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1-I995 (R2001)


Accepted Practices for

Hydrogen Sulj2de (H2S)Safety Training Programs


2390.1 -1995 (R-2001)


American National Standard

Accepted Practices for
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Safety Training Programs

American Society of Safety Engineers

1800 East Oakton Street

Des Plaines, Illinois 60018-2187

Approved May 8,2001

American National Standards Institute, Inc.


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scope and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufac-

turer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an Amencan National Standard does
not in any respect preclude anyone, whether they have approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to
the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned
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the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of
the American National Standards Institute.
CAUTION NOTICE This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any
time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be
taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of
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aii standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute.

Published by
American Society of Safety Engineers
1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines, Iliinois 60018-2187
Copyright 2001 by American Society of Safety Engineers

Ail rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced
in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or
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of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America


(This Foreword is not a part of American National Standard 2390.1-1995 R-2001.)

This is a reaffirmation of the 1995 edition of the American National Standard 2390.1, Accepted
Practicesfor Hydrogen Suljde (H2S) Safety Training Programs with no change in technical content. Corrections to typographical errors noted since 1995 have been included in this edition.

The Committee list at the time of reaffirmation will replace the current list. Add a footnote to the
committee list and superscripts, as appropriate, to indicate those committee members who were
also represented on the Committee at the time of the approval of the 1995 edition. The added
footnote will read:
'Also represented on the 2390 Committee that approved the 1995 edition.
The charter of the Amencan National Standards Committee 2390 on Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Training was accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on October 5,
1992. This standard grew out of the recognition of a need for specialized training dealing with
this toxic chemical, above and beyond conventional hazard communications training, due to
numerous fatal accidents involving victims and their would-be rescuers succumbing to the
effects of hydrogen sulfide.
Historically, hydrogen sulfide training issues have been addressed by only a few industries, and
the consistency of the training criteria varied greatly from one organization to another. In some
cases, the emphasis placed on student competency may have given way or been sacrificed to
meet the immediate financial needs of the organization. For these reasons, the standard addresses the individual training criteria which should be incorporated into a comprehensive training
course. These criteria were developed by combining accepted practices in numerous affected
industries. Most significantly, emphasis has been given to the qualifications and proficiency of
individual Hydrogen Sulfide Safety Instructors, as well as student performance-based competency and qualifications.
Governmentalregulations (see 29 CFR 1910.1200) specify mandatory requirementsfor the training of personnel working with or around hazardous chemicals. As a voluntary consensus standard, this document complements those regulations. However, compliance with this standard
does not assure compliance with govemmental regulations, and vice versa.
The 2390 Committee solicits public input that may suggest revisions to the standard. Such input
should be sent to the Secretariat, American Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 E. Oakton Street,
Des Plaines, Illinois 60018-2187.

This standard was developed and approved for submittal to ANSI by the American National
Standards Committee on Hydrogen Sulfide Training, 2390. Committee approval of the standard
does not necessarily imply that all members voted for its approval. At the time of its approval,
the 2390 Standards Committee had the following members:

Frank Perry, Chairman

Charles A. Simpson, Vice Chairman
Thomas F. Bresnahan, Secretary

Organization Represented

Name of Representative

Amencan Industrial Hygiene Association

American Petroleum Institute

Janet E. Wiikil
Kendall C. Crawford (Alt)
F& P e w 1
Pamela R. Huck (Alt)
Steve M. Olson1
Ken Houston Alt)
D. Larry Zink
Roger Smith (Alt)
Gary Shrum

American Society of Safety Engineers

Association of Energy Services Companies
Compressed Gas Association
Eastman Chemical

Edison Electric Institute

International Association of Drilling Contractors
International Pipe Inspectors Association
National Environmental Training Association
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Petroleum Educational Council
Railroad Commission of Texas Oil and Gas Division
Sulphur Institute
U.S. Coast Guard
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Interior
U.S. Department of Labor-OSHA
Individual Voting Members

*Non-voting advisory member

Janet Fox
Charles Kelly (Alt)
Steve Kroplal
Alan Spackman (Alt)
Joseph Hurt (Alt)
Joe M a c h '
Jack Barnidgel
Jeff (Charles) Bryant'
Charles A. Simpson1
Bill Walker (Alt)
Charles S . (Charley) Ross
Harold H. Weber'
LCDR Clint Chamberlain
m e Curole1
Richard (Rick) Ensele
Ira Wainless*
Jewel Moms'
James A. Kratt1
Reggie Lirette, Jr.
George C. Rodgers, Jr.'
mornas L. ~obertsl





1. Scope. Purpose. and Application of Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1:2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. Definitions



3. Training Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of H2S ............................
3.2 Sources of H2S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Human Physiology and Medical Evaluation ...........................
3.4 Work Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-0
3.5 Personal Protective Equipment ...................................
3.6 Use of Contingency Plan and Emergency Response....................
3.7 Burning, Flaring and Venting of H2S ................................
3.8 State and Federal Regulatory Requirements ..........................
3.9 H2S Release Dispersion Models ...................................
3.1 O Rescue Techniques, First Aid and Post Exposure Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.11 Methods of Detection and Monitoring...............................
3.1 2 Engineering Controls...........................................
3.13 Transportation of H2S Cargoes ...................................
3.1 4 Emerging Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. Instructor Qualification & Proficiency



5. Documentation and Recordkeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Program Documentation .........................................

