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"PH

HISTORY

CRITICAL
OF

CELTIC

THE

RELIGION,
AND

LEARNING:

U" R

'

I JD SSl.

U
I OR,

PRIESTS
OF

THE
AND

VAIDS, OR

THE

THE

JUDGES,

AND
II AND

DIVINERS

THE

GAULS,

IRISH

BRITONS,

JOHN

OP. THE

BARDS,

AND

HERALDS

THE

OF

BY

OF
POETS

PHYSICIANS;

ANCIENT

THE

OF

ACCOUNT

AN

CONTAINING

M.

TOX.AND,

SCOTS,

AND

A.

THE

WITH

HISTORY
OF

ABARIS, THE

PRIEST

HYPERBORIAN,
THE

TO

An Abstract

OF

SUN.

IS

WHICH

ADDED,

of the Lifeof the Author.


""+'i

EDINBURGH:
PRINTED
AND

BY

JOHN

HODGES.

*,AND,

FINDLAY
AND

BOOKSELLERS

SOLD

OTHER

THE
IN

1815.

DUBLIN.

BY

PRINCIPAL

GILBERT

.''

TO

REV.

THE

PAUL

PROFESSOR

OF

OVBRIEN,

THE

IRISH

COLLEGE

ROYAL

OF

SIR,

this

timony of
Learning;
Virtues;

of

the

H.

take

High

as

liberal

to

your

your

Tes

as

you,

for

Toland's

of

great

Christian

public Acknowledgement

Encouragement,

which

Liberty of

for

Esteem

Veneration

the

Edition

DRUIDS

THE

and,

Assistance

PATRICK,

DEDICATING

OF

ST,

HISTORY

LANGUAGE,

have

you

YOUR

MUCH

AND

OBEDIENT

and

generous

rendered

OBLIGED,

JOHN

SERVANT,

FIND

LAY.

The Editor havingfollowedthe OriginalCopy in order to make


alteration in the Work, believes the following
to be

no

necessary

For the

following

whereTer

they

occur,

48

Fourbery,

53

Instignation,

78

C"ntemt,
Atchievments,
Diverse,

...

"..

80

90
..

Symboll,
"

:"ntroll,
Kxemted,

91

Ouuegall,

92

'oveing,

...Dy,
93
...

Suceedeing,
Alurdrung,

Then,
96 Forcn,

94

...

...

Brutish,
I binds,

...lie,
97
99
100

Pyramyds,
Fheatei,
1 5,

Contemtible,
104 Tliroout,
10(j Volum,
lOo, Travellers,
Fanietched,
103

...

112

Fnlrals,

115
1"J2

Treble,
lewith,
f^xcede,

133

Ban

119

an,

,...

Entitling,

.,,.

Mettals,

Eratta

thereto;

ABSTRACT
THE

OF

LIFE

OHN

the

TOLAND
in

1670,

the

Isthmus

insula
but

Janus

ed

by

him

that

of

of his

ground

such

most

base

case,

parents*

jest

which

far

now

as

Priest

Popish

John,

as

Tilladet,

Abbot

is

called

on

Pen

That

Bishop

had
and

roll

every

morning;

of

it, the
he

be

can

he

Huetius

ridiculous

Mr.

hath

kept

been
A

of the

after.

ever

was

abused

others,

but

ordered

master

been

reproach

call

was

collected,

and

innocent

Toland

name

font,

alleged illegitimacy: which,


and

the

the

name

and,

being entirely

Had

at

school

the

boys making

Toland,

Mr.
son

in

name

be

Toland

him

given

Junius

to

Ireland,

in

Londonderry.

stands

Enls-Owcn.

called

other

the

November,

30th

the

on

Peninsula

northern

most

whereof

now

of

born

was

originally called I?iis-Eogan, or Inis-Eogain,

was

is

TOLAND.

JOHN

OF

were

the

on

the

by
the

it true,

child,

guilt of

in

his

really illegitimate,

which

was

tached

to

posed

to

him

him

given

had

into

Infra

tinua

eenteiios

Enis-Oit'en

in

patria oriundi

eadem

Pragae

mus,

in

and

O'Niell

Joannes

hac

S.

Rudolphus O'Niellr

Peninsula

"'

"

We

Subscribers
of

descended

die

family,

which

"

insula of Ireland, called

"

Londonderiy

""

kingdom,

"

clearlyestablish.

"

we

natives

and

of the

quie

et

con-

Hiberniae
in

fidem,

nos

subscripsi-

Theologiae Professor,

S.Theol.

Lector.

testify,that Mr.

resided

in

ortum

Jan.. 1708.

2.

John

honourable, noble, and

an

ground

Londino-Derwnsem

TRANSLATION

"

708,

superior Collcgii Hibernorum.

O'Deulin,

L. S. Francisus

Toland,

propriis manibus

Bohemia,

of

testimonial

Ultonia, perduravit. In eujus rei firmiorem


ex

mode

Ilegni Historia

urbem

prope

sup

Joanirein

ut

niemona,

dicta

be

can

antiquissima familia,

-annos,.

monstrant

foolish

so

Dom.

at

residing in

was

thus

rtobili et

honesty

plums

per

he

runs

he

following

remove
sufficiently

It

have

the
directing"

The

where

script!testamur

ex

unless
of

power

existence.

imputation.-

an

esse

the

could

infamy

no

account,

Prague,

at

will however,
less

case,

that

on

have

coming

His

the

not

several

Enis-Owen,

Ulster,

which

continual
For
same

centuries

the

mention
the

near

surer

country have

Toland
ancient

very

the

on

is

the

Pen-

city of

history of that
of

the

credence

family
of

subscribed

this,
with

*"

hands

own

our

Bohemia,

in

.at.Prague

this

Jan.

2d

1708."

"

Reader

The

will

Franciscans

Irish

We
tions

Papists; for

were

Mysterious,
-

the

cradle

"

but

God

"

such

*'

of

"rt

he

in

that

"

became

he

since

continued."

From

the
in

went

school

created

.and

received

NOS

the

usual

following

Universis

nient,

of Arts

et

singulisad

universitatis

Professores, Salutem
"ramur

Juvenem
s,

Unaque

has

ever

of

30th

from

the

he

after

where

June,

he
1690,

Professors, of

copy.

praesentes literae perve-

quos
Jacobi

in Domino

testamur

Magistrum

when

and

Edinburgh,

Diploma

is

he

as

Glasgow

the

on

old

his

'Londonderry,

near

of

College

the

Master

was

the

Redcastle,

at

in

us,

years

againstPopery,

and

instruments

informs

sixteen

stay there, visited

jthree years

which

to

1687,

not

was

Idolatry.,

reason,

own

happy

again

from

educated

was

his

make

to

He

zealous

as

Christianity not

to

of theirs, the

use

Con-version."

his

he

that

"

us,

pleased

made

as

preface

in his

his rela

that

grossest Superstitionand

the

was

Apology,
ft

tells

he

granted,

it for

take

however

may

was

descended.

anciently

and

honourably, nobly

the

Toland

Mr.

that

Prague,

at

of

this Certificate

from

see

Regis Edinburgenae
sempiternam

ingenuum

Joannem

et laudabili
diligentia,

Toland
successu

hunc

compre-

bonae

Hibernum,
se

nobis

Spei
mo-

ita ap-

probasse ut post
Solenni

in Comitiis

meliori

Academise

burgum

sperantes

fidem

In quorum

responsurmn.

Nobis

hujus

ilium

(opitulante

Nostris
publicoliterassyngraphis

et

Altrix

Edin-

sigillosuo

confirmarijussit.

porro

S.S.T.D.

Al. Monro,

fore abunde

inclytaCivitas

parens

om

de
contigerit,

hisce Testimonialibus

Literis
gratia)

divina

nunc

eum

utegregiumAdolescentem,

commendare,

nota

Mil-

trigesimodie

Nonagesimo,

adire, vel quibuscum versari

quos

renunti-

Salutis

anno

dubitamus

non

patriam redeuntem,

nibus

liberalibus

Laureatis

et

Quapropter

in Artibus

nostris

Sexcentesimo

lesimo,

in

Philosophic!profectusexamen,

Magister

more

aretur,

Junii

editum

Professor

Primarius.

Jo.'Strachan,S. S. T. D.ejusdemque Professor.

Gregorie, Math.

D.

S.

L.

J.

Herbertus

J.

Drummond,

Tho.

II.

in

Athenaeo

Regio

Julii

die

Christianae

L.

Ph.

P.

P.

Henderson,

B.

et

Academise

ab

"Scc.

Archivis

Dabamus

P. P.

Kennedy,

Burnet,

Jlobertus

P.

supradicto"1
22do.

JErae

anno

|^
f
J

1690.

TRANSLATION.

"

fc-

"

may

To

all and
come,

every

We

to

whom

the Professors

diuburgh,founded
tion in the Lord

one,

of the

by King James,
:

and

at

the

the

game

present letter

Universityof

wish

time

eternal

E-

sal va-

that
testify,

ingenuous youth,

this

"

promise,has

"

highly

so

"

diligenceandlaudable

"

animation

in

"

"

commend

"

our

him

country,
better

note,

"

whom

he

in this

"

which, the ancient

"

Benefactress

"

ing

22d

Athenaeum,

turned

to

the

him

"

We

*"'

do

"

sents

Glasgow,

Master

"

student

or

with
the

(through
the

answer

In

testimony

the

the

of

and

Parent

this writ-

ordered

receive

cha-

additional

where

he

his

Diploma,

but

received

resided

of

magistrates

short

re

time.

citv gavtf

that

following recommendation.
the

hereby

"

of

Seal."

Public

having

his departure, the

On

native

Royal )
}
July, 1690.

Toland

John

Mr.

re-

aforesaid

in the

Given

their

of

to

all persons

that he

has

Academy

his

access,

Diploma.

subscriptions,to

our

confirmation

(i

have

city of Edinburgh,
this

of

to

to

Grace,)will abundantly
him

Redemption

us,

man,

may

Arts,

hesitate

not

from

sojourn, hoping

may

with

do

young
he

of

year

after

was

liberal

of the

we

returning

whom

to

given

racter

Wherefore

excellent

aid of Divine

"

in the

now

an

as

"

"

Laureata,
:

Japublic ex-

Philosophy, he

Master

June

69O, 30th

after

that

declared

manner

Comitia

"

in

good conduct,

his

by

us

progress,

of his progress

usual

the

**

satisfied

of excellent

Toland

John

Mr.

may
of
at

Magistrates of Glasgow
certifie and
concern,

Arts, did
the

declare,
That

the

reside here

Universitie

to

under

subscribing,
these

all whom

bearer
for

in this

some

John

pre-

Toland,

yeares,

as

City,during which

himself

behaved

he

"

time

"

Loyal Subject,as

6f

penultday

of

"

tie yeares,

and

City

witness

July

It is

of the
and

Bloody

cal and

joined

of

the

been

doubt, that

This

accounts
sufficiently

Toland

resided
the

Church

the

and

of Scotland,

tyranni
that

known,

the

body, repeatedly
of the

military

hardly

can

Certificate

re

number,

of the

one

for the

last

two

of many

there

made

at

given him

Magistrates of Glasgow.

the

dates

Toland

Mr.

of his age,

which

Glasgow

for

complete

his 20th

leaving

these

1689,

collective

as

against them

that

and

It is well

scenes.

main

ter

Toland

eye witness

an

Glasgow,

Mr.

1688

of

NISBITT."

citizens, in repellingseveral

partiessent

by

LECK.

JOHN

that

the years

relentless

students

nine-

of Office of the said

GEORGE

Persecution

have

must

and

the

affixt,

of remark,

Glasgow during

Glasgow,

at

six hundred

Seal

common

L. S.

worthy

hands

our

"

"

Protestant, and

trew

ane

thousand

one

the

is hereunto

as

he

was

notions

ty which
Instead

he

of

his conversion,

nearly

it will
year,

be

the

with

his arrival

recollected, that

till the

30th

It is therefore

this

city.

here

converted

of the

coincides

from

from

he

did

of November

Popery,

year
in
not

af

probable,

most

and

and purity of
simplicity

afterwards

16th

imbibed

Christiani

retained.

returningto Ireland,

Mr.

Toland

went

to

gy,)

in

till he

dom,
to

families

Protestant

good

as

lived, (as he informs

he

where

England,

'the famous

to

went

perfecthis studies, under

Triglandius, "c.
Dissenters

eminent

great hopes from


themselves,

ter

of

the

he

himself

in

(says he,

he

quity
he

of

could

narily
from

on

the

the
their
not

worship

distinctly penetrate,) did

gain

tyrannical policy that


the

perience
he

ment,
so

men

wide,
who

and

years

to

as

as

did

not

had

sound

were

cut

he

anothers*
the

to

he
religion,

at

differences

allowed

from

himself

under
ex

his

judg

were

not

least, that

sides, should
indeed

or

give
And

them.

as

animosities

and

heats

all, proceed

at

bath

on

throats

late

and

greater

ripened

society about
the

understood

totally,if

the

Protestants

one

when

little

extraordi

pompous

irreconcileable,or

appear

disturbance

soon

mere

more

young,

so

mankind,

religion. But,

easilyperceived that

barbarously
any

of

shew

or

name

most

enslaved

ever

e-

newly delivered

was

of the

insupportableyoke

seeming

being

he

being
real sim

the

discipline,(intowhich,

as

To-

Mr.

of

the

and

in their

"

but

deny

never

affections, just

his

Pamphlet

lived

had

he

imputation

the

to

answer

Dissenters'

that

Colossus

in

us,

flat

the

quitted Popery.

rigid Non-conformist) will


plicityof

might

become

informs

some

conceived

had

who

day

one

since

king

parts, and

in 1697,

ever

in the

supported by

was

England,

would

Apolo

Spanhemius,

celebrated

uncommon

London

at

communion,
land

his

; for he

party

published

in

he

any

in his

university of Ley den,

the

There

as

us

concern

latitude

in

for
several

would

things,that
His

before.

have

travels

been

of

matter

increased, and

him

scrupleto
study of

the

Ec

clesiasticalHistoryperfectedthis disposition,
wherein
he continues to this hour ; for,whatever
ion of these differences
between

agreement

be, yet he finds

benefit of

the

churches,

that

on

score

religiousinterest

and, it

that

can

wherein

man

their

of

nation.

civil,not

of

againstany

private notions
less sub

If this

then
Non-conformist,

of their

any

much
endangering,

verting,the publicpeace
he,)makes

him

engage

they differ,worth

be

must

to lose

never

discourse, in

parties,not thinking all

these

an

French, Dutch, English,Scottish,

instructive

an

opin

own

essential

so

other Protestants, that he is resolved

and

is

his

(pursues
Toland

Mr.

unquestionably."

one

1692, Mr.

In

Daniel

Williams,

Dissenting Minis

and

publisheda Book, entitled, Gospel Truth Stated


Vindicated, in oppositionto Dr. Crisp.Mr. Tol

and

desired

ter,

give an

to

nalist

the Author

and

complied; and,

styleshim

the Abstract

to

Toland's

Student

in

torn 23rd, page


verselle,

Having
to

staid about

England, and

Universelle
Bibliotheque

of it in that Journal.

Abstract

MY.
book, prefixed

of the

soon

sides the conversation

The

of Mr.

Jour

William's

recommendatory letter,

Uni
Divinity.Bibliothcque

506.

two

years

after went
of learned

at

Ley den, he

to

Oxford, where, be

men,

vantage of the publiclibrary. Here

returned

he had

the

he collected

ad
ma-

others,

among

subjects; and, composed

various

terials on

historyof

received

self indebted

for this notion

Doctrine

to reason,

Revelation.

And,

all the passages


MYSTERY

Gospel

for the

it

al, as

and

Gentiles., and

Secondly,

festedmysteries;

to

is

us,

assertion, he examines

1st, That

Christian

or

whereof

is read

MYSTERY

Religion in

to

said

speech. But,

is either
we

the word

where

to
:

put for anything veiled under

mystery, whatever

he

gener

from

the

the

Jews.

occasion

be
and

mani

3dly,

parables,

declares,

think

at

fit to call

absolutelyunintelligible

but

have

special

without

known,

is,unfoldedsecrets

of

To-

in it*
thing intelligible

Apostles, are

that

Gospel

Mr.

Mystery.

time, that, if his adversaries

same

In

Christian

?w

peculiar doctrines,

the

enigmatical forms

the
a

mystery

the

dispensation,totallyhid

some

by

that

imperfectlyknown

but

That

ally revealed

the

; or,

Testament,

shews,

future

was

New

the

prove

in the

occurs;

be

not

to

him

owns

London.

nothing in
and,

it ;

be,

to

could

to

came

is

called

properlybe

can

self, but which

that

above

nor

defines, MYSTERY

land

or

and

Treatise, shelvingthat there

contrary

him,

that

not Mysterious; or,


Christianity

1696, he published his


a

Regu-

Palmerius*

to

left Oxford,

he

1695,

the

proves

fable ; and, with

uniformly characterizes

which

candour

be

to

he

of Atilius

tragicaldeath

the

Consul,

lus, the Roman

In

Dissertation, wherein

pieces,

some

inadequateideas

; he

10

of

admit

ready to

is

many

in religion
as
mysteries

reader

will be apt to think thcrr

as

they please.
So far, the candid
is

great harm

no

choose

did not

done.

If Mr.

adopt his

to

Toland's

definition of the word

himself willingto
tery, he professes
that

indeed, all

and

has

accede

be$n advanced

question,is merely

of the

adversaries

clear and

give as

theirs

to

He

words.

pretends,that

he

can

explanationcf

the

mysteries
ofthe gospel,as of the phe

of nature

nomena

and, do

not

thing,by attempting to give a


the

Trinity,and

the

teries of the Christian


the tests

Mr.

but

might

ftave been

This

repliedto

gy
and

Elys

Author

?
religion

Toland's

of

the

public;

had

PAIN,

Occasional

the Grand
no

other

the

book, mankind

What

is forbidden

This

same

he

and, who.

given one,

year,

and

several

cler

Beconsal, Beverley,
Norris,
and

STILLINGFLEET

Papers ;

Gaithard, and Synge,all entered

measure

explanationsare

of their doctrine

Messrs.

Doctors

presentedby

Such

orthodox.

it.

the

explanationof

had
explanation,

alarmed

Treatise

rational

same

Resurrection,the greatest mys

of the soundness

knows

an
intelligible

divines do the

our

either side

on

disputeabout

mys

Jury

of

effect,than

Messrs.

the lists. It

Middlesex
to

promote

being naturally
prone

the

Millar.,
was

even

but, this

the sale of
to

pry into

them.
Mr. Inland

publisheda Discourse

12

dlesex,

printedwith

was

Mr.

the streets.

about

sented there, the last

Toland

accordinglypre

was

of the term,

day

cried

title,and
emphatical

an

in the Court

of

Fellow

of

Ring's Bench.
At

time, Mr.

that

Peter

Senior

Brown,

TrinityCollege,Dublin, publisheda book againstMr.


he repre
riotMysterious;in which
Toland's Christianity
sented him, as
on

inveterate

an

knight errant

; a

of

head

sect, and

Mr, Brown

"

say,

and

Mr.

Toland

he made

him

Cork

That

liam,

should

person

any

wrote

drink

Mr.

and

in

sent Mr.

Mollineux
a

Mr.

Toland

-*

find

by

"

acquaintance; but, two

""

in his book

"

probriousepithetshe

";

The

";

aid of

land

other

up

T have

book

the

the one,

is, upon
civil

health of

same

bear

not

Wil

King

20th

Supper

sent

to Mr.

book

of

you.

The

thingsI shall

has

bestowed

Locke,

July,1697,
here,

is the foul

as

will

you

author
never

says,

is my

forgive,

language and
on

Mr.

op-

Toland.

several occasions,callingin the

Mr.
magistrate,and delivering

To-

punishment. This indeed is akilto think,


but, may
dispose some

to secular

ling argument

is the

he could

his opposers

"

k"

Brown's

letter to him, dated


has had

made

frequentlyto

bishop."This

the Lord's

of
being a profanation

used

im

an

as
against health-drinking,

pamphlet

to be the

afterwards

was

the

religi

famous

as

because

jacobitical
gentleman,who,
that

be

designedto

postor as Mahomet.

bishopof

openly affected

who

; one

to all revealed

enemy

"

that

"

he

the

where
flies to

Mr.

it seems,

Goliath,

second

cock, the

the

land's

to

it

for

be

heard

letter.

All

should

made

Toland
the

the

the

open

gate
street,

all the

and

Dr.
mons,

South

but

escape,

hangman,

common

before

his

of

on

the

in the

compliments

the

that

urged,

That
;

or

Toland
at

least,

ordered

was

serjant

at

Mr.
burnt

was

;
;

and

the

and

to be

arms.

September,

town-house

Se

but,

rejected,

were

llth

To-

good qualities,

read.

be

parliament-house

before

constables

liis book

the

Mr.

parliament.

personally

of the

but, parti

to

this, they

undefended,

custody

the

into

taken

and

proceedings

propositions

these

would

birth

in

defence

his

in

Lordships

the

whole

over-ruled

unheard

Toland,

Mr.

their

the

opposed

objectionablepassages

should

before

brought

was

in

finishing stroke

and

eminent

persons

fortune,

the

their

the

kingdom,

all its adversaries

the last

give

finding themselves

by

of that

Tolandists.

book,

veral

Justices

the

de

Han

Mr.

that

congratulatory ha

in his

from

as

Philistines

much,

so

Dublin,

Church

there

Ireland

in

of the

corporation,begged

cularly from
But

Lords

the

of his

protect

of

dreaded

in

him,

sword," "c.

the

head

the

at

failed

reason

was

o" Israel,

Recorder

to

rangue,
name

who

armies

fied the

and

strength of

the

Toland,

of

strength

by

1697"

also, in
sheriffs

attending.

preface
the

to

his

third

Archbishop

volume

of Dublin,

of Ser
on

his

14

Christian

help of

the

Mahometan

kingdom

the

he made

faggot. The

from

in Scotland

kindled

been

got had

calls

he

that
particularly,

and

him, without

hot for

too

whom

Toland,

of

treatment

the

fag

end

one

to

during the twenty-eightyears persecution,


burnt alive,merely for being
innocent and holy men

other,

the

and

in other

non-conformists!or
the

of the

much

the

crimes

Scriptures. Toland's

cred

Doctor

Toland's

Mr.

On

hint at

to

similar

return

Apology,.givingan

was

have

to

appear

the

to

sa

been
in

consistent

very

punishment.

London, he published his

to

of his

account

from

cating himself

it

kind, and

same

preferring

interested men,

and
arbitrary

of

dogmas

for not

words,

vindi

conduct, and

aspersionsand persecutionsof

the

his enemies.

In
the

1698,

of Steuart

house

der's return,

Their

lingthe
to

of Mr.

on

the maintenance

sion of
'find Mr.

and

such

staunch

.the Protestant succession

he

plan,as

at

all.

"Several

the

among

from

rest, one

model

recommends
to render

it

adequate

and
repul
tranquillity,

Indeed,

on

every

friend to the
;

Preten

standing army

jio

of internal

foreigninvasion.
Toland

partizans of

facilitate the

to

Toland, wherein

militia

The

different ground.

took

opponents

pen

wished

by keeping up

pamphlets appeared
the

high.

ran
party-disputes

occasion,we

revolution,and

and, though this

the .ostensible,
stillthere is every

reason

was

to reckon

not

it

15

real

the
to

which

In the

ed

that

but

by

Basilike

of time

greater distance

no

how

to wonder

so

in

comparison

al

Martyr

of

church

of the

the

before

chaplinto

may

(Mr. Toland,)should

have

says,

"

"

proof, and against proof,to deny

"

this

"

"

"

"

"

"

shameless
in

and

nothing

is such

the rojr

an

king,in

the

30th

wonder,

the

that

authority of

Infidelto doubt,

impudent enough,

in

even

Christian country, publiclyto

and

affront

our

holy

that

under

Apostles,,(hemust

mean

those

for I know

of Christ and

name

received

of

no

by

the

other,)are

his
whole

ig

print, and

religion,
by declaringhis doubt,
the

boldness, without

the

he

who

to

cease

"

book,

bias-,

of commons,

house

We

January, 1689,

published^

be

been

have

the.

England.

Blackall,

Mr

preached

Sermon

it would

at

ceased

he

fame of
the literary
curtailing

of

Accordingly,

nation,

Trinity,or

the

denied

he

Holy Ghost,

the

phemed

1st,
that,

remark,

the

Apostles,should

his

approved,"%"?.Had

to

fortyyears,

than

prov

pieces,under
suppositions

many

and

of Christ

name

To! and

practisedon

impositionwas

volumes

by Charles

written
occasion

took

Milton,

three

in

life,Mr.

not

was

and

Gauden,

Dr.

life of John

works,

of Milton's

course

Icon

this

when

his

prefixedto

was

folio.

different sentiments.

publishedthe

year, he

same

enemfes,almost

his

persecution;

entertaining
very

man,

This

of his

cause

several

Christian

pieces

church,

supposititious,"
"|c.The

that Mr.

reader will here

smile,

to

the whole

of Mr.

Toland's

stress

land

*'

must

order

In

the

at

time,

same

pieces,ascribed
nent

After

thus

"

list

to

no

having given

that

and,

supposititious
other

emi

forty-threeoctavo

is

Here

long catalogue

probable,

is

will

for Mr.

Blackall, who,

the

meanly

think

himself, for being unacquainted


if that

"

nor,

"

worse

"

blame,

(f

cause

"

he

for
he

denying

infer from

that

nothing of
thenca,

ought

to

What

with

there
them

but

these

as

heartilyforgivehim,

to

the

every

he

less

proceeding
as

think

the
is to

such, be-

any

much

of

pieces ;

think,

were

that I denied

scandal, however,

ranee,

more

I be forward

this account

on

knew

not

all,should

were

of him

which

man,

to

catalogue,he proceeds

"

"

of

less than

it

"

Basilike

Christ, his Apostles,and

to

"

"

published

arguments,

Icon

of

author

published

extending

men,

pages.

the

Gaudcn

Dr.

his

re-doubles

he

in which

To-

Mr.

Logician !

Toland

himself, Mr.

own

Testament,"

Excellent

other.

no

vindicate

to

Amyntor,
prove

of

knows

he

because

rests

his

"

says,

New

of the

Books

the

mean

Blackall

on
Infidelity,

expressly

Blackall

Mr.

ignorance.

see

should

Scriptures;
from

igno-

good Christian

do."

calm, dignified,Christian

who, without

the

least shadow

reply to

the

very

of fact, proclaim-

Toland

Mr.

ed

whole

House

obliged to

say

the

fore
was

He

fence.
hard

to

doubting

with
but

and

of

the

tween

the

from

Sussex,
into

his

1641

hands,

by

of his patrons

the

work

In
with

1 700,

November,

ning

Clito

Mr,

1699,

the
or

Toland

The
of

Duke

and

benefactors

there

dispute

no

published

be

put

was

Newcastle,
; and

the

of Ifieldin,

manuscript

who

was

dedicated

he

ingenious author,

that

work,
Mr.
this

life of the

which

Toland's

day

very

author.

is dated
exact

he

was

be

not

30th

age,

for

begin

year.

time, appeared

force
as

this

learn

we

same

the

that

prefixed the

he

to

us,

his thirtieth

About

Toland

the

which

informs

there

he

books,

Plollis, Baron

1648.

pieces of

preface

the

From

Toland

publishedin folio, Harrington'sOceana,

he

printed,to

fore

Mr.

to

Grace.

his

other

some

Mr.

Lord

to

one

to

be

can

liable

Testament,

those

mean

there

1699,

of Denzil,

Memoirs

not

labours

were

New

the

de

own

he

charged

of

bodks

year,

same

Blackall

in his

wherein

words

"

says,

Mr.

subject."

that

on

us

other

or

Toland's

agreed

now

are

we

In

Mr.

Infidel, be

Poor

pamphlet,

declares, he does

he

fore

something

that

misapprehension

shameless

of Commons.

published

prove,

and

impudent

an

the

of

Eloquence.
This

author.
C

pamphlet, entitled
The

printer

piece, consists

gave
of

Clifo

dialogue between

Mr.. Toland

poeticalperformance.
ADEISIDIEMON,

name

This

tious.

translates
rules

of

of

In the

William
a

the

Hid.

pamphlet,

the two

with

After

the

any

nocence

that

of

he

that

one

they

fears
the

deter

are

reason.

dedicated

Art

of

King

to

time, published

same

lower

king.

their

our

the whole

of the

Toland's

Rather

speak
?

author, in

all

without

clearer

solicit this BOON,


Mr.

stronglyin
any

possible

against these

proceed

than

more

Can

bishops, re

with

not

of

CHRISTIANITY

resolutions

could

house

upper

proceedings against

Toland

united

and

AMYNTOR,

some

they

circumstance

dication of Mr.

his

passing

the

they dropped
Can

all the

published, The

concurrence

and

books, they found


license from

when

the

proceed against Mr.

MYSTERIOUS,

rigour.

which

following,the

Convocation,

NOT

of

Propositionsfor uniting
Companies.

East-India

to

Billingsgateabuse,

without

and, about

anonmyous

in quarto, entitled

In March

solved

unsupersti-

pitifullengths will

lie

"

the

by

violation

men,

of 1701,

Governing by Parties,

an

sense,)

with,,or

beginning

of

such

drive
party-spirit

calumniate

to

To

deviL

nor

by

on,

common

*s

is known

(in open

and

This

lie translates,

torrent

Adeisidsemon,

etymology

rancour

mined

after

who,

God

neither

which

animadverted

was

deigyman,

Adcisidcemon.

and

thing shew

Toland.
the

the

point of view,

English hierarchy,durst

vin

not

in

than
so-

written, about
and

family.

the
Her

highness condescended

likewise, portraitsof herself, the

waited

Earl

king

had

the honour

Parliament

The

summoned

one

to

obtain

the

meet

circulated

report that

he

of

whatever

advertisement
could
an
"

**

"

not

Modesty
his

on

to

mistaken

; or

decliningto

Letter

("

this harmless

gave

Mr.

the

an

act

occasion

to

entitled

Toland,

ensuing

up-

Parlia-

ment."

the

opening

his Paradoxes

Soon

"

in

appear

of Sir

report, by

the

to

for

intention

no

publish a pamphlet,

of

ager,

and

to

invite
the

attainting-and

publish
his

of Stale, grounded chiefly on

after, he published

Majesty

Toland

parliament, Mr.

pious,and
*najesty's
princely,

"

had

but

censure,

author

and

returned

be

Even

Post-man.

without

pass

anonymous

On
ed

in the

Toland

in the interest

this kind, contradicted

The

Mr.

that

to

was

Toland, who

Mr.

Clayton.

and

December.

30th

Blechingleyin Surry, a borough


Robert

To-

ensuing Parliament,

in the

seat

his return,

on

1th November,

Tory party appeared horribly afraid


would

in

kissinghis Majesty'shand.

of

dissolved

was

young

presentedMr.

and

London,

at

give him

of Prussia, done

of Macclesfield,

the

on

land, who

new

The

to

Elector, the

Prince, and of her Majesty the Queen


oil colours.

of their title

succession, in defence

into

Electoral

"

gracious speech.

most

Reasons

England,
Prince

abjuring the

for
the

addressinghis

Electrcss

Dowand

for

pretended Prince

of

of Hanover

21

"

Wales," c%c. This

parliament attend

see

had

Toland

But, Mr.

burn.

of Wales

"%c.and

instead

Thus,

der.

of

an

measures

for the

difference

having

of

house

upper

Convocation,

the
Mysterious,-

year

them,

and

ced

between

house,

the upper
those

Those

sides.

both

on

therefore, seized

He

Liberius

Vindicius

of the

this
;

of those

called

civil

Whigs

After

and

to

very
the

the

courts

of

Hanover

graciouslyreceived
Queen

by

of Prussia.

to

lower

the

He

partizans

of

Toland'; but,

Mr.

house, the

vindication

reverse.

full

and

his Chris

of

clear
a

Common-wealth

of

account

justification
men,

against

all their opposers.

publicationof

the

pamphlets appeared

principles; and,

of
mis-representations

the

commen

war

opportunityof publishinghis

being a
"

religiousand

several
written

tianitynot Mysterious ;
his

lower

the

point of jurisdic

before, a paper

favourable

were

in favour

written

the most

proceedings against Christianity

tion, respectingtheir
not

civil

both.

between
on

Preten

the

preservationof
arisen

security

religion,or

to

was

succession

strenuouslyrecommending

efficacious

act

pretended

the

abjurationof

enemy

find him

and

of

Protestant

the

of

we
liberty,

Some

An

suggestions.

and

oath

enjoiningan

to
high gratification

the

another, for the better

Majesty's Person,

of his

Mil-

Luke

Mr.

by

attainder

the

and

his

to

accordinglypassed for
Prince

answered

was

this book,
and

by
was

Mr.

Toland

Berlin, where

the

Princess

went

he

wa*,

Sophia,anil

often admitted

to

their

conversation
sented

wrote

of Prussia

of the courts

his return

and

ral

letters
philosophical

to

the

of

he wrote

he

also,an

pre

account

Hanover.

England, 1704,

to

Queen

pieces,which

some

There

herMajesty.

to

On

and

three

he

published seve

of which,

Prussia, under

the

he inscribed

designationof

Serena.
1st, The

Origin

2d, The

History

fhe

of

Force

and
of

the

Prejudices.

Soul's

Immortality

among

Heathens.
The

3d,

of

Origin

Idolatry,

and

of

Reasons

Heathenism.
4th, A

Letter

to

Spinoza s System
ple

of

Gentleman

in Holland,

Philosophy,to

be

shewing
Princi

without

Foundation.

or

5th, Motion

by

remarks,

Subjects

Friend,

Toland

informs

pleased to

was

to Matter

noble

Mr.

Spinoza.
Prussia

essential

treated

ask

of, in the

on

us,

his

; in

to

answer

the

some

confutation

that

of

the Queen

of

opinion,respectingthe

three

Letters

inscribed

to

her.

Letters

These

tcn,
At

in

animadverted

pamphlet, entitled,

the

were

of

and

dedicated

the

Letters

time, he published an

same

tion

"

Life

of

it to

JEsop, by
Anthony

on,

Monsieur

by
to

Mr.

Eusebia."

English
De

Collins, Esq.

Wot-

transla

Mtziriae,

In

705, he

published the followingpieces,

1st, Socinianism

truly stated, c%c.

2d, An

of the

Account

dedicated

over,

3rd,

The

of

Duke

the

to

Somerset,

Ordinances, Statutes

Royal Academy

at Berlin.

Han

and

of Prussia

Courts

Privilegesof

and

from

Translated

the

origi

the

nal.
The

same

wrote

the

view

to

Memorial

of the

ruin

By
this

the

memorial

of Mr.

"

tual

mistakes

"'

fections, in

answered,

Toland's

and

patrons

the

pamphlet

Esq., who
borough's,
Stephens,

of the

was

made

and

Mr.

rector

defence

of
Mr.

in

and,

to

Religion

our

author's

attack

in

mu-

their af-

and

Liberty J*
one

of Mr,

treatise

was

name.

answered,

Harley's

of

unite

was

this

the Church,

designed to rectifythe

Harley, who

of Sutton,

state,

State

the

Queen,

benefactors,

direct

of

Memorial

The

of

Toland,

Mr.

by

of Protestants

published,without
This

"

suggestion of

the

plotting

as

Harley, secretary

Administration

the

of England, with

Administration,

in Vindication

and

Drake,

Dr.

Church.

was

"4

and

ensuing parliamentary election,,

Whig

entitled,

England,

On

the

direction

Pamphlet,
*

the

Pooley,

Church

of the

influence

by representing
the

Counsellor

year,

Thomas

by
on

the

conduct.

duke
Mr.

Surry, being

Hauling
of Marl-

William
found

the

publisher; and, refusingto bear, evidence against Mr,

24

sentenced

Raulins, was
the

sentence

tl ix

directed

was

Pamphlet,which
the

unknown,

row

'Poland's

Mr.

the

on

Mr.

by

he did

had

answer

Harley

but, for

among

his

againstFrance,
Philippic

written

in

Cardinal Matthew, in

gave

ther

violent

Gallonim
cssf

be

in

it, both

English

That

pared,but

nails of

the

torn

a
manuscripts,

Latin, by

one

it to Mr. Toland

Latin

who

along with

contains

o-

following,

the

by

out

the French

to

not

were

the roots.

after,he publishedthe

Seen

reasons,

resecandos,sed pentiuscvellendos

Ungues non

; i. e.

and

expressions,it

some

answer

printed.

been

1.5 14,

to

dropped, after part of

designwas

Harley having found

edited

pillory
; but*

afterwards remitted.

was

Ivlr.Toland

stand

: to

Elector

De

Palatine's

claration, latelypublishedin favour of his Protestant

Subjects,
"|c. This

Mr.

Toland

did,

at the

particular

request.ofthe Elector Palatine's minister.


In the
visited
gue

Spring,Mr.
At

ously received by
sideration of the

presentedhim

to

Dusseldorp,he

his Electoral

Germany,
was

and

Pra

graci

most

Highness,who,

and

in

con

Englishpamphlet,publishedby him,

with

ducats.

land, where
In

went

Vienna
Berlin, Hanover, Dusseldorp,

in Bohemia.

hundred

Toland

gold

From

chain

and medal, besides

Prague,

he returned

to

Hol

he staid till 1710.

Dissertations,
Holland,he publishedthe following

25

viz. 1st, Adeisidcemon, sive Titus

Livius

Superstitions

Vindicates, "c.
Qdo.

QrignesJudaicce,"c.

sertation, he

animadverted

Evangelica.

He

several

eminent

culary Moses

the

unquestionablyin

was

incensed, and
first
wards

convict

to

in

printedby

ted,that these

are

Mr.

crime, of

Though

right, Huetius

the

not

of

the

Toland

was

greatly

high

directinghis parents

and
to

letter,

after

and

recollec

endeavoured

gentlemen,who

the two

Mr.

It will be

Tilladet.

Abbot

Toland

of Trevoux,

Journal

the

Typho,

in

resentment

parti-

and

of Bacchus,

names

expressed his

published

Testament

Mythology;

Adonis.

Silenus, Priapus, and

affirmingthat

for

Huetius

Heathen

under

Demonstratio

recorded in the Old

persons
the

of this Dis

course

Huetius'

on

ridicules

in
allegorized

are

In the

unpardonable
propagate

him

second

edi

legitimately.
In

tion of his

In

he

1 709,

publishedat Amsterdam,

PhilippicagainstFrance.

1710,

he

publishedwithout

pamphlet,relatingto
While

in

acquainted
him

Holland,
with

several marks

After his return

Dr.

he

to

French

Sacheverell.
had

the

prince Eugene
of his

his name,

good
of

fortune

Savoy, who

to

get

gave

generosity.

England
D

in

1711, he published

of Epsom

Humours

the

In

1712,

written

of

of four

translation

Prince

laid

Mystery

About

Cicero's works,

Mr.

Toland's
he

scarce,

charge,
In

of that

by dividing

to

1713,

his

serve

he

wicked

which

few

It

of

edition

new

he

is

emi

was

to

trans

extremely
his

copies,at

"An

Appeal

to

Priests," fyc.: And

pamphlet

Protes

the

own

particularfriends.

published

time,

same

Grand

Succession, "c.

posterity.

to

name

Electoral

the

alone, is sufficient

work

Prussia.

of

3t lo.The

realm.

having printedonly a

ple, against
the

creating

undertaking for

an

against Popery,

Queen

time, he published

nently qualified.This
mit

for

the Hanoverian

same

time,

same

Letter

namely,

open

the

Imo.

reasons

Peer

tants, to weaken,

the

at

Charlotte, late

Majesty's

of Hanover

and

Pliny'sLetters.

published

he

by Sophia

2c?o. Her

on

the

Peo

Honest
much

about

necessityof

de

molishing Dunkirk..
In

1.714, he

publisheda pamphlet

of Charles

toration

the

lid.

by

collection of letters,written
the

her
much

General

by

Monk

the General

res

also, a

relatingto

subject.

same

The

relative to the

same

he

year,

royal highness, the


about

the Jews

the

same

in Great

published the
late

time,

Princess
"

Reasons

Funeral

Elogy

Sophia,"c.
for

of

; and

naturalizing

Britain," "$c. This he dedicated

ra-,

28

founded

partly on

partlyon

th^famous

Pope,

of the

and

reasons,

lachy, Archbishop
century, fyc.

of

edition

madverted

on

Toland

that Mr.

he

notions

his Visitation

dreamed

never

his back

on

of.

doctor

at

once.

tenable, he published the


the

Daily

The

"

Dean

"

oftenquoted,read,

"

principles.

line
Postscript,

London, Feb.

meanness

to

shelter
a

makes

1st.

and, ani

had

this assertion
Mr.

was

Mr.

Locke, and

un

in

In

Visitation Sermon.

from

the

great

of,is

end, instead

use

of Mr.

Locke's

1720."

doctor

had

bare-faced

the

contemptible

falsehood,under

of Dr. Hare,

pamphlet,entitled
of Lying; or, a Defenceof a
a

of

fourth Edition

the

error.
typographical

pitifulconduct

Mr.Toland,
Art

nintk

the* reverend

of
subterfuge

This

Sermon

As

of Worcester's

the

Thus

publishedthe

Finding his ground


following advertisement

published,the

"

"

thirteenth

Courant.

Just

"

the

St. Ma-

not Mysterious; asserting


Christianity
often quoted Mr. Locke, to support

the
totallygroundless,

Toland

in

Dr. Hare

1720,

political

prophecy of

Armagh,

beginningof

In the
fourth

of

and

natural

produced

Short

Reverend

Essay

from

on

the

Dignitary,

suffersunder

who

About

this time,

formula
of his

Canon,
and

black

Mr.

Toland

primitive apostolicsimplicity of

heterodoxy,

is

been

alive,
for

Janus
real
as

it.

Lords,

'

pendent
Treatise

name,

make
that

on

time

Some

the

he

could

as

the

and

of Great

after, he

ness,

not

the

Exoteric

fire that

and

mo.

of his

""?.

Esoteric

thanked

it

name

of

was

his

country,

was

invented.

into
of

the

Ireland

of

House

de

more

Toland

wrote

measure.

book,

Hodegvs
the

Knox

John

though

have

published
1

author's

our

prefixed the

name

that

to

religion.

have

Britain, Mr.

guided

miraculous,

would

he

parliament

trddymus : containing
cloud

had

introduced

opposition

in

that

which,

and

been

having

to

of

reverse,

Eoganesius,

disguise

Bill

proof

this treatise, he

To

for the

Christian

the

persuaded,

am

Christian
a

being

far the

so

Junius

good

of

ihstead

founded.

well

rigid advocate

as

in red

both

written

the whole

times,

all

at

ri

to

Philosophical

opinion is perhaps

ink, their

tract,

written

was

Responses, Lessons,

aLitany; and,

was,

tract

Some

Episcopal Liturgies ; and,

and

of

up

and

this

pretended

made

was

him

sive

Socraticce, "c.

Sodalitatis

Romish,

the

published Pantheisticon

he

cekbrandce

enemies

dicule

This

/or

CALAMI.

LAPSUS

it

TOLAND

of MY.

Persecution

the

or,

Israelites
2do.

entitled
the
in the

Pillar

of

the

of

wilder

Ctydophorus

Philosophy

Te-

or

antients,

30

S$c.

Hypatia ;

3tio.

beautiful,most

the

or,

virtuous,most

Lady,

accomplishedyoung

clergyof Alexandria,

the

crueltyof

tion and

their

of

History

learned, and
who

torn

was

every

or,

emula
the pride,
gratify

to

ArchbishopCyril,commonly,

Defence

rightRev.

his

Lordship'sChaplin Dr. Mangey,

Paterson, and
his

Rev.

the

Dr.

Brett,

to

against
Mr.

his dedicator

belonging to

once

church.
Lordship's

In

this last Address

Toland,

Dr. Hare

with

the

and

Heresy

so
Infidelity,

one

not

unknown

rant,

being ever

sure

your

to

the most

Lordship, that

prosperityof
Civil

the state

liberty,and
things in

desirable

cing to

peace,

been

writings. But,

as

so

often

the

imputa

published by

whiflingand

; the

arrogant

and

by

the

igno

confident,I

as

and
purityof religion,

the
have

ever

been

my

chiefest

religioustoleration,
this world

the two

and

vauntingestmanner,

plenty,knowledge,

happiness,have

ousness

you

the

concludes

conduct,

own

Notwithstanding,says he,

"

clergy, as lately,in

most

of his

received

he had

length; and,

at considerable

Mr.

of London,

Bishop

treatment
injurious

the

aim.

the

to

following account

sentiments
tions of

the

states

from

the

addressed

of Nazarenus,

the

Man-

4"to.

