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Springback Compensation Seminar

Step by Step

Current Challenges
Physical tool geometry correction loops are timetime- and
cost--intensive
cost
Simulation--based springback compensation eliminates
Simulation
compensation loops

Start

Simulation
based tryout

Accurate simulation
of springback
Part geometry
Springback result

Physical tryout
Effective compensation
of active surfaces
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Springback Compensation - Workflow


Simulation of
the process

Compensation
active surfaces

AF-Incremental
AF-DieDesigner
AF-Trim

Simulation of
Springback

AF-Compensator

Process & Geometry optimization


AF-Incremental, AF-DieDesigner

* Surface constraints
* Compensation factor

AF-Incremental

Springback
evaluation

Confirmation
Simulation
AF-Incremental

Compensation
strategy

Process
optimal?

Export of
compensated
active surfaces
or vector field

Springback
robust?

Tolerance
okay?
okay
?

Simulation of
Robustness
AF-Sigma

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Springback Compensation The Principles


Principle 1: You require a proper basic simulation
Principle 2: In order to execute a springback simulation
Final Validation Settings are required
Principle 3: Evaluate springback in a well defined and
repeatable way
Principle 4: Ensure the process is stable
Principle 5: Compensation just does; it doesnt
interpret or evaluate

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Springback Compensation Step by Step


Step 1: Proper Basic Simulation
Step 2: Simulation of Springback
Step 3: Springback Evaluation
Step 4: ProcessProcess- and GeometryGeometry-improvement
Step 5: Process Robustness
Step 6: Compensation Strategy
Step 7: Compensation active Surfaces
Step 8: Export Compensation Results
Step 9: Confirmation Simulation

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Example
Springback Compensation Step by Step will be
illustrated on one example: SS-Rail
We will make use of both:
Slide Presentation
AutoForm Software Demonstration

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 1: Proper Basic Simulation


Step 1 identical to Principle 1
Development of an optimal forming process using AutoForm
Process layout, concept, draw die geometry
Consideration of all OP
OPs, optimal Process parameter
Clamping conditions of measuring device

Part must met the final quality demands before an accurate


springback simulation will be executed
Free of splits
Free of wrinkles
Final blank shape

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Preprocessing
Simulation setset-up of inner parts
Geometry / Tools definitions
Blank
Material data
Blank shape

Process definition
Tool penetration kinematic check
Draw beads
Secondary operations

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Postprocessing
Evaluation of Inner Parts
General Overview: Formability
Analyze the Splits
Analyze the Distribution of Sheet Thickness
Analyze the Occurrence of Wrinkles
Analyze the Punch Impact
Analyze the Binder Closure
Analyze the DrawDraw-In
Check Blankholder Pressure Distribution

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Forming of S-Rail
Part from AutoForm
Material and thickness
SPCC (2.00 mm)

Binder Travel
100 mm

Binder Force
600 KN (appr
(appr.. 60 ton)

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Forming of S-Rail
First Operation: Drawing

Second Operation: Cutting

Finally,, Springback
Finally

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Software demo Step 1


Simulation setset-up S
S--Rail
Result evaluation of SS-Rail

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 2: Springback Simulation


Final Validation Settings
Convergence behavior
Free springback vs. Constrained springback
Local best fit
Positioning of clamps and pilots

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Step 2: Springback simulation


Starting point of Step 2 is Principle 2
AutoForm developed Final Validation Settings for a fast and
accurate springback result
Checklist: Final Validation
- Elastic Plastic Shell
- Standard
Standard--settings plus:
- Initial element size
size::
2 * min. DieDie-radius (max
(max.. 20 mm)
- Max refinement level
level:: 5
- Max element angle: 22.5
22.5
- EndTimeStep
EndTimeStep:: 0.4
-

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Compensation Strategy Influence of clamping concept


Constrained springback is always recommended in the
springback compensation
Try to minimize the clamping points
Try to define the clamping concept with minimum
springback deviation which aims at minimizing the surface
change during the compensation
Clamping concept influences the springback results

Springback (x mm)

Starting Point
Free Springback

Springback
(x mm)
Springback(x

Constrained
Springback

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Springback (x mm)

Constrained
Springback

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Positioning of Clamps
In reality, the Sheet has a certain
thickness
Clamp position is well defined
In the simulation, only the
mid plane of the sheet is
represented
The clamp position must
be defined carefully:
Top - Mid - Bottom

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 3: Springback Evaluation


Clamping Concept & Clamping Forces
Reference Geometry
Springback resultsresults- distance from reference
Springback result variables are always measured from part to
reference geometry

Part after Springback


Reference Geometry

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Software Demo Step 2 & 3


Step 2: Springback Simulation
Step 3: Springback Evaluation
Evaluation of clamping forces
Evaluation of springback values

The shape deviation varies from -3.5mm to 0.4mm, which exceeded


the given tolerance, therefore, springback compensation is necessary.
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 4: Process- & Geometry- improvement