Class Documentation ...........................................
Certification Card ..............................................
Recordkeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6. Student Competency and Qualification .................................




8. Protection Requirements for Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


9. Related Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



7. Training Techniques. Language and Literacy Factors

Appendix A: Occupations with Potential H2S Exposure .....................
Appendix B: Training Techniques. Language and Literacy Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix C: Sample Course Outline...................................


American National Standard

Accepted Practices for
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Safety Training Programs

I . Scope, Purpose, and Application

1.1 Scope. This standard sets forth accepted practices for

hydrogen sulfide (H2S) safety training and instruction
of affected personnel to include, but not be limited to, the
- minimum informational content of the course;
- recommended exercises and drills;
- refresher training requirements;
- H,S Safety Instructor qualifications;
- properties and characteristicsof H2S;
- sources of H2S and areas of potential exposure;
- typical site-specific safe work practices associated
with H2S operations;
- detection methods for HzS;
- selection, use and care of personal protective
equipment appropriate for atmospheres containing
H2S concentrations above the Threshold Limit
Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA);
- rescue techniques and first-aid procedures for
victims of H2S exposure.
1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to establish
minimum requirements for site-specific H2S safety training
programs that will enhance safety in occupational settings
where hydrogen sulfide is present, or is recognized as being
potentially present, above the V-TWA.
1.3 Application. This standard is recommended for
voluntary application in occupational settings where
personnel have the potential to be exposed to concentrations of
H2S in excess of the TLV-TWA, as established by the
American Conference of GovernmentalIndustrial
Hygienists (ACGIH).

1.3.1 These requirements/recommendations apply when the

instructor/administratorof the course meets the provisions of
the standard, even when one or more assistant instructors
presenting the course may not meet those standards.

1.3.2 If any of the provisions of this standard are deemed

to be not applicable, the other requirements/recommendations
of the standard shall still apply.
2. Definitions

2.1 acute exposure: Generally, exposure to a substance

for less than 24 hours.
2.2 acute toxicity: The acute adverse effects resulting
from a single dose of, or exposure to, a substance. Acute toxicity tests (1) give a quantitative estimate of acute toxicity
(LD50)for comparisons to other substances; (2) identify target
organs and other clinical manifestations of acute
toxicity; (3) establish the reversibility of the toxic response;
and (4) give dose-ranging guidance for other studies.
2.3 chronic exposure: Generally, exposure to a substance for a
period of more than 3 months. Chronic toxicity tests
are performed to assess the cumulative toxicity effects and carcinogenicity of chemicals.

2.4 contingency plan: A site-specific written document

that provides an organized plan for alerting and protecting
the public within an area of exposure following the accidental
release of a potentially hazardous atmospheric concentrationof
hydrogen sulfide.
2.5 emergency procedures plan: A part of a broader and more
comprehensive Contingency Plan. The emergency
procedures plan includes, but is not limited to, such items as
the responsibilities of personnel, the immediate action plan,
telephone numbers and communication methods, the location
of nearby residences, businesses, schools, churches, medical
facilities and emergency response personnel, safety equipment
and supplies available, and evacuation routes. It outlines the
immediate steps and actions that would be taken in the event of
a major release of toxic material.


2.6 equivalent: In this standard, denotes where instructors,

Chemical family ..............Inorganic sulfide

facilities, equipment, course design, etc. provide equal performance.

Chemical formula............*2s

2.7 firing: The controlled combustion of the flammable

vapors discharged from vent piping or pipe lines.

Normal physical

2.8 instructorladministrator: An individual who has

successfully completed a course in hydrogen sulfide
training from an institutionor organization offering such courses, or has received equivalent instruction from a
instructor/trainer. or has equivalent instnictor/trainer

2.9 may: Denotes a permissive statement.


2.10 non-essential personnel: Those individuals who are

Boiling point

not required to engage in activities to control the hazardous

conditions associated with hydrogen sulfide during an emergency.

Melting Point ..................-117.2"F

(- 82.9W

2.ll parts per million (ppm): Parts of a substance per

million parts of air. It is a measure of a substance's
concentration in a volume or air.


...................-76.4T (-60.2")

Flammable limits.............4.3% .46% vapor by volume

in air.
Solubility ..........................

2.12 shall: Denotes a mandatory requirement.

