2n  2]
352 =
[12 + 2n]
) = 0.495
=  2.576
or W = 6 x 2.576 + 315
Very light packets have w = 299.5 g (1 dp)
13. P(0 < z <
) = 0.35
352 = 6n + n2
n2 + 6n  352 = 0
(n + 22)(n  16) = 0
ignore n = 27, n = 16 (terms)
7. 3, 9, 27, 81, 243; a = 3, r = 3
t11 = a x r10
= 3 x 310
= 177 147
8. T6 a x r5 = 160
T5 a x r4 = 80
by long division
Y r = 2
= 1.036
308 =  1.038 x 6
308 + 6.228 =
= 314.228
New mean = 314 (3 sf)
a=
a = 5
Tn = (5) x (2)n  1 is the general term for this GP
9. 3200 + 1600 + 800 + ...., a = 3200, r =
= 2, t2: 2 +
=2
, t 3: 3 +
=4
,3
=3
=
,4
2. 24, 35
3. ...., ...., ...., 4, 7, 10 d = 3
a =4333
= 5
4. a = 8, d = 6, t8 = a + (n  1)d
=8+7x6
= 50
= 6398
b. S4 =
=
= 6400
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
10. a.
=3+3 +3 +3 +3 +3
= 1092
(2n  n )= 1 + 0  3  8  15  24  35  48
= 132
=1
b. Sn =
hours
[ 2a + (n  1)d]
S16 =
[ 2 15 + 15 4]
= 8 [ 30 + 60 ]
= 720 min (or 12 hours)
QUESTION TWO
Sn =
S20 =
since r =
= 0.7225
= 0.85
then T 2 = r T1
[ 2a + (n  1) x d]
[2a + 20d]
= 21a + 210d
= 11 235
In week 7,
Tn = a + (n  1)d
T7 = a + 6d
= 595
Solving simultaneously to find d, then a
21a + 210d = 14 235
6 21a + 210d = 11235
a + 6d = 595
6 21a + 126d = 12495
84d =  1260
d = 15
i.e. it reduces by 15 minutes each week
To find a, T7:
a + 6d = 595 minutes
a + 6 15 = 595
first week
a = 685 minutes
Pages 113  116, SEQUENCES  PRACTICE TEST 2
QUESTION ONE
a = 88, d = 2.75, n = 13
Tn = a + (n  1)d
T13 = 88 + 12 2.75
= 55 cm (length of top rung)
[ 2a + (n  1)d]
[ 2 6 + 30 1.25]
[12 + 37.5]
495
= $82.50
T n = a rn  1
= 82.50
solving 495 0.74n  1 = 82.50
QUESTION THREE
a = 95 cm, r = 1.04, n = 10
t10 = a r9
= 95 1.049
= 135.2
= 135 cm (nearest cm)
QUESTION FOUR
If growth in week 1 is T1 = 48 cm, r
0.74n  1 =
(n  1) log(0.74) = log (
Sn =
Tn =
S21 =
S31 =
and T1 =
QUESTION FOUR
a or T1 = $495,
After 21 weeks, Sn =
QUESTION TWO
a = 6, d = 1.25, n = 31
=
r2
= $548.57 (2 dp)
QUESTION SIX
S4 =
b.
QUESTION FIVE
a = 96, r = (100  17.5)%
= 82.5% or 0.825
As n 6 4,
)
= (100  12.5%)
= 87.5%
= 0.875
S 4 = 48 + 42 + 36.75 + 32.156 ...
=
= 384 cm (or 3.84 m)
n1 =
n  1 = 5.95
n = 6.95 ( near the end of 7 years)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
163
164
Answers
(from
x
x
r2 = 2.722
r = 1.65 or 165%
Area of fourth ring
A4 = 201 1.653
= 902.9 m2
=
= 4.7 m (2 sf)
b. sin 62 =
Sn =
[2a + (n  1)d]
25500 =
[2a + 11 150]
= 126 cm (3 sf)
c. cos
QUESTION SIX
a = ?, n = 12, d = 150 mm, S12 = 25 500 mm
= cos1
= 32.0E 1 dp
=
= 1.12 m (2 dp)
=
b.