Modification of:
Process settings
Tool Geometry
Part Geometry
in order to reduce or even eliminate springback

In case of the SS-Rail, blankholder force just before bottom


stroke has been increased

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Part 1: accurate springback simulation


Step 1: Proper Basic Simulation
Step 2: Springback Simulation
Step 3: Springback Evaluation
Step 4: ProcessProcess- and GeometryGeometry-Improvement

Part 2: effective springback compensation


Step 5: Process Robustness
Step 6: Compensation Strategy
Step 7: Compensation active Surfaces
Step 8: Export Compensation Results
Step 9: Confirmation Simulation
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Step 5. Process Robustness


Robustness
The characteristic of the process to be insensitive
to the variation of the input
Robustness
Analysis

Output

Initial Simulation

Process
improvement

Improved simulation
Material variation at
improved simulation
New Simulation

Input

Material variation at
new Simulation
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Robustness Analysis - how does it work?

Definition of Process
Environment

Multiple Simulations

Evaluation, Statistic process


control

Influence and
sensitivity
Noise
variables
Dominant
variable

Process potential
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Industrial Application of Robustness Analysis


Front side member inner Volvo C30/S40/V50 (*)

(*) Influence on simulation results from material and process scatter, Sigvant & Carleer, IDDRG, Porto 2006
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Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Industrial Application of Robustness Analysis


Simulation showed a feasible part

0.6 0.8

1.0

Failure
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Version 1.1

Industrial Application of Robustness Analysis


but despite of a safe simulation occurrence of
problems in production

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


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Version 1.1

Industrial Application of Robustness Analysis

Specification
limit

Input

Output
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Industrial Application of Robustness Analysis


Modification of radius in critical zone resulted
in a more stable production process

Specification
limit

Output
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Specification
limit

Output

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Version 1.1

Industrial Application - Summary


Process improvement I
part is feasible

Robustness analysis I
part production is not
reliable

Output

Output

Output

Process improvement II &


Robustness analysis II
part is feasible and
production is reliable

Input
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Step 5. Process Robustness


Step 5 is identical to Principle 4: ensure the process is stable
Input

Output

(Springback,
mm)

Forming
process
1.0

4.3

8.7

How much must the tool be compensated?


Compensation doesnt guarantee success
It is strongly recommended to assure that your process is stable by
using AutoFormAutoForm-Sigma. Compensations is only reasonable with a
robust springback
AutoForm developed an inputinput-set for AutoForm
AutoForm--Sigma in order to
properly represent the real life result variation
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Robustness Analysis - Input


Parameters & Ranges for robustness analysis
Thickness,
Mechanical Properties,
R-Values,
Blank holder pressure,
Lube,
Blank position,

Norm 10%
Rp0.2 20MPa, Rm 20MPa (dependent )
20% (dependent )
10%
10%
1mm

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Software Demo Step 5: Process Robustness


Process Robustness with respect to:
Feasibility
Springback

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 6. Compensation strategy


Carefully consider how to compensate the forming
process
Which operation etc.
Surface constraints
Compensation factor (Default = Recommendation = 1)

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Compensation Strategy A: Structural Parts


OP20:
Gravity
Closing
Drawing

OP30:
Cutting

OP40:
Cutting

OP50:
Cutting

OP60:
Cutting
Springback

Vector field of OP60 is processed on part geometry


(-> all operations are compensated same as OP20)
After OP60 springback of part should be within required tolerances
otherwise additional compensation loops are required
Because of different springback at the end of each operation,
problems while loading following die might occur
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Compensation Strategy B: Structural Parts


OP20:
Gravity
Closing
Drawing
Springback

OP30:
Cutting

OP50::
OP50

OP40::
OP40
Positioning
Closing
Forming
Springback

Positioning
Closing
Forming
Springback

Each forming operation is compensated individually


After OP50 springback of part should be within required tolerances
otherwise additional compensation loops are required
Because of different compensation geometries of each operation,
positioning in next tool must be done carefully
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Compensation Strategy
Free springback)

Springback (x mm)

OP20:
Gravity
Closing
Drawing

OP30:
Cutting

OP40::
OP40
Forming

OP50::
OP50
Forming
Springback

Constrained springback

Springback (x mm)

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Strategy A Starting point

Springback(x mm)

First compensation loop

1ste Iteration
(x mm)

1ste Iteration
(x mm)

1ste Iteration
(x mm)

1ste Iteration
(x mm)
Springback (y mm)

2te Iteration
(y mm)

2te Iteration
(y mm)
Springback OK

Second compensation loop

2te Iteration
(y mm)

2te Iteration
(y mm)

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 7: Compensation of Active Surfaces


Application of AutoFormAutoForm-Compensator
Keep in mind Principle 5:
Compensation just does; it doesnt interpret or evaluate

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.0

Springback Compensation
Example:: Compensation of a Cross member
Example

The forming,
forming, cutting and springback has to be calculated as basis for the
compensation..
compensation