Lord, Bishop of London,

John

way

piecesby

to

but, undeservedlystyled St. Cyril.

goncutes \

most

main

by liberty,I

I did
by toleration,

; the

and

every

objectsof

did not
not

most

mean

mean

as

the

condu

kind

of

all my

licenti

indifference,

31

less

much

and

be

To

suffer.

approbationof

an

not

and

tractions, additions,
ticular

oral traditions,
I declared

came

from

useful and

ness

of every

the

and

learned

Lord

Bishop

occasion

to

of

copiesof

the

following

qui humanam
concede

institute

not

are

none

by

every

Religionfor

entitled

in the

"Scrip
Preface,

prevented from

unjustlyasserts,

in

prayer

in bibendo

gravantur,
potatione

hodierna

pocula poculorum.

Amen.

i.

leventur
e.

some

the

to

"

com-

idquefiatper

Omnipotent

foundedst

constituisti

capita,qui hesterna

istorum

who

that

as

sempiterneBacche

et

societatem maxime

verlastingBacchus,

pure,

down-right Atheists,such

but

Omnipotent

ut
propitius,

and

of
misrepresentations

the

; and,
Bangor," "%c.

most

one

Book,

Pantheisticon, he inserted

effect

plain

vulgar,""$c.

for the

observe, that

; and

Mr.Toland

it

that, as being the busi

; and

; from

settlingin Carolina,

a-

synods,adding

of

less

no

publisheda

vindicated

over

of either

equally understood

was

another

1721, Dr. Hare


Truth

takes

it

man,

For, Christ did

body.

was

instructive

I in

world, that religionas

the

to

hands,

their

than

ture

before

and

over

Apostles,exclusive

the determinations

or

what

In

his

Christ and

gain, repeat

I do

pa**

which

is that

men,

all others.

preferbefore
finitely

the

of

company

or

man,

of any

alterations

other

the sub

corruptedby

since

as

Christ

Jesus

religiontaught by

the

Apostles,but

his

and

could

I 'solemnly professto
particular,

more

Lordship,that

your

religionI

every

human

and

e-

society

principallyby drinking, propitiouslygrant,


heads

those, which

of

after

bumper
M.

grapher
such

assures

He

assures

forbears

author, but

there

profession. Indeed,
Dr.

himself

Hare

The

of

Earl

the

worth

Shaftesbury
also,

as

of

he

the

knows

of his

account

on

doubt, that

author.

published Letters
Lord

the

to

Letters

two

that

bio

dreamed

hardly be

Toland

Mr.

year,

same

that by

Toland's

never

him,

can

the

was

us,

mention

to

Mr.

Toland

Mr.

that

us,

matter.

and

Frenchman,

day's, and

Amen."

bumper.

Maizeuz,

the

heavy by yesterday's
this

lightenedby

be

drinking,may

made

are

that

Viscount

written

by

from

Moles-

Sir

George

at

Putney,

Cropsley.
Toland

Mr.

turn

the

Being

of December,

he found

by
physician,

his

creased
to
some

^Treatises
and

This

the

But,
he

the one,

He

he

and

about

middle

ill,and

made

the
an

In the

not

live

much

in

wrote

two

Physicans ;
Parliaments.

finish ;

for, he died

about

four o'clock

in

himself

throughout

the

to

1722,

behaved

ignorant

entertained

interval, he

Danger of mercenary

re

shift to return

better, and

grew

March,

llth

morning-.

very

London,

entitled,Physic without

other, The

the

to

in town

himself

of recovery.

last, he did

Sunday
the

where

hopes

past lived

improper prescriptions,
very

his disorder.

Putney,

years

conveniently go

day.

same

four

these

could

he

whence

had

on

whole
ness

fortitude

and

least

about

his

of

course

sickness, with

the greatest

and, looked

death

mind

perturbationof

on

he

tellingthem,

him, and

without

farewell

biding

to

going

ivas

calm

to

the

those

fall a-

sleep.
A few

days

death, he composed the

his

before

EPITAPH

in Hibernia

Scotia

In

Oxonii

Quod

Hibernia

quoqite

Germania

Atque

Deriam

prope

et

Ac

Studuit,

semel

plus

Linguarum plus
Veritatis

petita,

transegitcctatem.

Literarum

Omnium

naius,

fecitAdolescent

circa Londinum

Virilem

US..

LAND

TO

JOANNES

Qui,

E.

S.

H.

following

excultor

dccem

Sciens.

Propugnator

Libertatis Asserlor:
Nullius

autem

Nee

minis, nee

fyiin,quam

Sectator,aut
mails

Patre,

Quo prodiitolim, conjungilur:

Corpus
Materno

Ipse
At

anteferens.

Mtlicreo

Spirituscum

In

injlexus,

viam pemgcref,
elegit,

Utili honestum

est

Client,

item naturae

cedens,

grcemio reponitur.
est

resurrecturus,

Idemfuturus TOLANDUS

nunquam.

vero

ceternum

Natus

G"tera

Nov.

SO.

16 7O.

Script'^
pete,

ex

"

34

TRANSLATION.

lies JOHN

Here

"

"

Londonderry,who

"

Ireland, and

"

sited

*"'

He

in his

at Oxford

Germany, spent

born

youth

Ireland, near

in

studied in Scotland,

and, havingrepeatedlyvi-

his manhood

about

London.

^cultivator of every kind of Learning ; and

was

skilled in

"

TOLAND,

than

more

the

languages:

ten

champion

"

of Truth, and

"

lower

or

"

either

by

"

path, which he chalked out to himself, uniformly


His Spirit
to his interest.
preferringhis integrity
it
is re-united to his heavenly Father, xfrom whom

"

"

the

client

of

formerly proceeded;

is also

"

himself

"

will

the

Toland's

swayed

ever

to Nature,
Body yielding

of the Earth.
to

the rest

Born

from

lie will

belief,that

his

never

He

Life, but

Eternal

Toland.

same

Seek

vember, 1670.

Mr.

his

undoubtedly arise
be

he

was

the Bosom

re-placedin

never

the fol-

Liberty,but

misfortunes,from pursuingthe

or

"

"

; nor

none

menaces

will

of

assertov

No-

3Oth

Writings."
be the

same

is not heterodox,
Toland after the resurrection,
liisenemies

The

have

not

failed to

represent it in

gospeluniformly declares, that

change

will take

place in

surrection ; and, that


Toland

must

that

future

at the

changed.

considered

as

here

but merely as
Identity,

partialchange

clearly
pointout.

be

considerable

body

shall all be

we

therefore not

nying his absolute


ing to

the human

though
this light,

which

the

re

Mr.
de

allud

Scripturess*

which

ous,

Mr.Toland's

myself to

confine

has

Previous

temporal
pitch,and

matters,
the

comment.

At

the

dawn

of the
The

right of Kings,
son,

Revelation

or

civil and

our

secured,

Tory-party,
abdicated

of the
no

Torys,

as

to

far

than

the

are

date

regarded state

as

alter their tone.

To

have

of

After

That

facts that

the
;

to
can

Whig-

and,- that
the

cause

admit

Revolution,

affairs,v/ere

declaimed

in

croached

direct
on

this

high-treason.
minations

insult

to

King William,

right,and might

The

Toleration

Act

of
the

obligedto

support of the

Indefeasible, Hereditary right of Kings, would


been

who

had

have
en

been

construed

secured

all deno

have

in the free exercise of their

effectually

were

the

rea

century and

attached

of

divine

the

nor

the throne

on

than

discarded.

were

were

man,

Monarch,

From

dispute.

criterion either

William

and

more

the

more

better

read

Pope,

gloriousRevolution.

the

any

clearlydisplayed.

religiousliberties

placed King

interest
the

by

need

to

the

and, both

long struggle,during

half,

to

state,

Reformation,

mankind

stand

could

known

impositions,for

of
infallibility

the

Neither

debased

in

highest

very

Scriptureswere

monstrous

centuries, practised on

ten

right of Kings
the

to

well

is too

thingsbegan.
the

of the
infallibility

reduced, by the operationof these

doctrines,

a,

carried

servile, ignorant and


were

studied, and

the

divine

the

were

abominable

order of

noise in the world.

Reformation,

the

mankind

which

much

so

spiritual
; and,

in

Pope,

to

made

not Mysteri
Christianity

religion.

This

37
another

v. as

aimed

uniformly

had

of discontent

source

the

to

and
religious

at

Torys,

exclusive

who

supre

macy.

That
meditated

for

stabilityof

the

half

than

more

Their

absurd

ranny

were

these

By
intelligibility.

and

religiousty*
Re

Sacred

the

Whig-party, all

profound ignoranceof

the

means,

un-

of mankind

bulk

using their

without

blindlyled,

in

succession,

pretence of mystery and

Writings,under

the Divine

were

kept

were

demonstration

na

the

of

exception

of mankind

ranks

Monarch

the Protestant

perversionof

on

measures,

abdicated

respectingcivil

founded
the

William's

century, needs

tenets,

With

cords.

King
of the

restoration

the

shook

and,

thwarted

Torys

the

their-

or

senses,

reason.

To

drive
Toland

Mr.

he

he

was

rences

ture,

allowed

to

respects

cannot

judge

once

of
Mr.

induce

mislead

However

MYSTERIOUS.

that

man's

to lie dormant.

forhimself

denied

in the

the

reason

That

was

mankind
no

to

man's

read

of Na

aware,

the

far

as

principlesof

the

well

if

ordinaryoccur

as
privilege,

same

Religion,and

Toland

impartialattention,
could

NOT

respectingthe Phenomena

be

matters

Christanity.
could

in order

of life ; and
he

last resource,

clearly proves,

given him,

not

this

CHRISTIANITY

wrote

In this Treatise
was

from

arbitrary power

that

if he

Scriptureswith

interpretationon

earth

them.

convenient

this mode

of conduct

might be

blow
ric

the

means

empire

if it had

contained

of

salvation.

their

not

one-fourth

were

allowed

wrote,

at

fact, a death

its monstrous

Popish priests,as

the

by

was

vulgar,as

of

reared

had

in

was

fab

ignorance,mystery and superstition. The

on

the

it
religion,

which

Popery,

to

pel

of true

interests

for the

of the
read

to

carefullykept from
antidote,instead

the

Mr.

When

Toland

population of the British


the

Scriptures; and,

present day, nearly five millions

the

gos

even

denied

are

this

important privilege.
Christianitybeen

Had
as

designing and

interested

certainlythe

twelve

to

the

propagate

not
to

of them

one

read

intricate

so

have

men

Apostles were
In

Gospel.
would

have

been

of

Christ, and

his

mysterious,,

represented it,
ill calculated

very

Popish countries,

many

considered
of it.

explain a singleverse

or

and

qualified

That

the

con

duct

of

been

widely different, I readilyadmit, but, the simple

question
best

Whether

"

to judge
qualified

System,

and

Christ

of the

of

nature

instruments

the

or

was,

the

Christian

calculated

best

not-,

was

to

pro

it ?"

mote

When
of the
OUS,

this,

is

pretended Vicegerents, has

word

means

of

jtliatevery

duly weighed

Mystery
no

Christians.
dations

have

we

more,

This

Papal

was

and

Christian

Mr.

Toland's

CHRISTIANITY

than,

MYSTERI

NOT

to ail
intelligible
Christianity

certainlysapping

the

Tyrannical Power,
had

definition

to
ri^rUt

read

very

foun

by asserting
and

under-

39

Mr. Toland's

known

not

jected
which

that

could
to

true

add, that

the

stood

they
these

circumstance

his

writingsbeen
I shall

only
To-

and

William,

King

the
had

little ceremony,

as

the illustrious

unprotectedas

as

ob

persecutedMr.

which

with

it is

Body, ever

head,

this

to

Subject of

Memoirs.

Toland's

Mr.

Amyntor,

already taken-

been

happened,had

SCOTLAND

OF

The

irreligion
; but,

for

forward

been

Orthodoxy

treated

have

times

of that venerable

party

same

that

advocates

man,

and

religion. On

land, would
CHURCH

have

having

as

this circumstance,

all

at

Toland's

not

Monarch,

to

impiety
one

any

Mr.

to

hostile

of

torrent

considered

was

religiousintolerance.

and,

Scotland, has

of
the

stem

from

were
antagonists,

arbitrary power;
Church

abdicated

is evident

tendency,

this

Treatise

the

of the

adherents

the

by

That

Gospel,

the

stand

Charles

King
and

the

sion

to

notice

The

of.

first,proved that
of Icon

author

the

not

was

Pantheisticon, have

his

and

last, is supposed to contain


the

Romish

of abuse

torrent

is

Torys,

sarcastical

than

The

"

might

have

him,

allu

Episcopal Liturgies;

consequentlypoured on

more

no

and

Basilike

by

the

naturally

been

anticipated.
His
us,

Biographerhas

that

Mr.

Toland

and
difficulties,

as

But.

as

this

was

descended
was

so

sometimes

running

charge of

in debt
the

same

low,

as

to

inform

under

pecuniary

for his

Wigs, fy\

nature, with

his

40

detain

shall not

"%c.I

macy,

Pantheism, Illegiti

Mahometanism,

Atheism,

Deism,

the Reader

with

confu

tation of it.

Mr.

TOLAND's

CHARACTER.

It is difficult)to determine

Literature this great


been

to have

versy he

kind

in what

of univei*sal

irresistible;
and,

was

thought they

found

only furnished

had

degradation.
"

He

guages, and the Celtic was


ed in the
age of

death.

sixteen,he became

"

1689, he

and,

on

every

and

warm

to

own

Lan

Educat

"

to

Presbyterianism,

it,tillthe hour of his

the
the

yet he

est of his

party,

interwoven

To

Real

"

of

and

to the

it to
prostituted

never

at the

expence

with his whole

inexorable

feim for the tool of

of truth.

"

in

his pen

him,
was

the inter

There

was

frame, a highdegreeof stub

which
integrity,
a

serve

he

primitive

Apostlictimes, alwaysfound
Though

in
un

Scotland, which

greatestresemblance

"

to

the Revolution

steadyfriend.

able, and inflexible advocate.

his estate,

he utter

occasion, resisted them

the Church

piety,and

of
simplicity

and

ten

tongue.

Convert

of his power.
a

was

thoughtbore

born

than

more

they

for their

materials

his native

attached
steadily

to the utmost

an

when

him,

Popery,Prelacy,and arbitaryPower

ly detested

affected

contro

of Popery, at the early


grossest superstition

remained

and

genius."In
confuted

had

skilled in

was

seems

at the very moment

his adversaries

they

He

excelled.

most

man

of

department

totallyunfitted

party ; and, like poor Yorick,he

41
invariablycalled things by their rightnames,
less of the consequences.

There

"

composition,one

single grain

which

modern

Swift calls

nable

rock

stood

immoveable,

in

the

Like

in

reply

literaryabilities

his enemies
"

Latin

purity, have
self.

To

that

him

him

Celtic tribes

the

to controvert

Smith

Toland's

only

studied

the

HISTORY

his Gothic

him

is concise
enters

Abaris,
by

Toland's

the

for

OF

THE

Manialed

positions,respecting

blush, has borrowed

any

deliberate
Mr.

Wherever

Dr. Smith

missed

classical

non-candour, for which,

the

design
Toland

detail.

conceal

to

enters

Mr.
The

into

Toland

even

whole

history,it

in

takes

of

; not

few
up
P

words

the

pla

detail,Dr.
is

concise,

important history

Hyperborean Priest of the

Dr. Smith

con

acknowledgement, but, with

and, wherever
into

re

highly indebted

are

as

of

of

Cicero

by

even

of Toland's

with

making
and

giarism.

of

tribute

materials, for his History of the Druids

without

Smith

his trans-

Celts,is obligedto shrink from the

and

Dr.

"

often

as

any

his best friends must

excelled,

the

inveterate

most

ample

most

To

"

compositions,in point of

Pinkerton,

"

Druids

test.

the

been

not

the

even

unequalled production,

DRUIDS.

the

paid

have

His

spect.

vim-

calumnies, equally characterize

and the Christian.


Hero, the Philosopher,

cendant

and, his

their most

to

he

ocean,

his assailants

againstall

quality

impreg

an

of the tempestuous

midst

unmerited

useful

that

discretion.

calm, dignified
answers,
lent and

of

in his whole

not

was

regard

Sun,

is dis

whereas, in Mr.

several pages.

In the

Of

space

twenty-five

troversial

abdicated
and

ry power,

the

it was

and,

to

bred

Mr.

as

Toland,
But,

fellow.

and

often

It has

desireable

be

work

transmitted

that

and,

may

he

Manes.

British

was

It

Empire,

possess

was

in less than

discover, that
his

he

many

in

were

all

opposition ; and"s

posterity.

alive, with

with

the

"

great

Christians,

and

Epithets
have

now

Socinian-

peace

to

wished, that the

critical

like

very

party will

same

rigid Presbyterian,
to be

That

the

"c.

tinctured

ardently

left the

unattempted.

but

Mahometan^

only

Her

present day,

task, and

all

over

fiftyyears,
a

the

Civil

Per

instruments.

latest

him, when

Atheist, Infidel,Deist,

discovered,
ism

the

to

party whicli branded


of

the

of

ill-

stubborn,

cleansed,

be

e-

Knox"

John

of

arduous

triumphed

has

Apostles

to

was

only unfinished,

not

first,

Civil Govern

Aitgcean Stable

is to

the

the

was

his

he

refinement

from

shrunk

fame

Toland's

and

delicacy

have

might

will

and

that
the

arbitra

simple, andun-

pure,

labour, requires Herculean


the

haps

that

objected

when

to

rights of mankind;

been

Religious corruptions

culean

it

con

on

wished

who

to render

Christ

which

system,

well

As

the

on

re-establish

mialienable

the

Christianityto

stablished.
as

with

them

greater part,

and

Monarch,

last effort of his pen,

reduce

pompous

the far

religiousintolerance.

consistent

ment

of

some

about

published

Toland

oppositionto those,

in

matters,

the

restore

works

subjects;but,

intricate

most

so

different

hundred

one

Mr.

years,

JOHN

emergencies,
TOLAND.

HISTORY

THE

44

will be

subject,that

place; yet

in every

ous

it does

curi

con
particularly

more

of antient

inhabitants

the

cern

to the
naturallyentertaining

Gaule, (now France,

Flanders, the Alpine regions,and Lombardy) and of


here

are
antiquities

Islands,whose

all the British

part

and illustrated,
partlyvindicated and rely explain'd
somewhat
It will sound
stor'd.
oddly, at first hear

ing,that

(1) Peninsula

northern

in the most

born

man

peninsulais 7 nis-Eogain vulgarlyEnis-owen,


stands the city of Londonderry, itself a
in whose
a famous
and, if the tradition be true, originally
peninsula,
(1)

This

Isthmus

School

and

Grove

of the Druids.

Hence

the

comes

verv

Doire, corruptlypronounced Derry, which in Irish


of Oaks.
The
a
Grove, particularly
great COLUMsignifies
name

BA

it into

changed
retir'd

were

Collegefor

lived

that

Laymen,

Monks

(who

labour

the

by

in his time

of

their

commonly the sacred placesof the Hea


converted
to the
were
thens, if pleasant or commodious,

hands)
like

by

use

Derry

most

as

after their

the Christians

is the Roboretum

or

This

manner.

own

mentioned

Campus roborum,

by

in his Ecclesiastical History: but not Ardmacha, novtr


have
province of Ulster, as many
Armagh, in the same
erroneouslyconceived ; nor yet Durramh, no\v Durrough,

BEDE

irtthat of Leinster,

pounded

Archbishop

whom

cied,among
ot

Dair

have

some

as

an

ground leslyfan*

less

no

Dearmack

U^HEK.

and' the anr.ient word

oak

Machaire) afield. They who

did

not

is com

Mack

(now
much, have
Armagh, which, far

know

so

sound
to be
imagined itfrom the mere
wtnovnt
O/MACH A,
thcheight
from Campus roboruifap\gri\fies
of
Queen
Ireland, and
(surnamed MongTuadh orredhair'd)a
that ever
svyay'dthe sovereign sceptre of
the only woman
was
a monastery found
that kingdom. But Armagh never

ed

by

Co

LU

MB
as

LUIM-CILLE,

from

was

"

A,

,."..-.."-,..

he's

by

monasteries

the

in Hibprui.i, quod

in BEDIMS

who

v-or.t'MBA)

the Irish

of

priiis
quam

to

Dcrry

was

called

f Co-

this
and

day: whereas it
t-cdtaikdl
(which

in Britanniarn vcnirr-tMnnastcrfuffi no'i;'"

Dvarrtiach

S -otorurn, hoc cst campus


r"ling-ua
Hist. Fc"lcs. lib. 3. ca/". 4.
t Qtn", videlicet COMIMBA,
nunr
a nonnulli.s,roTinsosito a ("*"""""? ''"' ^?"?i""
""'a-? CoLi'MCEiax
1"".
/;6. 5 rnrn.
/#"/"/.
vocalsr.

ftorujn, vooatnr.

roborum
coj"ia

time

OF

undertake

Ireland, shou'd

of

in

of Gaule

learned

the

with

certain

also

writers

of the French

nation, (whose works

all the wonder

Yet

let

is

language

to

therefore

and

contain'd in
and

that

or
living,

the

were

and

superiority over

of

far

as

it

as

from

dead

and

things

the

Greec,

first : I shou'd

neglectGreec

for all its

tongues, in respect of

most

serves

the

from

the

as

accom

languages,

of times

draw

we

barren

as

whatever

learn

to

Lapponian, which

this last

but

knowledge

that

were

study Lapponian,

then

that

reallyvaluable,

with

converse

those

instantlycease.

knowledge

in the

consist

plishmentmay

of

none

this affair will

about

still remember'd,

it be

which

has

this, I say, is consider'd,

when

he

esteem)

uncommon

advantages,
had

ever

then

no

with

other

have

a-

relatingto tlieDntids,

constantly reads

he

and

over

in common,

he knows

j)ove what

hitherto

has

one

any

'tis consider'd, that,

when

But

done.

antiquities

the

set

to

lightthan

clearer

DRUIDS.

THE

sonorous

of words, and varietyof ex


copiousness
pronunciation,
But as the profoundignoranceand slaveryof
pression.

present Greecs

the

cestors

European
or

any

the

were

does

all of

so

ty)
This

is

in

Scotland

liuni

quo titroque nxnr.rtpteno


Britannia. "k in Uihornia

ia (^uo
insv.latiuni,

that

that
be

can

or

Ireland,

were

since

free of all

has
a

an

befallen

just preju-

to

digni

(.'OLT.AJBA,

roio-iies.
many
nol"*ss t'na
J BLDB.
FO

their several foundations.

perpfarimaoxhide mouastoria,
propagata

their

the. first in

dedicated

attested by tliejust mentioned

J Fx
in

colonies,

monasteries

all the Irish Annalists

by
"

other

revolution

erected, became

Inst, though the second


whether

no

the Celtic

that ail the

hinder, but

and
learned, polite,

most

nations

not

stint

ivquiescit
ips*"
prim
tf"rpoi'i'.

in

per

quihus omnibus

ii"8t;im t?'iot.

c'\;";
diseipolos
icK"m

Hnr.. lift,$"

mim.^'.C3r".

"

HISTORY

THE

46

monu
againstthe trulyantient and undoubted
ments
they may be able to furnish,towards improving1
there be
or
restoring
any pointof Learning.Whether

dice

such

any

monuments

will
agreeable,

be

in the

by

the learned

have

because
Intelligible,
\vho

six
principally

the

least

also

spoken

in

of

any

and

all the

These, having severallytheir

British,

language
Highland Irish,

or

of

Scotland.

dialects,are,

own

respect to each other and the old Celtic of Gaule,


of

now

the

Hands

western

are

French

or

Eqrse

those,

insular British,

or

corrupted,Manks

Isle of Man

the

fragmentsalways

the

or

of

of the Greec

out

extinct, Armorican

almost

Cornish

Welsh

nothing,but

Celtic dialects,which

namely

thought to

are

known

such

are

or

appear.

explain'dby

never

skill'd in the

were

Irish

hitherto

Nor

authors.

Roman

far useful

of the Druids

is that

fragmentsconcerningthem

some

and

of

sheets
following

lost, one
irrecoverably

which

how

those institutions which

Among

II.

not, and

or

with
as

the

German

the

Dutch, the

language and Low


Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and Islandic

which

all descendants

dialects

several

are

Not

the Gothic.
thic

or

Celtic

ever

such

language either

did

thing as

or

but.by such

an

mother,

common

pure Go

cou'd exist in any

regionwithout dialects,no

considerable
elements:

that

of their

more

than pure

originallanguage

is meant

rogtand trunk, the primitivewords, and


thro*
especiallythe peculiarconstruction that runs
all the branches ; whereby they are intelligible
to each

the

common

other,

or

may

easilybecome

so, but

different from

aU

of

kinds

speech besides.

Thus

often

taken

been

have

which

frent

as

Latin

of the

ceive

merly,

this

dialects

time

tedious

to

the

of

Sei

Neither

any

this

subject

annex'd

lordshipan

Specimen

and
principally

; I

shall

we

be

to

places,

dwell

on

ac
some

largelytreat

concerning the Gods,

human

Souls, Nature

and

in

AMMIANUS

and

distances, and

ME

MARCELLINUS

write

subjects,I

you,

in my

My

system

ever
was

History.

Lord, from

as

came

far

up
more

all

copiously

In the

mean

authors, that
the

to

perfection

exquisite

having been
an

specially

more

say, will be

beget ignorance,and

(2) A
DISSERTATION
qml Wonies.

duration

SlCULUS, STRABO, PoMPONius

Priesthood

calculated to

in

where

commented

such

the

Druidical, which

other

in

particularthe heavenly Bodies, their

These

assure

Heathen

of the

other

Philosophy of

I do

whose

the

handled

no

Marseilles

language,

giving your

am

I shall

others.

time

of

shall I in this

of C,ESAR,DlODORUS

than

Archipelago,in

(2) Dissertation,

magnitudes, motions,

and

for

mean

general,

LA,

con

language

great many

But

designed History

Druids

Sclavonian

via,but in

recite.

to

things,whereof
the

we

call'd, in Mace

of the

Hands

the

work, whereof

count.

Greec

properly so

the

professedlyin

treat

manner

dif-

as

only prevailin Russia, Poland, Bohemia,

not

Carinthia, and
too

and

like

of the

Gothic,

other, are

and
part of Italy,in Sicily,

Asia, Rhodes,
at

itself

in Greece

for each
In

idioms

several

47

the Celtic and the

Arabic.

and

donia, in Crete

and

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

much

than

better

implicitdisposir

concerning the Celtic Lansua^e

HISTORY

THE

43

to procure

sacred

all the Eastern

Lory ofthe Druids,

and

power

grand difference

one

the false.

exceed
infinitely

did

Priesthood

is

worship and

the true

tween

and

which
priests,

the

to
profit

less than

people,no

lion in the

that

policy:

This
of

be

Western

ZOROASTER,

that, the His-

so

short, is,the completeHistoryof

in

and ressorts ; which


with all its reasons
to
Priestcraft,
from rightreligion,
is not only
accurately
distinguish
and states, but likewise
the interest of all wise princes
the tranquillity
and happiness
does especially
concern
of every

I have

privateperson.

craft here

the word

merely as being the

not

purpose,

on

used

Priest
best

ex

of religion,
pressionfor the designedabuse, and reverse
is onlyreligion
but al
misunderstood)
(forsuperstition

coiningof

the

because

so

by

the

DRUIDS

learnt

the

word

ed

the very

since

the

Dry (3) from

word

was

occasion

Anglo-Saxonshaving
Irish and

the

Britons

Magician,did very appositelycall JMagic or Inchantment


(4); as being nothing else but
Drycrceft
the fourberyof Priests and their
trick and illusion,
for

confederates.
III.

this Institution of the

Now,

myself,without

any

consciousness

I think

Druids

vanity,much

of

better helps in
(ashaving infinitely
respects,of which, before I have done) than Dr.

abler to retrieve
many

HYDE

Persian

was

restore

to

Literature

for
imperfect

want

and

knowledge

Religion;

of due

(3) Pronounced
(r- Dry mn?us,

the

as

which

yet

encouragement, as
Dree

in

ancient

of the

he

left

I have

English,

in
incantatio,sEJfric.
Dnjcrcrjt

Glossar.

first

in the

shown

Celtic

doubted

authors, that

Classic

and

For

as

learn

we

ing, tho' great


dictates

other

in

writers

or

alterable

sequently)and
is

which

much

the

from

book

be turn'd

to

be

in

seen

drew

Laity, that, one

to

ments

and

matters
were

the

of

rewards

of

of

commit

respects ; but

their

assumed

Ceremony

the effects of the

unlearned

reader

than
or

The

by them,

and

Religion.

Drnidical

who

to

sure

perhaps

easy

Druids,

as

may

Commentaries
of
of

Law
all

that
of

punish

was

first

determining

Most

terrible

of the passages,
authorities for proving
any

and

(5)Excommunication

knows

wants

power

lockingup

other, is

CAESAR'S

the

masters

convenient

see

distribution

(5) It'the learned reader,who


the

deceiv'd.

so

writ

all controversies

; from

afterwards

way

Priests.

book

6th

and

Philosophyto

knowledge, and

themselves, the

Equity

given,or

againstthe

decision

the

be

to

they shou'd

as

first or last to their

come

one

(con
interpretable

effectual way,

more

is most
the

on

as

convey'd from
only hereditarily

were

disciplesby traditionaryPoems,

to

"K

not

part of their Theology

no

very

writingsand

people blindfold, by

dextrous! y led the

They

but

seducing their followers,

them

hand

other

the

on

ting

consider

we

in the

History

I mean,

entertaining:

interestingand
hand

their

reasons

many

Druids
Celtic

in the
particularly,

very

monuments.

the

of

degrees,the

these

little to be found

of

treat

and

Greec

the meanest

to

Of

Priests.

un

of their Hier

order

down

excepted,there's

ARCH-DRUID

much

of

orders

four

From
the

join'dto

displaythe

can

49

Nazarenus.

the ARCH-DRUID

archy, from
their

chapterof

monuments,

remains, I

Roman

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

HISTORY

THE

that

man,

any

on

did

ivotinns, aud submit

follow
implicitly1

not

to their

decrees

only to

not

their dithe

excludingof privatepersons from all benefits of society,


from society
itself ; but also to the depos
and even
ing-of the princeswho did not pleasethem, and often
devoting them

of

their power

was

making
while

ing
have

had.

from

tlie address

to the

their persons-

those

of the

even

ever

engaging the

bearingarms,

thing

any

Sodalities

take

them

fect in which,

rive

at

well

as

the

sacred

and

the

Fraternities

or

Druidical

this to

and

ex

to

yet

inviolable,by

veneration

These

them

how

privileges

communities,

they had

cost

Seem

peace

contribut

and

profession^to

did sometimes

ought

into their

to enter

be

twenty

wonder, since

to

per
years

to

ar

in Sophistry
perfection
a long habit, as
requires
in juggling,
in which last they were
very ex~

assertions,should
following

them;

charms

or

of

or

get themselves

to

paying taxes,

reputed

in war,

dishonourable

which
contrary side,,

for such

Nor

nation

public but

allur'd great numbers-

on

less intolerable

always strictly
paid.

not

was

study.

Nor

and
disadvantageous

they

empted

destruction.

to

let it be

known

I do not

wonder

bsrth,that

always cite

in this

Specimen I
commonly touch but the heads of things (and not of all
thingsneither)so I would not crowd the margin with long
in my
passages, nor yet curtail what
History shall be pro
duced
at large:
and therefore all the following
citations (the
o{ writing Celtic words
originalmanner
excepted) are ei
ther samplesof the
quotationsI shall give,or proofsof what
I would not for a moment
have suspected to be precarious
to

ly advanced, or, finally,


for
certain

matters

lustration.
mere

which

in

come

Otherwise

Specimen,though

the

by

as

better
way

understandingof
of

they

wou'd

in

finished work

not

he

digressionor
necessary

in

il
a

indispensable.

HISTORY

THE

Girald

other country i'i the world.

said of any

wont
contrary (asin his days they were
Martyrdom, Celibacy, and the like, much

thinks
religion)

of

duties
positive

it

the

an

to over-rate

above

the

reproachto

the

of their Saints cemented the founda


tions of the growingChurch with their blood,all ofthem
he,)and not one able to boast ofthe
(says
beingConfessors,
Irish, That

none

But

of Martyrdom.

crown

and

of
absurdity

and

people for

humanity

this

charge?

their
it is

; as

that he

wish
heartily

Well

he) (7),who

then

of mrny

for not

elsewhere

and

not

in the

better

much

jingle,

nauseous

Clergyof

his

an

to

enemy

on

time

own

the

and

clergy,that

like could not be said of any

embrace

what

clergy,

not the

is it?

They

are

ta

Pastors,(says

feed,but to be fed : Prelates,


but to preside: Bishops,who
profit,

seek not

desire not to

who

and

there, or here, or elsewhere,from that time

whether
this.

being

the

princes

voluntarydeath,which

childish

the Irish

I from

"in

vanity

persecute, and for

Christianity.?Tis

with

accuses

so

of

Converts

new

to
to

conduct
unjustifiable

times
primitive
grounds,tho1

It is blamingthe

taxingthe

madly running themselves


the

the

not

sees

reasonableness,moderation

seditiously
provoking them

was

who

to

nature, but the

name

; not

the

burden,

the

out

reckon
little

braveryof their profession.This, My Lord, I


from my subject,
to be no
since what
digression
there happened to be in Ireland to
opposition

(7) Sunt
sci:

sunt

pastores,qui non pasccrc quaerunt" s? d p(i~


praclati,tjuinon prodesse cvpiunt, sed prcrcssr
cnim

sunt
fern

episcopi,
qui non omen, sed
Id. Ibid.
amplcctv.ntnr.

rtomen

; non

eww*,

sed

THE

OF

wholly made

was
Christianity,

their

DRUIDS.

: and
instignation

5$

the

by

Druids,

at

or

they perceiv'dthi$

that when

into it speedier,
like to prevail,
none
came
religion
made
a more
Advantageousfigurein it, than they,
or
have their Martyrologies
The
Irish however
(lestthis

new

objectedby

shou'd be

of their nation

in their

own

country,

hund

some

of it

after the total conversion

reds of years

of such

are

countries,or under

suffered in other

as

Danes

Heathen

the

but they
trifler)

some

to

Chris

tianity.

and

and
lipses)
I

ture,

as

morality.

otherwise,

all of

the

evident

but

cannot

miracles,

by

events

familiar

have

to

last

the Druids

foretel

to

by irrefragableauthorities

can

light,that
pear in

in the two

intercourse

Ec
gods (highlyconfirmed by calculating
a thousand
(8) na
imposturesof the same

the

with

work

to

pretences

nam'd

the like articles, with

Sections, and many

augury

have

advantageswe

Those

V.

view

as

both

religiondoes

true

in "such

to every

may

which,

serviceable

be very
For

like kind

set

not

I hinted

one

ap

before,,

religionand

to

consist

in

cun

dominion,
ninglydevis'd fables,in authority,

or

but

social vir

in

tue, in
and
of

and
spirit
a

the

reverence,

Divinity. As

not

in

of the two

servile dread

the fundamental

is, daringto say whatever

heads

last

Law

is'true, and

Sections, with these here


words) will yet eack
a
separate chapterin the History; this present Spe
being chieflyintended for modem
instances,as by

mentioned

cimen

of the

Historian

(8) The
make

truth, in simplicity
and

filiallove and

terror
a

in

pomp

(though

seqnel will

conceived

appear.

in few

HISTORY

THE

dai

not

ed

by

love

go

he

ought

of

sect

no

nations

certain

of

But

think

or
religious
or

themselves

it to

there

case

people apt
they are
made

ing

be

hurt.

the

Heathen

The

of which

myself,without
if the

be

as

their

or

riches be

as

fictitious and

as

the

they should

be

Jtot ; but,that

backs

all the

made

other

to

apology.

Priests with

that of the

he

answer

before-hand

needing any
any

some

get up there?

them

I claim

heaven

Druids, if their

fraudulent,if their love of

Laity : then,

touched, whether

am

as

power

not

as

only content

thought of

HOWARD.

be

and ty
partial

without
theyshouldbeblastedtoo,
(9) Sir ROBERT

tho'

in treat

whipt

immoderate,if their thirst after

over

make

complaintwas

had

and their exercise of it be


insatiable,
rannical

and,

not

(9),that,

person

of
correspondence

impute

to

is, by crying out

answer

making

being,should

conformityof

to the

Priests, he

grounded as
slenderly

miracles be

in

now

remember, when

onlyasking,What

was

benefit

Yet

on

anticnt

institution of

all,they should

honourable

Christian Priests

made,

se

find to bt

real resemblance

suspect there

to

not

at

none

or

the

clearing
up

they ought not

(long since extinct,)

orders of men,

there be any

againstan
of

civil societies

time

no

hope

originand

the author, but

design in

interest

or

enquiry,will

if in

the

touched

if indeed
tilings,
in

me.

with

customs,

beingsway

of

man

which

in this

communities

any

party

or

as

concern'd

true
particularly

rites and

be

to

course

neither

gain'dby favour

hatred, nor

or

country, of
veral

falsehood

write any

ing-to

them

or

the pts-

of
sibility
shine the

the
brighter,

reader

the

making

read

purpose

Besides

VI.

except such

that

refuge,or
lonies,

ever

were

advantage
ledge

of

appear

the

so,

this

Northern

the

I shall prove,

may

history.

not

in the

Gothic

that

book

Druids,

no

nations)I

say,

to the

with

itself.

But

the

I learnt

co

or

may

Irish, which

for

fled thither

that

reason

language^

little contribute

com

Celtic invaders

with
the

among

ancient

seldom
clear

do

conceptionto

to leave

is neither

their latter end

work, for

fection of my

that

as
Fairy-tales

before

went

languageswill

these

of

of

have

towards

as

candour, is

my

he

the

living(though

and

shewn

are

the
impartialdisposition,

this

petent knowledge I
dead

since

will but

himself,
applications

quick enough

good

as

to shew

such

for him

any

truth

better its counterfeits

do

can

to^make

sighted,nor
to

sproutingup again. For

ever

all that

and

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

per
more

know-

from

my

childhood, and of the other Celtic dialects,in all which


I have
their

printed books

or

manuscripts (not to

vulgar Traditions)is absolutelynecessary

having preservednumberless
the

Druids, that

to be

Gaule

formerly better
the

native

where

of

the

to the

come

Institutions

of this

superstitious
race,

Britain, br

Druids

CAESAR

in

yet it exceedinglyflourished
Ireland

hands

of the

learnt

preservedin

these

and

said

than

so

the

in

their

High-

Scotland, comprehending the Helridce, Hebri

des,or Western
where

seat

is stillbest

memory
lands

as

have

of

concerning

monuments

hitherto

never

For

of the learned.
were

speak

Isles,among

they continued

which

long*after

is the Isle

of Man

their extermination

in

THE

56

and

Gaulc

HISTORY

South-Britain,mostlyby the Romans,

finally
by

the introduction

that much

of the Irish Heathen

in verse,

tant

of

and

which
to

course

of

Christianity.
Besides,
Mythology is stillex

givessuch

Greek

and

the

concerningthe Druids,

lustre to this matter,


Roman

could

as

but

Fragments
be had
possibly

not

other way.

any

VII. Thus

an
(togive
example in

the

Philological
part)
the controversyamong
the Grammarians, whether they
should write Druis
in the nominative
or
(10)Druida
ease
can
singular,
only be decided by the Irish writ
in ths margin*
ings,as you may see demonstrated
all Grammatical

where

remarks

the other Notes

mong

of the

shall be

inserted

a-

History,if they do not


Dissertation concerning

belongto the annexed


properly
ine Celtic Language and Colonies.
This conduct I ob
to avoid any disagreeable
in
serve,
stop or perplexity
(10) Ttu:

for Druid

Irish word

is

corruptlyDraoi; yet
Etvmologies is a great matter;
pluralit is Hruidhe, whence conies
and

Drui, corruptlyDroi9

all of the

more

in

sound, which

same

and

in the
no

nominative

doubt

the Greek
formed by

Dfuidex; as Druis in the singularwas


only adding s to Drui, accordingto those nation's way

and

Latin

terminating.But
British Drudioi, are
according to
She-Druid

their

these

words

in Irish

to both

common

sexes;

as
so

well
the

the

as

Romans,

inflection,
distinguishedDruida

(wl)ichsort

of the nominative

be used

as

are

mentioned

by

plural being Druidce"

of

for
where
authors)

it ought

by

us

to

in that

sense
only: and so I conclude, that in onmodern
Latin compositions Druides and Druidce
should
i)ot be confounded
have
been by the
; as
they
frequently

Transcribers

of old writings,who
mislead others. We
are
be
not to
moved
therefore by readingDruidcc in any Latin
author in the masculine
gender,or'in the Greek writers,

who certainly
used
thus taken awav.

it so.

All

at
equivocation

least will be-

THF.

OF

itself,
by uncouth

work

the

DRUIDS.

For

nunciation.

as

every

words

thing in

author

Subjectof writing,so

an

subjectsmoothly and

as
correctly,

and

: nor
perspicuosly

ought he

and

Elegance, where

his matter

Some

thingswant

thers

to

be

handl'd:

ought to
well

of every

treat

pertinently

as

of ornament

-to be void

requiresit
peculiarly

others
floridly,

all to

but

is the

the Universe

copiousstile,some

more

of difficult pro

or

be

to

concise

; o-

plainly

more

properly,methodically, and

be

is
handsomely exprest. Neglectingthese particulars,
the reader.
neglecting,and consequentlyaffronting,

Let

Lady

be

as
well-shap'd

as

her features be faultless,and


so

delicate

in her dress,

auk ward

or

of true taste is so

man

of her

charms

there

be

can

are

him

be

sinews
and

man

never

there

facts without

pends all instruction

DC

and

the

is

there

behave

to

apt

much

so

Muses

opiniontherefore,the

(11)CICERO,
'"tisnot

be likewise

must

coloring,much

HI)

with

without
the
agreeablecompany
stile is remarkably
your Lordship's

you'llown

the flesh,wherein

behavior,

and

immediatelyprepo^est

lik'd,that he has1 well-knit


:

relate

he is

ever

tawdry

being touched

her mind

wou'd, with

strong, you
from

of

In my

Or if,as

Graces.

far from

gate

order within, where

no

disorder without.
themselves

in her

body, that

beauties

againstthe

complexion be

her

be careless of her person,

yet if she

fancy, let all

can

you

take

enough
bones,

some

their circumstances,
; is to exhibit

make

nerves

and

softness.

To

whereon

de

skeleton

consists all comeliness.

II

to

muscling,
proportion,

blood, and

Oratore,lib. I.

this simile

without

This

I say

THF

58

HISTORY

to
Lordship,not pretending
writingto one, who's so fit to be my
to your

the

obviate

their turns, who


I have

as

of

censures

not

those, and

onlydo

in

undertaken

now

not
a

stile,but peremtorily
deny the

the art

teach
master

but to
'em

to censure

treat of such

of

in

subjects

flowingand continu'd
fieldsof Antiquity
and

capableof this culture : and indeed


of their hands, they
under the drudgery
as
suffering
barren heaths or impassable
become
thickets;
generally
where you are blinded with sand, or torn with bryars
Criticism to

There's

brambles.

and

All is low and

sions.
as

be

the whole

Not

no

choice of words'

or
vulgar,

or

expres

obsolete and musty

and
discourse is crabbed,hobbling,,

have too

that I wou'd

license taken

much

jejune.
in this

ought to be slaves to any


set of words, yet great judgementis to be employ'd
old word : nor must
in creating
or reviving
an
a new,
of figures
and sen
there be less discretion in the use
to set off
are
tences ; which, like embroideryand salt,
but not to render the cloth invisible,
or
and season,

respect; for thoughnone

the meat

uneatable.

lold

by the most
and
volubility,

To

conclude

I return

for

to my

to the

prevalentin Ireland, that


word

task

dc

to this hour

lib.1.
Oratore,

(13) Drui.

"

can

Druids, who

Magicianis Druid (13),the

(12) CICERO

point,we are
a profuse
(12)

eloquentof men, that


of words, are to be esordid exility
if any
after this digression,
And now

quallyavoided.
relates
thing that essentially

perlycall'd one,

this

were

their
art

be pro
so

ordinary
Magic,is

HISTORY

THE

might have

queen

of fortresses

five, governors
of

ilemen

Irish historians
AcLaii't

VIII.

As

in which

annual

and

In

of

Caer-Dreuiuy

The

or

as

next

Kmg-ij-Drudi~

call'd

in

Denbigh

there still remain

the

Ireland

Trer

which

to

also in another

cityof

their

Driv,
Tre'r

is

placeof

Druid's

the

stone

Druids, in Meri
and

the Hebrides

places,do believe, that


inch-anted

those in-

by

thek

ELJDGHATHACH.