QUESTION SEVEN
First, compare some early figures for each payment plan.
Plan A: Deposit $4950, M1 = 300, M2 = 320, M3 = 340...
Plan B: Deposit $7995, M1 = 615, M2 = 605, M3 = 595 ...
equate the two schedules by summing each then
combining them as an equation.
= 59.8 mm (3 sf)
SA: 4950 +
[ 2 300 + (n  1)20]
= 4950 +
(1240  10n)
7995 +
= cos1
= 72.9E
=
= sin1
[2 615 + (n  1)(10)]
= 7995 +
b.
[580 + 20n]
3. a. cos
= 49.1E (1 dp)
4. a. i. 0.52 rad
ii. 2.88 rad
iii. 4.15 rad
b. i. 60.7E
ii. 75E
iii. 337.5E
5. a. l = 5.6 1.11
= 6.2 cm (1 dp)
b. l = 114 48E
= 95.5 mm (3 sf)
c. =
= 1.63 rad (2 dp)
6. a.
A =
64 26
A =
= 30.6 m2 (1 dp)
2452 0.72
c.
A =
d.
34.52 95
34.52 sin 95
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
PART B
=
1. Diagonal AC
x
= 56 m (2 sf)
By Cosine Rule
AC2 = 1232 + 136.52  2 123 136.5 cos 161E
AC =
AC = 256 m (3 sf)
Then
= sin 66
d
d
= 56 sin 66
= 51 m (2 sf)
By Cosine Rule
BD2 = 1352 + 722  2 135 72 cos 161E
BD =
BD = 204 m (3 sf)
shortest distance is BD = 204 m
2. North West corner is pBAD = pBAX + pDAX
Area of each
ABX
ab sin x
= 4080 m2 (3 sf)
BCX
= 4900 m2 (3 sf)
CDX
= 8480 m2 (3 sf)
DAX
= 6170 m2 (3 sf)
TOTAL Area = 23,630 m2 (or 2.363 ha)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
165
166
Answers
2.
AB =
AB = 165 m (3 sf)
cos (pBAX) =
pBAX
= Cos1
= 23.7E ( 1 dp)
AD2 = 1232 + 1352  2 123 135 cos 48E
AD =
AD = 106 m (3 sf)
=
= 0.87 m
3. a. Note  you could use triangle facts from several levels
with this situation. One solution is given below.
=
pDAX
= sin1 (
= 71.2E (1 dp)
pBAD = 23.7 + 71.2
= 94.9E (1 dp)
3.
Cos
= cos1
pWLR = sin1
r2 
1.252 2.22 
r2 sin
1.252 sin 2.22
= 1.11 m2 (2 dp)
b. Volume = length cross sectional area
= 256m 1.11 m2
= 280 m3 (2 sf) of sediment
Pages 125  129, PRACTICAL TRIGONOMETRY PROBLEMS
 PRACTICE TEST 2
Part A
There are many possibilities, depending on the location of
Q. e.g. QR = 19.63 m, QL = 21.22 m, LR = 1.83 m
Part B
1. By the cosine rule,
cos(LQR)
pLQR
= cos1
pLQR
= 2.54E (2 dp)
b.
pWRL = 180  82  25
= 73E
By either cosine rule or sine rule find WL
=
WL
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
2. a., b.
3.362 4.11
= 42.41 m2
5. Planned height of puck above C (TC) is
1.22  0.30 = 0.92 m
PC
=
= 5.02 m
30E
= 0.52 rad
30E =
=
ii.
iii.
c. i.
