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DNA

Composed of 2 chains of nucleotide wound together


in the form of a double helix
Each chain has a backbone of Deoxyribose and
phosphate residues arranged alternatively

A sequence of DNA carrying codon specifying for


particular polypeptide
DNA contains many genes (a combination of
hundreds and thousands of nucleotide)

BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME

Contains a double stranded molecule of


arranged in circular form
Length: 1,000 microns
Bacterial DNA contains about 4,000 kilobases
Where in 1 kb = 1,00 base pairs (A-T) (G-C)
Humans have about 3,000 kb pairs

DNA

PLASMID

Are circular DNA molecules present in the cytoplasm


of the bacteria
Capable of autonomous replication
Can transfer genes from one cell to others
Act
as
vector
in
genetic
engineering

DNA: Deoxyribosenucleic acid

Composed of many units of:


Adenine Thymine (A-T)
Guanine Cytosine (G-C)
A+T G+C Proportion differ from each species
Central dogma of life
Carries genetic information
DNA is transcribed to RNA
DNA is a store house of protein
DNA act as template for synthesis of mRNA
Virus differs from other as they contain either RNA or
DNA

May encode genetic information for properties:


a. Resistance to antibiotic
b. Bacteriocin production
c. Enterotoxin
d. Enhanced pathogenicity
e. Reduced sensitivity to mutagen
f. Degrade complex organic molecule
Plasmid can be integrated with chromosomal DNA
EPISOMES: integrated form of plasmid with DNA

How RNA differ from DNA:

RNA contains sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose


Uracil instead of Thymine
Types of RNA:
a. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
b. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
c. Transfer RNA (tRNA)

What is a code in genetics

A unit consist of sequence of three bases


Triplet A-T-C
A code can make a single amino acid
More than one code present for making similar
sequence of amino acid
AGA: makes arginine
AGC, CGU, CGG also code for the same amino acid
Some codons UAA dont code for any amino acid
called as nonsense codon.

What is a GENE?

POTENTIAL OF PLASMID

Can
be
self
transmissible
and
non
transmissible
Transfer the sex and drug resistance with the
help of restriction end nucleases

Lethal mutation is harmful and destroy the vital


functions

MUTAGENIC AGENTS

GENOTYPIC and PHENOTYPIC

GENOME: sum total of gene that make up the


genetic apparatus of cell established as genotype
PHENOTYPE: is the physical expression in an
environment and can be reversible

PRINCIPLES of GENOTYPIC VARIATION

Mutations
Genotypic by transfer of genes
1. Transformation
2. Transduction
3. Conjugation

MUTATION in BACTERIA

Bacteria multiply by asexual binary fission


Altered nucleotide sequence expresses new or
altered characteristic
Acquired antibiotic resistance grows in the body
without inhibition
Become a prominent organism
Phenotypic variation occurs when genes changes in
response to the environment but reversible

DIFFERENT MECHANISM FOR GENETIC TRANSFER

TRANSDUCTION: use of a bacteriophage (bacterial


virus) to transfer DNA
When the phage particle infects another bacteria
DNA transfer is effected and the recipient cell
acquires new character coded by donor DNA

MUTATION

Random, undirected, heritable variation


Caused by alteration in the nucleotide sequence at
some point of DNA which can occur due to to:
1. Inversion
2. Deletion
3. Duplication
4. Insertion
5. Translocation
Of one or more bases

Bacteriophage can infect only certain bacteria


bearing a receptor to which they can bind
Do not cause disease in humans
The only real link between bacteriophage and actual
human pathogen is their ability to alter the genome
of non virulent bacteria strain thus producing more
virulent strain
2 cycle of infecting bacteria
1. Lytic
2. Lysogenic

CONJUGATION

Mutation can occur in any sequence, inevitable,


useful for survival
All genes are susceptible for mutations but all
mutations are not expressed

The process in bacterial cells in which 2 bacterial cells come


together in a temporary fusion to transfer genetic material
via the PLASMID (either as solitary or as part of a
chromosome) from the donor cell to the recipient cell.
Supplement

Bacterial conjugation is a beneficial process in bacteria


since they can acquire a gene that confers survival or a novel
characteristic which enables them to thrive in harmful
conditions or to utilize a new metabolite. It is through this
process that resistance to antibiotics can be transferred from
one bacterial cell to another.

TRANSFORMATION

Transfer of genetic information through the activity of


DNA

The basic conjugative plasmid is the F-plasmid, or Ffactor. The F-plasmid is an episome (a plasmid that can
intergrate itself into the bacterial chromosome) with a length
of about 100,000 base pairs.
There can only be one copy of the F-plasmid in a given
bacterium, either free or integrated, and bacteria that
possess a copy are called F-positive or F-plus (denoted
F+). Cells that lack F plasmids are called F-negative or Fminus (F-) and can function as recipient cells.

In this image, a gene from bacterial cell 1 is moved from


bacterial cell 1 to bacterial cell 2. This process of bacterial
cell 2 taking up new genetic material is called
transformation.