Groves

for

cayes,

iuU-.rdicted in Gaule

pleasureand

mid

retirement,

different from

were

reverence,

in forests and

the

placeof

villageof

last themselves

at

were

and

so

present ignorantvulgar,in the first

The

(Ifj) EOCIIAID

nes

is the

placesin

of the last-mention'd

(17) These

France

that is,the
J\Iae?i-i/-Drmi9

island

awe

re*

Ireland, do

and

the

their altars

Druid,

the

Bards-town

or

infinite.

i'T

to

foolishlydreamt,

parish so

Anglesey there

town

dianters

first

it was

schools, not

Dreux,

as

coupleof

oneth-shire.
are

names

Druid-stones,,a

JBcirdh

this to

wont

numerous

have

some

generalassembly in

shire,from

same

as

their

placesin France, Britain,

stillbear their

the

will have

commonly

were

had

they

houses
such

ing.

Druids

the

last

without

or

King (16)

grots,dark woods, mountains, and (17)groves,

tire into

many

under

{ho*,others, who

of the

most

of an old law, maintain


revivingby king Tigemmhas.

established

young

soldiers two, and

cnackted

was

ladies

four, officers and

This sumtuary law

say,

t!ie 1st. ;

be but the

lords and

seven,

qualitythree,common

peopleone.

common

on,

in theirs but

into

which

Britain.

they

as

the lurk
were

well

a"

lagpla

ibrc'd when

TTJF

OF

they

where

sometimes

thought

are

to

in

(19)

in

Inisoen

This

last

mount

gall.

strain,

Homerical

the

hard

confines her, and

Irish dare

not

shall discover

such

of multitudes

are

tinent;
and

in

some

England

I shall discover

Egg
to

such

of the Druids,
their

(18) Such

fancies

ed Dmids,

from

any

and
in

Wales,

and

the

came

from

(having
strictlyput in

but
GUSTUS)
the following

been

opposieCon
remarkable

most

in

the

also

as

by

AU

by CLAUDIUS,

Emperors, tilltheir utter extirpationby


general conversion of the peopleto Christianity.
(19)

AlBHNE

(20)

GEALCHO^SACH.

21

Cnuc

Or

?ia

OlBHNE.

GEALCHOSSAIGHL

a-

the persecut
the first
made

discountenanced

execution

famous

riddle, not

herbs

who

history,

our

about

hiding of

reign of TIBERIUS,

against them

entire,

them

hitherto
and

the

old

Jerseyand Guernsey,

say,

the learned

to

the

temples,where
the

on

sort

prophane.

delineated

things,I

of

of

Ireland, the
and

which

being a

way

these

magical gems

speak of

law

Orkney,

accuratelydescribed

to be

day

this

in

is of

name

many

still existing,many

also many

as

her

inchantment

which

thingsabout

in

Hebrides,

in the

county of Dune-

temple

is her

by

at

ev.en

Aunius

Gealcossa's

in

and

the true

Stone-henge,

diminutive

of

in

signifyingWhite-leggd (21).

this hill is her grave,

On

Inisoen

the

Druidess,

was

O Mumin

(20)

in

aforesaid

like the

call'd in the county of

so

Gealcossa,

and

Londonderry,

him

from

Benavny

and

power,

theDru.d

Creag-a-Vanny,in

the hill of

habits

much

names

(18) fancies

are

Fairies. Thus

Englishnotionof

their

bear

so

retain

to

which

appear,

61

disciples,
miraculouslyconfin

placesthat

the

to

ing- them

his

and

Apostle Patric

DRUIDS.

and
the

THE

HISTORY

their favourite All-heal

bout
with

much

so

knife

well

; as

about

as

Priest in his white

(23)tells us,

PLINY

as
plice,

by

ceremony

(22)Misselto,gather'd

or

and with

of such

books
or

either bare

are

the like has not

French

writers

this

on

tain and

good authority,so

good,nothing will

be

call'd

men,

in

course

without

as

me.

difference

no

pressingthe

of the

orthography(24).
these

(22) All

(23) Sacerdos,
(24)

Candida

Let

it be noted

in Irish and

once

is still the Irish


and

of

writing in

letters,
they vary

The

Bards
so

divided

were

many

intire

Lib.

16.

for all,that

as

t and

Welsh

ex

little in

into

Chapters.

cultus,arhorem

vcstc

British.

pronunciation,tho',

manner

Hist. Nat.

dcmettt.

aurea

the

will be

heads

dis
sufficiently

Armoric

the

'in

their different

power

Bard

Bardh

as

order of learned

shall

we

propos'dwork.

our

accordingto

fa Ice

from

another

Bards, whereof

Scottish word,

There's

the

Bri

nothing without

justlyexpect, that,
admitted

FORCATU-

allayin

better

no

I admit

as

Gauls, Britons,and Irish,had

mean

But, My Lord, besides these Druids, the antient

IX.

and

fragments,
some
especially

as
PICARD,
subject,

for

Germany

others of

with

GUENEBAUT,

LUS,

The

collections of

fables ;
heap of precarious

yet ap-

has treated of them.

author, who

any

gold pruning,

abstrusest parts of their

the

that
Philosophyand Religion,

pear'din

Sur

scandit

Cap. 44.
in other
d

tongues,
commonly

particularly,
that dk
other* by reason of tneir ajlinily
; and
put
and gh being pronounc'dalike in Irish,and therefore often
so

are

for each

confounded, yet an
the originas well as
write

Drvidke

exact
to the

writer

will

always

analogv of any word

(forexample)

and

broadlyand aspuately;

not
nor

have

regard to

: and

so

Druighe, much
will he

use

he'll
less

any other

orders

three

dialec^t,as

the Celtic

all

to

degrees; namely,

or

British

in the

now

Arwjvardh

give'their

colonies, Privardh,

Posvardh,

call'd

words, with

shall

explain'din

be

of the

this division

Bards

Comic
second

sort

did

often

strain, very

heroic

head

the

at

Cretea
Et

comitem,

musarum

citharae

Semper

And

cui

carmlna

atq

equos,

semper

virumy pugnasq

arma

likewise

We

have

did

always

not

and

an
particularly

had

it from

flattery
;

mispellings,tho*

common

Lib. 9.

in peace,

ever

so

atchiev-

panegyricsof
wit

want

instance

more

no

of A-

out

the

Stoic,

con

Gallic Prince, extraordinary


in books.

This

is well

old

hea
author, who writing of CONLA
a
Judge of Connacht, thus characterizes
freethinking

then
;

Se

that

some

AEN.

the

Posidonius

cerning (26) Luernius,

observ'd

that

canebat

them

accompany'd

proofs

some

Bards

theneus, who

he

nereis

historically
registertheir genealogiesand
Gallic

him

the

in the

men

intendere

cordi, numerosque

who
the first,

ments.

than

for

armies, like

of

VIKG.

the

third

in VIRGIL

him

did

first

the

vulgar :

praisesof great

the

sing

the

names,

The

Heralds, and

among

or

you'llfind

warranted.

second

SatyricalPoets

or

equivalentIrish

well

and

Tevluur,

or

history,where

our

the
Chronologers,

were

Prududh,

the

turns

subjectswhereof

the

regard to

they treated, they were


Clerur; which

example

give an

to

I shall

but, with

63

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

by

do

an

rinne

an

choinbhliocht ris

disputed againstthe

wou'd

say,

are

trifles

it

Druidhibh
These

'twas

Criticisms,

but
Hae

[26] Whether

na

Druids.

beLuERNius,

nugae
or

as

i?iseria ducunt.

STKABO

writes

it

magnificent.He

rich, liberal,and
that

Bittus, who

same

"

appointeda

41

Barbarous

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

beaten

was

certain

Poets

for

day

coming

the father of

was

by

Luernius, says (27) my

this

Now

"

HISTORY

THE

C4

the

author,

feast,and

late,met

too

Romans.

Having

"

of the

one

him

he

as

; whereupon he began to
departing
sing his
praisesand to extol his grandeur,but to lament
his own
unhappy delay. Luernius beingdelighted,
was

call'd for
he

as

Gold, which

of

TRACKS

THE

HIS

SPRUNG

GROUND,

As

KIND."

genious,so

UP

many

BLESSINGS

AND

of them

THAT

THB

ON

MAN-

TO

truly in

were

:
qniblers

mere

Irish

and

infinite instances of the true

not

taking

PLOWED

HAD

of the British

bombast

there want

and he

him,

to

this purpose

CHARIOT

GOLD

threw

of the Gallic Bards

some
were

the

he

the side of his chariot

began to singagain to

OF

among

purse

by

ran

it up,
OUT

and

Bards,

sublime.

Their

Epigramswere admirable, nor do the modern Iin stirring


But
the
talians equal them in conceits.
far excede
their Elegiesand Lamentations
passions,
of

those
much

Greecs, because

the

more

naturally.These

extinct, there being of

LUERIUS,
cst

Irish

the

abound

*itesai

d'

kymnein, leyonta,dio

ichne

this sort of

LUIGHAIRI%

or

thoine.,

coun

in theantient-

way

and LUIFIL

vm holi hyitereke
hypothi",

kai ta

yet quite

did any

nor

kai syuaiitesaita mot'

chrysiou,kai ripsaiauto

not

are

nature

Wales, in the High

frequenteither

pote tei
prolhesmiavi

;
poietcnaphikesthai

heauton
kyperochen,

in

express

like the last with

Writers, as LOAKN,

(F autou
(27) A;)liorisartos
Barbara

is

name

bards

in Ireland

lands of Scotland, and

try in the world

them

they

tinu
aphystere^aTita

ode

toade

-i'.iautou
liyrun

ton

ten

thylaLioa
tuiplithenta

knelomenoa
;
paratrorhonti

do

ekeiaon

palin

t""s^P.S
(pph'lies harmatelutei)cbryson iii

Lib.
Edit. J.ugd.
cuer^esias
anthropois
ph'erei.

4.

Pa". 152-

THE

OF

little contributed
There

tory.

to

breed

often

were

at

time,

on

railing,or

love

them

free cost

the like ; which

Poets

the

great

sed

kind

of

ed with
a

rid the

The

interest, encourag'd

which

good regulation,under
of

Druidism,

several

grievance,that
of them

nation
at

least

ordinarlylike,
to

often

the

as

poetry, they

in

in

then

some

were

permitted to

of

county

Anmireus,

(i58) Ollamh

is

('29)Druim-ceat

[20] AODJIMHAC

not

while

return

the

king,in

Professor

cr

AlNMMfRE.

they were
of

to

the

a-

their

other

assembly,or

country

we

now

under

[30] Aldus

the year

597, where

Doctor

alias Druimcheat.

al

were

not

generalnational
(29) in

extra-

promise of

and

mean

Londonderry,

Christian

Xlth.

would

to

something comi

Ulster, till upon

manners

last,in

made

were

banishingthem

of Scotland

parliament,at Drumcat,
the

for

their

At

is

and, which

orders

the

attempts

present Poets

Highlands
of

provinces.

our

harbour'd

mendment

call

whereof

advantage.

the

or

after they profes


learning,especially

in the time

cal,what

ways

deny

durst

belongingto the temples,having been destroy


that religion. In a small time
they became

manner

such

most

of fear of their

out

general custom,

self-love and

of

: the
Christianity

they were

as

into

fail to take

not

out

men,

other

no

did

liv'd

'em

fewel, "horse,mantle,

it armour,

grew

all of

no
body
flattery,

of their

thing,be

any

numproportienable

and, what

Ollaws

thousand

not

Irish his

in the

confusion

(28) or graduate Poets, besides


'ber of inferior Rhymers, who
of the year

("5

panegyricsor satyrs have

licentious

whose

men,

DRUIDS.

in any

faculty.

HISTORY

THF

present (31)Adius

also

was

it

great (32) Columba,

the

king of

Scotland

decreed

was

and

that for the

of their history,
and
preservation
genealogies,
monarch,
purityof their language,the supreme

better
the

the subordinate

and

entertain

tred, should
allowed

ing

that upon

kings, with
law

these and

of

each

Poet of his own,

the antient

by

their

and

under

that the Monarch's

be settl'd for

and

the Druids
made

They
and

but

hymns

that

X.

In the

music

officiated

offer'd but

were

is not

for the

the

manag'd

Druids

this

by

use

'Tis

but

the

to

they

shall be

no

VAXES

but

(33) Ard-Ullamh.

of

the

sacrifices

which

mere

yet is

Celtic word, viz.

to this day a prophetin


signifies

(32) COLUIM-CILLE.

a-

fully
explained

FAIDH, which

(31) AODHANMHAC

body

were

nor

common

com

it.
rectify

neither Greec

in the

Lilerati,
by the Greecs call

OUATEIS, and by the Romans

books, and

and

ministry.

Historylikewise

Roman,

temples,'tistrue,

Priests, and

as

their

place

of the
;

ever

fallen

has

belonged to

there

the third order of the Celtic


ed

rest.

the

the

and

appoint
inspection
; and
be Arch-poet
(33),

should

others, that the Bards

mong

be

father Pezron

into which

mistake,

mon

Bard

over
super-intendency

have

Poets

shou'd

the national

own

can-

be

more

iland ;

encouragingthe learningthese

endow'd,

a
posterity
portion

publicSchools
profest,
Antiquaries
ed

no

in the

of land, free from all duties, shou'd

that, for

lord of

every

all Irish

in the
language,particularly
GAURAIN.

HISTORY

THE

the best gucsscr is the best

Prophet.

with the
acquainted
of human
the springs

of

past : he,

the

with

By

the future.

ta write

al
actions,and, that,judiciously

this

which,

subjectof

the

render it no

ta

tive to all sorts of

dies,,who

throwing,as.

it my

readers, without

I told you

before,all

the Dissertation

tory,there
of the

highestrank,

educated

by

that the two

reignPatric
them

those

not

were

and

dies bred

have

we

words, into the

mar

History. As

concern'd

to

in this His

some

even

and

themselves

were

Princesses

for in

our

the

but

Annals

own

of
particulars

ladies maintained

we

under

the Druids

be

thoughtin

occasionally
givean
every

thingto

respect them,

third Letter.

read,

long dispute

account

new

other la

famous

for their

of whom

some

but lest I shou'd

flatter the Sex, how

I refer the reader


to

Re

Several

became

But, in order

(39) LAOT..HAIJU

againstthis

natural but very subtil.

shall

my

in whoss
daughtersof king (39)Laogirius,
educated
were
preach'dChristianity,
by

Tve

la

Critical observa-

my

and proficiency
in learning,
of
7.*ritings

soever

instruc

only Druidesses

the Druids:

young

ligion,
very

being

to

so

in this matter

to the

annext

I say of the ladies

what

business

exceptingthe

concern'd

about
vations, and Disquisitions

gin,or

intend

HistoryI

less intertaining
than

pretty much

are

at

guess

pieceof generallearningand

yet I shall make


great curiosity,,

digest: as

shrewd

Lord, you begin to per

time, My

tho'

present time

the

I say, will make

is to be the

ceive what

is nearly

that

affairs,that understands

circumstances,compares

for

lowing

state

He

to

much

story in

completemy design,.

so

to leave

as

after

and

me

or
scripts,

for any

room

no

which,

honour

myself the

take

at

impart to

to

journey

meeting, I

next

our

where

Lordship

your

particularly,

very

Irish,a few Scandinavian

The

XI.

excepted,being not only

Dialect

and

British

daughter the

ther

being

the

notice

taken

long since

present British and


learned

necessityof

the

same

at

Greec

and

in the
of those

the

Irish, even

the demonstration

theycoiCd

authors

Nor

late

before he

by
and

I gave
does

he

study'd that

him

languages,T/here

in

about

he

of the

deny

comparativeEtymologiconhe

same

this agree
afterwards

quotes CAMDEN

the Gallic and

and

British;

(40),no Vocabularyextant, mean


print,of the Irish, or antient Scottish,

being,says

doubt

LHUYD,

EDWARD

affirmingit

BOXHORNIUS

ing no

collected

words

Roman

the

the

Mr.

in all the said instances.

but there

between

between
this affinity
Oxford, perceiv'd

language,by

made

agreement

have

of the

words

ment

others

and

Cel

of the

and

old Gallic

the

than

antienter

keeper

the industrious

Museum

those

of

out

men

of the

o-

Manuscripts

Irish

CAMDEN

Religionand Learning.

her

than

the knowledge
language for retrieving

this

Cel

antient

of the

all contradiction

beyond

Welsh, shows

and
much

and

numerous

more

words

Danish

Gallic, but being also liker the mother

or

tic

Manu

knowing

well

Spring to

the

towards

subject

this

on

several valuable

copiesof them,

authentic

for at least six months

tic

write

to

also to procure

they ly, I purpose

shall do

DRWDF.

THE

OF

he

not collate that

language therewith,which

'40}In the preface to his ArehccologiaBritannica, pag.

the

1"

TIIR

HISTORY

curious in these studies will

with the Gaulish.

than oursy

more

absolute fact,as will be

seen

in this presentwork.

am

"

with

tent

severest

your

that what
seem

the Irish

sheets, you be

and

the Greec

words

authors.

Roman

than

have
the

the know

Gallic Anti
be set

never

to words

and

con

firmlyof

not

occasions there will

both
Historyof illustrating

go

more

languageand books, the

numerous

am

if,before you

not meaning the Francic, can


quities,
with regard either
tolerable light,
any

and
things';

Lord, and shall be

censure,

is

so,

of instances

yourself:namely,that,without

mind

ledgeof

it does

hundreds

oddly,and

rather

to agree

That

aware

very

finislvd readingthese
same

by

but I deserve,My

paradox;

say will sound

ing"to

fnd

now

or

in
to

in this

occur

thingseven

I shall here

in

give one

from treating
of the
example of this,since I justcome
of learningcommon
to the antient
several professors

Gauls, Britons, and Scots, viz. the Druids, Bards, and

(41) relates

Vaids. Lucian

as
represented

CULES

language of
after him
inost

an

little old

the country

in Gaule

that

he

whom

man,

they call'd OGMIUS

infinite multitude

saw

HER
in the

drawing1

of persons, who

seem'd

willingto follow, tho: drag'dby extreme

fine and

almost

chains
imperceptible

the

end to their ears, and held at the other, not in

one

cither of HERCULES'

but

imploy'd;
there
center
on "
ft

was

d. Lucian

on

which

hands, which

ty'dto

hole

the

tipof

purpose,

wondering at

?..ccommcde

inscri

GAILICO:

his

tongue, in which
all those

this manner

Gr"ca

fasten'd at

both otherwise

were

where

Toti Her-K'lra Tu-i Kt-1: .i G-'-MIOV

"pttKseqvnntiirin HERv'-JiE

were

onomazousi
ct.-nJm

of

chains

portray-

phor.ele epbJchorir,
fongtor*
lyafo cuovi i-.i

HERCULES,

ing

by, that HERCULES

stood

is there

which

in his

about

this

for the

sought

it

where

speak,
is

needs

wou'd

oriental

an

strangers and
Phenicians

Hands,

their
the

other

barbarians

traded

also

Our

nearer

nor

doors

own

home

of

the

lish

country.

not

stillin the East

find

in Greece

This

for

and

was

has

EDMUND
a

they

Gaule

OGMIUS

Physician, Dr.

and

for

their

can

do

Phone

te

in

Italy,nor

Gallic word,

at

word

learned
from

to

their
least

Phenicia,

Lucian

at

yet

that

their
does

(43)

Eng

hunting

of it;conjecturingHEII-

(42) In Geographia Sacra, sive Canaan,


(13)

and
are

so

DICKENSON,

with

and,

men,

hinder'd

they

something

besides

derivation

the

none,

not

call

British

the

present Britons, who

in this very

affirm
positively

places,

says

if, because

as

language
it

so

(42)

they planted

bartered

their

Gaule

to

their

imported

Phenician

Arabians

the

BO-

if I may

nature,

thingsto

in them

commodities,

for them.

of

just

but

celebrated

most

Agemion

antiently

great traders, do

as

all
since

word,

natives, naming

Gods

The

reduce

for Colonies
have

must

found.

be

laboriously

where,

every

against the grain

who,

CHART,

it

temple.

heavy pe-

and

OGMIUS,

of

meaning

to

was

word

same

made

have

Druid,

the

in the

picturethat hung

the

Greece,

in

as

who

of Eloquence

the Force

Critics of all nations

the

ther

but

Gaule,

in

not

Druid

learned

beautifullydisplay'd by

very

explicationof

Now,

by

did

Strengthof Body,

betoken

it

inform'd

was

71

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

rpichone.

Uli

part. 2. cap. 42.

supra.

HISTORY

THE

for

who

JOSHUA,
(44-)

to be

CULES

having conquer'd

OG

King

of Bashan

haec
gentcs ! quibits

O / sanctas

surnamed

was

OGMIUS,

in horiis

nascuntur

Numina.
JUVENAL.

I could

make

gether with
Greec,
word

Lordshipyet merryer,

your

out

even

nay

hammer'd

others

OGMIUS,

as

Germans,

Lucian

depends on them,
precedes:

so

HERCULES,

ing by
To

or

was

prove

But

the

truelyinforrn'djis

pure

German.

and

TACITUS*

(45)phraseabout

the
of Letters,particularly
that
the learning
consequently
the Force of Eloquence
whence

from

HERCULES

that

HERCULUS

the

OGMIUS

this account

is the learned

hav
protectorof learning,

reputedhimself

been

many

an

the Secret

themselves, and

Letters

rather

Etymologies,to
wretchedly out of

as

of Suedish

to use
Celtic; and signifies,

the

or

10.

ver.

far-fetch'd

these forc'd and

grier,at

Sat. 15

of the word,

(46)Philosopher.
so

and

natural

apt, be pleas'dto understand, that, from the


ginning of the Colony, OGUM, sometimes

very

so

be

written

(44) JOSUAM

ijuofjue spcctassevidcttir iilud women,


quo
Galti antiquilusHERCULEM
nunciipabaut. Uncle vcro ( )j^mios ? Annon
ab OG virtu.- Del ph. Phccnicizant. cap. 3.

De

rant.
(46) En

Secreta viri pariterac

IJtcrarum

(45)

moribus

Germanorum,

de tois chronois

tea

foeminac ingno-

cap. 19.

Basileias tou Phoiuicos

en

Heracles ho

Philoso-

"c" PalacphatifragmcntiiminCranuphos Tyrios hostis epheure ten congchylen,


co

Alexandrine,

Suidus

in

Voce

Heracles

Heraclee*

Allegoriis
Homericis,Auer
ta

Batheias

Alkmeiieahyios,Teuton
El diu

ants

aitdicbat

in
apud Iftrai'litum,

sophiasourauinu mystes, hospcrcikutea


achlyosepitht~,lylcyian
cpliotizft
philcaopbiuu,
Kathaperhomo,

logousikai SwiL~:ih"i

emphron,

kai

Suitiam

hystorousi,"c.
Philosophou

THE

OF

of which
out

or

the

to

all the

appeal

words

of

notion

Indeed

alone.

books, introduc'd
of the antient

degrees to

whence

to

for this

had

converted

the

Christian

letters,instead

writing, their primitive let

they

and

now

began by

use,

last

at

legibleonly by

to whom

men,

of

good stead as any kind


it happened that Ogum,

of writing,came

truth

authentic

most

propagatingof

curious

other

of the

originallystands

those

obsolete

grow

Antiquariesand
as

from

; for the

the

Irish books, with

of the Roman

of

manner

different

ters, very

Alphabet

after Patric

use

Ireland

in
signify'd

one

better

the

73

antient

language, and

the

nation, and, for the

cret

Irish

singleexception. 'Tis

in

has

Letters,

of

Secret

(47) OGMA,

also

and

OGAM,

DRUIDS.

they

occult

from

stood

characters

the
signifying

se

still

signifysecret writing,but

principallymeaning the original Irish Characters.


several Manuscript Treatises
There
extant, describ
are
ing

teaching

and

Writing;

as

in the

one

in that

another

lin, and
Chandois.

the

of h"j Grace

(47) As

in the

Ogum,

Duke

(49)

did, besides

divers

in which

the

and

arts

they wrote

their

ways

College Manuscript,

Dublin

of

Antiquities
of Ire-

Irish

vulgar characters, practisealso


of occult writing,caWd

the

in his

the antient

hind, relating how

this Secret

College-Libraryof (48) Dub

Ware,

Sir James

of

methods

various

to

be

pre

sently cited.
other

(4S) 'Tis, among

being
ment,

the 255th

folio, D.

volume

pieces,in
in the Dublin

the Book

of Baltimore
Catalogue,in parch

18.

(49) Anonymi
xospeteres ocacltis

cujusdam

Tractatus

de

variis

Hibernice
sciibendifonnutis,

apud HiberOGUM

dictis.

THE

7*

HISTORY

I have, continues

secrets;

antient parchment

(50)he, an

said ta
justnow
fullof these, which is the same
belong to the Duke of Chandois : and Dudley (51)
to the rather
Forbes, a hereditary
Antiquary,wrote
laborious than judicious
Chronologist(52) O Flaherty,
of the primitive
in the Year
1688, that he had some
book

(53)Birch-tables,for
parchment

or

writing by

These

him,

last is the old

primary Irish letters,the


in the

which

manner

tallyoccult,were
besides
is

learned
ters

Phenicians,

to the

to all

antient

the

of

rather

of let

invention

and
strictly

more

characteres

an

mil gar

cs

pro

farsaidh,

other

Oghum,

and
This

Alpha

Greec, and Latin, he also

(55)Bethluisnion

(50) Prceter

the

the

com-

Alphabet

ittvbantur ctiam

vettres

Hiberni variiftoccultis fcribendiformuiis


scu
Ogum
artifciif,
scribtbani:

serreta
dictis,quihits

sua

him

antiquum.

mem^ranactum

(51) DUALTACH

referturn

Cap. 2.

FlRBIS.

MHAC

(52) RuDiiRL'iGH

hit

FLAITH-BHEARTUIGII.

(5.3) Ogygia, part. 3. cap. 30.


(54) Ogum-branchcs.

(55) FENIUS

FARSAIDH

Alphaleta prima

authors,

Christ.

aniient, says, that, among

bets, as the Hebrew,

pos'dthat

others

Ogum

Bard

noted

tke Irish call Fenius

whom

perlyto Phenix,
Phenix

cr

use,

acciden

the word

little before

with
ascribing

man

common

by

from Forchern,
plainin particular
a

that the

shown, became

above

liv'd

But

letters first in

meant
originally

Philosopher,who

or

(54) Ogham-craoth,

the true.

have

we

appeal made

the

the

and

one

Ogham-

the
principally

are

of

use

of the old occult

sorts

many

Ogham-col?,and

beith, the
which

and

paper,

before the

they had

those

habco

HISTORY

THE

7G
!"""""""""
"

_mmm

r-

Pkebean, where

to say

attending this
Britanny, and

words
there

of

dialect of the

one

often found

are

in another

obsolete

example, grown

be

iri England, may

word

another

or

out

grown

more

and

of the

So most
or

the

is

also
of

but

remain

d in Switzerland

date

in

England,

likewise

in

countries

and

are

Friezland^ Jutland,
; with

not

in the old

of Scotland, and

in Ice

antiquatedEnglish words

other Northern

the Lowlands

us

word,

Saxon

Germany,

in

corruptlyextant

less

as

lan

common

same

continues

in Denmark,
still,
florishing

land.

Nor

learned, or will

to the

known

se

do the

as

in Irish.
Ogma particularly

lost in

that words

ing yet

intire in the

Colonies,

the Celtic

scatter

unfdeniable in the sequelof this work, than

more

guage,

remain

as

subsists however

thing better

any

appear

fof

and

Ogum

observe

may

Galic words

(59) dialects

veral

in

such

French

the

among

name.

extinct

almost

now

still
Learning*
The
Celtic Language being
Gaule, except onely in lower

you

q,

few

in

EnglishPale

in Ireland.

to his person,

have

and

from

Now,

XII.

been

of

suppos'dby
On

CULES.

name

of HERCULES

at least to the person

or

one

the

this

oppositeconduct,

the Heros
the Greecs
occasion
which

Romans

and

I cannot

Earse.

but

the learned and

the

to

Gauls,

be HER

reflect

on

the

the unlearned

the Gods

and

divine

of the
If, thro' the ignoranceor superstition

(.VO) These
and

acknowledg'dto

worship'dby

formerlyobserv'd,with respect to
matters.

let's come

are

British, Welsh,

Cornish, Irish, Manks,

THE

OF

77

DRUIDS.

people,any fable, tho' ever so gross, was generallyrcof such


eeiv'd in a Religion; the learned being asham'd
absurdity,yet

an

daring openly

not

thing wherein

the Priests

ed it away

emblems

sonable

by

the

to procure

better

the

if the

and

thought :

and

of

meaning,

their account,

which

the

their sentiments

of the

the

in

good

under

such

persons

ship

forms,

represent them.
coin'd

of

out

by

ply'd.
ing

so

This

ever

so

her native

and

that

parel :
a

Priests

the

more,

divine

to be

put

fittest to

as

the

which

been

which

multi-

of deviat
never

in

genuine beauties

borrow'd

disguisein
like others

never

so

appearing

ornaments,
gorgeous

ap

such
affecting

prostitute,wholly actingby

ty, artifice,
or
interest, and

the

or

best ; and

is

when

as'her

soon

heightn'dby
under

as

Gods,

objectswere

plain Truth,

quicklybecomes,

dress, a mercenary

into

consequence

as

wor

metaphors

even

well

such

as

unavoidable

for
simplicity;

she

as

many

worship have

transformed

highly reverenc'd,

she's

so

judg'd

Panegyrists:

been

little from

indeavour'd

are

of

is the

heartilyand

for

of Orators,
flights

for the

much

Priests

persons;

as

'em

and

planets,

rhetorical

epithetshave

this

render'd

the

as

the

or

divine

the

procur'dmony

elements

them

took

profane

Objects*of

flatteringaddresses
and

and

earnest,

the

veilingthem

immediately

sort

common

the

constellations

the like effects of nature,

and

never

dictates, or

from

of

rea

hand, either

other

for their

greater veneration

matter,

explain

first authors

the

on

vulgar, did poeticallydiscourse


of
qualities

any

importing a
allegories

learned

conceal

to

found

explode

to

speakingbut

vani

in

am-

HISTORY

THE

78

biguous

terms
unintelligible

or

while

the admiration

of her lovers is first turn'd into amazement,


ends

monly
the

these

historyof

antient

from

whereof

want

which
this

we

time, there arises

afterwards

seem

beginning was
their

ascribingto

lities

occasion

clear and

very

Gods

own

judiciouswriter

(60) about
PHURNUTUS,

call'd

commonly
CORNUTUS,

Stoic

quent occasion

the

of

tho5

nations,
qua
most

the

Gods,

his true

was

name

I shall have

whom
Philosopher,

quote hereafter,

to

To

That

of

nature

Owns

"

the

obscure,

Heros, whatever

or

those of others.

pre-eminentin

were

greater

easy.

jointhe preposterous emulation

may

above

proceedingshave

that to

causes

at the

and

over

com

destroyinginfinite circumstances,

itself

time

But

and hatred.

which
difficulty,

ed in the

in

in contemt

it

as

the

fre

great

"

and consequentlythe perplexedness


and
(61)variety,

"

obscurity,that

"

whereby

"

his real atchievments,

"

ed

"

who

""

theoria

Phournoutou
Vaticanus

epidrometon
(61)

but

To

kata

de

pollamere

ten

ton

Helleniken

Tacha

tes

ges

meta
mono

ajicuhunatistnon,hypo

hekat^ron
*

Alii

oie

d'an

doctissinw

romes

pisynois.

dynameos
ton

physeos,vulgo: serf,ut

Galeo)

theou

tou

vei-us

kai to

ropulon ek
aut.on

epelthontaouch'
alia tois

ton
tes

peri tou Hdpalaiastlie-

genomenon

hoion

tc

episemoistou

euerg-etounienon kekosraesthai

"c.
kai gennaiotitos,

Ravii

titulus est Kornout"u

idia, apo

strateg-ong'ar

hoplismenon:

General,

excellent

an

paradidomeuon.

leonte

he

were

fabulouslyfather-

were

theon

ton

his valor, he
signaliz'd

theorian

raeteneuegmena eie

peiielelytbenai
xylo

an

perites

dysdiakritagegonenaita

ologiasepi touton
kai

what

or

HERCULES

certainlywhat

having been

legunt(notante

historoumenon.

roos

know

in diverse countries

had

(00)
codex

it is difficult to

him:

upon

historyof

in the

occurs

ag-athon,

g-yoinoii edox-

theou, meta

symbalon gar

THE

OF

DRUIDS.

it not

probable, that

Lion's

skin

79

he

thinks

"

with

"

presentedafter

his

"

generosityand

fortitude, for which

with
pictur'd

"

and

death

of

rather

or

as

many,

HERCULES;

subduing

of

of

tectingor improving
one

representedwith

found

Egyptian,the Indian,

the

Grecian

constant

was

for

and

Theban,

or

with

way
from

example,
and

Germans,

BACCHUS

last notion

which

onem.

TACIT,

de

mor.

(63) PLUTARCH.
serentcm

oiiosus

(64) Quia

bow

and

whence

Cretan,

the

and

who,

Romans,

perfectlyacci

worship'd by

the

by

the

(62)

(63) Jews,

their enemy

by

even

was

This

honour'd

Liburnaejiguratum,

in modnm

the

to

HERCULES.

resemblances
was

pro

et
"" Ixidi sacrificat.Unde
caitfa
nisi
comperi\
pantm
quod signum ip~

peregrino sacro
sum,

the Greecs

Isis

beHERCULEs;

Gallic

wild

person

club,

Tyrian,

the

is refuted

Snevorum

()2) Pars

to

the

certain

dental, conjectur'dthat

and

skin

of

works

ascrib'd

been

robust

any

straightdeem'd

hewas

arrows,

called

and

commerce,

me

having,

been

only the

was

let

nations

learning have

wherever

also

that

but

this

Tyrants, exterminating of

exercisingof

or

re-

he

reason

To

not

was

symbols of

as

where,

any

surnam'd

beasts, promoting

these,

in several

man

he

that

arrows."

men

one

some

; but

with

and

bow

add, that several valiant


in imitation

Club

arm'd

onely

went

"

German,

Symposiac.

docet

cap.

advectam

Religi-

9.

lib. 4.

quern

prolixiusdis"

consulas,lector.

sacerdotes

tibia

tympamsque concinebant,
vitisqueaurea
templo reperta, Liberum
Orientis,ijuidam arbitrate sunt, ne~
putrem colt, domitorem
con^ruentibns institntis: quippe Liber festos lae~
quaquam
ritus
absurdus
posuit, Judxorum
mos
fasqrte
sordidusque.

kedera

Lib.

mnciebantur,

5. cap.

5,

eorum

HISTORY

THE

80

Such

TACITUS.

I shall

Divinities

tic

OGMIUS

reallythe

by

the

Force

Greece

he was,

accounted

and

The

which

andjirmncssto

of beings:

of things,and
riz'd away

explain the

to

dinary persons
Virgins;

on

who

was

kai

krataia

para

(66)

Para

(G7)

Ton

GALEO

of Gods, and

estin ho

estin, aniketos

kai

en

the

the

of

Son

tois holois

this

Hero,

aperigeimeloj

we

on

come

all extraor

commonly begot
of

case

Hercules,

Jupiterby Ahmena,

logos,kath*
ousa

allego-

hon

he

niutadotikos

physis isc-hyra

ischyos,kai

tes

hyparchon.

tois

en

to be

Egyptians

is in the ivhole

making

the

tho' this last is not

de

alkes

meros

of

humor

Sons

the

again, when

Heathen

feign'd

Heruclcs

(65)

birth of

touch

however

shall

we

as

(66) intel

before, the fabulous

I said

as

miraculous

and

ofthings.

the learned

Thus

part.

others,

among

atchievments
which

in every

the

which

(67) that Reason,

to be

thai

affirms,that the natural

ligenceand
him

all

strong,

the power

every part

by HERCULES,

permanence

mystically

is vigorous and

nature

in

even

thro'
diffused

is

Physikcjsho

pasi, kai

oUa

suspicorin MAG^OBIO,

Heracles

of

has

country
since

he

symboll

us,

Philosophersunderstood
held

the

assures

of APOLLONIUS

Scholiast

well

generating',being

ever

virtue

communicates

HERCULES,

that

which

that Reason

things,accordingto
invincible

that

exceptionthat

which

PIIURNUTUS

as

(65)

Yet

esteem'd

and
distinguish'd

ever

valid

Eloquence, for

of

the Cel

expose.

Grecian
no

about

made
Theologically

the Druids

was

abundantly

Gaule, it will be

in

been

be

might

known

discoveries
superficial

synesiskai

panton, logon;

non

alke lanibanelai.

Helion,

Sattrtal. lib. 1. cap. 20.

ui

?urr*vU

legicum

THE

OF

hie

he

what

own

husbands,

the

mi^ht

chance

beautiful

large,is extremely
Eloquence whereof

In the

XIII.

ship will

and

yet remain

there

any

shall
it

as

Gallic Her

give

at

you

that

concerns
a

master,

Lord

probable your
whether,

besides

the

Irish, or the monuments

which

materials

other

'tis

of the

traditions

the

you.

know,

to

or

consummate

so

time

mean

desireous

be

language and
of stone

are

you

and

powerfullycharm

but

cannot

place I

in its proper

cules, which

who

Jupiter'ssubstitutes.

allegoryof Ogmius,

Druidical

The

if it contented

reason,

sometimes

be

to

with

displeasethe batchelors,

d not,

cou

do

Priests, can

the

which

pleases:

d immoral

reckon

d be

wou

Jupiter,said

but

men,

among

This

n::ir*s wife.

another

81

DRUIDS.

the

country affords,
and

Literary records truly antient

unadulterated, whereby the History of the Druids, with

points of antiquity,may

other

such

least illustrated ? This


I return
remain

clear and

very

is

material

direct

retrieved,or

question,to
that

answer;

antient

many

be

which

onely

not

at

there

Manuscripts undoubtedly

genuine, besides such as are forg'd,and greater num


several whereof
in Ireland
bers (68) interpolated,
are
in

itself,some

here

Monasteries

abroad:

state

of

barbarityin

England,
but

and

others

in the

Irish

that, notwithstandingthe long


that

which

nation

hath

lain, and

neigios,i. e. the Accidence


of the Artists, or the Poets; which
being the work of FORbefore-nam'd, was
interpolated,and fitted to his
CHCRN
iiv
the Son of OXLIOLL,
own
time, by CEANN
FAOLADH
(68)

the

Year

As

the

Uraiceackt

na

of Uhiist 6C28.

HISTORY

THE

82

after all the rebellions and

has been

dom

harrass'd

which

the

king

they have incomparablymore

of that kind for their

antient materials

which

to
history,

Mythology is not unserviceable,than either


English,or t"e French, or any other European na
their

even

the

these

I shall

placeswhere
But

in

not

books

be

so

old,

as

to

Be

thro'

otiteE-proper

which

been

have

I know

the

of them

Manu-

same

if
strangelysollicitous,

not

have

overcare

perishedunder

ground,
The

them.
materials; for,preserving
in: verse

ancestors

after
interpolated
additions

are

or wantingsearcloth
having skill,,

pieces^both

or

: and
distinguish'd

laries of the

of them. which

those

even

partly or wholly unintelligible.

BOW

their Heathen-

been

the

endless,if not impossible.In all

parchments;

the concealer

by

acquaintance.

about preserving
their
degree superstitious,

Abundance

valuable

as

many

of
Transcript

every

the Msh

soms

and

ly,as

they now

wJiicfLWQu'd
script,
conditions

any

day give a catalogue,marking

one

meaning

no"

have

ManuscriptsI

tion,with whose
O"

with

wars

the

and

whereof

indeed

some

have

of Christianity,
prevailing

alterationsin these

most?

written

were

prose,

and

nevertheless

are

books

the rites and

Druids, togetherwith

their

easily
formu

Divinityand

their two grand doctrines of the


Philosophy; especially
of the universe, and the
eternityand incorruptibility
incessant Revolution of all beings and forms, are very
sometimes
tho
figuratively
express d.
very
specially],

Hence
none

and

their Allanimation
of the

natives

of these treasures

have
; or

Transmigration.Why

hitherto

why

both

made

any

they, and

better
such

use

others

HISTORY

THE

84

which

call'd

[70] Poets tables ; as their


in general namd
characters
were
[71] twigs and
branch-letters,from their shape. Their Alphabet was
wood,

were

from
call d Beth-luis-nion,

B, L, N, Beth, Luis, Nion

same,

cular

name

some

tree

of every

Egyptiansand

the

boards,

Chinese.

the

infancyof

natural.

They

words, like
Patric

When

intro-

above, then, from


their

has

Alpha

new

of Druids, Bards, Vaids, and

great number

long before

in Ireland

authors

learningwas

not

more

useful than

last

sort

being

Craobh

[72] Birch, Quicken,


first it

z'r,since

was

the letter C

whose

in scholastic

Ogham.
Ash.

and

analogically
pronounc'd Ab~ke~

very

then

British,had the forte of K


\, O, U

posteritythis

wholly imploy d

almost

[71] Feadha:

At

arrival

that of their Christian

Fileadh.

[73]

Patrick

other

extensive, but also much

only more

[70] Taibhle

in

Latin,

as

less before

no

havingjfieverbeen

still in Irish and


i?,and

I, than

pronounc'd like

by

be
the

said KIKEKO,
who
Romans,
kenseo, koecus, but
the words CICERO,
SISERO, senxeo, soecus, when
censeo,

antieut
not

coccus,

or

such

like occurr'd

in
into Aibghittir,
ly liquidate
rians

which, by the Monkish


writers,
;
[73] Aibghittir
been Latiniz d [74] Abgetorium.But there florish-

bet

fore

in the

very

corruptionof Abcedarium, they call'd

ed

parti

memory-sake,from

I said

letters,as

duc d the Roman

was

for the

whole
signifying

characters

also many

for

letter was,

and

barks

[72]

vegetable; which,

other

or

writingon
had

the three first letters of the

so

the

that Abkedair
mariner

did

natural

that all Gramma

know.

Patricius]355,
[74] ScripsitAbgetoria[scilicet
NENN.
Hist.
Britan.
pliusnumero.
cap. 59.

et

eo

am*

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

85

Divinity,Metaphysicalor ChronologicalDispute?,Le
after the
especially
gends,Miracles, and Martyrologies,
wri
to
eighth century. Of all the things committed

indeed

or

laws

his Chief

Justice

daughter

of

the

ted

of Ulster

Patric

as

begun

works

several

fragments
of

that

Poets

The

his

of

of

command

the

dy'd

who

in

the

year

(75)

The

pieces remain
The

others.
the

of Christ

three

of

in the

(78) EOCHAIDH

the Doctor

built at Tarah

Mur-Ollamhan.

NfiSSAN,
OLLAMHFODLA.

of

1.

whose
diverse

Irish monarchs

the Learned

(79).

C.

4352.

year

greatest incouragers

an

J/ffC NEASSA.

were,

of

Ire

Ac"!emy,

'Twas

nimlie.

(77) CONCHOBHAR.

king

48, where

Retrai.

(76) Breatha

(79)

(77) Concovar

still intire, with

Heathen

is said to have

Court

Celestial

The

numberless,

were

first,King (78) Achaius, surnamed

calld

the

traditionary
poems,

Apostleshipbut

wrote

learningamong

land, who

Ethnea

institution of the Druids, till commit

writing at

to

the

King Cormac,

more.

d in

for

are

Forchern,

Maine,

many

only preserv

were

according to

and

they

were

Moran,

Fithil, Fachma,

Amalgad,

Judgements

famous

Modan^

Conla, Eogan,

Neid,

remarkable,

Judgements

the most

which,

pronouncingof

Lacedemo

the

than

some

in verse,

commonly

what's

Celestial

(76)

expresly term'd

their

antientlyamong

as

Oracles

(15) : and,

Rethrce

valuable, than

sentences,

reputed infallible

less

nian

d,

celebrated,

more

were

more

deliver

were

nations, in short

other
no

themselves

in

which

Irish,none

Heathen

the

ting by

he

that

HISTORY

THE

86

or-dain'd,for every
in

quaries;or,

historical

same

ters

of

case

the
incapacity,

house, with rank


Druids.

the

diatelyafter

principal
family,hereditaryAnti

Books, by

Druids, and
whatever

books,

of

Tarah

such books

shou'd

other

regarded:
ous

deserves
it to be
ron

so

or,

The

ordinance

to be

was

ries, re-built and

(81) Leabhar

(82) ULFHADA.

but

and

their

scandal

we

can

ever

expect

munificent
surnamed

the laws about the

TEACHTMHAB.

poetical

is admirable, and

King CORMAC,

of

all

Very slightly

partialto

long

to
preferred

the Academy
inlarg'd

Teamhra.

how

not

but

third most

distributer
indefatigable

(80) TUATHAL

of all other

besides

law, and militaryprowess


history,
an

of

rejected. Such good

or

however

The

renew'd

Long-beard,who

contents

imitated,than

any -where.

of Literature

the

theywere

own

in

valuable

royal(81)Book

if truth is to be

mercenary

more

Antiquaries

perpetualstandard

made,

were

both

degree.

who

the

the Bards,

that

and

license,were

must

respects,we

found

into the

be received

well observed

how

which

there

I say
regulations
cr

to be

was

history,and by

their

all the

approved and

be transcribed

which

properly,and

Kings or great Lords,


Antiquaries.These were to

three
was

to

is

surname

of three

committee

of Let

promoter
whose

so

triennial revision of

appointed a

those

next

tho' not

render'd Bonaventura,

cause

The

able of the

imme
privileges

Ring (80)TUATHALIUS,

was

three

and

most

at

pat

(82)

Antiqua
Tarah

besides that he

for
was

justice,havingwritten

OF

abundance

himself

THE

of laws

Institution of a Prince
and

CORMAC

was

light of

the

his

So

is his

(85) LIFFECAIR,

who

in

the

to

(83)

his

Precepts to

addicted
superficially

not

was

manner

87

still extant.