2.13 should: Denotes an advisory recommendation.
2.14 venting: The process of discharging a material to
the atmosphere through a series of piping and/or venting
devices, to facilitate the proper and safe dispersion of toxic
materials and to minimize personnel exposure.
2.15 visitor: An individual who is visiting a job site for
a short period of time, and who is not required to provide
any of the operational or control activities at the site.

3. Training Criteria

3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of H2S.

3.1.1 The physical and chemical properties of H2S,
including but not limited to the following, should be discussed
as part of H2S training, as appropriate for the facility.
Synonyms..................Sulfureted hydrogen,
hydrosulfuric acid, dihydrogen sulfide, rotten egg gas,
swamp gas, meadow gas,
stink damp, and others.

Highly toxic, colorless gas,

slightly heavier than air.
Vapor density = 1.19 at 32F
(WC) at 760 mm Hg
(air = 1.00).
Density = 1.5392 g/L
H2S may collect in low-lying
areas or confined spaces.

Soluble in water and oil;

solubility decreases as the
temperature of the liquid

Combustibility .................Burns in air with a blue flame to

produce sulfur dioxide (Sod,
a very irritating gas with a
pungent odor. Sulfur dioxide
is a colorless gas appreciably
heavier than air,with a
specific gravity = 2.26 at
32F (W)and 760 mm Hg
(air = 1. 00).
Odor and warning

Hydrogen sulfide has an unpleasant odor, characteristic

of rotten eggs, and may be
easily detected at low concentrations. Due to the rapid
onset of olfactory fatigue
and paralysis (loss of the
sense of smell), odor shall
not be used as the only
warning for the presence of


3.1.2 Incompatibilities and Reactivities. When H2S

contacts strong oxidizers and oxidizing materials it may cause
fire or explosions, it may also cause sulfide stress cracking
andlor hydrogen embrittlement.
When H2S dissolves in water, it forms a weak acid that can corrode and pit metal.
Many metals will react with H2S to form metal sulfides. H2S
may react with iron or steel to form iron sulfide, which can be
pyrophoric (able to ignite spontaneously on contact with air).

3.2 Sources of H2S.

3.2.1 Students shall be informed of the following
sources of H2S:
-Natural sources: H2S is produced in nature primarily
through the decomposition of organic material by bacteria. It
may develop in low oxygen environments such as bogs,
swamps and polluted water. The gas also occurs as a constituent of natural gas, petroleum, suifur deposits, volcanic
gases and sulfur springs.

-Industrial sources: In industrial operations, H2S is either

a product, byproduct or waste material. As a byproduct, it is
often recovered and converted to elemental sulfur or sulfuric
acid. (See Appendix A for a listing of occupations with potential H2S exposures.)
3.3 Human Physiology and Medical Evaluation.
3.3.1 Human Physiology Information. An overview of
the respiratory system and the eyes shall be presented. The target organs and body structures subject to the effects of
H2S shall be identified. These include, at a minimum, the
- olfactory nerves;
- lungs;
- brain;
- respiratory control center;
- eyes.

3.3.2 Signs and Symptoms of H2S Exposure Associated

with Acute Toxiciy. The signs and symptoms
of H2S exposure associated with acute toxicity shall be
presented. These include:
- olfactory paralysis;
- excitement;
- eye irritation;
- coughing;
- headaches;
- sneezing;
- nausea;
- irritation of the respiratory tract;
- diarrhea;
- pulmonary edema;
- dizziness;
- respiratory arrest;
- confusion;
- brain damage;
- staggering gait;
- photophobia;
- cardiac arrest.
3.3.3 Signs and Symptoms of H2S Exposure Associated
with Chronic Toxicity. The signs and symptoms of H2S
exposure associated with chronic toxicity shall be presented.
These include:
- eye irritatioq
- corneal blistering, pitting and opacity;
- headaches;
- nausea;
- kitation of the respiratory tract;
- pulmonary edema;
- anorexia;
- sleep disturbances.
3.3.4 Variables Afsecting the Symptomatology of H2S
Exposure. Information concerning variables that determine the
symptoms associated with H2S exposure and the speed
of their onset shall be presented. The primary variables are
exposure concentration, exposure frequency, exposure
duration, and individual variables. Individual variables
- body mass;
- overall physical condition;
- age;
- smokerlnon-smoker;
- personal biochemistry.
3.3.5 Interaction of Drugs and Alcohol with H2S.
Information concerning alcohol, prescription medications
and/or illicit drugs in the body, which may result in hypersensitivity to the effects of H2S, shall be presented.


3.3.6 Medical Evaluation. The need for a medical

evaluation to determine whether or not respiratory protection can
be used effectively shall be discussed. (Refer to ANSI Standards
288.2-1992, "Practices for Respiratory Protection", and 288.61984, "Physical Qualificationsfor Respirator Use".)