3. a. 2sin x = 1
0.92
ii. 150.7E
iii. 300E
= 52.7E
sin x =
x
= sin1
x = 30E
and x = 18030
= 150E
x = 30E or 150E
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
167
168
Answers
= sin1 (1)
1
= cos
5 sin(
x) = 5
Min value is 5
sin (
x)
= 1
= sin1 (1)
=
x
= 3
sin 3x =
3x = sin1 ( 0.6)
3x = 36.87
3x = 180+36.87, 36036.87, 540+36.87, 72036.87
900+36.87, 108036.87
x = 72.3E, 107.7E, 192.3E, 227.7E, 312.3E, 347.7E
= 3.09  4
= 0.91
x = sin1 (0.91)
= 65.5E
Domain is 0E # x # 360E and sin is negative in the third
and fourth quadrants.
solutions are x = 245.5E, 294.5E
(radian measures = 4.285, 5.140)
c. tan x
4. y = 5sin
or y = 5sin(
Max value is 5
5 sin(
sin (
x)
x) = 5
x)
tan x = 1.6
x = tan1(1.6)
x = 1.012
x = + 1.012
x = 1.012, 4.154
(degree measures = 58.0E, 238.0E)
=1
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Answers
169
QUESTION FIVE
If depth, d = 3m then solve
2.3 cos (
) + 3.8
=3
2.3 cos (
t)
= 0.8
cos (
t)
= cos1 (
= 1.926
t
= 3.85 h
3.85 hours (or 3h 51 min) each side of high tide has
enough water for safe passage in/out of harbour.
Graphically, this would appear on (0, 2)
45t = 65.38E
t
= 8 seconds to return
= 0.45
=
= sin1 (
=
= 0.00053 seconds (2 sf)
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
= sin1 (0.2)
= 11.5E (1 dp)
= 11.5E, 180E  11.5E
= 11.5E, 168.5E (1 dp)
c. tan = 1.1  2.7
tan =  1.6
= tan1 (1.6)
= 1.012
As this is outside the domain of [0, 2]
Draw a graph of tan on [0, 2] to help
= 1.012 is matched when
=  1.012, 2  1.012
= 2.130, 5.271 (3 dp)
QUESTION TWO
a.  30E = cos1(0.7)
 30E = 134.4E (second quadrant)
or 360E  134.4E (third quadrant)
= 134.4E + 30E, 360E  134.4E + 30E
= 164.4E, 255.6E
It is useful to check with a substitution with one of your
own solutions.
e.g. Evaluating cos(255.6E  30E) = 0.69966
= 0.7 (1 dp)
Answers
170
t)
= 40E
1.6 sin (
t)
= 40E  38.6E
sin (
t)
= sin1 (
QUESTION FOUR
First week
30  33 cos (
t)
30  45
= 45
= 33 cos (
= cos (
cos1 (
t)
t)
= 2.043
= 2.043, 2  2.043
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
Normal Distribution
171
0.00
0.0000
0.01
0.0040
0.02
0.0080
0.03
0.0120
0.04
0.0160
0.05
0.0199
0.06
0.0239
0.07
0.0279
0.08
0.0319
0.09
0.0359
0.10
0.0398
0.0438
0.0478
0.0517
0.0557
0.0596
0.0636
0.0675
0.0714
0.0753
0.20
0.0793
0.0832
0.0871
0.0910
0.0948
0.0987
0.1026
0.1064
0.1103
0.1141
0.30
0.1179
0.1217
0.1255
0.1293
0.1331
0.1368
0.1406
0.1443
0.1480
0.1517
0.40
0.1554
0.1591
0.1628
0.1664
0.1700
0.1736
0.1772
0.1808
0.1844
0.1879
0.50
0.1915
0.1950
0.1985
0.2019
0.2054
0.2088
0.2123
0.2157
0.2190
0.2224
0.60
0.2257
0.2291
0.2324
0.2357
0.2389
0.2422
0.2454
0.2486
0.2517
0.2549
0.70
0.2580
0.2611
0.2642
0.2673
0.2704