(%4") or

CARBUE

successor

DRUIDS.

son

like

Muses,

great proficientin Philosophy,made

of
superstitions

the Druids

in his

youth

and, in his old age having quittedthe scepter, he led


a

contemplativelife : rejectingall

and

idolatry,and

in
particulars

and

annext

to

dent, excite

to

of

For,

tory.

the natives ;

the
of

they

learning,but

and

whatever

"icts

possessionof
KARD.

oldest

first

Du

arrive
have

as

known.

CAIRBRB

some

Colonies,

to

every

or

confi

am

doctrines
be

may

been
most

Romans

be

where

mixt

with

certain

of

hand

pieces,in
a, now

light

knowledge

pleas'd to

valuable

His

the

avoid, in that time

at the

to

apt

compile their

the Earl
right honourable
are
copies of it elsewhere,

(84) Teagarg Riogh.


'35^

Dis

cunning of

rather

their rites

VEGAN'S, folio 190.

the

There

and

cou'd not

other

or

place, when

Gaule,

they

(83) 'Tis, among


lection call'd O

and

pri-

proofs

mention'd

once

therefore,

sufficient materials

masters

the

many

History,will, I

deprived us

not

in

of

account

Language'

committing

in not

writing,has

came

Celtic

Supreme

one

you'llsee

than

more

fables

curiosity.

your

Druids,

imagine,

short

Critical

our

The- custom-

XIV.
the

the

concerningthe

sertation
to be

This

Learning, whereof

Irish

mevous

acknowledging only

first Cause.

Being, or

the Druidical

or

of

down
the Col

late in the

of CLANRICbut. that's the

to

HISTORY

THE

83

tho' not

us,

nations

ther

alway rightlytaking
it must

as

tion of the Druidical


barous

tyranny

these

that

same

needs

fraudulent

exercis'd

over

Romans,

who

from

be

credulous

the

tolerated

The

severity.

Druids

with
sacrifices,

their

strate,
as

thingsnot

were

of

that

the

ing, could

not

want

quaint themselves
of

Customs

the

the

the

elder Greecs

had

of the

seated

give

Asia,
;

us

Gauls
the

as

Gauls

Irish and

their

of

from

both.

Albanian

in Greece
had

by

wise

so

second

abundance
register

the

re?t

only

the

judges in

we

of

of

in

From

manner

to

ac

these

to

the Ro

have

number

vast

place,among

Britons, among

the

Bards,

about
particulars

in most
the

speak

theirs from

Scot?, their IJistorians and

from

but
ligious,

of Learn

in Les

the

affairs

not

the

it self and

and

of

state

place,

such.

in the third

were

an

magi

enough,

But,

Druids, whose
those

and

the

information, not

later Greecs

themselves

did always

were

their hu

they liv'd. STRABO

of

account

an

and, by good fortune,

of passages
the

indeed

and
Religion,Philosophy,

country, wherein

others

mans

barbarous,

curious

persons

and

ser

the

not

their

power

indured
In

with

religions,

were

mart
colony of Marseilles,a principal

Greec

now

the

to be

Romans.

people,

pretended Magic,

authorityincompatiblewith

bar

Britain,with

however

but only
immediately extinguish'd,
And
tyrannical,or illusory
usages.
man

all

and

o-

full convic

and
superstitions,

yet supprest this institution in Gaule


the utmost

of

the usages

the

thingsinseparable

inhabitants

all matters

the executioners

civil
too

they

as
cr

re

in.crimi-

THE

OF

nal

that their sacrifices

consequentlymade

-vhich

thing

One

and

causes

which

their rites

much

is, that the

Known,

bout

DRUIDS.

he

civil judge besides,

advise him,
a

Physicianto
tertain
be

of his
of

had

each

families, wherein

ditary,as

After

ficers.

succeeded

tinued

on

their

were

the

by

Marshal, and

Bishop

the antient

after the

his

him

Druid,

Harper; the
descended

which

here

were
professions

these

the rest of their of

foot

Priest,but the

or

Druid

rest

for

that

insomuch,

con

long

EnglishConquest,the Judges,the Bards,

Physicians,and Harpers,held
The

about

by

up

the
introducingChristianity,
a

must

taken

was

having lands assign'dthem,

in-

to

the institution

was

custom

same

Controllers

three

than

Vassal, Bard, Judge,Physician,and

their

time

fewer

The

Musician

his

actions,

own

absent, these by law

Decemvirate

which

chief

sing the praisesof

to

was

no

as

of the

one

registerhis

to

Nobles, whereof

four last

was

Bard

Whoever

CORMAC.

King

So he had

of his health,

care

present, and

all the

to

take

family :

Chief

Chronicler

him.

ever

a-

determing emergent controversies, tho'

had

ancestors,

them

Druid

well
sacrifice,
as

and

pray

for

to

have

to

ever

was

make

to

be

; t^

judge
Lords

less observable.

no

contributed

King

public,

very

to

his person

were

ODuvegans

were

the

such

the

hereditaryAntiquaries:

such

OBrodins

Sheils

and

hereditaryDoctors,

the

cans

were

such

hereditaryJudges,

in
examples, especially

the

so

this

place,are

the
also

were

Can

Maglanchys

of the rest

and

of

hereditaryBards

OKellies, the OClerys and


the

in Ireland.

tenures

for

more

needless

it

THE

90

HISTORY

wou'd be but

of names,
multiplying
subjectclearer. Only I

ing the
from

that, tho' CESAR

and

tion

controll of

less

led many

all,

is doubt

and

War

and

and

King

Nobles,

the

in Council,

many

of them

them

cull'd out

old trick,but

to

perpetuatean
not

them

render'd

Druid

TROSDAN,

not

order
to

of

forgetthem,
who

very

found

an

(86) CATHBATD.
(87) CUCHULAID.

(88)

TADHG.

(88) T

AGES

of

enough

however

made

several of

remarkable;
antidote

is

see

you

effectual

indeed

and

of certain Brittish
poyson'd arrows
CABADIUS,
grandfatherto the most

pion(81) CUCULANI";

which

This

men.

themselves

averse

great numbers

and

always

been

the most

the

be

to

ally'dto Kings, and

were

of the best families


has

attend

cruel of all others

most

King's sons,

were

an

Historians

of them

Some

in Action.

the

and

concerning

observed

were

incendiaries

and

from

order, who

of that

those

greatestmake-bates
Peace

exemted

were

determined
yet they finally

bearingarms,

to

the direc

judges, which

other

Further, thoT the Druids

XV.

ed the

civil

egregiousmistake.

an

Peace

were

influenced

the Druids

because
no

facts,

has

This

Druids.

the

therefore

were

it, there

here,

from

Ireland, yet under

in

justas

imagine, that,

there

less than

things,no

mak

ever

remark

must

be silent about

in G'aule

Judges
to

of

the very nature

without

as

the

against the

invaders
celebrated

(86)

cham

the father of MOR-

THE

92

BARCHEDIUS

LAGICINUS

againstEOCHA

war

common

his

length in

of Druidical

NESS

with

long after
it

towards

which

was

of

of Jesus

manner

that

his sword, and

he mistook

self into such

at the

by

the Monks

livelyand

so

of the wood

as

where

moveing

rage drew

hacking

he

nay, that he

of this

dy

to

before

very time, describ'd the

for the Jews:

heat

CONCHOBHAR

to

fury fell
inexpressible

with

at

monument
lasting

is fabl'd

in

hu

or

story,

King transported with

the trees

hewing

whose

mak

of the Druids, to have

Christ,

the

chief Druid

the extinction

committing

Priest-ridden State.

Ulster, who

say

for

cruel

the Druids

King
as

most

honor, law,

no

this

BACRACH,

Passion

which

and

there

happened, others

and

of Munster,

bloodiness,and

King

AN

procured a

book, will stand

our

conclude

son

cause,

observ'd

manity

who

King

manslaughteron
ing a

HISTORY

then

was,

put him

frenzy.But

even

Flahertyfully confutes this sillyfiction,(97)not


cou'd be
thinkingit possiblethat such circumstances
any

way

inferred from

of the story,noi

dation
be made

of

the Jewish

those

Eclipse,which

that

things to

dy'd quietlyin
and

man,

and
step-father

XVI.

clearer revelation

the Irish

shou'd

Druids, than

to

It

can

(97) Ogyg.

King

the

his bed fifteen years after


BACRACH

crucifixion of Christ.

great

is the foun

by shewing, that
Prophets; and, finally,

Conchobhar
the

an

himself had

however
a

Druid

was

for his

instructor.

be

no

wonder

that
therefore,

men

thus

THE

OF

for their

eminent
as

function, illustrious in their alliances,

in their

sacred

well

learning,and

And

ter to

fact

in

so

Irish writer,

an

they

influence, should

notwithstanding

are,

the

time

no

year

1683,

fewer

than

lumes, relatingto the affairs of the Druids,


Dr. KENNEDY

in Ireland.

stuftwith

volumns,

300

pray, how

posterity.But,

unfit to be

more
superstitions

be

PATRIC

ted

^md

squeamish

more

cians, Caldeans,

and

irreparabledestruction
extinction

of arts

detriment

to

monuments

or

of

the

of

(98) O

by CHRIST,

29.

have

shou'd

MOSES

transmit

Egyptians, Pheninations

an

dishonor

? What
a

an

deplorable

unspeakable
upon

human
the

ig

interested,against unarm'd
occasion'd!

has

And

yet this book-

tho' far from

being

prevail'din Christianity

FLAHERTY.

(99) Dissertation
page

Why

respect than

humor,
burning and letter-murdring
commanded

to

Irish

or

cowardly proceedingof

the

at all times

burnt

posterity,

to

history,what

Learning, what

rather

Romans

and inventions, what

has
understanding,

norant,

transmitted

Eastern

other

burnt

were

Gallic

are

of the

Idolatries

th*

all ages

to

why

in this

Vo

180

superstitions
of

Prophets,who

succedingJewish

the

or

Greecs

of the

those

affirm:

to be transmitted

he;

so?

let

PATRIC

(99)that

fables and

adds
Idolatry: unfit,

Heathen

than

says,
the

of their

prose

mention'd, did, in

(98) in

in PATRICKS

namely, that,

and

for their valor,

poetry and

before

FORBES,

DUDLEY

what

in the

both

also be memorable

country.

honour'd

for their power

dreaded

as

DRUIDS.

about

ike

Family of

the

STUARTS,

Pref,

HISTORY

THE

94

the

from

beginning:

in the Acts

as

we
of the Apostles

read, (IOOJ that many of them which


curious
them

broughttheir

arts,

three

hundred
of

stance

pounds sterling.This

burning books

since that time


then

the

From

that

with
of

memory

the

many
This

the

AboriginalItalians,who

run

by

the Gauls, and

and

no

as

Barbarous

of them

body

of his

among

(100) Acts
(101)

Ton

of the Gods,

the

of Druidi-

will

deny

often

of

over

Colonies

of their Lan
in

done
alreadytolerably

Originals.Diogenes

Philosophical
History,

the chief Authors

of the

Theology and Philosophy,long anterior

nature

il

only to

easilyevinc'd

andPhurnvtus,
Greecs,their disciples:

of the

and

that

not

serve

will be very

in his Celtic

Laertius, in the Proem


the Druids

Besides

they partookboth

Religion;

father PEZRON

to revive

several Gallic

Dissertation,and has been

the

follow'd,

observ'd,you

having been

having

them,

plantedamong

enough
nations

were

Celtic extraction.

reckons

ever

do, in spiteof all

Druids.

other

give lightto theirs,but

by

and

better

hitherto

Lord,

matter

opinionsof

rites and

guage

has been

have

we

Historians, My

our

lustrate the

or

the first in

was

Christians

among

example

what

chances, abound

our

burnt

precept of the Gospel.

any

XVII.

cal

together
", and

books

us'd

all men
before
; and theycounted the priceof them,
found it Jiftythousand piecesof silver, or about

and

see

believ'd~and

says most

to

in his treatise

that
(101)expresly,

19. 19.
de

Helpollaskai poikilas
peri theon grgonenaipara tois palaiois
allai men
allai
de par' aigyptiois
epi Magois gcgonasiu,

Itfsimythopoias, hos

THE

OF

among

the many

and

Greecs

had about

the

Mages,

ther nations

the

thing

any

This

it self.

however

helps I

several

bears

is not

all

help of
the

hard.

extremely

of

are

ones

of

of 'em

The

shap'd after
describ'd

shall

be

Glass

Amulets

or

and

Scotland, call'd Adder-stanes,and

Droedh,

na
nan

or

Druid-Glass,

Druidhe, Glaine

tho' obsolete

only in

Your
June

from, My

Jdanusciiptvery
the

day

book.

the Welsh

But
or

the

wants

of

Gleini

be the

two,

preserv'd

more

massy

subjectof

and
oblig'd

Humble
kiti the

The

Lowlands

dialect, and

Lordship'smost

accurate/)/:

which

ways,

our

LORD,

Libysi,kai Phryxi, kai

end, and

figureof

is in Irish Glaine

25, 1718.

kai Keltois, kai

ouslyin

bak'd

languagesignifying
Glass,

Droedh.

na

shall, in
Letter

another

which

in the Welsh

now

this Gleini

Monuments

in this

by

of stone,

Chrystal and

in the

other

by

ornaments

were

in the

are

in the

the rest
are

of

portrayed in

Ornaments

Druids,

of earth

others

of the

any

the

Most

last kinds

two

likewise

are

of

to

above

Ireland, and

also those
magical gems, as were
Agat, either perfectlyspherical,or
; or

and

over

o-

witness,

intire,and

glass,and

from

habitation, still re

or

lentill

as

worship

easilyconceiv'd.

these

lesser

the

manner

many

others

for,

in Britain, in

in France,

adjacentIslands

as

Gauls, others

mention'd, there
of

the

from

greater witness

the antient

derived

were

that

their valor, policy,and

the

some

he cites Homer

have

monuments

numerous

maining

fables which

Egyptians and

the

for which

is there

nor

Gods,

95

Africansand Phrygians, and

the

from

various

from

some

DRUIDS.

tois allois ethnesi.

printed "vpj/

Phryx. before,which

has
is

Cap.

very

Servant.
17.

tois allois Hellesi

very esfcntiul.

Thus the

superflu

SECOND

THE

LETTER,
Eight Honourable

the

To

MOLESWORTH.

VISCOUNT

ERMIT

with

promise

to the

Druids,

perfect.

those

that

while

places, appear

own

country

and

affairs

or

in

will

history

modern

here

take

the

ship,

may

not

French

and

He

of

in

displac'dby
better

liberty

where
the

ground

able

so

Irish

and

versed

in the

and

excepted,

AntiquitiesI

to

time

mean

your

Scottish

things have
frequency

been

reserve

procede.

eminences

other

in the

in

Hands

Lord

are

The

for

the

On

the

Ireland, in
and

in the

least disordered

of inhabitants,

for cultivation, there

or

hope,

to

altogether disagreeable.
few

in

statesman

apt

am

o-

in their

of antient

master

present

to

history of

better
an

greater

of Brittish

Scotland,

Man,

which

charges

strangers

man

im

or

deserving

author

in the

no

yourself;

prove

tops of mountains
Wales,

nor

than

examples,

larger work,

I know
own,

our

collection

the

that

as

intire

avoid

to

absolute

be

relating

either

conversant

to

to

Monuments

the

approv'd

an

very

separate,

never

to

indeavour'd

which

ther

foren

send

last,

my

still extant,

are

ever

with

who,

the

Specimen of

I have

blame,

the

My Lord, according to

I concluded

which

Lordship

your

this time,

at

me

Lord

the

or

want

or

of

great heaps of

OF

whereof

when

ticular.

The

hundred.

heaps, which

heaps

if any

ly

accident
been

have
in the

and

in

Cam

so

as
disposed,

they are

different from

very

pyramyds,

which

of the

memory

dead, by them
that

perform'dabout

rounds

ism, and

which,

in

placesof

many

ed

(3)as

cer?i

(1)

2)

(3}

de

tXc.
prostetheis,

Hermdia,

tous

is

i.

e.

Accrvi

calFd

offer.

see

Leachda,

in that

A^.

ret

made

continued
the He

is in Armoric

heoastos

Dor.

in

of Heathen

are

dialect is

dc Nat.

Nercurlnles.

and

Highlands and

lithous tois Hermais


PHURVUT.

roads

devotional

the

in times

Yet

smaller

much

along the

turningabout,

every

other.

some

of

language,

; and

and

anon,

Scottish

pronounc'd as

generally

Celtic

From

the Cams

shall

the

CERNA

Prossoreuousi

t:r.;tautois

we

circle,or

brides, any

the rude

they

sepulchral bar

are

sightof

intended

thing was

old Irish erect

the

first stones

the

be in

to

of stones

wherein

it, call'd CARN

of

dialect

every

time

in the

as

of

earth, 'tis pure

with

is in the antient

heap

them,

presently

cartload

nations, which

Gothic

Such

earth.

of

making

shall

summit

bignesses,some

such

HO

the

en

ta

all

of

to

somewhat

we

over

for

and

use

hundred

long course

neglected;

the

of

be grown

in the

first
of

rows

of 'em

pound

one

but

in par

present subject,

my

form,

in

are

least

containingat

and

of

round

flat stone, for

These

explain.
them

make

all sorts, from

are

Greecs,

the

Celtic MERCURY

diminishingupwards

or

always

was

of

They

pering

of the

treat

we

of stones

consist

DRUIDS.

the(l)MEBcuRiAL heaps (2)of

like

stones,

THE

to

make

ton

cap, 16.

call
such

parion'on;hena

THE

9*

the Carn

On

turn.

of Tre'lech in

HISTORY

call'd

in
Crig-y-dyrn,

Carmarthenshire,

to twelve

pose there

their form

to

by

under
of

bulk

what

thingsthey do

the

King

William's

of

Earl

the

"

near

"

seem

thrown

into

and

barren

thirds of the Hand

two

worthy
particularly

our

"

rowls, Skeyall,the Watch-hill

"

Sneafeld, where
particularly

(continueshe),
w

"

"

rene,

to

the most

when

three noble

see

obscure

the center

author

"

triv'd in all the Celtic

Carn

14) Page

13.

in the He

moun-

of

nations

Some

the two

Ba:

but

unpleasant,"

is clear and

se-

surroundingone
:

which

of chance, tho'

countries

as

of

is,as it were,

empire."These

of SAINT

na-

heaps, as

sort.

as

it is not

part

in his

of Knock-a-low

in the universe

work

in

Cams

of this

the weather

of the Brittish

thought the

thoughta

Derby

the rubbish

remark,

Mr.

lie of Man

unfruitful

are

apt

are

tops of the

"

notice

Thus

reign,mistakingthese
"

ture,

take

may

of the

of that Hand,
The
(4)Description
tains (sayshe),seem
nothing but

of the rest,

understand.

Governor

right honorable

'tis about

imaginationsmen

not

of this

this purpose.

example

an

from

easy, tho' I sup

only we

odd

SACHEVERELL,

WILLIAM

for

serve

and

the way,

of

to have

sixtyyards,and

beingvery
for
a ladder
originally

this Carn

Let

II.

here

was

circumference

the

on

and

over,

the ascent

yards high ;

six

thick. The

is about

at the bottom

Carn

as

inches

parish

the flat stone

top is three yards in length,five foot


ten

the

heaps our

conartfully

Dr.

MARTIN

KILDA, wherof pre-

THE

100

all otlrers

to
preferr'd

family of Derby
r::ce

of

past and present

of the
rnixt

Their

people.

the

not

are

anon,

Druids.

But

phers was

Wherefore,

others

of the

body

to my
true

of whose

de
idea-

origin
of the

they have

monuments

Collegeof

establish VI there, and

ever

in

well

as

essential

Cams,

chief

the

of any

of this antientr though

numerous

that

say the

history,
give a

customs

onely

who

excellence

their

world.

in many

the

sign,I shall,in

Manksmen,

nearest

in the

now

men

the

by

comes

regards,as

these

HISTORY

Philoso

these

less any

much

such

College appointedby

Hector

feigntf,I

Boethius
:

romance

and

the

at

Hand, MANANNAN
ages, to have
the

been

Sea, from

his
He

commerce.

who

of

was

near

Son

given

the

by land

and

Manannan,
(5)

sea.

whom

MANANNAN

(G) ALLAIDi

doing jrcs-

of those

manner
or

the God

of

most

happy

(6) ALLADIUS,
Orbsen

name

country, and

kill'd

of all which

by

but
one

the par

place,especially-

who, from

his instruction?

in

consummate

he mis-names
LEIR.

Magician,

stratagems of

Mr. Sacheverell,except in

MHAC

proper

reputed a

was

of

son

own

is

in their

by

indeed

the

(5)LEAR,

in Ireland

Republicof'MANANNAN

was

and

his

the

and

of

truely the

was

Galway,

Druids,

fail

not

be pure

to

extraordinaryskill in navigationand

from

ticulars will be

will

as

of the
greatHero and Legislator

royalblood,

call'd Manannan
ULLIN

time

after
reported,

the

of Scotland,

Kings

shall demonstrate

same

of the

the memory

ticeto

the

war

both

affirming

Mannan., to have beea

THE

OF

DRUIDS.

(7)the father,founder, and


stead of

livingabout

he liv'd

as

be

not
as

King

of

King

of Scotland

Ulster,

III.

he

and

return, serv'd eveiy


as

originallydesign'd,as
fires of another

which

being

ther, cou'd

but

not

nation.

These

latiniz'd

by

which
Sun
is

and

by

the

day of Bel

authors
and

ens

fire(10),

(8)

Ibid.

(9)

Herodi'in.

Grutcr.
Etiam

call'd La

I remember

for

On

MayCarnS;

over

o-

some

whole

Bealan9

or

(9) Belenus, by

into

the

were

to see,

of Beal

their colonies

this hour

to

they

those

on

now

of them

said, in sight of

in honour

get

we

thus.

gloriousshow

Ab-originalIrish

Page

(10)

we

Roman

therefore

(7)

"tiam

afford

the Gauls

name

as

one,

to

(8)

already

many
but

prodigious fires

fires were

the

as

going

now

able

to which

fact stood

The

made
every

are

II.

whom,

by

this purpose

we

nature.

Druids

the

Cams,

of

son

I have

him,

for beacons,

where

conveniently for

stood

eve

the

the

being

Ireland, and

of time

In process

of

became

kill'd in

was

cou'd

so

of FERGUS

for his not

as

what

century,

and

Manannan

was

yet the brother

for, in

the fifth

Christ

is

Patric, the Apostle of Man

with

nor

information

told that

before

Neither

Ireland,

concerning him

beginningof

centuries

many

as

legislator
of the Hand,

says

the

contemporary

well

any

he

thing

in every

out

101

first

day

of

Bealteine,
one

the

understood

May
or

the

of those Cams

20,

Alison.

et Reims,

in

Capitolin.Tertul. $c.
Inscriptionibus.

Bealltaine,# antiquitusBeltine.

Videantuf

on

Fawn-hill

by

no

within

other

Carn

such

the

on

(11) hill of
Kiom

in

might

be

miles of

some

but that of

name

the

Londonderry,known

Bealteine,facinganother

of Inch-hill

top

de Gloria

in his book

Tours,

same

name

to be
sure

mark

ple, as

we

Confessor
urn,
(12) between

; yet

whereby
shall

Helen's

in France, and

blamed,

not

to be

use

of such

traitors

other

and
Riom

writers affirm
hill

top of it,is

circular tem

Gregory'stime.
the mountains

writers

being strangers to

and

not

able

heaps, under

bury'd.

were

in

stillon

Alps. Those

as

heaps ;

certain

from

which

it. His

heaps remain
the

on

Artom

hereafter,is still there,if not the

see

of such

Abundance

mentions

the

heap on

to discover

of

notiiia^this

existed
Carn, havingcertainly

the

GREGORY

Auvergne in France, from


But
tho' later
view'd.
fairly
unknown

now

and

Valesius, in his Galliarum

with

HISTORY

THE

102

These

last

to

however

the

are

originor

them
distinguish

which
are

robbers

call'd in

and

general

(13) ;
Carn-Vraduyrand Carn-Lhadron
after the proper names
of the underly
or
particularly
Carnedh-David,
ing criminals, as Carnedh-Leuelyny
and such like. As far from Auvergne as the Hand of
Saint KILDA, in the 58th degree of northern latitude,
the Welsh

by

from

there is another hill denominated


the

to

consonant

more

Celtic

Belenus, which

idiom

Herodian

montis
[ex Artonensi vico] venisset in.cacumen
de quo vici Ricomagensis
positioconUmplatyrt
Belenatensis,

(11) Cum

vidit

"

hos,4rc. De

(12)

Mons

(13)

Traitor

Carn

(14)

an

Gloria

Confessor,

cap.

5.

Beleriatensis.
and

thiefs Carn

JLadroin.

Lib. 8.

Cap. 7.

in Irish Carn-bhrateoir

THE

OF

DRUIDS.

103
,

writes Belin,

heigth;

corruptlycall'd Otter-Veaul(15),orBeleris

which

on

is

of that

tin, in his account


as

I said before

Providence

stands
the

on

is

will.

erect

an

BELUS,

so

calFd, I shall

told

us

and

ney
kind

by

those

stone;

posture

and

Dr. Martin

as

will

go

The

be

or

affirms

great way

Orkney,
inscrib'd
be

the Irish

native

us,

he had

Prince
is

Ork

of what
exact

portraitureon

(18), the

towards

any

fact it self

that

man's

of

end

this

also told

which

Descriptionof

his

are,

if there

in

ashore

west

in

by

the

near

BELUS

of

had

he

characters

antient

order'd

accordingto

decide.

(17),in

I wish

Zetland.

the

whether

better

here

not

at

Monument

the

BRAND

Mr.

ly copy'd them
the

be

or

Birsa,

word

the
Yet

characters.

of BELENUS,

remembrance

of

hill

the

on

stones,

mainland,

the

with

stone,

so

the use,

body's coming

church

or

it

these

Obelise,

call'd Po??iona,

it in antient

idiom

In the

Mar

know

being

thinks

any

remarkable

very

Hand

there

prevent

Doctor

not

Carn

the

by roulingdown

might

against their

but

(16):

; that

habitants

Hand, did

landing place,he

the

just above

heap, whereof

vast

dress

and

clearing the

matter.

IV.
likewise

But

to make

call'd La

Scotland, who

are

no

Bealteine
no

BHEIL.

(15)

Uachdar

(16)

Page

64.

(17)

Page

14.

(18)

Page

358.

longer digression,
May-day
by

contemtible

the

Highlanders

is
of

part of the Celtic

it is in the He of Man

off-spring.So

Priest is stillcall'd

kindl'd

mention'd, were

villageof

every

Belec, or the

Belegieth.

Priesthood

by

crific'dwere
between

fires the

to

pass

fires

also such

from

all

in

Gaule,

day

of

the

where
eve

Ireland

for which

knowledgement,

caird
But

Province.

authors

there

hence

(19)

as

One

of
On

ground.

were

the

on

time,
now

Ittir dha

nor

call'd in

so

Fire-grounJ.

Meath,

had his fire on

but

appointedby

there

was

an

paid to
sgrcaboll,
first of
;

is not
:

nor

the

annual

the

as

su
ac

King

of

as-

several

only a thingimpro
were

time

they otherwise

togetherin

Clergy of England are

BHEIL.

the

origi

of Ireland

November,

all at any

all the
theine

November

from
tlach*d-gha9

that all the Druids

('*0) Samhbhuin.

(21)

great

pieceof ground, because

bable, but also false in fact

place,but

in

(20),there

Tine

call'd

write
injudiciously

at that

the

on

sa-

proverb,

himself.

feasting. These

for this use,

Monarch

sembl'd

one

November

nallybelongingto Minister,
preme

the

came

of the realm

Arch-Druid
and

to be

kindl'd, accompany'd, as they constantly

in

were

whence

llach'd-gha(21),a place

there

have

we

throout

to extricate

sacrifices and

with

were,

that

Bel, and

the beasts

Carn, another

the

on

of the first

eve

said

of

May-eve

on

(19) two fires,meaning

Bel's

the fires was

and

men

strait,not knowing how

fires

well

as

Armoric

fires,as

another

one

in

and

servant

such

the nation,

which

between

the

Two

Britain, Ireland, and the adjoininglesser Hands,

in

as

HISTORY

THE

104

one

said

OF

THE

ra-niiiii-nni

ima7".T..t.,."

i.

..... .,.."..."

lf, ...... ml

...,-..

present in their Convocations

be

to

105

DRUIDS.

that

is, by their

Cesar

is likewise

and delegates.Thus
representatives

speaking of

the

Gaule, he says that (22) the Druids

at

understood, when,

be

to

of

Druid

tain time
in the

of

the middle

the
them

by

the

as

of

to

familywas

bread.

Then

for the

house, which
He

prosperous.

home, and

ensuing year
to

was

kindle

to

the

pay

night

master

portionof

the

fire

to be

was

into

intirely;

as

every

take

to
religiously
oblig'd,

fire

people of

all the

their houses,

sweep

the feastof unleavened

in his

assemblies

of these

eve

cer

grove

religious
persuasioninstill'd

wont

are

the consecrated

and

foresaid

the

of

But

is reckoned

(23), which

Gaule.

Arch-

consecrated

their fires
Druids, extinguish'd

the

Jews

before

On

out

country,

in

the Carnutes

regionof all

place.

after

assembled

the Year

country of

in their

MMaMj..ji_i"gBtMiiiMa

""

new

lucky

for his future

however

happiness,whether

the event

prov'd answerable

or

and

shou'd

afterwards

yet he

tho'

his house

deem

must

it the

it to any

tion
was

of the

of

to

the

Druid

call'd

likewise

tinu'd

punishment

thing, rather

consecration

than

who,

De

(C3) Now
This

signifyinga

sin,or ascribe

new

of

virtue

at the
officiating

(24) Cairneach,
even

anni
media

hello Gallico.

in the

name

in the

tempore

Cam-,

that

Christian

con-

times.

injinibus

habetur\ consMunt
lib. (5. cap.

in

lucr

13

Chartrain, the place?

Pais

'

is the

Priest

some

to want

from

Priest,
a
signify

consecrato.

of

burnt,

;"

fire, or of validityin the benedic

(22) If. "Druidcs~]rcrto


quae rcgio tofius Galliae

("4)

be

not

true,
:

but

originof theUvord "tairneach,R.I


not
derived,as men
ignorant r-f
o

10(5

THE

But

if any

had

last

year'sdues,

man

HISTORY

clear'd with

not

he

neither

was

holy fire from

the

let him

the benefit

take

communication
was

bake,

roast

or

dues

death.

be

must

trick alone

gy's dues

that

bare

of

so

are

of

Wherefore

'die

ber, rather than

V.
those

of

world

in

the

other

thumberland,

as

land, they are

sometimes

antiquityfancy,
fortn'd

tonsure

(25) The

(26) Carnan

from

of the

placesare
is the

this

frequent,

so

wou'd

make
but

beginning of

an

admire

Novem

when

there

for it.
denominated

in' Wales

Cam-

or

in Ireland

from

n-Lhe

chart,

Carn-tullock,

Wath,

Carnan-tagher,Carnan-tober
in

that

so

present Cler

Midsummer,

as

Scotland

Glen-cairn

Drum-cairn,

Druids

all the Acts

are

cannot

places(25) are

of all sorts,

Cams

Carn-Lhaid

aret,

or

equal oppoTtuaky

an

or

Druids, in fixingthis ceremony

May

to

the

and

them

Druids,

family,in

out,

many

of Ex

therefore

and

recoveringour

to
rekindlingfamily-fires

was

brew

himself

warm

enumeration

of

address

the

the

by

this

neighbors

managed

the last of October

Acts

which

voluim

indifferent

of his

pain

If he wou'd

for

made

sparkof

mare-effectual, than

was

for the

of theirs, under

live the winter

paid'by

of Parliament

the

have

durst any

as

boil, or

or

if lie wou'd

word,

which,

than

worse

Carns, nor

to

the Druids

Cam-mail, Cam-

(26) ;

and

parts of the North


call'd Laws

or

Lows,

in Nor

of
a

Eng
name

Coroineach, alluding to the crownMonks, not near so old as this word.


numberless

diminutive

in all these countries,,


of Cam.

HISTORY

THE

108

grand festival,which
which

of

day

the

was

was

of the least solemn

none

seeking,cutting,and

ting their wonder-workingAll-heaL


This

is the ceremony

in
golden-branch,
which
in

section

Druids

the

this

on

call'd it,in their

nifying(28)All-heal
is

dialect

oll-yach,in

Irish Uil-iceach.
that

for which

it is

: so

age

call'd

were

the

was

which

we

the

Cap.

an

order

was

of

littcr ;yerc,

(f-Co Ta
\
.

said that he

kill'd for

Prophets
CARNUS

surnamed

interpretthe

body

no

Magician

was

in

was

com

Acarnania.

(31); and,

Month.

Nay

kind
particular

from
there

of Music,

Cairn-tunes, was

appro-

Lib.
vocabulo, "Syc.

-ii

kat' fkeinor,

iu3

langu

own

yet, that Garni

call'd the Carnean

may

("9) ~Ei tis zetoi


ia

Barbarians,

the

killingof

("28)Ofnniu-spn"ntem appcllantessuo
!C\

observe,

may

in their

Some

EUROPA,

Priests, and

Carnean

were

and

others

for

him, May

from

and

himself

APOLLO

Etymologies

Prophet CARNUS.

name

mon

from

in the

(29) Cratylus,
judges it would

(30) Carnea,

ALES

one

we

way,

sig

remarkable, that certain feasts of APOLLO

of JUPITER

son

by

seek

the

words

many

word

ol-hiach, and

Welsh

by

in his

to

what

knows

had

PLATO

lost labor

be

Here

the Greecs

as

the

give

the Armorican

in

word

his

says, that

language, by

which

shall

we

who

PLINY

subject."Tis

by

Aeneid, for

the

which
proof,

there is incontestable

of Oak.

alludes

of

book

consecra

Misselto

VIRGIL

to which

the sixth

or

and

tauta
ex

lies to

edit. Paris. Vol.


Karnca.

Kuracios

kata

1.

t"n

THler.iken

onrv.rj.i.

P.IO.-r

phoru'n,ho*

on,
tyagehanei'

co"Kotr,s

oi.stha hoi;

U-itoj ; al
ui-'.ir.-ii
^n-

THE

OF

priated

of the Celtic tribes.

those

ble, that

Greecs

the

Gauls

their

among

them

from

of

specialpart

part of

Bards

not

of

void

so

enough
it

their

fables, from

cred

in

conjecture;

spight of

fishing for

be

tors

that

the

no

of

Music

in this Carnean

of
distributing

Prizes

is undeniable

Histories,

as

most

will be

seen

and

proof
in

of

is

Greecs

the
wou'd

sense,

the

own

unworthy
Greecs

needs

in their

successful

the
:

our

Vic
the

so

Poets,

was

their colonies; where

in the

our

sa

current

pass

adjudg'd to

among

to the

their

preferableto

it is not

were

the Gauls

less usual among


there

es

be

this crkicism

thing

every

time

mean

(33) Priz

as

good

originof

are

fairlyprofessto give

accounts

and

PLATO

of

I think

which

confession,

own

which

discordant

the

In

language.
remark,

However,

was

I show'd

many

that

many

in Gaule

hymns

and

their

So

probability,as

farr-fetcht and

who,

Gauls.

seated

by STRABO,

(32) :
and

the

Marseilles.

at

of

office ; who

Philosophy,

the

places

travellers

making

by

from

things

colony

Greecs,

the world.

in

onely for

the

Phocean
the

highly proba

many

of their

some

fore, that the antient


learnt

in

Hymn-makers

term'd

perfectlyanswering

these

and

the

the

May,

learn

further, that

know

expresly

did

from

; or

109

It is therefore

conquerors,

it self, if not

We

festivals in

those

to

DRUIDS.

Brittish

Section

and

Irish

concerningthe

Bards.

VI.

Another

Criticism

relatingimmediately

(32) HmnCtai.

(33) Timotheos"

~-ta

Karnciu

agoiiizcmeacs, Plutarch,

in

Apophthegm*

to

liO

THE

HISTORY
"

for which

APOLLO,
as

somethingmore

of

Merchiston,

I think
than

this

place,I give

proper

conjecture.In

the

Lordship
formerly
dug up a

Edinburgh,was
with an Inscription
stone
to ApolloGrannus
; concern
ing which Sir James Dairymple Baronet, in his second
edition of Cambderfs
Descriptionof Scotland,thus ex
Who
this Apol
presses himself after his (34)author.
near

might be, and whence he, should have his


\ name, not one, to my knowledge,of our grave Senate
of Antiquarieshitherto coiCd ever tell. But if I
might be allowed,from out of the lowest bench, to
lo Grannus

I think

speak what

Romans,

the

among

that

sekomes,
Greecs

are

by

ing Latin

that

with

calls the

the Goths

had

as

tlie man's

will

means

And

in

little to do

; as

soon

by no
who

Lusius

(36)Celtic

passage

in C

edition,anno

A MB

names

DEN

the Goths
hold

the

exprest this

since Goths
shire of

speak

Lothian,
Roman

some

*itsknown,

as

QUINTUS

name

CHURCHILL'S

of

doubted, but that it was

be

the many

(34) This

long hair

Romans,

to the

Apollo Grannus,

(35)ApollonAkerthe
long hair, among

same

consequence

paidthis vow

among

the

intonsus APOLLO

it will not

who

say that

is,APOLLO

This

for what

I wou'd

was

for ISIDORE

GRANNOS.

Greec

that, besides

SABINIANUS, Grian,
of

the

Sun,

is in the 897th

was

page

of

1695.

(35) Appollonakcrseioir.es item akeirekoini-s.

attribute of BKL, HJ:AI,


(36) Besides the Sun's religious
Uu^-l in
it is cail'd Hat/I in Welsh,
BELIN, or BELENUS,
the aspirateh is
in all which
Cornish, Heol in Armoric;

put for

s,

as

in

world

of such

oilier words

for

atw

word

beginning with .9 in the autient Celtic, dees in the oblique


Yet ,"? is still n;f?nn'd in the Armono
cases
begin with h.
ind the Cornubian
l)ez\l^
Disul, in the Cambrian
Dyc//^?/e}

THE

OF

being-the

one,

in all

ing

for

read
out

Gothic

good

very

is

derivation

to

of Goths

instead

Scots

names

the

their

to

sojjourn. Nor
known
low

it

and

will I

so

even

GREANNACH

that

is to

say, Sunday.
Solus
still remain

whence

bright

or
sunny,
Dia
nowcall'd

Tis

ing

the

to

Sir PETER
Laird

of

to

GRIAN

formerly Diasoil

or

not

their

Inscription
in

Irish,

clearness, Soillseach

and

several

Dies

Dvminicus, accord

such,

more

of all Garistians.

Merchistou's

preceptor

to

by

us

King

Expositionof

JAMES

the

from

CAMBDEN
VI.

[for the.

Apocalyps I

never

thus:

APOLLINI
GRAXNO
Q. L

us

af

therefore

was

light,Soillse

un

fol

to

serve

(38) Lothian

Inscription,as given

YOUNG,

""^rans

occasion

xii. 30.

This

(38)
^

in

the

Domhnaigh,
use

the

invok'd

forbid

are

likewise.

Solleir manifest,

general

(.37)Deut.

It

added

(37) Enquire

the

topicalworship

did these nations

do

explain

any

who

words

in these

were

on

of

that

Gods,

they

which

Hebrews,

antient

fancy,with

show

to

of the

manner

as

now

to produce
superfluous

be

common,

Gods, saying,how

ter their

Gods

this

Moses

by

not,

they happen'd

was

the

to

and

the

of go

Isidore, in whom

names

under

where

country,

so

own

attributes

or

epithetof
therefore

need

no

and

language

same

natural

It wou'd

reason.

instances, the thing is

Romans,

in the

is

which

There

nations^

it still in Irish

Greannach

beams,

long-haird,
signifies
Sun

Ui.

of

name

common

his

that, from

DRUIDS.

i.us

SABINIA
NUS*

Procurator,

HISTORY

THE

112

naturally,in

very

the antient

of

language

the Scots

themselves, spoken still in5the Highlands and


lies,as well

To

VII.

Ireland, Avithout any

Gothland,

to

recourse

in

as

return

to

of the

for the Lord

in his

iic'd animal

strait to the

them
at

the Altar.

was

reckon'd
:

unlucky

both

I have

if he

the

seen

St. John's

to

the

tion, thinkingthemselves

were

Yet
ever

wholly ignorantin

skin

whole

loud accla
deem'd

was

leapingthro'

onely proud

not

Thus

some

kind

the

of pas

of lustra
blest

specialmanner

originalnevertheless
their

it

imperfectimitation

by

they
of it,

of all this,no reader, how


being apprized
truelyapprehend the beotherwise learned, can

without

olnning of
us

of whose

over

himself.

to

and

were

in

in

with

and

community

if it

barefoot

hurt, it

receiv'd any

as

the sacri-

escap'dharmless,

welcom'd

Ireland, and

sing unsing'd: but,

ceremony,

waited

people running

fires in

other

some

ceas'd, to carry

had

Nobleman

omen,

customary

or

son,

flames

having

countries.

walking

Druid, who

good

of

the entrals of

hands, and

If the

but

mations

this

his

place,or

coals thrice, after the

the

need

Carn-firesrit was

our

of distinction, to take

person

foren

other

or

Western

the Consul

FLAMINIUS'S

the Sabin, at the battle of

related by (39)SILIUS
ligently

speech to EQUAN-

ThraL*imenus, thus intel


ITALICUS.

AUG*
V. S. S. L. V. M

Votum

susceptuni
lubens

(39) Turn Soracte satum, praestantem corpore

solvit

merito.
et

armis,

THE

OF

seeing EQUANUS,

Then

In person,
Whose

country

Divine

APOLLO

To

'tis,when

manner

so

you

may

f re

unhurt

always tread,

the consecrated coals',


unscorch'dfeet,

With
And

bear
o'er the heat victorious, swiftly

The

solemn

d APOLLO'S
giftsto picas'

let all the Commentators

Now

sulted, and

made

true

of

infinitenumber

Italyfollow'd
habitants

about

such

relatingto

of

delicious

for

the

was

very

But

this is
are

which

Greec

ttxta
Sic

part of

of Gallic

be

Cantons

Imiiolata

of the
made

the

coming

are

by (41)

they

terat, ;

serenato

vestigiapruna
victorquevaporis,ad aras
semper

referasSolennia

PHOSBO.
Lib.

5,

ver.

175.

lib. 1.
Dionys. Halicarnass. Antiq. Rom.
Flor. lib. 1. cap. 17, "c.
Hist. Nat. lib/3. cap, 14.

(40)

(41)
Umbros

ex

in that

all authors

But

in

the

noscens\

in APOLLINEA

Dona

authors

patriocui ritiisin arvo,


pius Arcitenens incensis gaudet ACERVIS,
fate portare per ignes:
ter innocuos

AEQUANUM
J)utn

Colonies,

less

no

rites, as

(40) antientest people of Italy,before

thither of any

is

true
particularly

by

con

guess-work

considerable

of many

case

S'abins, who

and

be

in other

placeshappened to

country.

Umbrians

of the Druidical

most

traction, which

sad

what

of passages

customs:

such

this writer

this passage

have
an

Altar.

on

it will appear

then

they

the

tJi archer keen

joys in burning HEAPS,

thrice

carry

comelyest youth;

Entrals thro' the

sacred

The

the

born

Soracte

near

in arms,

as

DRUIDS.

BOCCHUS
essc.

absohit

Gallorum

Polyhist.
cap.

8.

vcterum

Plin"

propaginem

THE

114

Solinus from

the historian

elder Marc

the

HISTORY

Isidore
Antony,by (4"3)

TZETZES,

in direct -terms

Gauls,

or

Umbrians

der the
lar

in the

Sabin

about

twenty

and

Grove

miles
the

the

to

Tyber..

Temple

of

performingof
(42) Sane

of

APOLLO,

and

of

(46)Soracte
the

Rome,

Ombroi

genos

of

out

him,

(48)

to
people,

which

the

ceremony

be-

propagi??em

In lib. 12. Aeneid.

Galaton.

(47),

Schol.

in

ante

veterum

e$se"

fin.
pro-

Lycopliron. Alex,

c.d

1360.

ler.

(45)

Sabinous

Ombrikon.

ex

(46) Now
(47)

Monte

(48) Hand
annito,
tarn
tuo

Antiq.R.om.
di San

lib. 1.

sylvcstro.