3.4 Work Procedures

3.4.1 Workers involved in operations where H2S may be

present should understand that proper work procedures and practices can greatly reduce the potential for accidents. These workers shall be trained in proper safe work procedures.
3.4.2 Safe work procedures and practices should include, but
not be limited to:
-maintaining compliance with permit requirements;
-providing at least one standby person qualified to
perform first aid and CPR,
-venfymg that proper safety equipment is available,
functioning properly, and is used;
-checking and remaining aware of wind conditions and
direction (start on the upwind side whenever possible
when working on equipment);
-perorming a thorough check for personnel and ignition
sources in the downwind area before stamng any
potentially hazardous work;
-notifying supervisory personnel, when necessary,
before initiating operations that could
involve the release of H2S;
-using the "buddy system" and never working
alone in H2S areas;
-monitoring conditions through implementationof
an H2S detection andor monitoring strategy;
ventilating work areas, vents or purge lines on vessels
before beginning work;
-keeping non-essential personnel away from work areas;
-never taking shortcuts.

3.5 Personal Protective Equipment

3.5.1 Students should be provided with appropriate training for
industry-specificitems of personal protection equipment.
3.5.2 Emphasis should be placed on respiratory protection
training, as recommended by ANSI Standard 288.21992,
"Practices for Respiratory Protection".


Special information should be given on the

-location of Supplied Air Respirators (SAR);
-location of spare air cylinders, if applicable;
-site-specific issues;
-situations that would require respirators;
-limitations and capabilities of positive
pressure/full facepiece respirators;
-limitations and capabilities of air supplied and
air purifying respirators;
-brand/model/size of respirators available.


3.6 Use of Contingency Plan and Emergency Response

3.6.1 Students should be taught the purpose of the contingency
plan is to serve as a logical step-by-step approach to dealing with
an emergency.
3.6.2 Students should be familiarized with the contents
of the contingency plan, which may include (but is not limited to)
the following, as applicable:
-instructions for alerting employees and the public
in case of an emergency;
-procedure for requesting assistance and followup
action to remove the public from the area of exposure;
-a call list of people to notify in the event of an
-plat of area showing location of public areas,
evacuation routes and assembly places, safety
equipment, telephones, and, if required, the
radius of exposure;
-list of names and telephone numbers of residents
within the area of exposure and the person responsible
for any public area;
-provision for advance briefing of the public within
an area of exposure;
-detailed operating procedures to be followed in
any emergency:
-emergency medical services available, including
current names and phone numbers (prior contact
should be made with designated medical facilities);
-location of the contingency plan.
3.7 Burning, Flaring and Venting of H2S
3.7.1 Students should be made aware that in some
industries, flaring or venting lines are provided in workplaces
where there is a probability that large volumes of H2S might be
present in concentrations of more than 15 ppm. This is an engineering control to minimize worker exposure.


3.7.2 Students should also be made aware that burning H2S

results in sulfur dioxide (SO2). Therefore, appropriatetraining for
SO2 may be necessary.
3.8 State and Federal Regulatory Requirements

NATIONAL STANDARD 2390.1-1995(R-2001)

3.10 Rescue Techniques, First Aid and Post Exposure

3.10.1 Rescue Techniques. Students shall be trained in
proper rescue techniques applicable to their specific work environment. Emphasis shall be placed on the importance of protecting oneself prior to attempting a rescue.

3.8.1 Students should be aware of the existence of regulatory

requirementsconcerningH2S. There may be differencesbetween- _ .
regulatory requirements that are adopted and enforced by differ3.10.2 FirstAid. Students shail be instructed in the importance
ent agencies.
of activating the emergency medical services system. In
addition, students shall receive appropriate training in rescue
3.8.2 Numerous agencies reference or provide standardslguidebreathing and CF'R.
lines concerning H2S. They include, but-are
not limited to, the following agencies:
3.10.3 Post Exposure Evaluation. Students shall be informed
-U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety
that individuals overcome by H2S shall receive medical approval
& Health Administration (OSHA):
before returning to the workplace.
-State OSHA plans;
-American Conference of Governmental
3.ll Methods of Detection and Monitoring
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH);
-US. Department of the Interior, Minerals
3.11.1 Each type of detector and monitor has its own set of
Management Service;
capabilities and limitations with which users shall be familiar.
-U.S. Department of Transportation, Coast Guar4
When training students on methods of detection and monitoring,
-U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA);
the instructor shall place emphasis on the site-specific types of
-Bureau of Land Management;
detection and monitoring devices and sampling strategies
available to, or for, the benefit of workers. Training shall include
-U.S. Department of Health and Human
an explanation of the warning alarms (if applicable)
Services, National Institute for Occupational
and emergency response procedures associated with the
Safety and Health (NIOSH);
specific types of detection and monitoring devices.
-Various state and county regulatory agencies;
-Environment Canada;
3.11.2 Training shall include the following as applicable:
-Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
of detectors and/or monitors available;
System (WHMIS).
-manufacturer's recommendations;
3.9 H2S Release Dispersion Models
-purposes, suitability, capabilities, limitations, calibration,
function testing, placement, use, and maintenance of detec3.9.1 Students may be apprised that dispersion models
tors and/or monitors available.
should be considered when H2S concentrations and volumes
3.12 Engineenng Controls. Training should include
have the potential to impact personnel or the public to the extent
discussion regarding site-specific engineering controls.
that an emergency condition may result from accidental release.
Students should be familiarized with the following:
-design or remodeling of worksites;
3.9.2 Dispersion models are available for predicting conditions
that may result from a release of H2S Computer. H2S dispersion
-ventilation equipment;
acceptance for
-monitoring equipment;
emergency planning. Vapor cloud travel and exposure
-metallurgical properties of equipment;
concentrations over specific time periods may be calculated. The
-burning, flaring and venting of H2S;
validity of dispersion modeling increases with the
accuracy of the H2S data input into the model.