0.2734
0.2764
0.2794
0.2823
0.2852
0.80
0.2881
0.2910
0.2939
0.2967
0.2995
0.3023
0.3051
0.3078
0.3106
0.3133
0.90
0.3159
0.3186
0.3212
0.3238
0.3264
0.3289
0.3315
0.3340
0.3365
0.3389
1.00
0.3413
0.3438
0.3461
0.3485
0.3508
0.3531
0.3554
0.3577
0.3599
0.3621
1.10
0.3643
0.3665
0.3686
0.3708
0.3729
0.3749
0.3770
0.3790
0.3810
0.3830
1.20
0.3849
0.3869
0.3888
0.3907
0.3925
0.3944
0.3962
0.3980
0.3997
0.4015
1.30
0.4032
0.4049
0.4066
0.4082
0.4099
0.4115
0.4131
0.4147
0.4162
0.4177
1.40
0.4192
0.4207
0.4222
0.4236
0.4251
0.4265
0.4279
0.4292
0.4306
0.4319
1.50
0.4332
0.4345
0.4357
0.4370
0.4382
0.4394
0.4406
0.4418
0.4429
0.4441
1.60
0.4452
0.4463
0.4474
0.4484
0.4495
0.4505
0.4515
0.4525
0.4535
0.4545
1.70
0.4554
0.4564
0.4573
0.4582
0.4591
0.4599
0.4608
0.4616
0.4625
0.4633
1.80
0.4641
0.4649
0.4656
0.4664
0.4671
0.4678
0.4686
0.4693
0.4699
0.4706
1.90
0.4713
0.4719
0.4726
0.4732
0.4738
0.4744
0.4750
0.4756
0.4761
0.4767
2.00
0.4772
0.4778
0.4783
0.4788
0.4793
0.4798
0.4803
0.4808
0.4812
0.4817
2.10
0.4821
0.4826
0.4830
0.4834
0.4838
0.4842
0.4846
0.4850
0.4854
0.4857
2.20
0.4861
0.4864
0.4868
0.4871
0.4875
0.4878
0.4881
0.4884
0.4887
0.4890
2.30
0.4893
0.4896
0.4898
0.4901
0.4904
0.4906
0.4909
0.4911
0.4913
0.4916
2.40
0.4918
0.4920
0.4922
0.4925
0.4927
0.4929
0.4931
0.4932
0.4934
0.4936
2.50
0.4938
0.4940
0.4941
0.4943
0.4945
0.4946
0.4948
0.4949
0.4951
0.4952
2.60
0.4953
0.4955
0.4956
0.4957
0.4959
0.4960
0.4961
0.4962
0.4963
0.4964
2.70
0.4965
0.4966
0.4967
0.4968
0.4969
0.4970
0.4971
0.4972
0.4973
0.4974
2.80
0.4974
0.4975
0.4976
0.4977
0.4977
0.4978
0.4979
0.4979
0.4980
0.4981
2.90
0.4981
0.4982
0.4982
0.4983
0.4984
0.4984
0.4985
0.4985
0.4986
0.4986
3.00
0.4987
0.4987
0.4987
0.4988
0.4988
0.4989
0.4989
0.4989
0.4990
0.4990
3.10
0.4990
0.4991
0.4991
0.4991
0.4992
0.4992
0.4992
0.4992
0.4993
0.4993
3.20
0.4993
0.4993
0.4994
0.4994
0.4994
0.4994
0.4994
0.4995
0.4995
0.4995
3.30
3.40
0.4995
0.4997
0.4995
0.4997
0.4995
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4996
0.4997
0.4997
0.4998
3.50
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
0.4998
3.60
0.4998
0.4998
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
3.70
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
3.80
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
0.4999
3.90
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
4.00
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
0.5000
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
172
Useful Formulae
FORMULAE SHEET
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
173
174
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS
175
176
YEAR 12 MATHEMATICS