Acer-ens.

procul urbe Roma,

liae suntpaucae,

nem

Galaticon

the

were

very

us

Italiae gens est, sed Gallorum


Origin,lib. 9. cap. 2.

(44)

the

on

the

to

(43) Umbri
pago.

and

also his Carn

described annual

t.
refer

is

Faliscans,

top of it

Qallornm vcterum

Umbros

un

particu

so

just quoted

verses

preserved

the above

ANTONIUS

MARCUS

north

race
.particular

of the

am

district of

the

has

PLINY

alludes.

reason

On

SILIUS, in the

to which

name

The

of the

it, Umbrians

expresses

in the

country,

of

side

west

he

descendants

were

is, that the mountain

head,

this

on

as
(4.5)

of Sabins.

name

the antient

DionysiusHalicarjudiciousof Antiquaries,,
proves- out

most

; or,

of

(44)

and

Zenodotus, that the Sabins

of

also and

stil'd the issue

of them

branch

the

nasseus,

Bocchus, by (42)Servius from

quod fitad

quae

vocantur

montem

in Faliscorum

HIRPI^E;

Soracte

habent.

Polyhist.
cap.

S,

lib. 2. cap. 2.

Idem

ex

ambus*

super

ambulantes, non aduruntur : tt ub


consulto militiae,
aiiorumquemunerum,
Hist. Nat.

fami-

quaequesacrificio

APOLLI'NI,

lignistruem
senatus

agro

id pcrpe-

todem

vacatio-

Sulin

THE

115

used

lieve

they

than

the famous

HISTORY

Yet

none.

'did,no
they really

that

whom
fire-eater,

figureat London,

men

uncorruptedjudgements will

never

great

so

merely left

not

are

to

of

that

making

and
penetration

question.

judgements,for

our

attested by
sufficiently

latelysaw

But

SERVIUS

prodigyof knowledge,and

firms

the above-cited

on

(50),described
mad?

HIRPINS

theywalked

multitude, that

Philosophy for
but

common

swallowing the

are

over

hurt,

or

leaving the

and

above

stones

in

the least

setup

on

in Ireland.

many

(50) Sed VARAIO,

in

end;

others
such

no

ver.

find it

Highlands-of

the

numberless

stones
;

OBE-

thirty,some

some

are

and

lower
to

be

In most

placesof

and

dug,

there

some

parts of England, with


this last

are

very

kingdom,

cvpugrtator,ait, cum
ubique-Rettgionte

dtscriberct,eo uti
qnoddam medic-amentum
qui ambulaturi per ignem, meciicamerito
Ad

or

while, there

higher or

full of them

cultivated

of vice

who

men,

adjacentlies

where

do the

ready to

for

Druids

Cams,

the

being likewise

by

Princes,

them.

But

this sometimes

the

of Natural

the notions

directed

barely as

twenty-four foot high ;


Wales

under

not

Scotland, and in the


LISC?,

which

and

secrets

Miracles, and

Divine

or

of Priests

prey

their interest to deceive

VIII.

of

ointment

besmearingtheir feetwith it,when


the fire. Thus
at all times have the

be"n easilygulFd

virtue

af

of VIRGIL

passage

very

who,

use,

thro'

greatest good

the

we

the fact is

MARCUSVARRO;
perpetualopposer ofSuperstition,
as

less

787, lib. 11. Aeneid.

solent

H1RPINI,

Plautas

tingunt.

the

people believe

common

transformed
This

is also

shire

of

stones

the

notion

from

class

different

people ascribe

human

excede
for

art

recording their

well

or

Military Ways, callingsuch

the

like

while

the

ed, that the

erect

Monuments

of dead

often
times

found
in

and

of

them

been

erect

stones

it

done,

I have

follow, that

times, which
them

for

midst

in the

all those
have

we

not

are

read

Irish

have

of many
in Wales

Histories, we

part

find

pleasureas
Camps

in

persuad

are

speak,

been

the

are

bones

or

Urns, and

are

some

pieces

often

found,

polish'd. Dogs
their

also
The

masters.

stone-circles,whereof

of this funeral

Christian

fy'd,as they speak,


our

of

things,

scales, hammers,

with

to

DeviVs-Dykes, or

ashes

things have

bury'd

dis

them

other
its

we

whose

finely giltor

very

found

have

fore

other

the

sometimes

been

sort

erected

or
Inscriptions

such
and
the

ignorant

to

have

which

Stone-coffins,wherein

of weapons,
some

persons,

them

near

of

stones

to

now

the

seem

reasonable

more

for the Roman

and

of the

belonging

among

will

usefulness, they account

as

Druids.

Cornwall

which

traditions

men,

supernaturalpower,

some

works

be

in Oxford

have

country

ability.Thus

or

the

in

and

in every

all

least to Giants,

of

Magic

Obelises, whereof

the

the Devil

to

to

call'd, but

so

indeed

And

course.

Obelises

vulgar

the

stones

erect

the

by

into

117

these

Roll-wrightstones,

Hurlers

at

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

Obelises

be
does

; nor

in Christian

Crosses
thus

Scotland.

practiceas

on

sancti-

And,

in

early as

HISTORY

THE

US

himself; who,

PATRIC

Donach-Patric

county

of

ted

the

in

Hebrew

Clare, did

Lewis

Scotland,

remarkable
which

is

almost

Parish

in

erec

proper
JESUS

in

Obelise, if I

That

of

of Barvas, in the Hand

Thrushel-stone, is very

call'd the

being not onely above

much

the

second, and

the

on

third.

yet surpass'dby many

as

the

languages : namely,
the

on

in the

so,

inscribe

in Greec

ot

(51 ) in

Colosses,

three

on

Paganism,

SOTER
first,

in Latin

in

there

in three

the

call it

may

of

times

on

SALVATOR

the brink of Loch-Placket

on

of CHRIST

name

Church

the

built

having

others

which

breadth,

foot

twenty

likewise

but

high,

other

no

comes

near.

IX.
ber

Besides

of FORTS

from
the

these

in all the

the Danish
Saxon

they the

and

and

with

same

unwrought
two

are

Bay
word
the

very

of

(52)
stones

Burghs

the

Galway

is

great

Scotland, very

Norwegian

Raths
in

in

which

and

England

Dun

themselves

are

is
on

so

Formerly

Domhnacli-mor

an

call'd

and

in

made
there

general Celtic
eminence,
;

as

see

we
on

and
in

the Bel-

go,.
O

Irish, Lcs in Armoric, and

in English a
signifies

Lios,

Aran, in the

Loch-seal

"J

(.i2) Lhs

Irish

parts of England, and the Sand-hills

(51)

or
are

nor

whereof

lies of

the

for all fortificationsmade

different

fortifications

are

uncemented,

in Ireland.

num

Ireland,

Gallic,Brittish,and

extraordinaryin

eminences

many

lies of

Danish

pronounc'd Lls
of

Obelises, there

Court

; as

Lhys

in

Welsh,
Lis-Luhi, Lynscowt.

''"

THE

OF

Yet

gic Coast.

Rath

both
tog-ether,

in

often of such

Engines

Engines

ther
Old

Uist, and

North

Harries,
mist
as

to

be

but

Lewis, where

are

and

stones,
hollow

and

in

wall

MARTIN

whether

arch'd,

with

ture

of the

stances,
these

know,

no

work

the

each

In

like

this

call the

such

those

; and

such

not

appertainingto

the

prodigjous
windows
from

be
as

with

in

Druids

is

their

the

wall
the

be
na

circum

mention

way,

that

but,

in

di

other

known.
any

Dr.

others,

thingsrelatingto

to

huge

yet, which

omitting certain

Lord,

several
:

passages

of

of the

of

many

acquainting us

many

He

same

is, it has three

with

elsewhere

or

night,

at

example

an

from

blewish

composed
that

a-

Lewis

visible

Fort, with

less necessary

Forts, my

Fort

one

of

another, within

great neglect,without
mensions,

day

be

Fort

high :

over

more

ages

Duns, there's north

give this onely as

many

or

fair

the

to

they

so

of

use

for many

middle

the

eye-witness, who,

an

mention

for

wou'd

such

quite round

stairs.

the

sightof

in

by day.

stories

one

cou'd

men

lies,but has

very

round

three

passages

there

many

village of Brago,

thick

from

ascendingsmoak

the

stone, and

eighteenleagues distant

only

large fire

Irish.

quite unknown

are

KILDA,

twenty

seen

of

the

without

occupy,

lesser

in St.

there, is about

Fort

number

no

commonly

are

Dan

the

but

they

confounded

wrought

to their ancestors

of the

none

least, and

at

as

placesthey

present inhabitants, and


past. There's

all of

questionare

which

often

are

speech and writing of

large stones,

raise to the

ever

Lis

and

in the

the Forts

But

DRUIDS.

I yet

treating

150

THE

of the Monuments

truelytheirs,I

HISTORY

occasion

of

ef your

Lordship'scuriosityand

Monuments

ally,

if

shou'd

any

that

Hands

foren

opinion

costly Forts,
I

barren,

cerning

so

in Wales

in

England,

where

there,

informed

are

we

those

Descriptions*
doubtless

think

(53)

fit at

(53) In hoc media

CUTSU

tanniam] est insula,quae

have

pre

Hands

in

and

so

THE

yet intire in
Ireland

culture

has

these

about

certaintyI

the

impair'dsuch Monuments.
erect
Circles of Obelises or

or

remote

have

con

DRUIDS,
those
with

Hands,
left

some

mostly destroy'd

These

stones,

Temples
some

are

larger,

scilicet " Bri[interHiberniam


Mona.
Complures praeappellatur

objectaeinsulae cxlstimantur^ de quibusinsulis


esse noctem*
dies continuos 30 nub bmma
scripserunt.

minores

BeUo

OF

are

many

well

as

to

pass

TEMPLES

the

as

nowulli

commerce

traded

other

among

conjecturesI

the

and

whereof

as

especi

Phenician

their

People have

no

reserve.

numerous

De

very

be

to

authors, does

the
own

my

From

X.

CESAR,

naming

to

terea

serve

of
particulardescription

which

But

refer.

and

; es

they

researches

of Marseilles,

made

; to

without

sent

not

are

securityfor
both

that

PYTHEAS

STRABO^

by

Poem,

them

prove

of

Places

since 'tis certain


and

worthy

consideration

deserving our

more

Massilian

or

be

may

and

attention,

this natural

subject. Considering all things,I judge

the

to

Episodesin

like

the

relieve

to

what

communicating,

peciallywhen,

take

Gallico,lib.5.

THE

OF

and

circular,but
part perfectly

est

cular

but

in

in

others

most

ignorant
Circles
confute

this

time,

few

have

Druids

of

side

no

of the

the

same,

for

INIGO

ed

for

and

speak

after

but

in

their

JONES, he

his generous

ture

into

England,
he

me

one

of

Temple
I

CE-

promise
Circles

those

assertion

to

you

were

their fre

rites
religious

no

will prove

Circles

valid

no

being

ALTARS,

found

where

out
Temples. The
Spain and Holland is much

differs
be

where

shows

better

taste

'tis still

Oddnesses
continue

extremely.
much

too

efforts,which

shou'd

needs

the

cannot

get rid of Gothic


wonder

that

such

inside

introduce

a-

Roman,

wou'd

Lord,

Leaves,

than

easily

Stone-hengerestored

performing
or

Churches

genius, to

no

his

the

against which

more

mon

to

JONES

be

to

those

be

to

his

I go

as

'em

countries, tho' without

shall

we

Oaks,

Gothic

in

I shall

now

INIGO

in

Oak-branches

exception;
in the

even

demonstration,

quenting of

notion

Nevertheless,My

Temples

without

not

am

believe

Danes,

imagined

Cathedrals,

less than

together,

Stone-henge,according to

same

TERMINUS,

or

close

CHARLTON

Dr.

and

Architect

the Romans.
no

works

due

Druid

the

LUM

Danish

famous

the

have

in
But

long.
as

be

semicir

equidistant. I

the

to

more

of them

stand

several, with

that

to

and

separate

some

for the great

are

some

Obelises

the

Stone-henge restored

of

Edifices,

magnificent.They

less

some

all other

in

as

narrower,

some

DRUIDS.

so

commend
an

uncom

of Architec

difficult a

; and

As

thing

therefore 'tis

famous,, when

so

THE

endeavour

few

excede

to

pardon, if, as

his

tory, and
take

XL

wanted

In

the

he

in

sists

of

each,, and
the

from

ning

out

the

stones

the

the

line ;

the

Temple,

themselves

in

the

intire

by

eight

nineteen

and

Zodiac

divided

each

and

the

the

same

that

can

into

four

nineteen

stones

ing

Cycle

to

the

have

been

on

of

nineteen

dedicated

in

run

east,

that

so

be, is

of

But

the

two

bigness

same

Circle; yet the


each

be
thirty-ninth

This

avenue.

Tem

the twelve

signs

principalwrinds,

side

by which,
the

years,

at
to

avenue,

foot distant, and

others

each

high,

way

the

the

four

In

distances of

wing'd.

stones,
of

foot.

line due

and

of

those

high

four Obelises
such

wings

con

Ship. Directly

denoting
ple stands astronomically,
of the

foot

Obelises,, of the

are

entrance

of

stand

round

with

distances

consistingof

these
most

of

foot

the number

reach,

there

seven

six

at

those

Circle

other

another

as

both

time

north

ranges

ing

rudder

of

one

The

thirteen

Circle, there

straightranges
and

the

being in

same

each

stone

third to the west,

the

stands

in

and

this

from

perfectshape of

south

is

there

remarkable.

distant

center

beforemention'd,

Obelises, about

twelve

His

with

his mistakes.

to correct

village of Classerniss,

beg

must

we

we
qualifications,

of Lewis

Temples extremely

the

other

Book

our

but

unacquainted

was

Hand

the

him

certian

freedom

the

HISTORY

avenue

can

to
principally

sub

and

the

betoken

prove
the

Sun

it
;

THE

1S4

onely example

the

sometimes

tians,
leave

greatest Hand

Mainland,

Moon

right, since
greater is

Mounts

Temple

the

at

to

account.

of

these

ten

There's

to

make

east

and

trench

like

Temples,

of

such

of

the stones

twenty-four foot

in

heighth, above

foot

five

Temples
the

west

is

shallow

ver

by

of 'em

Some

thickness.

breadth, and

in

side

and

of

the

Temple,

which

Lake

of

fordable, there

is

each

the

twenty

or

ground, atwo

in

and

the

or

down

like

the

other

on

Stennis, where

being

east

Near

stones.

the

on

foot

and

east

large stepping

the

fallen

are

the

on

one

are

had

above

are

Stone-henge;

Temple

Many

it

difficult

not

about

inclosure.

bout

of

ditch round

or

short,

every

green

end

it is

that

The

two

west

in

and,

and

diameter.

paces

for which

nevertheless

Sun

is semi-circular.

and

what

not

erected

matter

the lesser

hundred

the

belief of theirs is very

which

one

the

In

own.

that

by Tradition,

worshipt:

know

their

to

(56)Orkney, commonly call'd the


likewise
two
are
Temples, where

believe

were

They

of

Chris

over-heated, us'd

be

to

of the

zeal

standing but

there

natives

the

since the

apt

Altars

no

HISTORY

side

it

passage

o-

the

lesser

of the

Lake,

from Orcas or
(56) The lies of Orkney are denominated
SICULUS
and PTOLEMY,
Orca, which, in DIODORUS
is the
antient

[as by
Orc-z
To

de

of Caithness; and

name

but
interpreted]

some

is the

Whale

Hands.

this from

whale

The

Hypolipomenon (tes Brctanias)anekein


de

Orcan.

Lib.

4.

words
men

Ore, not
so

salmon

that in old Irish

of DIODORUS
hLlorousin

eis to

are,

pelagon,

THE

OF

the

as

the

the

middle

of

the

is

the

on

hole

thro*

large hole,
ty'd. Like

were

of

another

and

behind

stone,

being

the

call'd St.

now

Obelises, in

such

Saint

Temple

distance

between

in

middle

the
I

But

with

inscrib'd

one

them

hollow

found

in

Christian
hitherto

but,

Cornwall, there
nineteen
foot

stones,
and

and

Yet

them.

fairly
represented, for
able

perhaps

least exercise

to

our

(57)

Brand,

pag.

44.

(58)

Brand, pag.

58.

the

for

such

the

explain

them.

this

characters
been

ob-

Roman

they ought
of such

the

whether

have

some

except

use

higher*than

to such
Inscriptions,
unintelligible
seen

call'd

informed, whether

characters

liberty to

peculiar figure,or

Scotland,

Wales

in

serv'd

much

of

out

place

twelve

yet

any

any

in

consistingof.

not

has

at

Burien's

each

the

take

that'

center,

am

stone

likewise

Lord,

circular

rest.

at

rest

Lake,

third

My

you,

twentieth

been

is

stones

only give for examples

as

Biscau-woon, near

are

like

the

few

These

acquaint

the

victims

two

ground

great numbers,

(57)

there

near

two

trough.

XII.

is

stand

Papa-Westra,

stand,

there

of which

like

the

(58) LOCH,

TREDWELL'S

lying

with

which

of

Hand

there

Orkneys,

there

and

criminals

in

wise

of

one

195

west,

bigness

same

which

by

the

greater on

of

DRUIDS.

to

and
as

have

have

been

might

as

They

Antiquaries. The

have
would

Circle

of

THE

126

HISTORY

Rollrich-stoncs in Oxfordshire, and

Cornwall,
is

Aubuiy

at

one

time

there

may

still be

was

MARTIN,
of

view

the

country,

being

three
set

up

shorter

I
the

to

commonly
long.
the

the

the

Druids

making

top

the

the

not

intire.

or

have

Time

BRAND

the

away,
end.

caus'd

it self has

speaking of

as

stones

of

stone

end

From

the

ob

some

from

others

And,

besides
these

chang'd 'em

the Obelises

was

all

were

in all

one

the
kinds

much

in Ork

of 'em, says (60) he, appear to be much


bij the washing of the wind and rain, which

many

(59) E-rtat
citur sUtisse.

nunc

in hoc loco

Gfegor. Turon.

(60) Pag. 40.

stones,

sides, and

other

are

is taken

more,

no

thin

fourth

for

Now

of four

of

stone

(59)

which,

Altars

'em

taking

large tho'

Riom
that

ALTARS,

the

of Monuments,

worn,

in

inclosure

here

and

side-stones

Mr.

mention

end, with

men

ney,

shall

and

mention'd.

before

as

flags, or

alterations that

more.

stood

left open,

Many

upper

of

hard

on

Arton

ordinarilyconsist

the

kind

same

left

some

this

Bishop,

edge-wise,two
one

There

GREGORY

In

within

sainted

said before, do

and

between

was

the

procede

but

It

Temples

such

Temples.

in Wiltshire,

Mount,

Auvergne.

of

Druid

in

of Tours
remaining, and for ought I know
of those
the
one
Temples on
so,

of HELEN'S

in

those

places of England.

other

top

of

two

are

Hurlers

the

canceUiis,in quo Sanctus dide Gloria Confessor, cap. 5.

THE

OF

shows

they

of

arc

to

they got

such

their

figure;
and

prevent

diminished

scurf
for

the

particularlyin
That

is

true

less

XIII.
TARS

larly
in

be

intire

in

Drudion

Letter, and

where,

diligentlyobserv'd

certain

not

beg

to*

granted,

that
I

very

thing

give

them

tory

it self

of

use

have

this

they

brief

true.

of

AL

the

particu

in

mention'd
who

yet

destin'd.

were

tho'

else

abundance

one

sufficient

to

do

take

produc'd

on

not

in

was

Here;

authorities

Specimen, yet

shall be

another

Lhan-Hammulch

Lordship
and

A-

of

period, no

as

LHUYD,

they

your

alledge:

in

by

places,

Wales,

with

EDWAJID

what

favor

the

parish mentioned
in

one

Brecknockshire

Letter, Mr.

is

or

others

He

their

yet

in

first

of

longerthan

many

be

moss

seveial

great

are

parish

my

and

lasts

Paper,

to

nor

irregularand

Scottish

have

their

are

the

will

and

Kerig

other

my

all

of

weathers,

some

in

are

and

seen

in

two

all

otherwise

or

of stone

that

There
to

lost

Thus

there

Parchment

than

have

or
Sculptures
Inscriptions

sort

but

course

quite wasted,

are

Wales

one

any

them.

jagged,

Sculptures

such

ran.

of

many

hides

the

disorder,

repair

to

JTis

erected.

in

must

times,

taken

or

and

that,

stones

and

to

abuse

any

lower,

come

several

it is very

places

carry1d

but

and

angles being exposed

care

no

those

large stones

ages,

many

in

how,

naturally impossible,
so

127

long standing:

think,

strange

DRUIDS.

it

for

fbr

e-

always
the

every

his

pro-

of the

middle

the

in

which

lossus, of

in

These

Irish

but

the

real

stone-chests

block

and

the

under

ground.
of

Daughter

it in

call'd

(63)

they

ter-land (6k)

; from

or

head,

as

the

sympathizing

doing

others

what

(61)

Leaba

DHIARMAIT

(62)

FINN

MHAC

(63)

DlAKMAIT

(64) Seisreach

the

variation,
from

these

women

away

Altars
the

was

and
as

DUVNY

one

found

Wife

invincible

reported to

run

have

will

some

with

but

no

be

ignorant country people


a

with

they

night
Ireland
their

in
;

agus GHRAINE.

ODUIBHNE.
Ceathr"uihach,

every

where

quar
the in

affections, and

wou'd

CUBHAILL.

"

Kist-vaen,

last

whom,
he's

villageof

habitants

call
This

as

intertain'd

were

Irish

DERMONT

ing pursu'devery where,

by

places

many

ULFHADA,

fancies, to

such

have

her

Lhan-

which

small

bed.

Champion

took

in

are

CORMAC
CUIL

and

been, she

to

of

coffins,commonly of

or

CRANIA'S

MAC

General

say,

parish

pluralKistieu-vaen,

with

vulgar

King

(62) FIN

bleman,

The

such

now

things quite different

lid, that

and

(61) DERMOT

times

is

call'd

in the

names,

those

the

in

stone-chest, and

good

to

there

as

singular number

the

stone-chests.
are

presently;

great Co

the

near

in

mentioned

that is

Temples,

commonly

were

Glamorganshire,besides that
before in Scotland.
They are

Gyvelach
Welsh

Altars

Carn-Lhechart

at

one

Druids

The

occasion.

per

HISTORY

THE

128

be

done

unt.0j

made

these

beds

ing

place.

The

Parish

as

there's
was

Obelises

other

uses,

that

the

time

write

of the

and,

in

they

show

niversary

ing

we

of

stones

found

Cams
of

than

bigger

of

number

port the

others, by

the

Britons

are,

they

huge

were

cop
of

nature

frequent

are

the

an

great

besides

the

Latin

High

ones.

of
;

in

now

another

either
stones

several

the

Cams,

the

The

form

lesser

there

smaller

There's

XIV.

in

in

Druids

the

of those

were

; as

for

Authors,

other

by

above.

the

Churches,

Altar, several

These

these

J;hem

near

Greec

and

shown

Altars

Altars, and

ignorant

have

will

them,

sacrifices, for which

fires and

as

and

found

ashes

themselves

Al

those

burying places ;

TACITUS,

the

mistaking

from

who,

near

sacrifices offer'd

human

for

superstition,

within

were

PLINY,

CESAR,

get what

Cir

away

They,

found

often

there

the

where

this

to

them.

they

thick

as

Wherever

taken

all

aversion

are

infer, that

rear'd,

or

found

Circles, 'tho' seldom

and

needs

mostly

consum'd

has

planted

hence

Altar, 'tis certain

an

are

of

out

or

bones, which

tars

ly

are

and

thicker.

Altars

as

story

were

much

without

formerly ;

one

Druids

the

Circle

this

have

imagine,

may

you

hid

resting and

their

imbellish

Priests, nay

cular

or

Poets,

that

it appears,

for

both

wanting to

been

not

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

kind

Altar

these, consistingof

some

of

'em

reason

of

their

term

of

CROMLECH
R

serving

much
a

great

to

sup
bulk.

enormous

in

the

sin-

HISTORY

THE

130

gular, Cromlechu

in

CROMLEACH

Irish

Cromleacka
the

of

which

all

worship, and
ing

valent

from

Idol

word

derer

oldest

the

from
Irish

Cromlech

and

the

middle

the

broad

nine

of

t?n

ty

oxen

(65)

foot

long,
draw

can

From

crom

or

crum,

all
call'd

the

thun-

is, that

in

Cruimthear, and
so

in

many

evi

Pembrokeshire,

eighteen foot high,

base,

growing

nar

it^apiece broken

seems

more

therefore

which,

\\relsh,
bent-, and
signifies

awl

equi

an

Tarman,

it

are

lyes by
and

the

(66)religion. There's

the

which

sig-

in

Romans

call'd

is still

There

some

word

Taranis,

which

towards

upwards.

rower

is

Druidical

stone

to

places of

or

the

Nevern-Parish

in

prodigious

Cruim,

an

or

com-

whereof

Cromleachs

Priest

vestigesof

where

these

Cruimtheacd,

Priesthood
dent

whence

Jupiter Taramis

and

Tar

as

originaldesig

from

Tairneach

to

Gallic

be

plural

there

bowing, the

CRUM-CRUACH,
well

the

Altars,

were

(65) bowing-stone.The
the

the

Pedestal

call'd

signifying Thunder
the

as

Cromleachs

Section, may

next

serve

lyes,

these

so

the

of

nation

to

in

Temples,

accident

by

or

and

these

By

the Circular

was

for

Cromleac,

Cromleacca.

stands,

stone,

plural number

or

or

center

"\

the

Lech

than

they

twen

were

in Armoric,
or

Lcac"

not

Irish,
broad

.stone.

((?(") Of
ft-iv ;

for

I he

Sagart,

torm'd
ii.aiiiie:"tly

beCvirrreach, of which
for a Priest, is
cniinary word

nature

same

the

from

is

Sacerdos.

THE

13-3

Celtic

the

with

mans^

that

CESAR

says

(68) no

Druids

among

the

he

as

dialects

presly,there
and

feelingwas

the

Fire, and

besides

were

whom

HISTORY

says

honoring onely
believing,
Moon,

the

and
nifestlybenefited,
all

fices at
less

they

were

which

they

ther

show

indeed

Temples

or

name,

the

thing, by
tors.

There

"

FALLE

(saysDr.
"

call them

"

of

"

course

made

nor

thought

to

Highlanders

vast

some

are

"

been

their
well

evident

"

'Tis

"

of
quantities

this

and

of

found

in

Crom

Hand,'*

Paganism.

of

We

oval,

some

four

others

their

Dutchy

great flat stones,

are

weight ;

.both from

other

of his Account

page

or

other

the

yet remaining in
115th

o-

progeni

and

monuments

ashes

in

as

been

any

Irish

as

and

any

Altars

Pouqueleys. They
bigness

by

the

quadrangular,rais'd three
ground, and supportedby

"

have

many

use

have

of

in the

old

as

Temples,

formerly part
are

sacri

fashionable,

calFd

as

ma

Altars

they

or

Sun,

no

probably to

are

seeing

the

made

Druids

the

Ger

they were

grown

than

more

neighbouringHands,
there
of Normandy,

Jersey)

they

Jersey likewise,

In

lechs.

that

in

necessary

which

by

afterwards

tho'

there,

of

which

expresly that

ex-

foot
of

from

ground

habent, qui
(68) Germani
neqite Druides
Deorum
student.
mnis
praesint,neque Sacrificiis

the

less size.

figure,and
the

some

great
there-

relms

di~

nume~

et quorum
operibus
ducunt, quos cernunl,
et Lunam:
retiaperte juvantur ; So/em, et Vulcanum,
ne
fama quidem acccpetunt. De Beilo Gailico,
quos

TO

eos

lib. 6,

solos

THE

OF

"

"

"

that

abouts,
of

times

near

"

that

they

"

the

"

is

"

"

"

the

desk

and

is

account

'tis

besides

those

side

nor

entitling

them

the

marks

proper

think,

to

Divinities

the
foot

distance

end,

in

of

there

of

manner

while

the

Sa-

of

this

Altar."

the
the

Part
of

culture

few

barran

the

Pouqudeys
rocks

situation

and

alone

Marine

inland

left,

are

hills

the

on

sufficient for

Powers,

distinguishsuch

to

emi-

ceremonies,

the

to

on

kneel'd,

on

is that

those

Priest

that

on

also

me

an

in

suppos'd the

for

reason

Altars

standing

to

up

some

mistaken,

parts is the

their

twelve

set

burning

was

for

inclines

or

stone

perform'd

crifice

ing

ten

where

and

dedicated

At

small

133

us'd

were

sea,

were

Ocean.

sea

they

:
superstition

nences

DRUIDS.

there

be

wheresoever

situated.

But

XV.

stood

on

of

lesser

stones

figures

where

the

conversion

of

the

and

of

culous

than

of

district

brass

statues

that

with

of

gold

twelve

the

on

prey

PATRIC'S

Brefin,

covered

over

of

Circle

formerly belonging

Cavan,

ing onely

of

in

Cromleachs,

our

which
that
the

tell

incredible,

to

about

twelve
of

Obe

the

coun

Letrim.

It

silver, the

stones

about

it

mettals,

both

of

Christian

many

which

and

they bore,

kingdom.

Life,

chief-

the

CRUM-CRUACH,

was

midst

hill

all

was

Ireland

the

in

lises

ty

all

in

est

to

return

to

The

became

be

the

every

Priests, upon

the

legendary writers

things
the

no

less

destruction

ridi
of

THE

134

this

of

Temple
in

Adoration,

Danish

Dr.

CHARLTON'S

den

stone)

the

chief

yellow

not

to

ral,

from

one

of

Ulster

(70).

it here

bols of the

the
ans,

Deity

but

here

must

Wherefore,

cursion.

that

member,

Iy

MERCURY

of

the

Greecs

of
was

rude
not

MF.RCURIUS

in

for

or

to

foren

were

first be-

show
in

kind.

particular,for
sym

this

respect than

stone,

in gene

were

make

your

'Tis

they

Greecs

beg

higk

having stony

the

and

neither

short

literaryex

Lordship
was

since

Rom

the

not

the

to

the

CELTICUS.

re
one-

MERCURY

portray'dantientlyin

(69) Magh-sleucht.

(70)

Antiquitiesof

Celtic nations

KELSTACH

KERMAND

his

consecrated

barbarous

nor

Sir JAMES

way,

Irish, the

country-men
stones,

is still

Buidhe-cloch, from

the

politestof nations,
that

stones,

stone

Wicklow

mere

this

either

such

ignorant

more

in

and
are

of

own

honoring of

of

KELSTACH,

This

the

by

when,

they

stones

my

those

KERMAND

stood

Arcklow

vindicate

or

groundless

name

note

whereas

and

before

Bishop's See

Ardeloch, and the second

in

long

The

of

said

Ireland, he

how

where

is.

mistaken,

was

shows

and

notion

which

on

To

stood

the

the gol
gold (Clochoir signifying

Idol

being.

seen,

of

of

stumps

have

writers to

by

with

all cover'd

names

be

Field

the

or

the

to

yet

are

its

had

Clogher

where

invasion, which

any

WARE

Brefin

noted

they were

in

Moyslect (69),

Obliscs

circular

HISTORY

the

THE

OF

shape of
caduceus

or

feet, being

the

square

wanted

neither

bans

by

BACCHUS

know

MUS

TYRIUS,

was

fhe

Theologues

Irish

their

those

nations

that

litude,

(7t)

epei

Plattetai

oute

da

onta

cap.

16.

Stulos

to

cheiron

Thebaioisi

Dionussos

Arab'IOi
^^t
tvo!^
Sena.
men

tboa

en

"74)

tetragonos.
To

statues,

of

Deity

power

the

anucin

Acheir

to

d'

"uk

"Ida

'"

to

Akx.

**

kai monimon.

Id.

simi

For

dc

prokeimciMW

the

kai ^

Hid,

oo-1S

/"'-

auto.

Stromat.

-Sal-aa ho

38.

aneikunistoo to-j theou

any

schciaati,d' H"r

to

asphales echein

polujothes. Clem.

h0nti"a

by

kai tetra-onos

to

all

without

represented

deitai,pros

believe

'tis certain, that

figure whatsoever.

kai

But
subtil

to

not

any

te

of

Arabians, Greecs,

be

edraion

here

more

not

kai acheir, kai apons,

men,

pod5n

JVuf. Dear.

(72)

under

were

stones

and
stability

of him,

saw

Lapidem.

apt

yet

these

Arabians

nothing

the

are

many

their

(73) MAXI-

Gauls

the

by

cou'd

he

nor

Jovem

Ofspring:

meant

eternal

tetra-onos

that

least

at

it of

per

exe

the The-

the

says

say

to

Thus

among

that

as

stabili

feet

So

God,

than
Philosophers,

or

Romans;

and

JOVE.

shall

Romans

the

body pretends

(74)

by

statue

stone.

of

the

nor

ivhat

not

and

square

oath

hands

figured

was

that

was,

and
solidity

(72) pillar onely.

worship

and

given

reason

days,

his

commanded

was

merry-making

roes

The

those

betoken' d

he

what

cute

of

figure
he

so

or

hands

PHURNUTUS,

stone, says

Divines

the

by

it

no

and

heels

(71), without

sculpture.

any

his

to

for

the

but

square

without

say

ty

135

wings

hand

his

in

with

youth,

DRUIDS.

1*.

eidon

j,

11.

THE

136

numberless

which, notwithstandingthis
figures,

trine, they had,


some

HISTORY

of

some

fantastical,were

very

enigmaticalsymbols
but
operations,
such

symbols

they

were

Nor

other.

numerous

the

Romans

to

(75)

chief

God,

such

heaps,

because

led by likenesses,

again, be

regard

with

worship'dby

Gods,

the

to

tions of Gallic

Heroes.

but that
pillars,
top, capable to

ing
use

channel

from

XVI

Nor

in

due

will

on
subjectrequires,

(75)

Deum

place to

Sun.

often

mis

will not

been

been

Critics

modern

some

sepulchralinscrip

say

no

have

about

groove,

the

or

have

to

pint, and

hollow

this

whereof

I shall

Celtic

the

History; especially

said

of them

hold
or

our

of the

out

many

whereas

had

he

already,and

Thus

Gauls.

the

their

was

particularare

in

induced

themselves
;

been

shown

Gods,

with

in

manner

Britain

BELENUS,

to

has

as

forg'dnew

have

above

as

mistaken

MERCURY

among

Historians

Roman

Now

in this

and

believe, that

and

different,so

doubt, but

Gaule

in

I show'd

as

Essence.

together,and

or

attributes

places were

all dedicated

were

seldom

do

Cams

the

The

different

emblematical

divine

the

of the Divine

not

in

of

ingenious,and

very

onely

often confounded

for each

heaps

'em

doc

of such

more
a

cavityon

somtimes
inch

an

the

the

more;

deep, reach

ground, of

the

time.

I dwell
the

maxime

plurima simulacra, $c.

longer here,
STONE

FATAL

Merc.urium
Cues,

de

colunt.

bello

than
so

our

calTd,

Hitjits sunt

Gallico,lib.

the

which

on

hill of

(76)

Tarah

times

of

(77):

and

Teamhuir, or in the
corruptly Taragh, or

(76)
whence

The

(77)

true

fatal stone, and Clock na


from
fortune : both of them
main'd, there
this

prov'd

and

scuit

ba

Mar

breag

stone

re-

But

reign.
prophesies for 300
the
reign of JAMES
to

was

to

is in verse,

Oracle

fine,

Faisdine,

an

bhfuighidan

this

an

saor

are

Druidical

The

Teamhra,

cases

soever

other

first

originalwords

Cioniodh
Man

the

England.

stone

blood

such

as

inclos-

Tarah.

country

their

EDWARD

these

in

false

as

from
years,
the first in

of

one

oblique

the

on

being

which

to

Liag-failor
the stone
cineamhna
or
of
a
persuasion the antient

the

what

us'd

Ireland

Heathenism

of this

names

Irish had, that, in

of

Kings

supreme

inaugurated in

be

137

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

Lia-fail,

Dlighid flaitheasdo ghabhail.


Which

slated,
Ni

The

Lowland

Scots
old

And

wizards

The

Scots

some

rhymM

do

feign,

Saws
wits

in

they

be

place

tran-*

Poet

shall

has

there

Irish

have

years

to

nay

ibidem,

tenentur

it thus:

reign,

must

find,

thus

Scot, wher'e'er you

pretend

locatum

blind,

this stone

English

regnare

have

If fatesfail not,

2000

monkishly

BOETHIUS:

lapidem hunc,

Consider

above

truely,but

Invenient

Where

The

thus

fallatfatum, Scoti, quocunque

Except

And

read

be
may
in HECTOR

"

fixt

render'd

find
must

memoirs

Ireland

it;

this stone?
be

your

throne.

concerning

it self

it for

is sometimes,

TOR

138

in

ed

wooden

under

sound

Chair,

the

der

the

of

man

thought

was

rightfulCandidate,

manag'd by

ly

HISTORY

but

Druids,

none

or

bad

who

was

not

for

very

one

has

read

of Memnon's

fatal

stone

This

Egypt.
confirm

to

Britain,

ty

this

from

it

the

by

stone,

the

piurpose

of

King
original seat
of

year

in

statue

in

of Great

the north

Coronation-

the

as

Christiani

since

even

three-hundred,

Inis-fail. But how


whence
it, or
use
they had if,
dark.
What's
the
certain
is, that

Christians

fact,

to

as

have

about
is tha

is indeed

priety

of

in

and
of

the

borders

this

stone,

Argile (the

2d,

by

the

the

for the

Prophesy!

our

present Soveraio
of

speech

is not

the

other

of

that

conquest
same

pur

but

evidently
difficult
or

race,

the

Scottish

other,

princely
blood.

King GEORGE,

Scottish

of

of

son

onely false

not

prov'd;

every
consequently be

the

respect is still paid

great

of

descended

the
first

Britain) till, about

moment

in
prince
kindred
claim

him,
case

lay

equivocal, it

any

not

it

his

Heathen
this

that

for
the

being a thing most


Europe, who, some
way

illusoryand
find

to

KENETH

So

it was,

FERGUS,

sent

in

that

Picts, transferred
before, to Scone.

as

may

842,

Scots

having inlargM

the

pose

the

Tarah,

at

and

Scots;

of

Christ

ALPIN,

to

E-

poets call'd

mentioned,

have

^actual

in

Priests.

thousand

they begun
lyes altogether in
after having long continued

by

is" one

to

soon

of

un

sent
superstitiously

Kings,
one

mute

vocal

was

Colony

year

easi

be

those

thing

title, that

of

turn

continued

Scottish

the

till, in

Irish

the
where

of

seat

the

to

emit

to

race

This
who

but yet in pro


the
line; but

line, as others
begun the
SaxoBrittish, Saxon, Danish, Saio- Danish, Norman,
Yet
lines.
and
this not
Scottish
being the
Norman,
in which
the Irish and Scots understand
the Oracle,
sense
first here

of

the

Brunswick

they ought consequentlyat tais very


it as false,and groundless.

time

to

look

upon

the

let your

soonest,

this

reputed Magic

Antiquary

than

has

BALD,

of

ing

**

Soldiers

"*"

motion

was

and

and

that not

figureof

the

of the

bulk

pose, there
that

feat.

two

were

onely in
this

By

perjury,or
fess,what

be

could

prevalentis

cases,

which

them

the

Knightbe

three

led

was

most

useful cheat

the
the

oval
vast

the

better still to

im

was

in

eoncern'd

the

of

condemn'd
or

brought criminals
extorted

af

their

from

to

con

them.

in some
Superstition
people to fancy, and among

horror

many

the

surroundingflat stones,,

other way

no

as

the stone,

that

but

their interest

often

the

otherwise
a

the

middle

acquitted,as
and

stone

upper

pretendedmiracle they

add, that

me

absolutelyconceal

and

or

the

fection led them

So

did

of

surface

the

the

prominence ;

stone

upper

stone,

upper

weight of
cavity,as well as

of the motion

mechanism

tho'

from

of the

inserted

of the

the

in

extuberant

yolk

let

its

that

onely a justproportionin

calculated

was

which

this

that

then,

cavity in

the

or

CROMWELL'S

Usurper

flat, so

was

the wideness

and

To

stone."
stone

globular:

in

speak

(sayshe),

SIB-

his His

to

Balvaird,

discover'd

was

inserted

lower

motion,

it

ROBERT

Gentleman

of the under-surface

was

lower

the

by

performed by

the middle

the

That

of

secret

less learned

no

Appendix

the

informed,

broken

was

the

in

am

the

Physician, Sir

Kinross.

"

stone

**

the

Rocking-stone near

61

which

which

able

and

the

Bards-town,

**

Lordship into

discovered

tory of Fife

**

HISTORY

THE

140

of

judiciousSTRABO,
to

society:

not

that

it

considering;

OF

other

THE

DRUIDS.

14!

incomparably

that

in

and

important,

and

destructive, being solely useful

it is

disturbs

onely

XVII.

by

which

of

which

they

lands

ated

in

don't

had

of

holding

one

shelter

and

Wales,

all

in

(90)

or

the

sea

Corruptly

larger.

mean

and

being by

the

or

are

these

of

lie

to

not

another

Na

be

that

is,

seen

in
from

different

but

Sky,

the

Druidhneach,
them

con

both

lies ;
nan

places;

Of

in

Ireland

artificialCaves,

which

consistingfrequently of

generally opening

having been,

Tinan

of

situ

could

intire

in

but

There's

weather.

yet

and

groves

Oak

of

chambers,

several

rivers

those

Schools,

his

under-ground houses,

those

which

Church-

as

when

Many
some

not

retir'd

Tighthe

Houses.

Druids

of

Towns,

or

the

other

some

call'd

(80)

tives

are

in

also

and

very

buildings,capable only

much

several

remain

sorts

Forts

where

the

houses

Druid's

of

sort

sat,

from

him

not

HOUSES,

for their

stone

person,

templative Druid

DRUIDS

pleasant

little, arch'd, round,


of

it

it, of

but

many,

Houses

midst

the

while

it ;

their

mean

yet the

nor

Priests

the

society, but

the

to

now

come

pernicious,

examples.

with

abounds

History

numerous

to

finally overturns

and

confounds

ten

of

distresses

or

more

detrimental,

most

management

the

have

that

cases,

Druinich.

as

those

towards

of

the

THE

142

describ'd

Germans

gainstthe
for

Druid's

do

tour

never

from

do

Scots

friend
nifies

of

(84)Deas,

but

from

and

Soil,

the

right hand

most

as

of

one

the

in

much

this

eradicate

(81) Sulent

from

ac

sanctifi

(82)
the

one

by

and

Albani

as

certain

Di-sul, which

in Cornish

sig

Dydh-syl

as

do

the

same

hand
right,understanding,
antient
round
in
to

it may

be

inveterate

first,

British,

addicted

pists. Hereby
to

the

Protestants

The

the

and De-zil

in the Welsh

west,

This

Irish

the

Armorican

in

they walk

to

contrary

imagined,

mine

Sunday

heap.

derive

antient

south, is calTd

unhallow'd

not

Sun.

the

north, (83) Tuapholl. But


an

but

east

the

by

vulgar

the

to

come

of

course

the

as

The

war.

great respect for the

them

round

or

Deiseal

of

time

a-

hiding places

or

Cams,
fire-hallowing

the

cording to
ed

and

round

times

in

still show

Houses,

and
sacrificing
three

rigor of winter,

goods

the Hands

in

by (81) TACITUS, magazines

extreme

and

men

HISTORY

of

names

being

Hebrides

the

the

ever

Deuiol,

seen,

how

as

specus

Sun,

next

the

are

al

the

hard

This
Superstition.

et subterraneos

the

Pa
it is

custom

aperire,eosque multo

swffugiumhiemi, ac receptaculumfru-

insuperfimoonerant:

Et
gipus ; quia rigorem frigorum ejus modi locis molliunt.
abdita
tur
autem
et
:
si quando hostis advenit, aperta papula
quod quaerend"
defossa aut ignorantur,aut eo ipto fallunt,

De

moribus

German,

Dextrorsum.

(83) Sinistrorsum.

(84) Item

Deis.

cap, 3.

THE

OF

how

tient

Gauls

of

POSIDONIUS

Gauls,

the

turned

wards

the

east,

do

anders
the

for

and

they

the

Sun,

observ'd

has

Romans

the

mong

so

from

of

PLINY

as

they begun

is, from

descent,

strangers

this

to

which,
ping right-hand-wise,

PLAUTUS,

seen

who

was

which

perhapsfrom
theous

In

(86)
tumque

1.

Si
ver.

it

of

custom

from

the

circumagimus

Deos
70.