NATIONAL STANDARD 2390.1-1995 (R-2001)

3.13 Transportation of H2S Cargoes

3.13.1 If applicable, students should be made aware of
the modes of transportation by which cargoes involving
known or potential H2S hazards may travel, such as:



3.14 Emerging Technology

3.14.1 Where applicable, special emphasis should be
placed on emerging technologies in the areas of respiratory
protection equipment, portable and fixed detection and
monitoring devices, as well as the development of chemical
treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the
presence of H2S.
3.14.2 H2S training instructors should remain aware of
advances in technology.
4. Instructor Qualification and Proficiency

4.1 H2S training instructors/administrators shall have

successfully completed an appropriate H2S train-the-trainer
development course; they shall also be deemed qualified if
they possess significant past experience in instructing in
this field.

4.1.1 The instructor/administrator shall be able to

demonstrate hisher knowledge of the technical aspects of
H2S training, and proficiency in training techniques relating
to H2S. Training credentials or certification from a recognized or
accredited training authority constitutes qualification under this
4.2 Qualified H2S instructors should ensure that the
comprehensive outline for their individual course of
instruction includes all of the topics covered in this standard. No
class should ever be abbreviated in the interest of time
or any other factors.

4.3 H2S instructors/administrators shall conduct a minimum

of two H2S training classes each year. Documentation should

be maintained to substantiate evidence of these sessions.

Every three years, instructors should attend an H2S instructor
refresher course.


4.3.1 The requirements/recommendations in 4.3 permit the

instructor to receive the most recent technical information,
regulatory changes, and updated data on technology advancements, including, but not limited to, personal protective equipment, monitoring or detection devices, medical advancements
and instructional techniques.
5. Documentation and Recordkeeping

5.1 Program Documentation. Documentation detailing

the content of the training program shall be developed and maintained. This documentation shall include:
-names of instructors/administrators qualified to teach the
-an outline containing the information which must be presented;
-a copy of printed materials supplied to students;
-titles of audiovisual materials presented to students.
-a description of gas detectors and respiratory prokction
equipment used in the program;
-a description of hands-on exercises;
-a description of the type of proficiency examination.
5.2 Class Documentation. A record of training shall be created.
This documentation shall include the:
-name of the instructor;
-name and address of the training provider with which the
instructor is affiliated;
-names of the students and their employers;
-date of training;
-duration of training;
-model of respiratory and gas detection devices the students
are trained to use.
5.3 Ce?@caion Card. A cemfication card should be
provided to include the:
-name of the student;
-signature of the instructor;
-date of training;
-name of the training provider with which the instructor is
-address of the facility where the training record is maintained;
-model of respiratory and gas detection devices the student
is trained to use.
5.4 Recordkeeping. A copy of the program and class
documentation and the certification card s h d be kept for
at least three years by the training provider with which the
instructor is affiliated. The student's employer, if different
than the instructor's, should also maintain copies of class documentation for at least three years.


6. Student Competency and Qualification

6.1 Student competency shall be required at the end of

the training in order to receive qualification. This
performance-based competency shall be demonstrated through
a performance-based evaluation including written, verbal or
practical tests. Documentation of the student's
ability to demonstrate such competency shall be retained
as substantive proof.
6.2 Due to the extreme hazard involved in H2S
operations, each individual covered by this standard
should be retrained annually.
7. Training Techniques,Language and Literacy Factors

7.1 H2S training should be student-oriented and focused

on the skills and knowledge required to work safely in an H2S
environment. Each H2S environment may have
differing requirements for safety. The information in Appendix
B shall provide a guide to developing H2S

7.2 A sample course outline is presented in Appendix C.

8. Protection Requirements for Visitors

8.1 Attention shall be given to site-specific policy

concerning evacuation of visitors in the event of an
8.2 At a minimum, visitors shall be briefed on the following:
- site specific sources of H2S;
- health hazards of H2S;
- routes of egress;
- emergency assembly areas;
- applicable alarm signals;
- how to respond in the event of an emergency.
9. Related Standards

9.1 This standard is intended for use in conjunction with

the followingAmerican National Standards or latest revision:
- Safety in Welding and Cutting,
ANSI 249.1-1994;
- Practices for RespiratoryProtection,
ANSI 288.2-1992;
- Physical Qualifications for Respirator Use,
ANSI 288.6-1984;
- Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces,
ANSI Z117.1- 1995.