As the entire tool geometry is to be compensated in the Draw stage


stage,, Mod 2 has to
be selected.
selected.
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.0

Springback Compensation
Example:: Compensation at a Cross member
Example

Using the Predefine compensation regions,


regions, the areas for the
compensation are determined automatically
automatically..
Binder: The defined binder is fixed (Fixed
Binder:
Fixed).
).
Part:: The original part data are compensated according to the springback results
Part
by the factor 1.
Fill and Addendum define the transition area.
area.
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.0

Springback Compensation
Example: Compensation at a Cross member
After Apply the tool surfaces are modified.
aufgefedertes Bauteil
Sprung back Part
Referenzgeometrie
Reference
Geometry
New
Punch
Stempel

In the section, the sprung back part, the reference geometry and the
compensated punch are shown.
The part is sprung back upwards with respect to the reference
geometry.
Thus, the geometry is corrected in the opposite direction,
accordingly. The punch (as all the other tools in the Process
generator) is automatically adopted and is positioned below the
reference geometry.
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Springback Compensation
Compensation area of the SS-Rail
Direct compensation is only possible in those area where springback
results are available.

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Principle 5: Compensation just does


Think of principle 5: compensation just does
The compensation just takes the available springback result to
extract the tool geometry, no further interpretation or evaluation has
been done
First compensation loop
Straight forward compensation gives swinging of the blankholder
Manual manipulation necessary

For beam-like part or the case of part on binder, the quality of binder
surface after compensation is the typical issue.
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Improve the distorted binder surface

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Version 1.1

Smooth Binder Surface


Manual manipulation executed with morphing functionality of
AutoForm--DieDesigner
AutoForm
Blankholder looks smooth now

Improved binder
surface

Desired
shape

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

The max. shape deviation still exceeded the given


tolerance after one compensation loop.
Introduce 2nd and 3rd compensation until given tolerance is
reached

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Convergence of Compensation Loops

Distance from reference

The convergence behavior can be both oscillating or


asymptotic (impossible to say in advance what it will be)

0
oscillating
convergence
asymptotic
convergence

# iteration loop
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Software demo Step 6 & 7


Step 6: Compensation Strategy
Step 7: Compensation Active Surfaces
The final shape deviation after 4 compensation loops
The shape deviation is wellwell-controlled under 0.25mm

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Software demo Step 6 & 7


Starting point

1st Iteration

4th Iteration

The final shape deviation after 4th Compensation loops


The shape deviation is wellwell-controlled under 0.25mm
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Step 8: Export Compensation Results


How to get the data out of AF into a CAD system?
Export compensated mesh
Import in CAD
Re
Re--design in CAD based on imported AFAF-compensated mesh
In special cases, use vector field to deform existing CADCAD-surfaces

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Step 9: Confirmation Simulation


Execute an AutoForm simulation based on the
compensated tool surface as final check before milling

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Springback Compensation - Workflow


Simulation of
the process

Compensation
active surfaces

AF-Incremental
AF-DieDesigner
AF-Trim

Simulation of
Springback

AF-Compensator

Process & Geometry optimization


AF-Incremental, AF-DieDesigner

* Surface constraints
* Compensation factor

AF-Incremental

Springback
evaluation

Confirmation
Simulation
AF-Incremental

Compensation
strategy

Process
optimal?

Export of
compensated
active surfaces
or vector field

Springback
robust?

Tolerance
okay?
okay
?

Simulation of
Robustness
AF-Sigma

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Influence on your Working-Process


Present Procedure:
Tryout samples have been measured
A compensation strategy is determined
Generally the process engineer is not involved

Feasibility

Process
Planning

Tool
Design

Tool
Production

Tryout

Future Procedure:
The process engineer develops a compensation
strategy at an early stage
The necessary springback and compensation
know--how has been developed
know
The active surfaces are already compensated
in the engineering department.
Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai
Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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Version 1.1

Tips for Successful Implementation


Before Springback compensation
The base simulation should have no splits, no wrinkles and no
issues of blank size change;
Springback should be minimized through process improvement.

Springback compensation
The distortion of binder surface after compensation is the typical
issue of compensation for beambeam-like part, or the case of part on
binder;
To improve the binder surface, additional morph has to be
introduced.
Attention: Only the fix region and transition region can be
modified after compensation. The region of direct compensation
is not allowed to be changed after compensation.
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Tips for Successful Implementation


After Springback compensation,
Inform the trytry-out worker that this is a compensated tool so the
process must be adjusted to the simulation as much as possible
Be present at the trytry-out to learn and to discus any additional
change of tool surfaces

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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Summary and Perspective


Springback simulations can reliably be performed with
AutoForm Final Validation settings
Springback compensation can productively be applied using
AutoForm
Compensation strategies can be complex
Springback simulation and springback compensation require
additional expertise of the user

AutoForm offers you support


for the implementation of
this leading edge technology
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Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

Version 1.1

Thank You

Springback Compensation Seminar, Chennai


Chennai,, July 9, 2010

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