Hist.

quod

Nat.

the

worship
Pas

when

lib. 28.

of

you

right hand;
to the

west

in laevum

salutas, dextroi-orsum

of

(87) Curculio

osculum

ad
-,

their
'em

respectful
turning from

dexteram

a-

allege more

turning to

turning

was

of

most

to

left,

to

were

of them

one

II-

Augury,

in

Nor

it.

in the

one

left

right

to

to

our

as

Lil.
epila dexia Strephomenoi.
proskunou"in,

religionus credunt.
(87)

do

this

adorando

corpus

this

himself

to

answers

(85) Houtoi

Seen.

by

Gods,

the

worship

It is

be

may

sages,

not

religious

right

the

Aboriginal Italians,

neighbors, the
Gallic

that

answering

the

according

west

the

of

worship

about,

whereas

con

who

custom

their

to

reputed

all devotions

in

the

east

of

out

PLINY,

their

turn'd

who

is this

by

left in

the

to

us

Nor

to

as

now,

course

writer.

contrary

an-

they worshiped

confirm'd

clearly

but

(86) Romans,
ceremonies

elder

the

them

informs

ATHENEUS

much

that

says,

ancestors

religionwith

same

(85)

as

tradicted,

their

God

and

ago,

when
right-hand-wise,

round

Gods,

their

the

143

years

long before, by

knows

turned

thousand

three

us'd

was

DRUIDS.

4.

cast.

east

Pag.

to

152,

referimus, toferisseGaUi

cap.
censeo.

Q.

Act.

1.

THE

14*

that

west,

left thumb,
of

course

retain

we

or,

small

reckoned

no

decency,

in Great

the custom

the

of the

book

breaking of

Britain and

of the Gods

drinkingove

it, according t

if
Impropriety,

der, since this, if you


custom

of

others express

as

Sun;

the

HISTORY

not

themselves.

ord"

downrigl

Ireland.

faith in

have

which

And

no

HOMER,

VULCAN,

a bumper
(88)Iliad, filling

wa

in the

his

to

rn

JUNO,
th* other

To

Nectar

Skenk'd

But

To

XVIII.

houses,

of the

as

conic

or

it

earth

form

persons,

and

(P8)
kretcros

Autar

Hand

have

belongedto

the

tra"

Druidess.

but

at

open

to

sit easy

in

Oven

the

top, and

It cannot

by

each

the

no

tois alloisi theois


1.

means

antiquarieshave

contrary. Some

aphusson. It.

contain

other*
the

Ver. a97.

endexia

make

fire

and

above

from

edifice call

shire, just of
Sterling

dimensions, is by
our

lin

it : 'tis also arch'd,

description'tis clear, that

ho

the D

of St. KIL

and, accordingto

to cement

ginal, whatever

fancy'dto

the

/""

chapterof Auk

discourse about

of the floor.

the middle

ARTHUR'S

from fullflask he

will, it is all of stone, without

figure;

this whole

in

from right to hj

in the

our

them

place,must

this

nine

resume

of

one

mortar,

in

righthand

remarkable;

very

sweet, which

of the

more

be

Gods, going round

the

of Roman

same

ori

thoughtlesly
it the

Temple

pasinonochoei,gluku nektar apo

of

others

and

TERMINUS,

they might

well

as

fancy'd it

any

of

piece.

larger, and

much

outside, is in Borera,

the

and

DA

bable

ascribe
to

to

make

not

the

that

those

how

author
of

of

given

imperfect all

tain
the

subject:

frequent

very

many

the

usages

tive

this

and

that

in France,
about

their records

are

of

nothing

needs

those

of

ours

were

Treatises

kind,

there

such

thingsbeing
in

same

less defective

to

both

These

Druids

they

con

essential

to

the

all lost

to

very

Druids,
;

while

clear them,

since

countries.

Nor

in the

Druidical

part, concerning the

except

Monuments,

ascrib'd

happily remain
the

the

so

ever

re

convince

to

be ; since

tho'

is

Wales,

about

do

this honor

the Irish.

of these

none

are

in

on

Treatises

(hithertopublish'd)must

Scotland

over

Lordship,

your

they

ARTHUR

King

7em

of

kind

origin they

whose

fabrics

father

'tis pro

which

Fir-bolgsshare

or

all such

Anglesey
have

apt all

are

Ireland, and

in

Picts

instances
you,

Belgae

The

puted the

they

; as

thing Pictish,

every

know.

with

Picts

the

St. KIL

another

unfrequent in Orkney,

not

houses,

stone

on

neighbouring

his

with

abounds

Shetland

Druidess.

sod

who

Druid,

respects, but
green

with

unacquainted

not

was

of

by

persons

adjacent to

lie

an

habitation

the

was

with

over

grown

the

to

each other

in all

house

another

such

Just

As

containing five

of

capable

pillars,and

hogtrough :

the side of the

off from

go

vaults, separated from

low

three

wall

be

to

arches.

those

there

in St. KILDA,

house

when

triumphal arch,

have

little is it like

so

145

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

more

instruc

Philosophyand

146

THE

Politics, whereof

the

in

\vriters,have

HISTORY

modern

realityknown

Brittish

nothing further, than

furnish'd

the Classic authors

and

French

'em

if

or

add

they

thing,'tis absolutelyfabulous, ill-invented,and


thoriz'd.

These

greater work.

subjects I

reserve

AUBREY

Esq;

JOHN

Royal Society,with
I

Oxford, when

and

idler

Irish

words,

of

person

the

all

wherein

he

with

which

he

And
to

tho'
be

so

accurate

at

he

he

not

Nor

to

whom

person

can

signification,

who

had

indeed

or

connrm'd,
intirely

was

him;

he

as

instances

of

foresaid

; I

mean

was

the

will I

very

of

honest

seen

I cited

set

where

in

are

seem'd

fact.

made,

were

this
who

the
what

occasion,
in

many

the curious

latelycome

several

most

But

SIBBALD, who,
very

in

down.

and

man,

before, and

Sir ROBERT

au

Monuments,

deny justiceon

Historyof Fife, but

every

the

by

and

of

matters

reflections he

hands, affirms, that there


to be

Temples

supply'dme

such

pay

notion

any

such

were

the

was

rightnotion

respects merits all the regard which

other

Armorican

or
extremely superstitious,

I wanted.
a

of

and

mention'd

in his accounts

facts he' knew,

collecting

the Welsh,

Druids,

often

; and

great pains to observe

was

yet

with

met,

the

numerous

was

sound

in

I show'd

thorities which
return

then

so

acquainted at

Vocobulary

which,

of

Temples

became

my

of the

Member

sojournerthere

hours

ever

that the Circles


at

together than

better

agree

only

was

my

during

whom

unau-

for

intire
a

any

Druids

in

his

to my

Temples

in the
Scotland, particulary

THE

148

""'

ed

"

sent

"

as

"

with

these

parcelof

a.

that

says,

them

of

many

chimneys :

All

books.

Scotland,

I shall

set them

will

give

in

occasions, I desire
de

am

(91)
Tme

do, what

Orator

ignorant^of what
ready to

ever

others

learned

XX.

But,

journey, I
(90)

never

they

kind, than

that I may

I cannot

and

1 do not know.
do my

Where-

rest.

what

of

are,

certainly
nothing
this

self,but

be

to

Upon

can

to ob

all such

CRASSUS

in

deny being able


to confessthat I
This

I shall not

to account

it in

ignorance.

My Lord,

desire the

Pag.

e :

account

reason

libertywith

same

re

every

it ; and

of fact.

matters

the

sure

onelybe

and

of
Inquiries

for
suppositions

CICERO

the

than

more

go to

be emulous

person

among

subsist
I

where

loss, I shall franklyown

amiss

more

me

conjecturesfor

my

trude

to

and

is, probableguesses

that

be

at

am

abler

some

less than

in

will have

curious

the

the world,
satisfying
ever

of them

the

tiles in

when

Monuments,

accounts

at least

or
satisfy'd,

like Dutch

all likelihood

in

also

by

away

rate, in

at this

re-

our

(90)

taken

up

south,

forgot,at

WALLACE
are

have

to

in the

describe
accurately

so

hope

been

Dr.

such

spect, and give such


able ; that I

friends

our

not

that,

so

intended

we

the stones

century this pavement

only in

to

they had

neighboringgentry, to
their

and

Zet-land."

from

turn

stones

if

rarity;

HISTORY

before

favour

of

I take

my

having your

intended

thoughts

55.

(91) Mihi liceat negare posxe, quod nonpotero; ctfateri


lib. 2.
net/tire,
quod nesciam,

THE

OF

example.

next

my

upon

parts of the world

this
of

mother
her

them,

Such

as

DOTUS

miration,

the

Sais

in

he

saw

length, fourteen
whole

of the

one

of

do

there

lies

stone,

in

on

barren

are

near

say,
on

it.

who

heath

east

nine

human

side two

art

in

HERO

of

of

way

ad
in

heigth, the
that

it

was

twenty

first instance.
in

been

citing,or

Hand

Hoy,
many
that

HERODOTUS,

oblong

an

hills ; call'd

moderate

two

MI

cubits

about

have

in this

of contraries, the

thirty-sixfoot long,eigh

foot

'Tis all hoilow'd

scoop'd by

the

and

place
is my

passage

It is

foot broad,

teen

number

History, that

and

affirm, without

valleybetween

DWARFY-STONE.

in the

eight

or
by
antiphrastically,

I suppose

theirs.

speaks with

he

stone

one

those

this

knowing

about

twenty-one

This

Sais.

Orkneys,

them

which

from

parallelto it, all

And,

of

of

sea,

days sailingfrom

accounts

subject.

our

breadth, and

by

in the
be

the

once

ignorant of

as

of his

edifice

an

now

and

Scotland.

magnificent Temple

Egypt,
in

thither

Egypt,

to

Book

second

consistingonely

brought

that

can

from

situation

lies of

nothing

as

But

ages.

entry of the

the
at

NERVA

of

in

says,
to

Highlanders

in

condition

fabulous

as

are

in their

the

sciences, is

however

less revolutions

and

and

any

changes

near

and

together

their

in common,

monuments,

own

of

all arts

in

of

couple

here

distant

I mean,

have

they

of

speak

different

Egypt,

manners.

less

no

climates, than

Yet

149

reallyparallel
; brought

stances,

and

DRUIDS.

and

high.
within,

other

No
or,

as

we

industry,having

foot square

with

stone

stones

may
a

door

of the

dimension

same

intended

was

bed and

doubt

no

both

couch,

is

both,

not onely to
suppos'd,

of

for

wise
there

is

beds.
where

The

marks

and

the

his wife

the

door

be

Just

by

residence

did

it is

it

I wish

know

enough
ments,

men

of

causes

ever

so

Now,

XXI.
the

between

rnv

and

absurd

like

the two

tool appear

Dr.

every

Giant

habitation

is

tho'

wholly

WALLACE

thinks

Hermit, but it appears

in

As

the

to

by

nature

; than

use

of

might

originaldesign
curious
not

are

will rather

so

himself.

the

Surrey,that

things,but they

till they discover

I am
particular

about

are

is

the fire,for which

vulgaris,that

it were

in tbeir search
tho'

cause,

this

the

which

; but

pleasantspring,for

study.

summer

of this monument,
to

shut

for their

of

equal

an

afe

says,

design to ly always by

not

clear and

the inhabitant.
make

hole

was

besides,

way

as,

of

design'dfor lettingin

from

of the

at

destroysthis fancy,which

the

this Hermit

Above,

door

this stone

had

form

the

bed, Dr. WALLACE

in the middle

tradition

alone

might

two

of the workman's

groundlessevery
it

persons

been

have
the

place made

and

hold

of smoke

lettingout
a

out

large round

lightand air, when

With

of it, cut

neatly done.

very

from

distance

end

there is another

end,

it, which

foot from

two

close this entrance.

to

pillow,capableto

the north
a

about

lying

is, at the south

in there
a

HISTORY

THE

150

enough

patient

assignany

suspend their judge

the true

cause,

which

yet in

resolv'd to do.

LORD,

religiousor

imagine what

civil

use

of this

you

please

stone, my

THE

OF

difficultyto
ble

the

less
?

for

machines,

in

Ireland

and

Forts

tell

to

in

land
which

assign
and
there

Irish

of

fable

Britons

Egyptians
stood

get

about

is, why

and

unobserved

or

Monuments,

our

possible,appears/

the

when
learned

and

ths

and

Nor

of

Yet

much

But,
not

upon

not

say,

knowing,

Highlands

things, there
of

inhabitants

are

as

the

what

ancestors.
so

is

they

to

what,

improbable, that, according

vicissitude

ceasless

Irish,

what

except

tho'

altogethermisunder

will

you

Scythian,

the

than

writers.

by

Scots

Scots.

Trojan

but

of

for

the

Scot

notion,

the

original;

they harp

Spaniards :

of

Albanian

and

stock

their

BOETHIUS

confirm

ridiculous

more

Egyptian

there

reason

for

in

especially the

British

there,

Politeness.

King

Celtic

extraction

their

and

instead

Egyptian,

how

Egyptians having

Irish

evince,

thing

any

relate

the

immediately

more

an

of

And

sufficiant

HECTOR

the

little

those

any

of MAINUS

a-

Britain, and

kind,

of

a-

in

erected

be

Learning

reign

they

shall

as

the

scarce

every

stories

their

about

Hands

Obelises, induc'd

both

some

have

of

do

nor

of

were

Architecture,

mentioned,

have

time

they

parts of

we

this

strange

there

been

or

which

the

of

cou'd

other

Monuments

These

how

uncultivated

in

than

have

Obelises

prodigious

no

and

is ;

piece

that

rest

barren,

remote,
such

this

accomplish

to

mong

Lordship

your

151

DRUIDS.

was

these

Hands

the

present

ignorant.

But

W"re

for
tho'

to the

time,
as

Egyptians
say

what

THE

subject

fy,

ed

and

the

all

ancient

no

any

of

1718.

)
)

MAN,

places
be

the

on

satis

to

said

as

Monuments

these

in

we

visited,

examin'd,

be

have

and

nam

all

by,

LORD,

Lordship's

And

lyl.1.
July

OF

the

to

MY

Your

intirely

ILE

sure

to

not

abound

less

therefore
remains

if

The

light

diffusing

improve,

than

sorts,

and

to

does

fail

cannot

Inquirer.

above,
of

it

will,

you

HISTORY

very

most

humble

obliged,

Servant.

its

THE

THIRD

LETTER,
TO

HONOURABLE

EIGHT

THE

Viscount

.|_ TARE
third

the

like

where

the

yet

the

merit

the

needs
of

their

Philosophers they

have

did

my

of

the

self

the

And

design,

fact

doubts
come

send

to

order
it

of

newly
and
in

modestly

by

advanc'd^

or

controversies,
way

prefers

of
to

in

not

ornament,
his

own

speak
that

con

of

my
of

citations

proving

or

sornthing

idea

deciding
to

my

subject

still

the

in

of

and

large,

besides

is, that,

Tho1

Letters

this

clearer

the

hear

plan

last

have

matter,

give

to

the

of

quality

study.

on

you

from

find

to

two

indispensably requisite

authors,
of

the

and

much

the

Lordship's

your

honor

variety

in

impart,

where

being- considerably

taining great
to

In

that,

place

found

be

the

to

derogates

not

Druids9

work

the

yet

know

to

particularly explain'd

very

History

it

visit;

in

than

welcom

tier

is

you

DRUIDS

the

always

resort

own,

treble

to

of

company

intertarament

best

must

Lord,

My

Priests,

other

LORD

Molesworth.

Liberty,

with

time

who,

THE

matters

of

antient

of

such

writer

expressions,

as

have

THE

154

sometimes

occasion

tho'

hint

with

duce

cou'd

few

into

from

best

use

it very

not

be

much

to

llth

section

the

antient

Gallic

less

certain

you

member

ing

the

you

slated

HERCULES

"

But

"

unusual

very

"

remaining.

"

of

such

so

that

you

et

bald

are

the

His

swarthy
wou'd
from

IAPETUS

Ton

quctc

Heroklea

with

hoi

With

few

hue

re

tran
utmost

OGMIUS.

God

this

he

them

other

call

in
is

extreme-

hairs

he

has

wrinkl'd, sunburnt, and


as

take
the

K"'ltoi OGMION

tit

the

before, his beard

sequuntur in HERCULE

longiorastint, quam

you

(1) LUCIAN,

picture of

is

skin

no

thus

language

manner.

man,

as

gray,

some

(1)

the

am

that

I have

says

country

they represent

ly

"

their

of send
"opportunity

which

Gauls,

given,

have

HERCULES,

an

piece;

you'll

Letter, of OGMIUS,

originalGreec,

in

"

"

take

them,

instances

forget*than

not

The

decrepitold

"

do

the
"

of

name

whole

arruracy.

first

learnt

have

explicationI

of my

in

antients, who

two

or

The

promis'd to

from

"

One

come

them

tho', like

very

that

give

the

success

see.

books

method

pro

either

to

among

sparingly.

sorry

the

masters

with

chuse

This

intire.

for which

lying in
I

barely

but

themselves

in

people'shands,

my

needed

purpose

instructive,or

practis'dit

in

being

yet

History

my

the

to

which,

passages,

upon

easilyabridge, or

and

curious

touch

to

relation

them

HISTORY

of old

that

him

to

be

nethermost

hie commode

CHARON,

hell, or

or.omadsousi

Galiico

mariners:
or

any

phr"net~". epichorio,
:

insert

Graeca

etcnim

possint.

156

THE

HISTORY

be

very

"

tellinghere,

what

"

ed

absurd

"

ing

"

of

""

with

"

made

'"'

who

turns

"

and

panited

"

looked

to

sorry

the

most

the

Chains,

smiling

towards

them
these

upon

things

"

times

admiring, sometimes

"

times

chafing with

"

Gaul

"

show'd

he

as

"

being

"

nation,

"

"

"

"

as

pose,

"

Don't

wonder,

man:

for

"

true.

All

young

But

age

More

"

in

mens

and

Thus, among

you,

he's

that

old

alone

age,

breasts

much

learnedt than

your

of that

do

not

MECURV.

represented as

with
more

rude

sup-

HERCULES,

it to

loves

not

seems

is SPEECH

MERCURY

if your

are

affairs,

stranger,

it

Gauls

attribute

we

experiencedhas

wise

We

certain

suppose,

picture, for

you.

SPEECH

vigor

to

some-

perfection,

in

superiorin strength to

far

he's

because

most

this

; but

Eloquence

"c

our

Greecs, that

you

"

"

of

ignorant

explain

disturb

little to

or

of

some-

doubting, and
a

not

thence.

great while,

Philosopers,I

I'll

leads, and

from

speaking Greec

by

said,

he

tongue,

indignation.But

by,

of the

one

enigma

the
a

stood

who

those

he

Bow,

God's

drawn

as

links

being occupy'd

the

of

tip

find-

Painter

left with

the

appear-

extreme

hand

right

the

the

fix

grudge

matters

The

me.

to

and

In

hole

to

the

Club,

all these

where

place

no

of

will

Nor

free.

set

to
own

show
Poets

thick darkness
to

old

an

its ut-

speak

d:
Jill'

say,

untaught youth.

selves,hony drops from

TOR'S

"

certain

"

speech ; for,

"

call'd

Liria.

"

shou'd

draw

"

to

his

"

to

you;

"

the

"

contumeliously

"

to

"

Comedians,

tongue;

if

when

bor'd

of which

one

for

finally,as

"

And

"

HERCULES

"

SPEECH

"

he

t(

his

*(

and

"

Hitherto

the

you,

among

Consolation

Eloquence
age,
Belles
most

As

my

as

his

of

to

men

of

himself

fit than
stock

Speech

by

wise

man,

we

think

whence

you

wing'd

words,

this

ingeni

From

study

that

easily shot, quick,

and

profession of

of
was

his

old

teach

the

in

him
ever

argument

an

to

knowlege

formerly.

first instance

is furnish'd

was

copious,

more

than

mature,

he,
own

your

opinion,

been

expression

his

when

complete,
and

more

of

atchievments

unbecoming

not

said

persuasion:

by

the

that

rather

Letters

polish'd,
II,

was

being

having

draws

picture LUCIAN

of

his

Gaul."

the

spoke

all

souls

the

penetrating

Tongue

bord.

are

Reasons,

keen

were

arrows

out

are

we

us,

mostly

conquer'd

have,

tongues

that

and,

is his

says,

accomplished
;

""

of

Iambics

certain

learnt

of
affinity

remember,

for

Ears

admiration

near

Nor

Ears.

the

with

are

their

of

the

florid

SPEECH,

or

cause

no

consider

you

tips of all Prater's

The

ous

be

will

flowers

ty'd by

him

after

men

Tongue,

have

HERCULES,

that

Now

is,

that

right,

remember

emit

Orators

Trojan

Lirioessa,

call'd

voice

Tongue

the

and

"

157

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

by

man5

HISTORY

THE

153
^f~m~~~""""

ii

_""""""""

""

for his

who,

less

no

Eloquence and

conspicuous

his memory

have

all that

was

by making
shall

be

wisest

the
one

taken

from

and

in

serve

proving, that

am

in

are

old

any

fice, without
nevertheless

nistry of
for

and

CAESAR,

JULIUS

public

and

wou'd

ing

or

said

be

to

done

having
nations

the

Jews

Levites.

been

Britons

offer

sacri

added,

this

by

mi

the

unlawful

sacrifice

to

do

other

without

so

Druids,

says

(2)

service, they offer

private sacrifices,
they interpretre
:

and

even

propitiatethe

restoringof

their

when

particularper
for

Gods,
Health

(2)

Illi rebus divhiis intersunt, sacrificia

adds

he

the

they

Druids,

Tata

or

as

the

of

introduce

to

The
divine

perform

ligiousobservances
sons

it

for

was

Priests

their

the

it

as

to

Celtic

the

Gaids

circumstances

understood

Druids;

the

of

any

wise,

is

which

allege,when

to

the

simply

learned

Heroines,

History.

wherever

further

those

to

occasion

author

any

foil

instance

frailtyand

whose

my

have

understood

second

my

illustrious
in

so

as

other

passage

antients

the

woman,

frequentlymention

her

of

to

Immortality, which

to

God

will
perfidiousness

Lordship, deserv'd

your

consecrated

any

Druidesses,

in

Liberty, qualities

love of

continu
make

nse

(3), to offerthose sacrifices.

inter prctantur.
procurant, rcligiones

De

publica ac priBdio

Galileo,

lib. 6. cap. 12.

(3)
Ibid.

Adminjjtrisque ad

ea

sacrificiaDmidibus

uiuntur.

OF

THE

established

9^Tis the

is to

so

without

Gaul

fit to

relate

of PARTHENIUS

of

think

him

(as

vritten

he

says)

into

cursion

Miletus;
semble

exchange

the

pag.

Ethas

303.

in the

"T

Edit.

5)

Ethtton

tf)

Hote

de

tenth

auto's

esti, raeJeaa

had

History

story

cities,

that

ouk

hoi

aneu

Galatai

Druidon.

katrJramon

Lib.

ten

as

far

not

was

which

army,

irruptioninto
those

to

gold

4.

at

to

ransom,

and

them

giving

silver.
away

for

Ionian,

303.

ct

Yet
do-

philosopher. Lift.

anea

pag.

the

women;

Hanov.

de

in

an

women

upon

tlausian poiein

The

celebrated

was

an

of

some

to

game

of the

most

forc'd
of

This

GAL-

made

Barbarian

seiz'd

were

took

Eclog.

all the

rest, made

before

lost.

now

Gauls

the

sum

the

eigth

CORNELIUS

Temple,

of

great

Barbarians

the

it, being the

occasioning

the

of

to

festival

Milesians

the

Tis

sack'd

territory,and

whom

(4)

his

city : part

Milesian

story.

wrote

(6) the

which

the

to

book

Ionia, and

separated from

in

his

he

together

from

sacrifice, I

simply

of Nysa,

Thesmophorian

the

passages,

first book

the

When

"

the

in

inscrib'd

thus.

proof

Love-stories, related

use

/'horn VIRGIL

sacri

never

Nicea's

addresses

for whose

uns

whole

ARISTODEMUS

by

'ARTHENIUS
US,

the

of

STRABO

unanswerable
one

said

being

and

(5) they

follows

being premis'd, now


wherein

DruiS:

This

Druids.

the

(4)

says

sacrificewithout

it, affirming,that

expresses

fice

say,

Gauls,

the

offer no

to

Philosopher,which

159

of

custom

SICULUS,

DIODORUS

DKUIDS.

Edit.

quac

Amstcl.

scqui^ntur.

'6.

HISTORY

THE

160

whom

((

mestic

"

of XANTHUS

"

behind
Miletus)testing

"

olde.

"

turn'd part of his

"

amass'd

"

with

"

by

"

came

to

Marseilles, and

"

went

to

the

"

to

"

Gauls, and intreated

"

those

among

use,

the

into

of the

Greece, he

in

his wife

belonging

was,

"

"

arms,

to be

lodg'dthere

family,according to

"

CAVARA

"

turning

"

the arrival of her

"

sake

"

redemption.

"

XANTHUS,

"*

friends

"

him

"(

wife

"

what

bringingwith

came,

his side

his whole

(7) ARISTODEMUS
(8)

claya
SHANE

So
common

he's nam'd
name

open

apartment.
abroad,

it

that

with
for her

priceof

the

him

was

re-

her

generosityof

the

invitingseveral

of his

own

relations, hospitablytreated

nearest

making

by

strait

with

been

extoll'd

Gaul

The

and
and

; and

Husband

in

went

acquainted him

after, ERIPPE

soon

he

his

to

whereupon

nation's usual

that

had

who

(8)the Gaul,

he

him

lovingly led

very

the

greatest authorityamong

the

Hospitality,cheerfullyreceivinghim,
his wife ; who
and saw
running to him

"

he

Then

Gaule.

into

so

over

being guided

whence

intertain'd

where

house
of

Italy;

had

he

whom

crooss'd

piecesof gold, he

thousand

man

years

lovinghis wife,
passionately
and having
into money,
substance

soonest

some

boy onely two

in

XANTHUS

Now

her

wile

birth

and

first rank

of the

(a man

(7) the

ERIPPE

was

and

feast

on

then

asking him by

estate

purpose,

was

calls her

worth,

an

and

placinghis
interpreter
XANTHUS

GYTHIMIA.

and it is to this
ARISTODEMUS:
Vid. Act fur attainting
in Ireland*

by

OF

answering

"

order'd

him

to

""'

whereof

he

should

one

"

he

*'

"

"

When

XANTHUS,

gold

to

"

told

*"'

V.'

"

so

him

three,

fourth

the
went

Barbarian

and

fulfill his

not

lie

had

in

the

shoos

yet
of

find

equitable, believing

her

ransom

much

him

inform'd

Gaul

the

there

''

ing him,

that

country

she

him

better

CAVARA

XANTHUS.

hated

lov'd

from

that

Xanthus

to

moment

in

was

haste

punish

kindly permitted it, going


the

tains

ofGaule,
he

having
to

ther

accompany'd

had

barian

leading Erippe.

and

way,

lay

minded

adorn'd
hold

times

of

sh^

to

the
it
was

offer

victim,
which

Now

when

Gaul

he
she

accustom'd,

very

Bar

the
the

moun

they part-

sacrifice ;
desir'd

doing,
he

of

part

When
as

in

mind

him

far

as

mortally

own

the

said, that, before

he

was

them

her

delight

her.

with

gold

than

his

depart,

to

wife

assur-

no

in

have

of

she

took

resolv'd

declaration, and

this

that

for

the

sum

XANTHUS

and

pieces

day

kill

child,

her

or

He

wou'd

great

in

Barbarian

any

him

bids

and

was,

what

was

servants

Next

more.

of

promise.

his

to

not

sum

thousand

ran-

heavily

he

that

expect

cost

ed,

great

so

that

but

his wife's

for

having

parts,

himself,

for

one

bed, his wife

to

not

could

four

into

sum

Barbarian

the

for his little son,

one

that

did

he

*"'

*"'

back

as

if he

hid

that

"

take

the

pay

her,

more

that

they

chid

danger,

divide

leave

shou'd

som.

piecesof gold ;

wife, and

for his

"

'"'

161

DRUIDS.

thousand

"

"

THE

and

Erippe
as

at

brandished

o-

THE

his

sword

her

head

her,

at

but

HISTORY

thro', and

her

ran

Xanthus

pray'd

her treachery
discovering
permittinghim to take away all his

concern'd,

"

no

hence

more

out

the

was

of

ministry of
their

probable, than

that

tended

servants,

by

no

for

ciallymentioned;

circumstances,

sary

writers,

III.

In

of

whom

book, whence
and

for

that

from

the

that

from

Gaule

are

(9)

Kalmnenen
thein
i|S.u

"

neces

as

'

ly

good

kai

HeraVIea}

"Jiat"s Keltcu

bous

ic"

"

thelem

te

the

which,

tho

relat

posi

more

dencmin-

was

of Britain

for

in

Gaule,

That

hote

tauten

Hercules,

ap''fcrrthtias

tas

n,e

tou

jroteron

Ix

to

time)

drove

d*

us

aia

Herakleocs,
aii^

all

PARTHEhe

as

Cerucnoa

Bretanuon

de, erasthi-i^an

ri
apodoiiuai,

to

moment

and

of

those of CESAR'S
a

ar

illus

small

much

to

same

good

as

no

Britain

para

by

aphikesthai

choras,

in

author

(I mean

said

again

return

originalinhabitants

the

thupatpra.Keitir.t'n ononia
tas

spe

peculiar occa

however

Great

Listen

(9)

Legetai dp

the

province

descended."
Tis

last

the

maintain

Hands

Brittish

KIUS.

'.

to

ated

"

well

is told

story

affords

Poem,

proofs,viz.

the

by
I

"

instance

had

we

what

tration,

"

some

at

not

are

supposed

not

recommended

gument

tive

is

im

not

quality was

they

ever

third

my

HERCULES,

ed

because

are

is

insertingthem.

of

sion

his

ordinary, as

there

where

of

man

is

which

himself,

number

Druid

no

such, unless he

more

or

one

TB

Gold."

sacrifice with

this

offered

Cavara

that

mentioned,

all

at

him, and

to

because

concluded,

be

to

be

to

not

off

cut

nuckthr-..

hupar^;/.aK-

"

"

that

man,

"

stature

"

made

"

governed

rit

and

her,

to

yet fell in

and
her

**

understandingwith
unworthy

not

body

in

ce

either

*"

(IS),succeeded

"

were

"

the

is

plainlythe
Armorican

and

wherein
that

pairfrom

minated

from

possibilityof

(13)

whom

the

after

he

onomazen

4.

CALLUS.

Galli.
Gallia.

sprung,

gofernment

his

subjects

name,

as

(15)."

This

writer

one

the other

find it

(sincewe

penetratedfar

him

her

on

called Galates

was

which

right

omits

being probably the Province,

rul'd

probable,
:

as

shall

contradiction,
that

from

segoreuthe.Lib.

begot

for his valor, his

names,

than

more

tagraenous

He

(14)

cour-

to

came

the

Britain

had

Hercules

name

the

Bretannus

'tis still

its

she

story, onely that

same

with

suppliesus

high spi-

very

country it self Galatia

whole

that

greatly admired.

hero, who

Galatians

called

this

and, becoming renown'd

**

of

grandfatherin

his

in

sex,

despisingall

she

mind.

or

her

had

Hercules, whose

with

consent

parents

Gaule,

of

tho

majestic person

With

in

rest

being

love

"

son,

the

beauty : who,

court

age

"

Province

daughter exceeding

""

HISTORY

THE

104

apV

beau ton

pag.

303.

of

to

that

Gaule,

Galatas, arh'

it

h5n

beyond

New

he

deno

was

Britain

our

as

him)

to

come

prove

that

insinuated,

sumpasa

the
had

England
Galatia

pro-

has

from

nus,

is

Old.

the
of

the

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

Hesychius, in
opinion

same

PLINY

and

But

tain.

nothing

at

antients, BEDA
ages,

and

writers,

of

some

are

as

the

any

thing,

that

Nor

is the

epithet

words

Britain
of

Great,

Leuka

j^hulanemoatai

te

(20)
modern

possiblymake

can

added

from

Gaule.

our

Britain,

to

Bretanoi.

areimaneon

Gcrraanon.
Vcr.

(17)

Ton

(18)

de

Brettaaon

Scaldi

nominibus

delude

Gessoriacus

Bellovaci

Hassi.

occupasse

Nat.

His.

Lib. 4.

Haec

cepit, incolas
Bntanniam

Cap.

J]

Insula

est

Britones

babuit; qui de

ANN

1, Ambiani

17.

oorum

In

Lib. 1.

Cap.

multuni

solum, a quibus
Armoricano,

tractu

crperam,

Br.

divcr-

nomcn

ac-

ut

t'ertur,

vindicaruiit*

1.

quibusdam exemplanbus, seJ

vicinum

depreheuda.s,

sacra

baud

advecti.australes sibi partes illius

Hist. Eccles.

pluribus
juncti

aestimanti, Gallos

tamen

credibile

BRIT

superstitionutn persuasione : Sermo


^-c.Vit. Agric. Cap. 11.
sus,
(20)

Toxandri

extera

vocatur:

284,

antiperanBrettaaides

Menapij, Morini, Oromansaci

In universum

(19)

hai

paronumoi,

incolunt

Pa^o qui

solum

tauton

be

(19)

middle

peopled

was

-Eatha

(16)

the

celebrated

most
as

express

the,

say

ages

among

of

those

Bri

To

many

likewise

the

on

still.

so

by

Great

against

CESAR

among

(j7)

Britons

evidence

Tacitus

is Di-

little countenanced

over

of

present

Bretan-

So

me.

places (18)

more

word

his Commentator

Gaule

have

Eustathius,

fore

who

of

coasts

not

am

elder,

the

maritim

the

with

onysius(16) Periegetes,with
Eustathius

165

THE

more

any

cou'd

objectionto

an

of

coast

be

made

the

with

Welsh

Little
tions

Britain,

the

derivingBritain

BRIOTAN,

from

or

Trojan ;

nor

the
is the

Prytania,Bridania,
cian,

or

Scandinavian,

tish words.

the

little before
Commentaries
within

Rheims

less

on

to

It

here.

CESAR'S

JULIUS
it is

their

was

so

or

who

even

him, Divitiacus

any

other

Hero

Brit-

Colonies,

continent

; and

join'd in making
low

as

conquest;

say

folly

either Pheni-

even

the

recorded, that

memory,

Irish

from

Britons, like

those

the

Celtic

imaginary BRUTUS
originallyPRIDCAIN,

Dutch,

neighboring Provinces,

settlements

had

insular

long govern'd by

were

by

The

fabulous

word

or

Druids, but

you'll see

descended

or

the

disquisi

concerning the

the
no

call'd

fable of

the

These

anon.

There

from

invented, is call'd

Historyof

the

Colonies.

and

before

was

Dissertation

next

an

Language

the

Gaule

thence

antiently so

was

you'll see

into

not

come

into

Britain

as

the

Graccia,

from

all Colonies

were

colony in

Magna

called

Ireland, which,

to

respect

the

of

Great

that

than

country of Greece, when

mother

coast

assertion

this

Italy, formerly

the cities of that


besides

HISTORY

in whose

those

the

(22) for

down

of

as

(21)

Soissons

ambassadors
their

King,

of
the

finitimos, latissimos feracis(21) Suessones esse suos


simosque agros possidere: apud eos fuisse Regem nostra
memoria
eiiam
Divitiacum, totiusGalliae potentissimum ;
eliam
By*
qui, cum
partisharuin regiomim, 1um
magnae
Bello
Lib.
2.
tamiiae
obtinuerit.
De
Gallico,
imperium
Cap. 4.
Different from DIVITIACUS

the Eduan

orBerundian.

THE

OF

Britain.

of

also

but

onely of

not

scepter,

exploding

the

fable

Colonies

and

Gaule

Great

who

those

of

part

sway'd

Dissertation, after

same

about

and

in

Britain
the

France,

ancient

Milesians,

the

Britain

laws

and

men

whose

not

forbear

at

singleword

of

to

one

Cantabrian

the

Spanish

de

calls the

Mundo,

before

And

Pisistratus.
did

Oify

Mikra

(24)

En
-kai

(2'))

Br^ttaaia,

touto

g-R

d'

(24)

mt'a

in

lerne

rather,

d'
at:i

Prinwrd.

oiok;is
ce?o:i

he

Almagest. Lib.

kai

lerae.

as

E^cles.

It-riiidi
-

Britannicar.

as

be

They

Orpheuj
not

the

the

Tyrant

te

Vcr.

pay.

that

the

Q.

tunchaaoasia

3.

."

it

Sitidas asserts,

ftpistamenosttitaine,
M'-h-il^u

antients

in his book

with

cap.

me^istcu
Cap.

Latin,

Ireland

(26) said,

2.

old

Archbishop USHER

true,

when

(ok;'ano) nesoi

of

Britain.
who

with

true

as

if ONOMACRITUS

if this be

Albiuii
If-j-c.tit-uui,

Aukiiios
Par

(23) Little

arguments,

mixture

Britons,

be

country

Gasconnade,

not

still use

is the

Crotona,,. contemporary

of

do

this, all the

Afgondutica,or

of the

Orpheus

which

by ARISTOTLE,

(2.5)lernis,

him

author

call'd

Britons

reckon'd

were

and

of

names

tongue agrees

being

Irish to

the

PTOLOMY

b"

Irish

Besides

Arabic.

held

and

the

all
'

proper

present all other

present idiom

and

self is

government,

Biscaian,

or

the

Gothic,
knew

and

the

langTia^c, reli-

places, they constantly did

whereas,

Irish,

were

gion, customs,

tl*e

regions,

excepted, the Ncmetes,

Firbolgs, the Danannans,


from

Gaule

great

Id?

positiveproofs,that

as

of their

one

all

In

Welsh

the

you'llread
not

of

Pri?ice

potent

most

DRUIDS.

1240.

7.3-1%

,OUSHJ

djo,

HISTORY

TH["

16S

peoplecou'd

not

as

before

the

cf the (27) world, that

Britons

name

better

name

of

us'd.

the Irish

Irish

ucsoi

(,27) Dissai

Irki.

louernia

Lib.

we

Hand

mentions

caWd

he

Iris, a
the

right

there

read

great

eaters

so

(33);

long ago
at

as

(34),that

Fretauuike, tou

kai ton

or

otherwise

(31), the

intermix

may

"

every

duo

ludicrous
same

(32) his

which

said

in

wou'd

Shamrogs
PLINY
of

one

as

Britons

in the

present.

easi Bretianities ai.tia RGriou.

Hosper

5. pag.

Irish

'tis now

were

believe, that

words

in express

(29)

Ste

as

(30)Brittish lerna,

it kerb-eaters

reads

great request

v28)

Siculus

or
poetically

the

things,where

to

one

and, if

Strabo, that the

Abridger

either

been

Abridger calls

serious

as

Diodorus

stiles Ireland

lerna
Inhabiting

in

(28) Brittish Juvernia, the

it

inhabitingthe

that has

his antieiit

duce

Britons

were

expressingEre, vulgarlyErinn,

STRABO

with

an-

Ireland, than lerne, Juverna, Hibernia,

name

any

so

DionysiusPeriegetes,
opinionin his description

same

phanas Byzantiusnames
least of the two Hands.
(29) the

found

lernis.

tientlymention'd
cited, is of

be

where

any

the

were

says

Brit-

T'Vr. 5uG.

elasson.

Bretaiion, tous

katolkouiitas

tva

ouQiaazomeaSui

309.

(.SO) Koi

ten

Bretaaikon

(.31) Hoi

ten

lernen

iiesoa

lernea

"c.
icloiites,

lib. i. pa*.

katoikouates Bretanoi.

110.

lib. S.

(.32) Polupha^oi.

(,33) Poe^hagoi.

(34) Britannia

clara

Graecis

nosi.r"^:;ue
scriptoribu*^

Of1 TtfE

tish Hands

8"

DttUIDS.

call'd Britain ; whereas

was

name
distinguishing
so
call'd*and so
liarly

of the Britain

the

"

"

below

much

dignityof

the

in the before-mention'd

dare

read, if

not

more

However

have

much

at their leisure

part,found

my

To

IV"
passages,
Greec
as

authors

are

quite lost

unobserved* will
I have
the

taken

Writers, such

to

be

in

as

no

shorter, in the

concerning the

ent

an

Albion

author

And,
that

to

the

HECATEUS,

ipsinometi

Insulae

say

nempe

from

such

it here

by

a
*

(not

great

by

reason

into these

the

Bntaanicae,

speak

of truth

of

the

fre

parts, after

Phenicians

Britanniae

fuit.cum

the

Greec

to

deal

that
affirming,

HERODOTUS

by

EUDOXUS, HIPPARCHUS,

Hands

them

History

antient

more

others)knew

Brittish

shown
as

antient

most

to the

ornament

of the Greecs
quent navigations
was

for:

diverse

are

these

copy'd by

small

hand.

and

of DICEARCHUS

to

principalwork*

my

or

men

imployment,con*

POLYBIUS, POSIDONIUS

ERATOSTHENES*

the way

greatest

which* tho' generallyneglected and

'tis certain

way*

necessary

adds

The

much

as

unbecoming them*
and I,
:
Originals

it

into such

have*
;

it"

be found

be full

prophesywill

longer some
we

and

"

thither therefore*there

return

some

Greec

the

Historywill

our

relish'd.

it almost

sideringthe lightit

pecu-

I repeat
particulars*

thought

not

in

now

wa3

Dissertation ; which, tho' infi*

nitelyless useful, I

search

famous

writings." These

Roman

"

Albion

vocarentur

so

his

anti*
coun-

omnes

Nat* Hist, lib,4, cap. 16*

THE

170

give

their Tin

had

trymen

HISTORY

little account

from

of the Hand.

for several
being interrupted
writers

did

treat

ed

with
have

antients, when

xvith

Section

call to mind

second

that is mention'd

them,

chapter of

ocean

doubt- but

History: who,

of

have

we

in the third

written about

standing

with such

seve

'tis one

Abridgement

STONE

is mov'd

which

Rocking-

whereof

the third book, is said to have

GIGONIAN

(36)

of

passages

those

Letter, and

in the

HEPHESTION'S

of PTOLOMY

this I

Of

ids, describ'd in the xivth and

Dm

our

but

record

had

forgetthe

yet standing ; you'll not

are

the

of

convincing proofsin

to

not

you

the

by

set up

ral

But

of

world

the

exactness.

give some

to

Letter.

stones

than

commerce

abundance

their Predecessors

honesty

occasion

this very
the

less

no

vend

parts of

northern

fabulous, what

as

shall

these

this

afterwards, the later

ages

onely themselves

not

fables about

But

cou'd

tho' he

(35)hence,

small

the

near

matter

as

the

of asphodel,tho' immoveable against the greatest


force imaginable. This passage needs, in my opinion,
stalk

no

But

comment.

writers
to the

talk of any
of
straights

Oute

....

phoita. Lib.
(36)

P"ri

nesoas

3. cap.

tes

kkeitai, pros pasan

(37) Now

HERCULES

oida

note,

when

the Ocean

(37),and

it may

then

Kassiteridas eousas,

be

those
with

without
the

on

ek ton

ho

old

respect

speci
coast

of

kassiteros hemif}

115.

periton
bian

of

to

are

thing near

that

fying the place;


(35)

we

Okeanon

Gigoniaspetjras,kaj fcotinono

ametakinetos

Gibraltar,

ousa.

asphodel

HISTORY

THE

ed

from

these
the

Said, that
and

vain,

that

of the

ane

of

with

the

inan

of

^nd

other

imagine the

the

guilty from

white
I

in

their

self

my

"wing of

uncommon

placeso cunninglyto
laid such

appears

coupleof

themselves, was

in

white
them

in

own

hold

to

enough

the
a

to work

fancies of ignorantpeople,
who
superstitious

the

in

far

and

raven,

con*

such,

I will
as

no

for

wings, it

having seen

thing

As

him.