Appendix A

Appendix A (Informative)
Occupations with Potential H2S Exposure
Animal fat and oil processors
Animal manure removers
Artificial flavor makers
Asphalt storage workers
Barium carbonate makers
Barium salt makers
Blast furnace workers
Brewery workers
Bromide-brine workers
Cable splicers
Caisson workers
Carbon disulfide makers
Cellophane makers
Chemical laboratory workers, teachers and students
Cistern cleaners
Citrus root fumigators
Coal gasification workers
Coke oven workers
Copper ore sulfidizers
Depilatory makers
Felt makers
Fermentation process workers
Fertilizer makers
Fishing and fish-processing workers
Fur dressers
Geothermal power drilling and production workers
Glue makers
Gold ore workers
Heavy metal precipitators
Heavy water manufacturers
Hydrochloric acid purifiers
Hydrogen sulfide production and sales workers
Landfill workers
Lead ore sulfidizers
Lead removers


Lithophone makers
Livestock farmers
Manhole and trench workers
Natural gas production and processing workers
Painters using polysulfide caulking compounds
Petroleum production and refinery workers
Phosphate purifiers
Pipeline maintenance workers
Pyrite burners
Rayon makers
Refrigerant makers
Rubber and plastics processors
Septic tank cleaners
Sewage (waste water) treatment plant workers
Sewer (waste water treatment) workers
S heepdippers
Silk makers
Slaughterhouse workers
Smelting workers
Sugar beet and cane processors
Sulfur spa workers
Sulfur products processors
Synthetic fiber makers
Tank gagers
Tannery workers
Textile printers
Thiophene makers
Tunnel workers
Well diggers and cleaners
Wool pullers


Appendix B (Informative)
Training Techniques, Language and Literacy Factors
Every trainer should ask the question, "What is it that the student must be able to do as a result of this training?" This approach is
better than creating instructor-oriented training by asking, "What am I going to present?" The information in this section may be
used to assist a trainer in preparing an H2S training course or to aid in evaluating the quality of contractor training programs.

Writing Performance-based Objectives

The trainer should begin the design of his training materials by writing perform ance-based objectives that clearly indicate how
the student will demonstrate the knowledge or skiil. PerFormanced-based objectives generally contain four basic components.
These are:
1) Audience: A clear identification of the personnel for whom the objective is written. Some objectives may be for supervisors, some for first-line workers, some for contractors, and so on.
2) Behavior: This component identifies how the student will actually demonstrate the task or knowledge.

3) Condition: This component identifies the conditions under which the student wili perform the task or demonstration.
4) Depree: Quantdy how often, or to what extent, the student must be correct. For example, if your evaluation tool is a multiple choice test, identify the passing grade allowed.

The following is a comparkon of two training objectives:

- Objective 1 :The student will know the hazards of H2S.

- Objective 2: Given a list of health hazards, confined space entrants will be able to identify the health hazards that occur
with exposure to various concentrations of H2S. The student will demonstrate this knowledge by matching the health

effects to a given concentration range. The responses must match the instructor answer key.

in the second objective, the four conditions of a performance-based objective are met. It can be seen that when objectives are
clearly written, the evaluation tool is also easily determined. Sound objectives are the basis for any type of training program,
regardless of the method.
"raining Methods
Training may be delivered in a variety of methods. Making an appropriate choice will be a function of i d e n m g the:
- Audience: Characteristics that you will want to identify regarding your audience include:
- entry level knowledge;
- interest in the topic;
- preferred learning style;
- age;
- gender;
- education level.

- Locatiort:Where is the training to take place? Training limitations on an offshore platform may be very different than those
encountered in a land-based operation.

- TvDe qf Learning: there are different levels of learning. Knowledge level information, for example, reciting health
nsks,may be conveyed effectively with a book, whereas motor skills, such as donning an SCBA, may require hands-on

- Resource Constraints: Other limitations such as budget, available development h e , or available trainers may drive you
toward a particular instruction platform.


Method 1: Booklets, Brochures and Programmed

Learning Texts
- self-paced,
- inexpensive to produce;
- easy to update;
- able to use in a variety of settings
(very portable);
- a large volume of information can be presented.


- limited interactivity;
- no graphics or motion-based concepts can be

- not good for complex topics.

Method 2: Instructor-led "kaining '
- good for complex issues; instructor is available
to answer questions;
- inexpensive;
- instructor can present a large volume of
- instructor is present to assess students as they
progress in the class;
- good for demonstration and evaluation of
hands-on, motor type skills.


- dependent of skills of the instructor;

- poor retention of information by students;
- not self-paced;
- not good for visual concepts.

Method 3: Video Training

- good for illustrating visual and motion-based
- good at illustrating behavior;
- useful for affective or "attitude" type
- repeat consistency.

- expensive and time-consuming to produce;
- delivery is usually h e r ,
- not very interactive;
- often used stand alone by trainers to satisfy
training requirements.


Method 4: Computer-based"kaining (CBT)

- good for knowledge level objectives;
- self-paced,
- interactive;
- available on deman&
- consistent delivery of information;
- visually interesting.


- hardware requirements may be a logistical


- not good for very complex information;

- can be costly to develop;
- student must be comfortable with computers.
Method 5: Interactive Multimedia
- self-paced;
- full motion video can be incorporated, lending
video advantages;
- very interactive;
- good for learners accustomed to advanced

- very expensive to produce;
- limited off-the-shelf offerings available;
- hardware requirements may be extensive.

Tips for Delivering Good Instructor-led kaining

While technology-based training media such as computer based training (CBT) and laser disk programs are very useful, the reality is that most training is still delivered with instructors. The following infomation is provided to assist in the development and
delivery of effective instructor-led training.
Use a Variety of Media
Instructors should use as many different types of presentation aides as possible. These include:
- slides;
- transparencies;
- flip Charts;
- demonstration;
- videos.
These graphic aids should be colorful and present consistent visual cues. Slides and transparencies should have colorful, relevant graphics that support the text. If possible, text-only slides should be avoided. Slides with lists should be limited to 5 items
or less.

Use Interactive Techniques

Training must involve the student. Use open-ended questions to draw responses from your students. Use fiip charts to list student responses. Seeing their responses in writing in front of the class validates the students answer and creates interest. Develop
the student materials so that they involve the class throughout the lecture segments. For example, rather than just telling a class
that the permissible exposure limit for H2S is 20 ppm, have a blank in the student manual where they write the number in.
Writing information down increases retention.

Use Humor and Creativity

Humor can be effectively used in training classes to break the tedium and increase attentiveness. Humor used in training classes should follow some simple rules:
- Humor should be appropriate. Avoid ethnic, religious or political humor.
- Seif-effacing humor can be very effective. Studies have shown that instructors maintain credibility even when using
jokes about themselves.
- Avoid insulting or directed humor.
- Be sensitive to the audience. A joke that might appeal to a very narrow segment of society may not go over very well
with a general audience.
Apply creative thought to the construction of your delivery materials and your exercises. Exercises can take on the form of
games, allowing drill and practice on information in a fun manner. For example, a trivia-type format for refreshing students on
previously delivered information can be very effective and draw students into participating.

Evaluate Raining
A training course should be evaluated every time it is delivered to assess its quality. Evaluation is divided into four levels:

- Level I . This is a subjective evaluation by the students in the course. Questions regarding instructor presentation skills,
accommodations,pace, and usefulness of content may be asked.

- Level 2 . An in-class assessment of how well the students learned the material. Frequently this is a paperbased test. For
motor skills such as donning an SCBA, an insructor critique with the use of a checklist may be a more appropriateLevel
2 evaluation.

- Level 3. At this level, an assessment is done on whether or not students have integrated their skiils and knowledge on
the job. This type of evaluation is usually done by supervisor observation at some point after the training course.

- Level 4 . At this level, trainers attempt to determine a return on the training investment. With safety training, this is usually not a straightforwardprocess. It is difficult to estimate the money saved from an accident that does not occur. Some
estimation may be possible if a drop in accident frequency occurs after the training and that drop can be attributed to
the training.



Language and Literacy Factors

Training should always be delivered in the native language of the student when possible. If not possible, the following conditions should be followed:
- Ensure that the student is fluent enough to understand the course material.
- For instruction and exercises, pair a less fluent student with a fluent bilingual.
- Avoid use of colloquialisms or local expressions. For example, an expression like "up a creek without a paddle" may
not be meaningful to someone not fluent in American English.
- Evaluation instruments, such as tests, may need to be orally administered.
- Training material should be as visually oriented as possible. For example, use a picture of a respirator next to the word.
Literacy Factors
As with employees who may speak English as a second language, written English literacy may be a problem for some students.
If this is determined to be the case, the following conditions must be followed:
- Students should be able to demonstrate recognition of waming signs and state the intended message.
- Evaluation instruments, such as tests, may need to be orally administered.
- Responsible persons must determine that the individual does not represent a safety hazard on the job to himself or
- As with second language students, the training should be visually oriented.



Appendix C (Informative)
Sample Course Outline
Course Title: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Certification
Time: 4 hours

Course Description: Hydrogen Sulfide Certification is designed as a safety awareness program to familiarize students
with the dangers associated with working in an H2S environment. The class is appropriatefor entry level through supervisory level
employees. The course is required for all employees who have the potential to be exposed to H2S in excess of the Threshold Limit
Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) as established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH). Annual refresher training is required.
Course materials include student handouts and a final examination. Delivery is accomplished through lecture, hands-on
demonstration of monitors and detectors, student participation and practice, videotapes, overheads, and student exercises for donning/doffing the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

Course Outline

What is H2S?
A. Toxicity
B. Commonnarnes
C . How is H2S formed?