Ornithologists
omittingthem.
so

full,

were

contradict

would

some

wantonly sport

bellies

their

when

judgement

deed, that

that

to

and

hungry,

when

nothing fabulous,

no

ypon

of

cake

had

superstitious

was

ridiculous

was

STRABO

eat,
innocent, tho' they might greedily

having

tains

it self

discern the

them

yavens

If

ravens,

Divination
that it

or

cou'd

yavens

(.9)

very

above

stress

this whole
to

all nations

storyof the

either fabulous

me

persuadedARTEMIDORUS
being examples at this time

two
or

of

Augury

ravens

; so

nothing

ravens,

wonderful
in

was

am

upon

Nay

right,there

the

thus

securinga
give is, for

placeto themselves ", and the firstI shall


ought any body knows, the very placehinted by AR
in his Description
Pr, MARTIN,
TEMIDORUS,
of the
of Bernera, which
Jles of Scotland^discoursing

jnilea in circumference, and lyesabout


the south of Harries,
"

there's a

coupleof

"

in this

ravens,

Hand,

which

(39) In Annotatione ad hunc STRABONIS

140) Page

47.

two

five

leaguesto,

says

beat

is

(40) he,
away

locum*

all

fowls

and

"

ravenous

*"

flyabroad, they

"

but

In this Hand

their young

them

tells

He

Couple,which

(41) elsewhere

us

cautious and

in
frugaldisposition,

North-Uist;

and

in

all

But

Eagles

as

near
"

the

no

continue
ones,

as

told him
the

soon

as

any

other of

place of their abode, that they

sheep

or

fawns,
about

lamb
and

in the Hand

wild-fowl,

their nests

so

opposite Hands,

league

distant*

eagles,and
(41) Page
(43) Page
(43) Page

as

60,

There

tender of

they

the

kind

own

young

careful of
killed

of

is such

another

their
injuring

any

lambs,
in

their

of

to

natives

so

bones

nearest

saw

assured

The

never

make

Hand

he

frequentlyfound

are

that

in the

their

are

tho* the

that

fly.

to

than

little

their

those eagles

further, that

Sky.

near

the natives

as

able

are

(43), says

drivingaway

they

couple (4-2),

account

which,

in the Hand

near

of

Lewis

suffer

little Hand

Augury

of

never

rather

of

greater one

would

him,

such

another

less birds
his

sea-fowl

Trod

in

coupleof eaglesthere

of

lake

lie of

Doctor,

the

Tavens,

were

and

another

such

the

respects, upon

agree

or
inhospitable,

same

still of

further

land

many

Hand,

the

fresh-water

to

great noise.'*

a
a

there's

of the

are

and

able

are

of

out

to remark

moreover,

Loch-hruist, where

build,

also

blows

many

ARTEMIDORUS,

with

called

when

beat

without

not

ment

173

fiRUIDS.

THE

OF

and

purchase

which

is

couple

native

of

country,

THE

174

be viewed

in the

tion

is

TION

from

their cradles

the very
their

by

and

orators,

their

by

servants,

which

by

educa

into

their

read

them,

the

poets,

but

men

parents,

with

converse

they

observe

our

school-masters, by

historians

may

SUPERSTI

as

nurses,

all that

by

and

tutors

part of

no

instilled
industriously

is

which

Hands

I must

eradicated

be

difficult to

so

(44)which

Scotland.

of

map

this occasion, that there

on

by

of St. Kilda

end

the north

on

HISTORY

more

by the Priests, who in most parts of the


particularly
hired to keep the people in error, being
world
are
commonly backed
by the example and authorityof
of the
the Magistrate. Augury was
formerly one
most

universal

the Barbarians

and

Greecs

Superstitions,
by
equallypractised
;

certain Priests

in all

the
na

pretending,tho' by very contrary rites and


the language,the flight,
and
observations,to interpret

tions,

feedingof

birds

as

ENEAS

thus

addresses

HELEN

APOLLO,
the Priest of (4,5)
Divum, qu" numina
PHOEBI,
Trojugena, interpret.
Qui tripodas,CLARII
lauros,qui sidera sentis,
JLt volucrum
Fare

Now

age.

to

to

branches

what

comprehend

takes, and

ready

linguas,et praepetis'omina
pennae,

how

the

sap

sprout forth
have

for many

(44) Page 299.


(45) Virg. Aen.

lib. 3.

deep

keeps

alive

again, after
ages

been

Superstition

root

in

the
cut

the

stump,

trunk

and

off; I beg

THE

OF

patience

your

cially since
I

When
ed

out

Irish

we

day

siness of

after

the

at

of

one

them

cried

see

cousin, by heaven

ing

at

the

hard

hopping

by,

the

two

in

ther

appeared

the

to

what

south

were

their

business.

that

oblative

Two

less

no

saw

they

Scarce

that

of

fully

had

not

with

to

well

go

had

towards

was

the

would

them,

confirmed

This

and

in

he said, when

with

to

or

o-

they

; which

be

great noise,

the

about

brought

Augury

flew

raven

point

The

us.

transported,nor
way

feather

white

other,

feeding and

raven

bu

the

to

me

minutes

many

joy

will

matters

which

wing

stir till they

ing

", and

out

some

told

They

and

old

the

further, about

way

instant

same

walk

contracted

had

coffee-house.

importance

some

of

gentlemen
I

good

ravens,

1697,

year

espe

villageof Finglass,
two

way

of

subject

tho

whom

going

were

the

in

the

to

with

acquaintance

following story,

upon

the

upon

stock,

they

are

the

in Dublin

was

one

overtook

hear

to

175

DRUIDS.

success

of

remembrance

my

(4"6J VIRGIL

full before his sight


"

doves, descendingfrom their airy flight,

Secure

the

upon

With

Observing

plain alight

grassy

"

watchful sight

still the

motions

of their flight,
course
they took, what happy signs they shew !
They fled, and, fluttjring
Sec.
by degrees, withdrew^"

What

DR

(46)

"

Geminae

"

Ipsa
Et

sub

ora

viri coelo

viridi sedere

Observans

cum

quae

forte
venere

YUEN'S

Translate

Columbae

volantes,

solo

vestigiapressit,
signa ferant,quo tendere pergant.
Aeneid,

lib. 6,

vera

190,

THE

176

HISTORY
^^

Nor

unmindful, you ma,y be

was

that the Raven


for nought,

'Tis not

And, croaking,has

on

it

having any

raven

time,

same

of

righthand

the

J used

ahy

of this

vanity and unreasonableness


tion, comparing it amorig
no

less absurd

chance
are

to

forgotand

persuadedall I
AD

forbid

by

did

the Law

what

carryed in

candidlyowned
could
them.

to

far

Thus

(47)

Non

as

temere

Semel radebat

thousand

Gauls,

quod

But

am

argument

was

specially
little

made

have

that

been

the

fail,these

Augury

they misthem

of

about,

as

weeks

afterwards, who

and
led

I been

I have

manu

the

happensby

my

reasons,

est,

them

if one

would

some

have

the old

laeva

that

went

me

But

ARTRMIDORUS.

after birds

they

luck.

pieceof Supersti

even

say,

had it not

listen to my

then

ten

of MOSES,

them

impressionon

good

remembered.

could

or

proving

in

HOMINEM,

other

the

the

at

to
extravagancies,

where

while

to pass,

come

other

of dreams

one

of

show

to

arguments

great many

left5

my

croaking

person,

infallible presage

an

was

on

questionsto those gentlemen,


b;/the observation of all ages,
white in its wihgs,and flying

certain

was

sings now

the earth with his feet.

scrap"d

once

puttingsome

my

they said
that

that pas*

(47)PLAUTUS,

sage in

Upon

of

sure,

not
"

seemed

by

the

rambled

whereof

corvos

one

cantat

to taste
ravens

yet

so

part, to
mihi

ntinc

of
far
use

ab

pedibusterram*

et voce

crocitabat

sua.

AuluL

Act. 4, Seen. "

ver*

1"

the words

"

Italy, which
another

while

"

bays, by
Illyric

"

under

the

CELL

ALL

"

:"

and

still you

But

logrecianTetrarchy.

er

certainty, and
the

cerning

terrupted,

as

wonder
all

so

rather

fables,

many
in

man,

any

Geographers

and

the

implicit/
(48)

Ex

credited
his

and

portioin

by

Thus

the

most

These

I do

not

up

much

so

judicious of

most

instructive, I
Greecs

later

transcribed

in

look'd

be

to

in

time

long

came

in

as

them

abandon'd.

which

at

Philosopher STRABO.

the

for

quite

remote

hither, open'd first

trade
been

great

most

after

came

originalRelations

the

time

or

the

even

as

had

Phenicians,

the

by

such

Grecian

the

that

reason

on

than

much

con
particulars,

more

many

Hands,

Brittish

minute,

and

knew

were

before,

shown

had

writers

Greec

antientest

the

that

they

see

by good authorities

have

Gal-

the

expeditions.

birds,that guided those famous


V.

Macedonia,

they founded

parts of Asia, where

most

after di

how,

Greece,

invaded

EX-

AuGURY,

OF

tellingnext,

viding their forces, they

the

GAULS

THE

FOR
SKILL

THE

IN

OTHERS

in Pannonia

settled

"

guidanceof birds,

the Barbarians, and

slaughterof

the

Rome

penetratedinto

them

of

part

"

city of

the

burnt

and

took

settled in

after TROGUS,

(48) JUSTIN

of

ff

DRUIDS,

THE

OF

by

the

mean

were

Roman

consedit, quae et urbetn


sinus, duelportioIllyricos

Italia

Romam

captain iucendit ; et
bus Avibus
(nam Augurandi studio

callent)per strafes Barbarorum


consedit. Lib, 24, cap. 4.
Z

Galli

praeter

et
penetravit,

in

ceteros

THE

17S

writers, till Britain

ing

rather

CESAR;

been

and

HISTORY

shown

than

it

beyond

(4"9)Hand,

an

it.

But

exact

of

to be

the

from

MONRO,

time,

is very

Doctor

MARTIN,

Hands,

Las

short, besides
his

which

quently
things
ably

in

him

from

to

before

Greec

Hands,

Hanc

who

novissimi

of

those
pur

instances

too

observations,
have

to

the

curious

be

may

fre

agree

there, which
that

own

one

Summer

am

world.

But

mention

those
makes

the
of

pas

in

the Druids

PYTHEAS
now

time

own

ought

return

remotest

Massilia,

Marseilles, is the
maris

tune

insuiam
esse
circumvecta,
Tacit, in Vita Agric*cap. 10.

Classis

tirmavit.

oram

the

of whom

colony in Gaule,

(49)
mana

writers

of

laudable

Monuments

History of
in

113

Letters, together with

spend

to

the

antient

Brittish

he

others, that

of

public appearance
the

all to

be

Scotland's

one

several

show

good hands,

sionately desirous
Hands,

of

to

That

our

in many

former

two

my

accounts

more

in

native

omits

and

antient

been

fifth of

iho'

has

this.

to

them

he

it

round
sailing-

Consideringtherefore

of

out

have

its

is

materials

own

made.

read

many

and

over

that

there

the

are
yet his descriptions

pose

JAMES

who

travelled

fleet

time

imperfect:

the most

contradiction

Hands

that

in

tho'

Lieutenant, AGRICOLA,

the Roman

remotest

hav

JULIUS

Hand,

an

by

so

of
possibility

part of

account

DONALD

all

be

to

discoveries,till VESPASIAN'S
found

fullyknown,

conquer'd by

believed

scarce

constantlyaffirmed

was

be

to

came

primum
Britanniam

very
Roa"-

HISTORY

THE

180

ticular

Ocean

the

of

works,

whereof

He

was

the

ed

Thule, meaning thereby

beyond

about

(52)

Britain

perfectlyagrees

denies

that

Great

of

it, either

his

that

"

onely

"

Britain."
-

-.

Dia

(54}

there

are

the

In

"Thoule.s, hiin

it fe

due

who

first Book,

"

They,

have

seen

near

(55)

Bretanikes

tes

men

apo

west

Hands
he

Book,

second

the

Thule, but

small

several

or

placesto

inhabited.

be

phesiPutheas

STRABO

But

he

says,

heks

he-

Ibid,

pepeguiasthalattes.

tes

is

sea,

(53) Thule,

any

arktou, ong-us deinai

ploun apecheinpros

xneron

cou'cl

frozen

Ireland, speak nothing about

Brittish

(5?)

Iceland.

it

says

the

Britain, whereas
or

inhabited

he

near

ever

was

was

he, in

says

"

there

to

mention

utmost

which

from

other

fragments.

that

thing beyond Iceland,which

that any

"

the

days sail, and

six

which

of

few

first,for ought appears,

Hand

north

onely

have

we

his

perishedwith

has

109.

fag.

bleak,

Iceland

as

without

ancient

in the

Tul

(53)

has neither

and

shrub;

Tul-i,

tree

nor

any

which

foreners

that

so

Hand, the

alteration, is the naked

for Iceland, and

name

naked
language signifies
most

have

must

proper

naturally

Ibernian or Albionian.
Tul,
learnt of the Britons, whether
in
gach ni nocht, Tul is every naked thing,says O CLERY
It
was
a slender affinity
his Vocabulary of obsolete words.
to

be taken

Europe,

nor

written

putes

about

ThJite.

alias nSsous

"$K)

Ho

tcis r.vm, ho

western

in the second

le^ontesmichras periten

lernfn,

eti ten

psuchosoikoumenen

Keltikes

ayv" tes

"ie ge

host,-

book

peri^teg Thoules

ta

Bretaniken.

epekeinamen

ousan

nomizcin
cpt-keina

land of

themselves.

Ibid. pag.

pros arkton,

lies)
See

concerning the.dis

lernpn idon*"s, onden

t"~n BreiarrkSn

Scottish

is it the utmost

for neither
for Thule
yet of the Brittish Hands

I have

Hoi

(one oCthe

"

what

(54)

Ha

that made

of sound,

legousin
;

110.

piouscschatos legctaip"ra

tes

Bretanikes, athlios de Hia

aoikCta.

Id. Lib.

2. pag.

124.

THE

OF

of

"

The

utmost

place

"

from

Gaule

towards

"

Ireland

"(

is

"

ed

"

reckoned

by

for

three

places ;

that

there

cold,
from

is

which

he

is

the
You

the

right

PVTHEAS

in

the

time

of

Alexander,

the

time

of

Augustus

is

proceeding

have

to

less

affirm

the

ticians

in

in
the

the

of
my

But

all

standing
ties

world.

the

gross
is

right, and
he

be

one

STRABO,

book,

same

should

these

Europe,
esteem

in

Strabo

who

lived

in

that

it

as

be

the
.

the

unjust,

upon

also

there:

judge

the
un

in

of

the

say,

doubting
it

wrong,

was

who,

notwith

the

extremi

little

whether
no

affirms

if

as

should

foremost
a

Mathema

best

mistakes

than

was

STRABO,

pretending
in

and

mathematics,

no

to

much
liv'd

competent

Malabarians

of

manifestly impossible,

understands

traveller, who

ac

who

were

as

no

is

was,

who

be

is

relator

the

or

nothing

how

impertinent

related

things

that

or
a

the

two

conclusion,

here

Tiberius

others

such

by

spot, but

in

northerly part

contradicted

man

any

scarce

therefore,

see

and

Is

"

name

and

this

which

than

less

no

Ireland,

again

most

earth.

he,

all, since

habitable

more

of

draws

at

Ireland

him,

to

repeats

be

to

Britain,

continues

Britain,

he

Thule

no

said

difficultyinhabit-

This
of

time,

our

beyond

cold, with

north

beyond

habitable

the

situated

beyond it,"

the

is

it

in
is

north,

uninhabitable."

habitable

cording

the

the

all,

that

so

181

navigation

being

of

reason

that

ly,

which

DRUIDS.

authors
lower

he

great
that

in
in

was

matter
at

least

THE

189

whether

known

is not

it

HISTORY

which

place beyond Ireland,


of

north

Britain,

"

Prince, says

the

"

to

"

tice of

such

should

dally

"

cannot

"

profit,meaning

"

tercourse

contribute

Empire

the

Geographer, who
of

truth

ply

or

VI.
the

correct

As

for

said

are

they

when

sailed

convenientlyfor
Pros

(56)
antas

En

and

for

all

places,
But

not.

believe

the

neither

had

an-

he

to

sup

them.

it

was

the way

of

ARISTOTLE
for

to

Britain.

oikountas

ophelein hemas

the

ouden

to

before

Phenicians, who

have

discovered

it,

therefore

so

Grecians, Spaniards,
an

eie

kai malista ei

dunanta

known

showed

Lying

the Phenicians,

kai tous

well

very

tas
pleonckteraa,
nesous

raeden,

dia to

toi-

oikein toiautas,

anepiplekton.

176.

te

eurethenai

kai tois

sailors

Hegemonikas chreias

lupeinmete,

pag.

(57)
neson

tas

choras
gnorizein

hai mete
Ibid

te

not

in-

might

reason

or

or

no

Emperor

describe

Geographers, as

by (57)

which

himself, whereby

Ireland,

antient

the

Prince

would

Massilian

being directlyin

it

his

to

espe-

being

lame

very

reflection

to

accuratelyto

is, he

to

more

information

better

any

it

and

Greec

tient

is

relation

have

let them
the

is

there

respect

no-

damage

our

This

us."

it

yet

exact

Hands,

to

the

to

importance

an

such

in

Romans,

the

with

true

have

thing

any

between

be

is it of any
to

live

they

places

their inhabitants

regions or

"

perhaps

he,

habitable

any

still

he

(56)

nor

be

there

thalasse, te ekso
ereraen,

Herakleion

echousan

hulen

te

stelon, phasin hupo Karchedonioa

pantodape,kai potamous plotans,

SoipoisKarpois thanmasten, apechonsan de pleiononhemeron


De Mirabil,
sequuntur illic reliqui,Hiberniac imprimisconvenicntia.

et

quac

Auscultat,

OF

it

Gauls,

and
for

this

Irish
"

trade, and

"

those

of

of

the

"

fable.

and

by

foggy

sea;

close
signifies

learnt

(63) Cronium

sea,

from

thick

sound,

mere

Melius

(58)

Mare

Mare

concretum.

(62)

Crunn

has

waters

d
congeal'

(63)

it

is in

the

dark

Irish

books

which

(62) round.

and

other

this

or

sea

the

or

Croinn,

afterwards

Agric.

the

same

Croinnigh in both
obstruct, to heap, and

stagnate

and

that

oldest

as

Cronos,

or

to

slow, (59) the

From

travellers
named

was

invented

Saturn,

per commercia
cap. 24*.

glaciale,pigrum, congelatum,

(61)

ther,

the

portusque,

Vit.

Greec

from
in-

was

et

ne-

mortuum.

Muircheacht, Muircheoach.

(6QJ

Cronni

antient

word

Britons,
as

be

the

Muir-chroinn,

well

because
aditus

it to

import the foul, and

Pytheas
the

than

Thule,

knows

read

the

the

as

not,

gotiatores,cogniti.
(59)

In

likewise

and

Icy,

(60) that

from
:

for

account

properly written,

and

and

in

the

known

of

that

I have

as

pitch.

words

doubt

no

the

very

original, which

this

or

sea

of

coagulated (61)

the

called

books

than

therefore,

dead

is called

the

is

books,

sea

better

were

Greenland,

in

and

agreeable to

is PYTHEAS'S

more

any

It

the

great trade

says,

Neither

was

Arabic

some

of

frequented by merchants,

sea,

congealed, the

it

ports

Whoever

Roman

sea

that

Britain."

true.
literally

and

(58)

it's

183

place

TACITUS

more

frozen

DRUIDS.

always

was

reason

annals,

THE

Hals

sea"

kronie.

so

cannot

that
be

in Welsh
signification
; and
the languagessignifies
to ga
Cron
ni
to
thicken
particularly
this derivation

of the

reasonablycall'd

in

Cronian,
question.

HISTORY

in

chanted

Ogygia,

Hand

an

fabulouslyreported by (64)

is

writers, who
lowed

have

by

affirm after them,


that

reason,

Hands

the

northern

dead, by

contrary Tides
that

way

kind

of

tho' under

at all ; but

commanded

oculos

ante

In

less

be termed

in

caput

ingens

ast

Torquet agens circum,

sail,they

relates

he

dendi

etiam

ORPHEUS
TZETZES

us, ISAACIUS

shipunder

vertice pontus

illam
et

ter

denti mentio
tautes

nee

legendi.

non

make

can

fate

the

of

wagister

vorat

aequore

the

vortex.

lib. 1.

discoveryof

Defectu Oraculor. ViArgonautici*,PLINIUS, SOLIN-

Lunae
in

This

up.

fluctusibidem

rapidus

de

in LYCOPHRONIS

consulendi, quorum

(65) lidem

ship's

or

ENEAS

forgethere, that, upon

(64) De faciein orbe

of

equal,.

so

boat

Aen.

I should not

slow

meetings

or

to the

pup-pirnferit; excutitur, pronusque

Volmtur

Icy

naturallythan elegantly

when

described by VIRGIL,
who

Brittish

to the

comes

quiteswallowed

then

shipwraekis no

ORONTES

equal

very often impetuouslywhirled

are

and

now

not

departed souls,

Rousts*

great impediment

sometimes,

round, and

one

do

north

conflict is sometimes

; whose

are

nay

way
no

they

of the

reason

other

with

so

and

west

properly,may

part, and perhapsmost


and

do

may

before

even

sea,

and

they

possest by (65) heroes and

are

The

of

some

which

fol
inconsiderately

wonder

they

since

Plutarch

been

hitherto

.body.

every

of Britain

west

in HOXATII

Alexandram, "c*

in Annotatione

Epodam

16

praececommeu-

Thule

by Pytheas,
in

Romance

dwelt

have

did

the

abound

memorials

of

had

it little less

than

ment

lie

tion

their

Disciple,
There

nan.

of

ever

linus

approba

or

of

Letter

second

my

was

peculiar Govern

Legislator

Manan-

Government

another

likewise

of

into

read

in

speaking
(68}

of

these

he,

over

Thouleu

(67) Another

name

Ton

Hebrides

if

ing perhaps by
for each

other

with

or

rf,

(68) Rex
angusta

Hands,

all; for

them

for the
were

the mistake

not

or

there

"

apistonlogoikd.

they

the

antient

author

any

huper

(66)

of

exorbitances

other

In

Western

est

interiuvie dividuntur.

So-

modern.
is

one

they

King,

been
to

hav

same,

written

confound

quotquot sunt,

nam

Rex

as

are,

lies, equivalentto

of Transcribers

universis

than

Bibliotheca, cod. 166.

nothing being easier, than


with ui, as antientiy written.

unus

Prince,

originallythe

ri

and

hereditaryMonarchy,

against the chang

made

provisionwas

all

mys

nes

in

makes
Nor

subject.

my

last

the

because

here, which

admirable

elective

an

against

the

left various

procurement

read

the

was

better

where

*'

their

by

because

erection, singularenough, in the (67) Hebudes

their

ing

to

parts of Britain,

also
was

and

account,

there

alone, that

Man

have

you

as

world

scene,

Hands,

other

but

essential

up

(66)

have

who
:

laid his

these

the

wrote

intituled the

he

some

upon

like

in the

of

set

was

he

themselves

footingthey
it in the

where

longer

Druids,

with

which

given

onely,

not

Diogenes

books,

has

Photius

whereof

they

Thule

of

185

Antonius

one

four

twenty

Incredibilities

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

nihii

suum

ui

om-

habet.

ss

ol

be

as

many

channels.
shares

"

He

is

by

"

equity :

and

"

viate

"

"

"

being

pence.

He

"

whence

"

sire

author

the

hope

has

not

men's

goods :

the

temporary

nevertheless

this

showed

friends,

my

State

must

stitution
in

sure

omnia

gitur ;

he

of

of

father

all

of

account

the

which

other

how
had

he

wives,

who

in

Royal

As
of

couple
that

the

this

con

of

trea

expence

numerous

pity

us,

readily agreed,
their

de~

children.

to

Monarch,

told

the

day

it saved

as

by

him

not

his

any

'Tis

Laws,

men's

one

them

maintaining

Progeny,

Ad aequitalem certis Legibus strinuniversorum.


discit paupertate
ac, ne avaritia divertat a vero,

justitiam: utpote
publico. Nulla

cui nihil sit rei


illi datur

cissitudines,in quacunque
unde

other

find

needs

has

of

the

regulated,whereby

passage

one

both

that

to

neither

for

ex-

inclination,

Hebudian

the

pro-

of

use
an

those

proper

use

wife

children."

any

justice

public

has

was

were

were

he

ed
specify

and

vicissitudes

those

of

has

de-

of

makes

he

that

happens,

learns

as

turns

whom

injoying what

in

certain

him

the

much

as

has.

observe

to

manner

upon

own,

man

make

no

narrow

his

every

he

way,

having

prescribedto

was

that

should

maintained

by

it

nor

"quity

right

towards

woman

this

the

not

of

obliged

avarice

as

onely by

nothing

Laws

lest

has

but

has

thing

every

Poverty ;

own,

"

King

certain

perty,

divided

them,

of

from

from

"

of

This

but

"

HISTORY

THE

186

ei

nee

votum,

nee

familiaris, verum

foemina

propria;

commotussit,
spes, Ljberorum.

alitur

sed per

usurariamsumits

Cap, 2"

vi-

influence those
what
Judge now
the People, when
they might
Prince ; and
consequently,whe

their Sentence."

"

HISTORY

THE

188

Priests

had

upon

thus

control

ther

they

the
could

brought them
bore
the

all

VII.

either

the

and

The

power.

Kings

possesst all

Druids

the

that

thing,

any

pleasureor

envy,

of

sweets

possiblywant

authority.

But

leaving both a while, I submitt to


evidences
such
your Lordship'sconsideration, upon
and
proofs as I am
going to produce; whether
the Hyperborean Iland9 so much
celebrated
by an
of the remotest
one
or
tiquity,be not some
more
Brittish
of

Hands:

Lewis

the

and

SICULUS

Let's

gives of

says

pute,

of
to

agree

mention

(70)

as

one

Sky

the

his

of

come.

He

those

Harp
house,

in

every

did

tous

of

in

under

einai
pleistcus

Gods
first

my
the

Kitharistas.

name

Lib.

pag. 130.

(71) Ton

Apoll5 raalista t5n

allon theon

re

hav

all other

Letter, I evidentlyshow

auten

great

gratis wherever

above

they

He

multitude

which,

de katoikounton

DIODORUS

Gentlemen

(71) they worshipt APOLLO;

(70) Ton

cir

every

Hyperboreans.

there

besides

that

and

circumstances.

was

still;

tells us,

in

the

Harpers by profession,intertained
the

apendages,

which

Hand

it is

its

Hand

great

descriptionthat

of

the

indeed

with

the

some

that

in

particularlythe

Harries,

adjacent Hand

cumstance

ing

and

par'autois

tlmasthai.

Ibid.

of

given
second

being Earse,

it

approaching

ters

no

was

frequented

less

friendship with
after

admitted,
of

tions

this

selves, do
I

am

of

(72)
(73)

well

very

agreeing

diverse,

kata

ten

temenos

neson

and

te

Pros

(76)

tous

poliois kekosmemenon,

oikeiotata

"c.
diakeisthai,

See the last Section,

nor

example
Romance,

to
sphairoeidti

XI.

Hellenas

them

fcai
Apollonos megaloprepes,

Ibid.

(75)

that

BEALAN.

'

(74) Section

Sec

manifestly

elsewhere:

Thulian

language BEAL

fifth

know,

the

and

easily

among

after

DIOGENES'S

aksiologon,anathemas!

"aon

Hyperboreans

Huparcheinde

Hand

be

where

the

In the Celtic

mat

the

and

place
ANTONIUS

that

fourth

from

that

other

will

far

ignorant

(76)

without

(75) Greecs,

are

who

others,

the

Irish, that

the

which

Letter*

intercourse.

this

prove

and

together

the

by

them;

present

first Letter:

adds,

he

perusing

Cel

several

omitting
old

the

of

that

concordant,
of

my

this

to

same

among

discourse

Ilanders

difficulty. But,

in

in

to

any

the

sixth

the

or

near

so

the

and

these

have

peculiar Dia

continues

I enumerated

Dialects

had

they

reality

in

lect, which

tic

whereof

round,

was

that

affirms

He

day;

Apollo's remarkable

Grove,

plan in my
particulardescription and
Letter
(74.),it subsisting in great part

still.

there

(73)

Temple

besides

further, that

says

sacred

magnificent

He

(72).

BELENUS

189

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

Ibid

scheruati.

390

THE

indeavored

have
than

divert

to

themselves, with

so

made

such

as

best

suited

of

thing
these

their
as

(which

the

ing quite
this

of

Tartary

Hyperborean

soil

was

inhabitants

But,
that

Thule

by

as

of

that

people

ing

it to

believe
the

be
be

to

lived

the

lus

after

in

Thule

Hecateus

bat.

In vita

Agric.cap.

mistakes
mak

some

which

Britain, and

others,

(77) Insulas,qu s Orcadas


Despecta est et Thule, quam

him;

Hand

the

"beyond(19)

Pytheas,

(77) Tacitus,

described

and

of

Schetland,

of

by

so

that

mean

Ocean

the

after

part of Great

(78) places:

boreans, I

long

of

by
as

Gaule
vocant,
hactenus

the

being
the

invenit
nix

others
others

Hyper

Diodorus

to

its

happy.

conjectures or

Ireland, others

northermost

other

the

not

before-hand,

that

onely

mean

Hand

fertile,as

prevent all cavils, I declare

to

be

must

civilized, harmless, and

more

Nor

and
say,

and

part
stretch

Hyperborean

temperate

more

Iceland, and

or

the

all

continent

Sweden

continent,

from
carefully
distinguished

whose

for

Muscovy,

or

no

Geo

northern

most

and

in

made

Hyperborean

Scandinavia,

to

speak

to

be

to

and

circumstances,

or

plans,

ought

less

no

fictions

grossly ignorant

were

And

or

readers,

site

questionlessthe

was

Scythia,

way)

of

several

Allowances

things.

their

Hyperborean

variations

such

graphy.

of

HISTORY

Sicuan

Hand

north%

or

domuitque.

et hiems

abde-

10.

(78) See the Essay concerningthe Thule of the Antients,

by

Sir ROBERT

(79)

"

"

______

SIBBALD.
En

iois

tts
antiperan

Kcltikes

topois,kata

ton

okeanon,

THE

OF

DRUIDS.

191

"""^"""""""""""""""""""^""""""""^""^""aMM^^aBa^^^

under

Bear,

the

where

simplicity,than

indolence

Orpheus,

which

rightlyplaces

very
Sea.

'Tis

judged

Scots, whether

borean

Sea.

touching

there

coming

to

Orpheus,

according
Atlantic

the

Ocean
where

Hercules,

of

ouk

neson,

2. pag.

(80)

and

so

to

the

who

are,

Hyper

can

huparcheinmen

Kronionte

Ponton

Ocean,

huperboreenmeropes

into

be

plainer,

kata tous

thalassan.

d'oiakas

d'ara

nesoo

3 Cons.

1079"

Honor,

Kuma

ana
diapressontes,

Uikometha,

ver.

lernida

ver.

the

Straits

of

1140.

ternesoio

stoma

stelaisi d'ekelsarnen

Herakleeoe,
Ibid.

(84.) Now

55"

epistamenos etitaine,
ameiben

Hid.

(83)

arktous,

Scotumque vago mucrone


secutus,
Fregit Hyperboreas remis audacibus undas.

Ankaios
Par

the

epikleskousi

nekrente

De

(82)

in

Pillars

(83)

ver.
Argonaut*

(81)

after

Ireland

again

marks

elattu tes Sikelias ; tauten

the

Cronian

(82)

entered

they

near

the

to

be

to

Argonauts,

the

sailed

on

the
of

out

more

130.

"

"

Hand

an

Albanian

Hand

Dead

or

willing

borderers

(84*). No

Mediterranean

einai

Cronian

am

or

this

and

hereafter

as

be

to

made

From

(80)

Hibernian

(81) Claudian,

by

Lib.

it also

showing

the

that

less

no

contentment

situation,

particularly marked,

with

please, Onomacrifas,

you

near

this

by

and

if

or,

lived

people

Gibraltar.

ver.

1240.

HISTORY

THE

is

there

so

and

that

knows

one

has

Brittish

looked

once

the

the

Bear,
the

and

amounts

this

of

place

with

of

I think

to

and

Diodorus

Hyperboreans

the

were

map;

ly

to

north,

or

the

quoted him,

imaginary

an

the

.of

(85)

so

Person

adds, in the

that

the

Hyper
always governed

.were

were
probability

more

as

Harp there,
Apollo in a round
Temple,
full a proof as
as
any thing

Temple
of

family

no

BOREAS,

last

Hands,

Ocean,

into

requires. Diodorus

nature

City

the

by

worship

where

borean

frequent use

and

Hyperborean Hand,

together with its being said by


beyond the Gallic regions towards
the

Faroe

Atlantic

the

of

situation

express

of

those

northwest

the

Cronian

the

between

which

Hand,

excepted,but

Iceland

every

other

no

Boreads
the
or

(S6), who
descendants

Deity,

than

of
the

called,from being situated

but in
northerlythan the (87) North-wind:
then, as they are
still,govern
realitythey "were
of tribes, whom
ed by their chiefs or heads
they
in their own
called
language Boireadhach
; that
is to
or
powerful and vali
ones,
say, the Great
from
Borr, antientlysignifyingGran
ant
men,
and
deur
(88) Majesty. The Greecs have in a
more

(85)

Basileueinte

tes

poleostautes,

oipencus

Boreadas, apogonous

archas.

Lib. 2. pag. 130.

ontas

kai tou temenous

tous
eparchein

onomaz-

Boreou, kai katageuosaiei diadeehasthai

taa

(86) BOREADES.
(87") Apo tou

(88) As

prossotero keisthai

for these words

tes

borciou

pnoes.

Lib. 2.

Eorr and Buireadhach

or

Boin"

THE

OF

thousand

instances

different

sense

of

those

into

sailors

with

North

thorities

having

after

and

they greedilycatch'd
Leaders
or

Mythology,

words

the

from

tt

put for each

other"

Manuscripts

"

or

to

in
had

refer

readers

my

his

Cratylus,

words

no

are

children

several

Etymologies.
and Barri"oradft
couragious,
in

pens

to

the

Now

(90)

Letter

Eanoo

tois barbarois

Vol.

but

or

many*

Seanasan

nuadh,
and
CLERY,
that

these

frequentlyhap

too

same

to

root

worship,

are

with

Borragach
the like.

of Gibraltar.

(89)

(91)

as

the
awe

he,

authentic

obvious

not

are

fancy,

From

many

frequently

most

words
by O
printedvocabulary of obsolete
LHUYD'S
printed Irish-EnglishDictionary: so
of

But

borrowed

us

des

their

to

being with
might appeal to

and

such

to

'

especiallyadds

but, because

rather

1 cliuse

li

was

consonantly

Greccs

Barbarians

the vowels

cdhach

Grandees,

fabulous

the

PLATO,

that

(91) opinion the

of

them,

will, to their Theology.

if you

or,

HER

of their

which

of

very

(90) before,

noted

was

BOREAS,

of

cendants

towards

sound

allusive

Greece

in

name

stil'd

thus

BOREADES

into

BoiRfiADHACH,

terally understood

the

Magistrates,Grecizing 'those

or

first

indisputable au

once

the

at

the

to

straightsof

have

which

Ilanders

the

to

very

Their

lying so far

their

respect

for

(89)

CULES,

approaching

the

parts gave

the

to

language.

own

Hyperboreans,from

the

words

words

other

their

in

foren

applyed

of

sound

same

DRUIDS.

gar,

II. Section

hole

pollahoi

oikountes, para

V.

Hellenes

ti?a barburon

1. pay. 409

onomata,

allos te

eile^hasi.Inter

kai hoi

hnpo

Opera, Edit. l'ari".

THE

ritories
those

Greecs

the

of

juch

which

:.

who

be

"

if

And

hence

this

accurate

"

mologies

of

and

"

guage,
"

to

which

"

be

at

that

drove

the

divine

Philosopher

for

seek

;Tis

loss,"

farther

that

deserving

Geographer

and

nologer

which

of

that

says

(93)

*"'

boreans,

"

wings,

capable

of

one

or

of

standing

both

there

of

-a

if the
furnish

kinds,

Hyperof

made

words

latter

have

being
the

was

already given

winged Temple,

yet

former,

un

place

no

feathers,

more

adorn

to

the

the

honor

called,

so

Temple

the

we

such

and

could

various

more

If

senses.

ERATOSTHENES,

heaven

der

is his

in

is"

it among

winged Temple,"

Description

the

hid

there

where

of

meaning

he

for

Arrow,

and

Constellations

the

"

famous

Cyclopes,

-the

slew

he

which

with

reputation

vast

APOLLO'S

of

Learning, speaking

of

Chro-

antient

an

that
needs

must

most

ERATOSTHENES,

lan-

in

them

observation,

That

"

Greec

the

they originally
belong, he
a

traffic

any

adjust the Ety-

to

with

rather

not

ter

include

to

(92) inference,

words

those

Barbarian

the

indeavor

would

man

any

in

fairlysupposed

navigated, or

draws

himself

liv'd

as

may

them.

among

HISTORY

men

of

nor

buildings,

or

'

o.

those

than

Hands

same

where

habitants
Ei

(92)
ia

me

thek

pay
tis Zetoi

kat' ekeinen

ex

tauta

rent

kata

lies to

ten

ouoma

with

Helleniken
tunchanei

of

many

and

them,
plionenbus
on,

oistha

eoikotos

hoti

the

make

k"itai,al

aporoian.

hou kai ho naos


Ekrupse de anto (lo toksikon) en huporboreiois,
et
pterinos. Jn Catusterniis,inter Qpuscula Mythvlogica Physica.Edit.

(93)

in

Ibid.
,

ho

HISTORY

THE

distinction could

This
the

but

not

Abaris.

advantage of

highly
the

For,

backwardness
Pythagoras's*

redound

of

reasons

retention

and

to

in

com

municating his doctrines, being, in the first place,


of the
that he might eradicate, if possible,
out
minds

of

Disciples all

his

passions,forming
virtue, which
Truth

ing

of

reasoning

with

templations

the

nature,

be

initiated; and,

of

their

latter
of

as

or

if he
the

with

of

where

zards

and

the

important
wicked, the

incapable

therefore, that

his most
under

others

return

he

all

in

with

him

inward

an
sen

vail

the

of

enigmaticalSymbols.

other

some

in

obliged

of

to

were

presentedthe Samian,

equalledApollo himself in Wisdom,


sacred Arrow;
riding astride which he's

had

the

mountains

and
no

in

he

from

fabulouslyreportedby
flown

such

former

the

con

repeated proofs

concealing

communication

Hyperborean

The

so

concealed

numbers,

they

have

it follows

respects, and

timents;

higher

those

which

and

compe

prepared
already sufficiently

Abaris

immediate

into

receiv

Sciences, for

ignorant and

the

Philosophy:

judged
these

from

in

being unworthy,

true

about

of

habit

by

Mathematical

lastly,to

discretion

discoveries

fit them,

to

exactness

of

to

preparative for

best

next,

as,

degrees

by

is the

knowlege

tent

them

turbulent

and

vitious

more

air

than

witches

waft

and

vulgar

our

in

writers,

Greec

rivers

over

as

the

the

whither

lakes,

to

forests

still believe,

Hebrides,

have

that

and
wi

they please upon

what

But

Broom-sticks.
mantic

expedition, with

Arrow

it

self, the

learnt

he

was

born

among

and

their

most

teen

years

large

in

fable

and

vided,

enigmatical

bolical

and

"

gether

with

"

Pythagoras,

"

ed

"

only by

also

tion,

viz.

whether

things before
ther

will

there

tho'

Italy :

not

the

of

was

both

di

(97)

sym-

had

"as

receive

borrowThe

Gaul

had

these

not

whe

therefore
from

them

to

Ques

another

and

not

Pythagoras

of

nearness

to-

from

enough,

easy

Egyptians
them

are

teaching,

still remain

the

either

they did

by

of

Druids?"

the

travellers

such

of

means

Abaris, but

and

them

between

Communication

discussion

Transmigration

particulars from

these

of

at

all

Philosopher

this

that

or

of

nine

stript of

their

method

doctrine

the

of

writers

learnt

too,

you'llread

full

Apollo,
so

cycle

antient

Druids

the

whether

of
was

say,

as

which

about

these

Druids,

the

well

as

of

he

that

particulars,I

disguise;

that

mother

astronomical

History of

doctrines

conceit

the

nay

the

predictionsthat

the

the

them,

these

my

"

Latona

exact

Question,

the

and

Ro

of

meaning

the

with

this

under

true

of

Greece,

that

Hyperboreans

the

Crotona;

at

197

hid

was

nature

in

spread

Abaris

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

the

E-

gyptians?
VIII.
mine

(97)

what

Kai

Yet

before

can

phasi tons

be

men

all

things we

must

here

exa

offered,with

any

color, against

Guranosophistas kai

Druidas

ainigmatodosapoph-

thengoraenousphilophesai.Diogcn"

Laert.

in prooem.

Sect. 6.

THE

198
of

account

Our
so

certainly,when

nor

sidered, will the


in

be

least

Thule
difficulty.

sides

the

of Faroe,

the

this

not

so

of

one

situation

your

:
scription
yet

onely

of

whereas

you

the

do

understand

of

marks

much

scarce

the

of

as

barren

indeed

of

tho'

of

has

Te

Te

vel ad

less

and

than

tlatto tes Sikelias. t?bi supra.

your

de

his

he

speaks

(99) Sicily;
that

I answer,

extent.

which

I have

sidere

comitabor
In

(1"9) Ouk

that

Hands, which

this of several

Libyae

Dio

But

in this, that

right place

mcensas

my

exactly agreeing to

Hyperboreo damnatam

vel

of

any

perfectlytally to

that

anti

mentioned

these.

Orpheus,

not

of

rocks

be

to

lies

the

monuments

either

of

and

Te, quo libet ire, sequemur

(98)

be

intem-

the

question :

any

different

is

altogetherhave

on

that

or

Hand,

one

and

soil

parcel

them,

circumstances

other

in

Neither

occasion.

says

the

without

acquaintanceinsisted
dorus,

Iceland, rightly placed

t"r

Hand

extent,

deserve

quity,

the

have

to

(9$) Hyperborean Climate,

being onely

small

started

air, is distinguished
by Diodorus

the

from

himself

on

of

con

other that

no

found

be

of
incongruities

perateness

very

the

in

been

of

true

duely

have

I know

as

situa

the

things are

publickly made,

Claudian

by

the
particularly

objectionsthat

privateconversation,

can

and

after that

point demonstrativelyto

to

seem

place;

Hyperborean Hand;

circumstances,

many

tion,

the

HISTORY

men-

Thulen,
arenas.

Rufn.

lib.2.

ly alledge,will
if

take,
Hand.

be

there

been

place

to

survey

Great

not

PLINY

or

not

staid

it,

are

known

it

Britain

self,

taken

authors, been

of

examples
And

time

till the

Hand,

for

as

the

(101)

of

kind

this

separated onely by

are

nothing

all

at

of

for

onely

Dominions,

such

speech

inon

own

country, but
Hands

there

so

Tradition

the

MARTIN

in

been
each

his

that

where,

of

the

than

of

they

now

at

are,

(100)

See

(101)

See Section

Section

be

to

be

produced.

Hands,

which

it makes

that

taken
out

Schetland,

in

name

of
those
and

present.

V.

com-

of

our

one

than

more

30

indications, joined

Saint

Kilda

many

see

and

of

However,

them

Dr.

have
nearer

taking

call'd

to

else

Hands

western

Lev/is, otherwise

III.

such

in

go

not

an

Endless

Inhabitants, of which

formerly united,
other

those

consistingof

Account

some

'Romans

easily

and

extent,

to

several

are

vast

as

Ro

and

channels,

as

is

effect

in

of

is often

one

Has

Greec

For, besides

Hands

any

celebrated,

the

narrow

against me.

aggregation

an

of

multitude

the

in

Vespasian?

might

have

random.

at

be

to

the

speak onely by

much

so

by

known

certainly

not

of

either

who

to

much

mis

any

long1 enough

justly (100) writes, by

man

present

bigness

the

Mariners,

frequently very

and

guess,

I shall

as

counterbalance

about

any,
and

ashore

109

others

than

more

Travellers

not

as

such

and

already,

tioned

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

the

them

Long

HISTORY

THE

200

Hand,

being

least

at

hundred

miles

length, Skie forty,several

of

and

appearing

each, and

twenty

having

winding bays

many

sails without

will

take

them,

be

not

stranger, if

or

touches

that

or

as

Sicily for

reckoned

he

Another

extent.

this, objectsthat

Diodorus

borean

very

Hand

But

59.

read

self, or

convinced

be
the

world,

tion

of

lakes

not

Ireland

are

have

in

the
not

like.

onely

Thus

them, but

be

to

the

placeson

from

him
;

will

posi

huge

as

of

vast

places co
Britain
much

and
more

Continent

of the

than

even

and

their

neighborhood

blowing

of

region of

every

various,

positionwith

same

far

are

or

the

travelled

causes

known,

temperate than

58,

to

the

said

be

as

all

Hyper

of

such

to

region;

answer

winds

snow,

of

seasons

mountains,

with

lump

always

the

marshes,

or

vered

do

the

sailor

temperate

has

Relations

that

which

of

ridges

whoever

the

represents the

accordingto my friend, cannot


Latitude
place in the northern

partly of

mis

granting

which,
any

some

the

the

person

(103)

who

one

in
in

them

compares

Hand,

onely at

enormous

so

four

one

inlets, to

or

(102)

above

rest

greatest; consideringthis, I say,

the

of

all

the

in

of

some

ami the natives do, from


{102}I reckon as Dr. MARTIN
the most
northerlypointof Lewis to Bernera south ot'Barlah, this stringof Hands being onely divided by channels

mostly fordable
of

use

part

Scottish

more,

(lO."5) Ousan
sou,

sipcl if it be

eve'fyplace is
the English or

at

eugeiontekai pamphoran,eti

de

miles,

according
d' auten

dittQus kat' etys

that

considered

to

ekpbereiakarpyus. Vl/i.