II. Common industrial sites

A. Petro-chemical
B. Petroleum exploration and production
C . Manufacturing
D. Agricultural

iII. Properties and characteristicsof H2S

A. Physical properties
B. Chemical properties

IV. Concentrations/toxiclevels
C . Exposure levels
D. Toxic gas comparisons

V. Video: "Hydrogen Sulfide - A Matter of Life or

Vi. H2S effects on individuals
A. Entry routes
B. Susceptibility and hypersusceptibility

VII. Detection and monitoring

A. Personal, portable and fixed monitors and
B. Chemical vs. electronic instnunentation
Vm. Contingency and emergency response plans
A. Characteristicsof H2S and SO2
B. Emergency call list
C. Inventory of public in area of exposure
D. Map or plot of area of exposure
E. Emergency equipment list
E Detail of the system
G. Description of the emergency system
H. Trainingsummiuy
Program for maintaining the current
applicability of the plan
Leak prevention and surveiilance
K. Remedial action

IX. Personal protective equipment

X. Rescue, first aid techniques and post exposure

A. Emergency rescue
B. Rescue breathing and CPR
C. Medical follow-up

XI. Final examination



Complementing the course outlines are the following aids and references:

Student handouts
- Class roster
- Ten commandments of hydrogen suide (H2S)
- Case histories of H2S accidents
- Hazards and characteristicsof H2S
- Finalexamination
- Safety passports
Ten commandments of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Hazards and characteristicsof H2S (2)
Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to men
Toxicity of various gases
Common sources of H2S
Industries and activities with occupational exposure to
Methods of detection
H2S detection and monitoring
Hydrogen sulfide monitors
Chemical detectors (2)
Tutweiler apparatus
Electronic detectors (2)
Outline for developing a contingency plan (3)
AudioNisual Equipment Requirements
- Chalkboard, chalk, eraser or dry-erase marker board
markers and eraser Flip chart with paper and markers
- Overhead projector and screen
- 1/2" VHS player and color monitor
- Pointer
- 33 mm slide projector and screen
- Hydrogen Sulfide - A Matter of Life or Death. 18minutes.
Coastal Video Communications Corp., 3083 Brickhouse
Court, Virginia Beach, VA 23452. (800) 767-7703.

- Hydrogen Sulfide: Don't Let it Get You Down. Industrial

Training System Corp., 9 East Stow Road, Marlton, NJ
08053. (800) 727-2487.

One Breath Away. 7 minutes. Safety Short Productions,

Inc., 2960 N. 23rd St., LaPorte, TX 77571. (800) 4582236.

- The Silent Sniper. 7.5 minutes. IndustrialTraining Systems

Corp., 9 East Stow Road, Marlton, NJ 08053. (800) 7272487.

- Hydrogen Sulfide Principles. 32 minutes. IHRDC Video

Library Sales, 535 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02116.
(617) 536-0202


Hydrogen Suifide - HazChem 8. Distributed by Emergency

Film Group, 1380 Soldiers Field Road, Boston, MA
02135. (800) 842-0999

Other related publications

ACGIH lOO, 2000 TLVsB and BEIsB. American
Conferemce of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc.,
1330 Kemper Meadow Dr., Suite 600, Cincinnati, OH
45240. (5 13) 742-2020
API RP-55, Recommended Practices for Oil and Gas
Producing and Gas Processing Plant Operations
Involving Hydrogen Sulfide. American Petroleum
Institute, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20005.
(202) 682-8375
ISA RP 12.15, Parts I and II. Instrument Society of
America, 67 Alexander Drive, P.O.Box 12277 Research
Triangle Park, NC 27709. (919) 549-8411
Texas Statewide Rule 36, Hydrogen Suijde Safety. Texas
Railroad Commission,P.O. Box 12967,1701N. Congress,
Austin, TX 78711. (512) 463-7255
29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection.
29 CFR 1910.146, Confined Space Entry.
29 CFR 1910.252, Welding Standard.
29 CFR 1910.2000,Hazard Communication.
29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations
29 CFR 1910.20, Employee Access to Medical Records
and Industrial Hygiene Records.

H2S release dispersion modeling references

- Gas Dispersion Models, R. Goyal and N. Al-Jurashi,
Professional Safety, May, 1990, (pages 23-32). Contains a
discussion and listing of dispersion models.
- EPA-453IR-93-05. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research
Triangle Park, 411 West Chapel Hill Street, Durham, NC
27701. The report may also be obtained from the
American Petroleum Industry, Washington, D.C., (202)
- Casarett and Doull's Toxicology; The Basic Science Of
Poisons. 4th ed. Pergamon Press.