I make

least

Italian
eukrasia

third

measure.

diapherou-

OF

such

as

sault

and

vapors

continual

roundirigOcean,

by

of

reason

agitationsof

the

the

sur-

dissolve, allay, and

which

frosts and

the

gate

southerly;

more

are

201

DRUIDS.

THE

winds

Con-

the

from

blowing

miti

This

tinent.-

holds

Hebrides, which
t

in

as

sensible

there

enough

to

which
ed

to

in

fill the

ought

us

in

actually were
lations

be

to

none

there

others

might

sagacious interpreterof

knew

better

things,when

situated

and

that

such

as

no

are

cold, by

near

the shore

continent, which
into those

(104)
hai

de

tisin
ous.

Hands.

they

never

Ton

ne.sim,

de

the
from

ecliousi stasiu,
epeiroisin
Ta

de

ice

rcen

ton

en^us

cheimona
kai

pelagiaouk echei

ta

en

while

habitable

winds

bleak

judged

bare

of

places

positions,did

t.iiones

kai

pagoi

psuchra pempousin

cheimoni.

De

for
the

remaining on

epeiron,dusrheimeroterai

dioti hai

pneumata

stasiu

learnt

he

kindly warm,

transmit

their

by

that

himself, that

scarce

antients, who

were

liai

and

thence

The

pontiai,aleinoterai ton

become

snow

what

in winter

them

on

But

HIPPOCRATES,

are

sea,

the

hinted, or

just now

Ilander

in the

con

of

some

influences.

an

lie

can

of

reason

been

without

occur

taught

they

as

their specu

in

nature,

he

(104) far

snow

not

like

most

Hands,

their learn

to be

have

we

begetting the

by experience, having

since

as

they imagin'd they ought

was

admiration,

places, not

many

circumstances
diversifying

where

very

with

sailors

greec

so

This

winter.

themselves, but

sideringwhether

any

of

midst

spoke of

often

men

the

not

snow

Britain, and

be

to

lying near
tepid vapor being

the

the

to

allow'd

experience are

temperate

more

long

by

regard

with

true

as

es

tas

eisin ;
en

men

eng'us

Diaeta, lib, 2. cap, 3.

THE

from

consequentlyenough
Zone

inhabitable

be

to

onely found

there

This

Philosophers.

Diwijnis,

of

thfu-s

long

(305)

two

before

him,

year.

crops

construction,

nifies

great plenty and

by

stance

of

Virgilsays

home

And

breed

was

so

who

and

as

of

themes

last, and

seem-

Yet

this

the
tuns

summer

is

(105) Read

embarassing,that
which

abundance,
of the

antients

and

can,

our

I could
;

but

in

shall

that is what

Climate

happy

cattle, and

twice

recede

slow

ignorant,that

to the

have

to

explication. It onely sig

my

o-

expression,upon

far from

so

and

of Hecateus

plentifulas

by

DRY

But

living-

(106)

Italy:

Perpetual spring
Twice

rather

passages

many

the nearest

chuse

or

will be

highly illustrate

it will

breezes

strongest Objection,viz. that the Hyperbo

Hand

fdr

is not

make

common

to the

brings me

those

that

the

not

dailypenetrated
but

causes,
are

has

beyond it, it

Zones

other

with

comfortable,

very

the

is

torrid

the

this Zone

since

inhabited

where

every

showers,

rean

cold

temperate and

to the

but

conclude

thence

frequentlyvisited,but

onely been

and

HISTORY

plentymeant
the Note

sees,

bear

degrees.
DEN'S

this is not

by

the trees

-\

it in

Translation.

true
literally

general,it is cer-

immediately proceeding,bateing

one.

(106)

assiduum,

atque alienis mensibus

aestas;

Hie

vcr

Bis

zravidae pecudcstbis pornis ntilis arbos.

Georgic. lib.

2.

204

THE

flesh and

HISTORY

fish,milk-meats,

greatest abundance,

will be

some

der

and

On

this assertion, tho' I

the

practiceof

comfortless

particular
persons

nations, and

ing plentifulenough
times

is

ground
seldom

his

wrote

it from

Lewis

harvests.

Oats, and

other

Rye,

be

(108)
have

Dr.

any

crop

at

the

respects,as

tho'

Barley,

in most

of the

and

wheat,

conse

truely amazing
unskilful

destitute of the properest

ground, and
but

manure

that

sea-wrack

they scarce
or

tangles.

in
ignorance of the inhabitants
also in planting,inclosing,and

(107) See Dr. MARTIN'S


(108) "age 53, 337,

"c.

or

there at pre

how
all, considering

how
Agriculture,

other

sufficiently

their crops

and

It is

when

far from

was

onely grainsown
bear

not

I have

who,

will

about
:

than

are

and

corn:

MARTIN,

fruitful

The

richer

those Hands,

of all sorts.

to till the

instruments

From

with

is fit to

Hands

any
in

they are

use

the

some

parts whereof

yet the ground both in that, and

quently Legumes
they

much

be

Diodorus

is very

how-

be
productions,

Hyperboreans,as

the

of
justifythe expression

sent

to

some

Descriptionof

of

dreaming

I will not

me,

neighboringHands.

generallyallowed

proofsof

from

experienceof

Hebrides, which

the

supplyed (107) hence

also such
he

in

Scottish continent,

the

on

staff of bread.

the

their other

be said of the

cannot

slen

are

say,

might fairlydisputeit

insist ; bread, among

ever

the

strangers to

no

to

apt

food without

whole

sallads in the

and

eggs,

Description,page

these

drain-

140.

THE

OF

fruitful

ing-,many
abundance

they

tributes

shell-fish

the

ness.

The

evidently,

MARTIN,

who

amined

was

Harris,

the

twenty

to

from
from
that

year;

to

ten

(112) amounted

ground

be

good (113)
having
was

crop

been

informed

(109)

Page

(110)

Ibid.

(111)

Page

53.

(112)

Page

132.

(113)

Page 13k

42.

ears,

in

for

times

many

Harries

in

in

as

in

and

some

time,

forty years

tract

of

North-

increase

it

if

the

gives

fields not

some

pro

plentiful

the

Skie,

dunging,

without

small

Bernera,

thirty-five;that

to

down

dunged
a

is

thirty-fold(111)

once

laid

in

in

that

fourteen

Corchattan,

at

Barley

Dr.

strictlyex

and
that

(109)
of

want

no

cul

of

just complaining.

the

barley-grain sometimes

one

to

by

been

thirty-fold;

seven

Happi

by

produce

(HO)

Indolence,

appears

Ey- witness,

an

con

than

fact, affirms

the

South-Uist

Uist

I have

which

their

soil

the

the
most

nature,

esteemed

of

the

with

that

to

but

namely

kinds,

thing

Greecs

goodness

tivation, whereof

duces

various

any

antient

more

from

of

than

more

which

near

Eatables, and

richly supplyed by bountiful

are

thing

205

spots ly uncultivated

of choice

nourishing

DRUIDS.

and

ground,

that
at

he

Skerry-

the

believe

what

Diodonis
than

crop,
is in

gard
have

confirms
that

the

but also of what


relates
sides

this

on

the

to

(114)
(115

and

go

young
to

the

for

of

however
with

re

before,

gheep

This

onely

not

in

me

tQ

mind

Virgil,
is milk'd:

day

often mentioned

at

Landlord

of
a
:

Dr. MARTIN

is, that

which

paid,

tenant

if any

ones

but

double

For

puts

(118) occasion;

Hands,

the

brought two
was

so

they

words

last

time.

twice

ordinary rent

in

custom

(111)

twins, and

suckles

She

the

somewhat

than

common

in

verse

if

year,

rendered

which

construction,

my

which

crops,

at

there

people

since

justly be

(II 6) lambs

two

self

my

beged their pardon,

pastures, of

more

the

crops

yielded

told

true.
literally

respects

is

nothing

that

two

(115)

their

to

less

no

two

some

been

have

this

Skie, had

tantamount,

was

may

of

He,

have

For

pains.

allowed

that

they might

due

took

of

native

He

said

Nay,

hundred-fold.

by

of

in

(114)

breck
a

HISTORY

THE

203

his

it

cows

time,

one

who,

on

be

was

sheep

or

of

his

them

part,

Ibid.

Dittous

karpous.

(116)

Page

(117)

Bis

108,

venit

ad

mulctram, Unas

alit ubere

Eclog.3,
(118) Page

109.

foetus.
ver.

30.

THE

OF

if

obliged,

was

twins,
and

ly;
had

is

It

time.
the

wild

are

in

their

Goats

makes

of

therefore

the

of

in

the

of

they

ages

condition

than

the

as

the

dug

out

kens

of

there

is

it

are

with

the

Subjects

less

far

being

(119)

Page

(120)

Letter

among

the

the

like, which

was

of

several

and

and

by

small

in

spacious
Forts,
de

I have
this
of

many

woods

VIII, IX, X, "c.

be

woods,

Firr-trees

35.

II. Sections

art

that

old

formerly full

great Oaks

to

flourishing

more

ruins

of

plain by

which

Obelises,

ground,

the

like

plow reaching

The

numerous

ca

abound

remaining

mountains,

in

'tis

hence

incapable of culture,

country

by

appears

explica

Hands1

they

as

be

to

me

before, undeniably prove

(120)
that

sides

put

From

the

present.

Temples, Altars,
scribed

of

were

at

and

houses,

the

think

less inhabitants
remote

toge

Nor

marks

the

tops

very

which

Monuments

antient

and

them,

all

curiosities,especially in

many

many

forth

those

Philosophicalobservation.
the

bring (119)

DIODORUS.
that

LORD,

there

to

objection against

great improvement,

in

wise

year

Even

such

for

finally justifiesmy

passage

MY

evident,

pable

last

the

and

none,

at

populous.

are

Mountains,

observed

are

who

house

his

in

they

fami

own

Gentleman,

twins

bore

wives

his

into

knew

the

on

twice

young

them

wonder

no

Harries,

ther,

tion

these

207

tenant's

his

himself

of

sixteen

of

one

he

that

of

any

take

to

DRUIDS.

other

and

daily
to

cop-

HISTORY

THE

209

pices still remaining- in Skie, Mull,


places. Tho' I don't pretend, no more
Poets,

the

these

that

DORUS,

some

plac'd in

where

RACE

agree

"

"

"

"

"

The

Yet

'*

the

there

shall wonder

watery East

so

to

as

The

No

from

return

grinsround

we

of

From

fold, wo
with

to
no

be

the

on

the

on

mended

in

which

of
perfections

(121)

V ideas

any

vales,

pails.

lambs

in

he shakes

rain*
the fields ;

yields.

blest abodes."

these

the

Translation.

make

may

of

passage

hindring
;

trills.

complete

Dlodorus,

proportionof

their

bandages distorting them

preposterous

their limbs

Hands

the ruler of the Gods

plaguessecures

nor

HO

happy plain:

descends

Inhabitants,that

cradle,

by

poys'noussnakes.

refresh,not drown

annoys

commentary

of

else

of

the

to fillthe

CREECH'S
The

others

fruitful

temperate glebefull harvest

heat

dead,

[122]

the fountain

pace

uncall'd

field swells

No

Dio-

loftyhills

bring stretch'd dugs

bear

More
"

4"

Goats

And

No
"

"

murmuring

There

by

as

lines

from
With

the

spot better, than

no

"

"

than

just describing.

been

have

we

following

yet the
to

[121] seas,

those

other

fortunate Hands

of
Elyzian-fields

ihe

or

the

were

and

from

nature

is

the

sort

are

Annotatiunem

very
63

"

persons
in

the

duely forming
that

reason,

not

are

rare

64.
altis

bodily im

among

them.

does

Neither
in

of

one

will

purge

But

what

longevity,is

ment

both

which

last

of

than

oppress

of

the

they
no

think

meals

two

drink

of

of

the

Vices

have
less

truely

ancient

day,

commonly

fresh,

other

be

"as

of

observed

Scythians,

that

(123)

of
and

which
it may
of

than

these

most

to

are

some

name

or

strangers

are

nations, for

much

the

being

they

as

their

in

satisfy

water

Distempers,

so

is

orna

rather

vulgar. They

the

of

not

food

Their

and

apparel,

disagreeable,so,

drinking, they

nature.

to

their

and

houses

not

and

eating

their

many

their

in

way

dinary

they prefer conveniency

As

their

to

Temperance

constant

as

Scotland.

of

things

all

above

dose,

the

south

the

in

man

of.,body,

habit

treble

requires

contributes

and

to

original constitution

strong

so

them
any

Exercise.

and

have

they

whence

health

preventive Physic
over-officiously

any

infancy, spoil their

their

that

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

the

ignorance

the

of

crepante lympha desilit pede.


Illic injussae veniunt
ad
mulctra
capellaet
Levis

Refertque

tenta

grex

amicus

ubera.

Nee

ovile,
vespertinuscircumgtrnit ursus
Nee
intiimescit
alia viperis humus.

ut neque
:
largis
Pluraque feliccsmirabimur
Burns
radat
imbribus^
urva
Aquosus

Pinguia

nee

siccis

urantur

scmina

U-trumque Rege temperante

Epod.
(123)

Tanto

glebis;

Coelitum.
16.

plus in illis proficitvitiorbm

ver.

47.

ignoratio,

JUSTIX.
cognitiavirtutis.
quarn in his (Graccis mmirurrij
Mist, lib. ^ cap. 2.
D2

THE

210

has

vices

the

had

knowledge

They

owe

of

growth,

and

cises

choleric

ed,

their

of

judicious

the

in

the

all of

torneys

have

here

ticulars

specified, I

the

same

by

the

their

In

The
;

chief

and

and

and

word,

plagues

or

by

they
of

are

his

or

other

tho'

the

past
At
par
of

speaking
dress

same

plead

women

speedy

very

of

understand

not

wearing

men

ages

several

do

soever
some

Lawyers

no

else

expression,

few

the
many

as

still in

continent;

Proprietor,who's

courts,
a

the

language,

causes

own

self of

condition

till

than

from

Scotland

in

have

more

no

Highlanders on
them.

also

what

and

other

testimonies

my

being

They

the

with

of

mony

unknown,
them.

had

well

as

but

natur-

character, I have

hospitable beyond

of

which,

exer

the

concurrent

authors

are

use

Hands

those

they

strong inclination

present

intertainingall strangers
gratis;

Hence

own

remarkably sagacious,

the

natives

They

where.

their

with
particulars,

from

all

cure

all their

in

having

past and

knowledge

intimate
scores

Avithall

which

learnt

several

of

of

labor.

or

active, dextrous

all

onely

not

They

simples

diet

than

politer nations.

nature.

body by

are

them,

upon

easilyappeazed, sociable, good

of

effect

thing"to

cheerful, and

Music

parts

Philosophy upon

by,proper

but

ever

to

of

they

as

better

the

and

stout

are

every

disorders

HISTORY

decision

their

is made

Perpetual president in
Bailiff

equally

Mankind,

as

void

Luxury

his
of
and

substitute.
the

two

Atnbition;

THE

HISTORY

Brittish world, which

the

this

ed

Digression;on

nor,

Bo

I will

as

that

it before

finish

not

odd

custom

immemorial

The

MAC-NEIL.
Barra

regarded,

than

dies, he

has

immediate
his

him.

Hereupon
it

on

is

such

quebah.
man

But

On

becomes

plicationsoon

the
a

(126)

Ibid.

of

great
of 'em

any

his

the

Lord,

out

re

of

want

MAC-NEIL

finds

without

himself
for

sateable

fail

never

with
other

bottle

hand,

widdow,

page

97.

courtship,portion

any

to

make

merry

more

of

(126) when

any

is

she

provided with'

(125) MARTIN,

mean

dislikinghis choice, but


highest favor, and the mar-

they

occasions

no

ever

the

as

and

beget followers

to

en

MAC-NEIL

celebrated

dowry.

of

that

go

side

neither

accepting

or

not

in

thing

none

to

logs

next

should

wife

recourse

own

as

know

the

Lord

boast:

-can

imagine,

subjects,who

of

property

thirty fifth

world

may

(125) When

if he

riage

lesser

the

the

are

the

lie.

presentingfirst
meet
help; and

match,

In

you

his

by

potentate
er

and

you

from

have

that

is the

present

Prince

no

is

acquainted

Barra

which

judge,

by uninterruptedlineal descent, a

whereof
he

in

respects.

fit to

think

two,

obtained

other

have

or

circumjacent Hands,
of

in

Lordship shall

your

an

time

principaUyoccasion
not
account
improper,

hope, altogetheruseless

this

with

has

or

upon

the

husband,

Uswo

like ap
and

with

THE

OF

Whoever

little ceremony.

as

perborean

of

manner

with

tenants

chance

as

likewise

of

and

them,
as

if

done,

the
in

explained

are

Yet

that

rather

conversion
to

the

consent

his bed
on

thus

the

very

the

in

to

Christianity.

of

the

board

coming

(127)

Ibid.

(128)

Page

98.

Page

114.

maid

for

for

death,

their

have

never

of

the

as

them,
Druids,

Letters.

help

obsolete

took

lik'd, he
year

he

as

and

thoroughly acquainted

re

or

their
had

man

soon

since

ever

When

whole

of

cannot

grown

he
a

of

of

disuse,

wife, (129)

own

purpose

preceding

since

been

his

into

Several

singular, I

long

worthy

particularusages

times

has

and

Most

should

Ilanders.

and

less

the

infirmity,(128)

or

it

have

mind

with

this

tlio'

lating here,

But

may

weather,

not

on

day

age

remotest

custom,

one

by

or

his

he

the

taking

the

to

West

and
from

retained

is

hard

labor.

for

preceded

North

the

which

thro'

a?5

men,

unfit

become

of

his

of

as

seventy

house

maintaining

old

many

is

imitation
a

Hy

MAC-

any

being good policy.

family, building

this

approve

Milch-cows,

the

by

charity, for

true

but

supplying (127)

misfortunes;

other

dislike

may

cannot

many

lose

to

by

or

in

conduct,

%\3

preventing delay, disdain,


he

disappointment, yet
NEIL'S

DRUIDS.

gain'd
her

to

if, up

with

the

THE

214.

her

if he

but

days

any

account,
him

end

in
tion

in

woman

the

would

she

might

be

I must

custom,

better

like

wife,v

young

thought
that

he

was

It

prevent

onely unlawful,

ideas, it is not

repudia

or

busband

to

charge

the

but

world

of

our

modern

also

barbar

accordingto

but,

months

who

man,

better

(with

this

was

another
a

own,

matches

unhappy

of

him

her

her

own

disadvantageto

or

eyes

not

twelve

his

at

Nor

such.

make

to

the

at

on

the
guardians; legitimating

or

were

dishonor

any

any)

all her

shou'd

return'd

maintainingthem

there

case

had

kept

degree

a-

persuaded she

be

parents

children, and

such

to

he

wife

his

during life,he
she

body,

became

then

to

easy

her

to

and

dislik'd her

as

portion,if

her

mind

her

longer,she

any

make

of

both

conditions

HISTORY

ous.

To

IX.

discovered

happily

Abaris, and

give

here

also

The

the

rean,

seems

equivocalsense
have

to

noble

very

with
matter

tho'

so

much
of

his

character.

person,
That

facilityand

wonder

intercourse, which

to
we

such
have

for

him

mistaken

and

he

as

consider

who,

Hyperbo
Scythian;
gives him

spoke

elegance,

shall

referring

those,

word

the

of

adventures.

his
of

one

of

; I

person,

of

thus

country

Druid

his

History

place the

yet accuratelydescribes
a

of

OrJitoi* Himcrius,

from

the

of
profession

account

some

another

to

asserted

and

his

having
digressed,

whence

return

will
the

Greek
be

no

antient

already prov'dbetween

OF

and

Greecs

the

latter, to be

their

Himerius.

and

*"

fi

of

out

"

ceum"

has

Highlands,

the

it

needs

shoulders,

his

"

about

*"

ing

trowzers

*"'

feet

to

of

his

(130)

Abarin

pou

glottankinSseie,
Ex

Rotkomag.pag.
(131)

Heken

wrapt

with

from

gun

touto

Orations

ad

make

men

ekeinon
Ursicium

ek

no

that

not

was

((

in

the
and

what

this

at

pre

neighboring
for

Abaris

re

came

holding
from

his

plad, girt

and

soles

wear-

of

his

pistol, being

part

of

achri
meses

apud

stoles de

his

Akademias
Photium

in

kai schematos.
kai autou

equi-

Ei

Lubeiou

Bibiioth. cod

243.

de
de
no-

edit.

1135.
Abaris

Athenaze
toxa
hcmmenos
pliaretran
tenon,
sphingomenos : Zone en kat' iksuon chrose^ anaxuiiJes
achri kai gloutoa anatciaousui. Id. ibiU"

clilamudi

Ly-

very

Huperboreion leg-ousin,Hellena

men

geaos

Skuthen

or

gilded belt,

tonone

described

up

reaching

sophon

fhonea gegenGsthai, kai


mizesthai.

his habit

some

quiver hanging

waste."

men

be

the

be

to

Gre-

his

(131) Himerius,

date, could

modern

and

the

skins, but

scruples.

body

loins

his

with

generally

onely

continues

"

to

his habit

as

and

having

that

Hebrides

bow,

(i

a-

to

Abaris

become

Academy

the

ages,

in

Athens,

to

""'

him

covered

doubts

all

of

ever

all

in

worn

moving

while

moved

he

imagine
Now

(130).

been

sent,

let's harken

Hyperborean,

midst

the

Scythian

But

Whenever

would

you

*e

of

nation

appearance.

gue,

see

unless,

former,

speech,and resembling a Scythian in

cian in

*6

the

we'll

as

They relate, (says he,) that


by

was

to

the

he perfectly
un
requisite
qualifications,

language.

"

Sage

"

would

nor

ambassador,

any

Abaris,

did

215

Hyperboreans

send

sure,

the other

derstood

DRUIDS.

the

presently they
mong

THE

eis

omon,

ek tarsou

HISTORY

THE

page

and

riddingon

Athens

to

As

TiginalScot.
it

choice

better

for

we

he

"

was

in

abo-

an

his

abilities,

have

informed

are

that

(132) Himerius,

same

of

principalsto

his

since

regards

what

entry

faboulous-

as

garb

native

the

impossiblefor

was

broom-stick,

in

ly reported, but

his

make

did not

he

see

you

made

by

the

affable

and

in

dispatchinggreat
and
affairs secret
industrious, quicksightedin
present exigences,in preventing future dangers

pleasant

"

"

"

in

conversation,

"

circumspect,

"

of

"

and

""'

prudence."
to

But

which

that

compare
I

of

tis

to

En

pajon

have

laid

men
pbilias,
olig-a

tuche

all those

of
simplicity
wisdom

of

his

his
an

attested,
sufficiently
world

before

entuchein, dcinos

idein, promethes to

modera

at

that

time

it

had

ABARIS.

with

History

my
hedus

find
the

na

impor

his
of

quali

wise

than

use

Ly

appetites incessantly

solidityand

owned,

Thus

(132)

the

well

to

cimen

the

and

candor

the

all which
be

must

such

to

arduous

natural

our

with

manners,

fitter

attentivelyconsider

we

adding

crave;

swers,

less

no

eating, drinking, and

in

things,

few

if

and

the

nor

with

man

abroad

affairs

tions, about

Academy

the
out

farr

so

go

tant.

Neither

furnish

could

tion

desirous

wisdom,

friendship,trusting indeed little to fortune,


having every thing trusted to him for his

ceum

ties,

after

searcher

of

your

the

hesuche

raellon

pisleuon,gnomu

Lordship a Spe
Druids.

Give

me

naegalenpraxin ergasasthai,
ox-

phulattesthai,
sophias hctton,eraites
de ta. panta

pistoumenos.

Id. ibid*

leave

send

to

Questions

about

which

Antiquities

agreeable

to

and

the

from

transcribed

"

in

the

Collections

mentioned

shewing
Irish

Library

Cotton

of

one

the

and

between

TATE'S

other

British

Manuscript
other,

some

my

Letters

(134),

the

Armoric

and

am,

MY

LORD,

LORDSHIP'S

YOUR

MOST

OBLIG

Dj

AND

VERY

April

18,

1719,

(133)

Vitel

(134)

Letter

"

1L

v.

6,

Sect.

18.

pag.

to

Mr,

"c.

Language,
I

in

Affinity

the

(133)

small

two

be

Answer

Druids,

the

Letter

will

JONES'S

Mr.

is

217

this

doubt

don't

One

you,

with

you

which

Pieces

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

HUMBLE

SERVANT,

Mr.

TATE's.

QUESTIONS*
THE

ABOUT

DRUIDS,
OTHER

AND

BRITTISH

ANTIQUITIES?
WITH

JO^ES's

Mr.

ANSWER

Mr.

JL$Y

what

which

the

II.
and

the

naines

III.

callfiruidea

the

difference
in

What

Druids

or

IV.

wering

or

and

between

the

their

degrees were

all oner

were

the Flamens

how

antiquity and

given
and

Britto

Druides

Flamens

them

Brittish,and

Learning-? when, where,


bits

they call'd,by

were

Latins

called

were

QUESTIONS'

TATE's

Whether

THEM.

TO

to

of

Professors

the

by whom,

hatiits ?

their

and

ha

apparel ?
Whether
our

Heralds

the
?

Earth
their

had

any

garments

office in
and

war

ans

enseigns

THE

221

it is said
a

and pagus
flie Britons

in Brittish ?

called

had

Rex

bearing

and

the Book

"

filio suo

Shire,

Noblemen

ones

written, Gandeleius

Cadoco

suam

In

"

Glamorgan, now

is us'd for

ofDuccs, Comitcs, Bar

name

find it thus
"

one

Whether

IX.

were

rexit,whereof

septem pagos

Shire, was

the

HISTORY

what

of Landaff

regionera

totam

commendavit,

they

privilegiumque

fonte Faennun

"

concessit, quatenus

"

Repervqnitur,omnes
ingressumfluminis Nadavan
ges et Comites, Optimates,Tribuni, atque domesti-

"

"

ci in

"

antur."

sui coemeterto

Coenobij
And

K, E. I.

Britons, demandeth

justice,and

ter

how

so

de

haen

Lancarvan

enquiring of

the Welsh

donee

them
distinguisht

sepeli-

the Laws

Barons

ad

of the

did adminis

from

Lords

Mar

chers,

is the

What

X.

of

statute

Wales

XI.

by

an

that is to say,
What

XII.

Hae

his

Senatus

there

any

an

do you
Book

the

think

after
of

oath

Assach

offered to
the

of

of Howcl

place of

Petrus

Gallonim

vctcrum

Sic

word?

Cacsare

Eburonicum, Lcxoblorwn, Vendor


Counsil

gernment, and by what

or
name

Senate
were

of

thirtymen.

this

habebant.

ex

custom

of the
signification

de moribus

civitatcs J3rulos suos

minantur
Was

What
in

Ramus

saith,some

Assach

by

word

officer is he that in the Laws

is called Distein,and

Da

VI,

King Henry

themselves

cuse

of the
signification

no~
um*

in the Brittish Go

they call'd

Joneses

Mr.

Answers

Mr.

to

Tatts

Questions.

J[ O
word

that

being
and

is derived

religiousPersons

among

name

ion

Drudion.
fications.

call'd

Drudion

Another

did

merciless

offenders

punisht

also

Drud

is also

which

is Dearth.

their

for they did

nifies

and

glew
dear

prid,

the

place

and

were

that

sacrifices

the

cou'd

did

forbid

toot

obey

not

be

sacrifices
their

decree

to

made
be

and

as

and

Heathen
without

done

signifiescruel

by

sentence.

righte

DRUD

Drudanieth,
the

well

Brittons

well

as

in

religi
and

matters

title of Laws.

Gods,
them,

any

sig
hardy.

or

in Law

as

These

sacrifices

Justicers

of matters

Justicers

reven

Magistrates.

venit

all kind

of death

to

of

among

for offences

the

signi

the

is, valiant

controversies,
did

is

severely.

most

Drud,

sic

justicemost

execute

controversies,

the

so

that

Drudion

determine

publick, and

matters

and

precious, unde

or

These

office did

private as
ous

supply

make

many

that

for

wrong

Krevlon,
signification

ously, and

by

redresseth

that

By

has

is Dialwr,
signification

One

one

Drud

primitive word

This

Drud.

you

Britannorum

formam

it secundum

plural of

or

singular number,

the

to

Druidon

Brittons.

the

learned,

discreet,

wise,

is

Drudion

word

primitive word

of this

plural number

Druidae

or

Brittish

the

certain

adding

and

from
of

the

is the

ger,

Druides

first I say, that

the

to

man

All

and

the

and

they

that
the

did

Arts,

THE

222

HISTORY

and
Sciences, Learning,Philosophy,
in

taught

land,,was

the

taught by
they

the

were

beginning

Laws,

of

mention

in

supprest by

the

Emperor

had

their

from

it

because

of any

inhabited

Mone,

DowyH,
Drudion

that

Then

plenty

of

and

that

it

that

bread

then

proverb thus,, Mon


mother
nourish
Wales.
for many

mam

of North-wales,
and

foster

And
years

upon

after that
such

not

of

the He

Iwjs

after that the

And

which
that

rooted up, and

yieldsuch

might

and

there

Mon

bread

all Wales

this Dark

Hand

abundance

of

corn

and
all

keep
then

Gymbrv,

mam

Gynedd,that
that is, that

ground

arose

Some

of Wales.

they

abundance

sustain

anil therefore

the mother

Britain,

called yr

Proverb, and yet is to this day,viz. Mvn


that i",Mon

in

did

Hand

Angle-

or

wood, and

supprest, the huge groves

corn,

with

full of

Hand.

land,

our

of Mone

more

called after their

are

Anglesea,was

kept a-foot,were

tilFd.

Wales

themselves

but

is, the Dark

were

favor' d and

places in

Hand

solitaryHand

no

ex-

rocks, ^nd

in

of their chiefest seats

is called

which

in

tongue than

dwelled

and

the

find

can

our

some

them,

one

was

in

they

And

day.

to be

is taken

that

places, and

names

of Rome

lost and

were

that

; so

their deeds

but

to this

names

sea

Governments

in this land

dark

writing: whereby

Christianity,their Learning, Arts,

an"y of

and

woods,

they

that their know

put

of

set"down,

have

was

and

be

Sacrifices,and

tinguishthere

wou'd

never

ledge and learningshou'd


when

them

taught by

and

memory,

Divinitythat

do term

is,Mon
was
or

had
where

the
the

able to
Northcast

out

the dis-

OF

woods

closed

the
to

and

DRUIDS.

Countrym

left off their

en

admirable

shou'd

the

ROW

breed

breed

inhabitants

As

II.

for

it to those

in Latine.

The

and

of

the

bits, I

they

cannot

To

al kinds
of

the

of

given

of

Poetry

it.

The

that

third

Question

The

after

man

and

their

function,

for their ha

as

what

nor

ex

manner

Athro, and
us,

Athro
and

the

Professors
that

studying in

years

the

art

the

Profeflbr

did deserve
;

the

and

fourth

is the

in Latine

and

DISGIBLDISGYBLIAIDD,

Learning after
^nd

it.

to

sever

and
Disgiblii/s'bas,

three

degree wras

studying,ifhe
of

given

four

Were

Musick, if he by his capacitydid deserve

given to

Prosessor

mong

the

Flamens

office and

there

were

first was,

DiSGiBLPENKEnftDiAiDD

deserve

and

part.

according to

and

how,

tell you

second

was

3rears

sea

well

Degrees, that

Learning.

was

the

execute

the

of.

were

III.

plat of

of the

written

in Britain,

did

an

of cattle

t'other

on

have

that

beyond

Flamens

little

so

was

Question, I do refer

Drudion

custom,

it

that

great part of it, and

of cattle

positionof

manner

till

second

the

how

it

that did continue

great number

do

great number

heard,

such

turned

and
great tilling,

plentiful,so

be

thing to

yield

to

for cattle, that

grass

of cattle,and

wonderful

them

ground

it surceased

were,

groves

grazing andbreeding

among

223

yielded such plenty of

and

corn,

THE

of

Learning

it.'The third
that

nine

degree

is called

to

the

studying,if
Pentcerdd

was

highest degree

degree was

given

was

}^ears

after six

of

Doctor.

or

Learning
All

lie

a-

these

HISTORY

THE

degrees

given to

were

in

him

years end,

three

lace,at every

before

had
disputation

open

behalf, and

that

The

Tcvluwr

had

three

was

to

one

several matters
of Lands,

treat

did treat

Tevluwr

The

the Prududd

their habits,

diverse

and

to

give arms

Poets, and

gave
kinds

leggs or

the fourth

to record

Herald

them.

jests,and domestical

and

of the

his

rustical

Tevluwr

and

certain

were

No

and

the

calling,
Poetry,
his cir
As

Country.

for

long appareldown

somewhat

lower, and

to

of

were

colours,

To

IV.

so

they

calf of their

the

Prududd

The

accordingto

the Yeomen

among

was

three kinds

his circuit among

of invective

did treat

from
differing

cuit

of.

in

was

praiseof Princes,

of merry

his reward

and

Countrymen,
Clerwr

the

other

the

affairs,having his circuit among

pastimesand
The

and

Deputy

three kinds

were
:

an

their reward

These

to treat

and had

bles, and Gentlemen,

there

Klerwr.

was

his

or

to have

were

Prududd

was

the third

King

the

they

from

(appointed)upon

degrees.Also

their

accordingto
of Poets.

then

in his Pa

his License

by

or

fit place thereunto

some

Poets

degrees of Learning

in his presence

King, or

the

given by

were

well

Learning as

All these foresaid

Musicians.

us

of

men

them

out

of Belrdd

Poswardd,

all

Question,

trieacts

of the Princes

accordingto
cou'd

I say, the Bard

deserts.

Nobles

and

They

was

were

al

certain things, and


prognosticate

in metre.

And

further, there

(the pluralof Bardd),

Arwyddvardd.

The

were

viz.

Priveirdd

three

Privardd,

(plurally,)

sin

and

the

they

because

Learning

man

before.
is

Bardd

was

buted

to

first learner,

or

them

and

Bardd
the

by

the

Telyn

Harp,

abode

in the

called

Privardd,

Arts,

and
The

or

imitate
and

Science,

they

as

take

themselves

are

note

kind

is

indeed

his

duty

the

Arms

cord

was

to

declare

of Nobles

of them, and

is
the

is

man

such

Learning,

for

of

one

before.

and

had

be

may

taught

by

the

those

they

at

Genealogy

Princes, and

and

to alter their Anns

These

were

in all battles

and

actions.

did

forth,

set

them

for

pro

The

others.

an
by interpretation

Herald

deserts.

dignityor
Princes

that

is,

of

and
Authors, but registers

no

Arwyddvard,

Ensign-bard, and

that

Musicians

no

Priveirdd

pagators of the Learning invented


third

and

call Merlin

Posvardd,

from

their author

attri

were

Land, having his

never

the

pro

Prophesyer.

or

Prydiddion :

what

for

Posvardd,

they

in the

is

Pri

and

also

of the

were

any

man

men,

inventeth

of Bardd

teach

word

man,

and

that

afterwards

were

must

he

but

kind

and

harp

and

by

Gortheyrn,

is Doctor

that

King's palace :

second

Posveirdd

And

Learned

is the chief

and

this

learned

or

of Bardd

name

is he

of

Privardd,

Telyn.

Vortiger'sPhilosopher,or
Bardd

heard

Prophets, as

titles of

the

Arwyddvard.

or

all learned

appelationof

Learning,

Ambrosius

read

was,

Philosophy

such

taught

interpretationof

The

an

call'd Priveirdd

were

never

were

as

Prince,

fessors of

and

invented

other

vardd

they

reason

Talies-

and

Ambrosius,

Silvester, Merlin

Merlin

were

225

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

"

Arms

and
to

to

keep

blazon
the

accordingto
with
As

the

and

re

their

kings

and

for their Gar-

THE

merits, I think
had

they were

long,such as the Prydiddion


of Beirdd
they challengethe name
nt supra,

for

Whereas

writers, and for the

some

that mention

ners

his

first inventor

the fourth

of

that

of Brittain.

But

that

was

Blegywryd

was

the 2067th
that he

the

is

Bardd)

is also used

mong

king

and

of

Brittain.
he

musical

of whom

that

His

the fif

was

Brittain, and

Miisican

or

great Scho

verses

function, and

art,

thereof, and
us

was

show

can

dy'd

in

it is writ

that

lived

ever

BARD

had

his
d

woi

And
BarddoTiieth
foresayd.significations.

the

(which

tion

there

deluge,

was

false,

most

Bardus, it being a primitiveBrittish

from
has

writer

No

either

King

the famousest

was

in Britain.

that

after the

year

name

of Great

he

foren writers, for

and
Geisylltr

ap:

king

ty-sixthsupreme

name

time

some

was

say

it is

of

of Poetical

both

who

some

I say

of

any

Inventor

Lessons

ten

the

Bdrdus,

one

of Brittain

was

King's son

name

from

and 'fabulous surmise

never

lar and

has

'Barddonieth, and

King

erroneous,

him

part all fore-

most

Beirdd, do write that Bard

the

given

name

there

HISTORY

for

professionof

Prophesy and

also for all kinds

that the jSjzrddwere

'the
of

authors

the

interpreta

Learning

a"

of.

As

V.
a

chief

for the fifth

Judge

the
to

Egnat Llys.
King's
determine

in his

resident

all controversies
ed

Question, the King had .always

that

then
had

He

houshold

their

causes

Court, ready

happen'd, and
some

he

to decide
was

privilegegiven him

officers,and

gratis.As

therefore

he

call

by"
was

for the tri anheb-

THE

it, they caused


the

on

back

same

toward

Mounts

the

and

Mount

made

bore

that is, the Mount

and

the

of

that

King

in that

judicialSeat;

make

an

the

Lands

sedde
be

in

are

down

taken

by

one

did

such

Amhiniogevwere
ing
med

that

the Lands

on

Amhiniogev^
than

the Oath

Look

in the

of my

how

the

manifest

it

Kangellawr
any

lands

it and

let

king
more

had

but

the

it, and

such

no

of

at

large.

The

that

were

their

and

And

mear-

hem

of those

one

better

was

Laws

for

the

de

GWYBYDDYEID,
;

and

Mayer

authorityamongst

have

as

Gwybyddyeid.

and

try his Causes

to

of

but

were

did

king'slands

men

right.

Keidweid,

Book

of

other

their Lands

Oath

AMHINIOGEV,

finition of KEIDWEID,
and

the

that

the

Lands

not

sorts

controversy, and

called

of twain
Table

in

And

otherwise

and

to

perfectknowledge

own

had

as

were

Land.

that

upon

men

two

Defendant's

the

Gor-

be

they

had

the

of their

was

These

up

if

Gwybyddyeid,
where

but

to

places

were

it

that

know

They

the

to

other

Gizybyddyeid

lay,and

in controversy

many

the

lawful

not

was

controversy.

hands.

in the KOMOT,

born

Deputy

or

it

and

both

also have

will be ever,

was

The

Amhiniogev.

and

men's

the

Witnesses,

were

day

Some

for title of Lands,


in

were

and

Gorseddevydadle,

Judge
and

nowhere

Country,

our

this

to

seen

chief

was

that

up

of these

round,

of

Pleading.

of him

on

and

up,

Some

some

name

name

assembly

cast

the Weather.

or

square

square

to be

Judgment-Scat placed,having his

the Sun

were

round

round

was

HISTORY

the

they

circuit

that

will

and

the

Brittons
were

to

for
set

amongst the

king'stenants
happened

that

they

did

for

all Controversies

decide

of

Definition

the

of

Table

in the

Vide

them.

amongst

of Laws

Book

my

and

DRUIDS.

THE

OF

and

Mayer

Kandlawr.

To

VII.

the

in this land

were

land

this

governed

Brittish blood
der

did

kings, and

the

king, as
of

nion,

it

long

to

other
Law

of

the

king'sdomi

or

dominion

kingdom

than

more

to

was

in

be

to

an

the

execute

transgressors that offended

all

and

Privilegedid

or

king

or

law

same

Prince

Custom

some

inferior

every

the

superial

GWNEYDD,

of

king

of

Scotland, the

or

superialking'sproper

place

and

upon

the
that

some

the

in every

used

were

Prydyn

or

un

name

the

to

the

were

the

belong

notwithstanding

was

in

of

wore

had

that

and

Wales,

or

Yet

was

as

unless

of Alban

Kymhery

government

Princes

obey,

serve,

king

Venedotia.

that

successively:

other

there

superialKing.?,that

hundred

that

say

yet notwithstanding there

divers

them

king

about

Question,

seventh

their do

minion.

In the

of Kassibelanus

time

troversy between

Ararwy
bout

of

king
murther

the

superial king

London,

of the

one

twain

tween
was

inferior
within

slain, the

ought

to

be

of

one

committed.

Kings,
the

Court,

Question

tried

by

the

arose

some

con

Kaswallawne

his inferior

The

his Court

superialKing keeping
of

there

and

kings,a-

is thus.

case

within

the

The

dominion

controversy -fallingbe
and

there

is, Whether
officers and

and

the

then

one

murtherer

privilegeof

the

HISTORY

THE

230

superiorRing,

ought

murtherer

the

of

tom

Country but

in that

dure

time, should

lose his

the inferior
in libro

that

cause

the

little

while,

Talaith

of

destruction
but

any

where

Crown

the

Wales,

see

Moel

and

to

To
the

Mvd

J\foel Mvd

the

for the

this Land, and

before

the

in Brittain

were

or

Coronets
for

There
wore

never

kings of Dyved
and

in

any

South

yet

divided

were

of this

for before

Trojan
we

made

Kornwale.

or

by

were

as

you

Question.

primitive Law

the

Ararwy

mention

no

kings which

the

as

tried

Alban, another

eighth Question,

made,

of

Talaith

three

their Countries

in the next

VIII.

is

king of Kredigion,and such,

kings, and

called

shall

Coronet,

or

the very

was

the felon tried

Brittain,but that there

divers others called

were

that

his kinsman

have

the third for Kerniiv

Wales, and

Vide

those

dominion

There

one

like

ever.

amongst the Brittons

Crowns',

in-

of Kaswallawne,
privilege

would

but

his Court

of

this

have

in the

superialCrown

one

ing

remain

did
such

or

to

seem

not
or

and

Prince's

or

would

more

for 'that time, than

histories,that

Laws

did

Judges

his

and

Court

whose
but

in

Arlarwy

Judges

which

lose it for

may

Cus

it is

twain,

or

should

Icgibus. It

judgement

have

by

de

because

there
privilege

king'sCourt

meo

week

that

and

the Law

superiorking'sCourt,

the

that

seemly

by

king's Court,

inferior

the

be tried

to

I think

King.

of the inferior

or

laws

cannot

Land,

that

Laws

of

the

and

I say, that accord

customs

tell what

were

J)yfnwdl
Dtjfnwal
used

in

division of Land;

THE

OF

they had,
ed

all this Land

hud

maketh

Inches

Palf

Palm

maketh

maketh

or

Troedvedd

Kara

or

strides

leepe

to

the

Land

or

that

is, a

Tir

time

he

made

Troedvedd
iav

and

tiav and

sixteen

Pole

or

breadth

Rod
of

so

length, is

that

and

Law,

Messuage,

of

four

Erw

and

four

maketh

RHANDIR,

maketh

GAFEL

rfeL

maketh

Townships
twelve

Maenol

TREF

maketh
or

that

Barley Corn

or

Palf

Ver*

And

foot

long,

thirty Poles
E'rw

an

or

Acre

or

Rods

by

Acre

maketh

of

that

Tyddyn

or

of

RHANDIREDD

Tenement

or

those

Township,

MAE

Maenor

and

dwy

and

cr

four

four

MAENOR,

dref

or

the
or

Messuage

Houltf and

or

NO

Tyddyn

is tlie

or

four

the

Gcssti*

Hirlav.

the

and

to

foot to the

or

foot in the

or

or

foot to the

or

is sixteen

Land,

and

or

from

breadth-, three

length of

the

his

was

superficialmeasur

Troedvedd

long, that

of

Miltirf

Modvedd

in

or

Butt

Inch, three

or

Troedvedd

Acre

an

for

Troedvedd

twelve

Neidiav,

of

used

yoke, eight Tr(fedvedd

short

the

or

Naid

that

gronin haid(fr

foot, four

or

stride, three

maketh

been

hath

hand

or

feete

And

mile.

or

yet, and

hud

Palf

foot, three
or

Tir

those

Modvedd,

the

the

to

? and

three

length, to
Inch

day

of

or

three

leape, three

or

which

length

Pace

or

Bar'ey

hand,

the

is,the breadth

that

Tir

thousand

this

to

or

Kamt

mil

and

mr

for

measure

ing

G?'wmg,

Troedvedd

Naid

the

to

of

Tri-

Modvedd

inch, three
Palm

or

thus

length o-f one

the

or

Palf

maketh

Druidion, he divid

this manner,

thrice

Modvedd

251

the

according to

gronin ha'cdd* or

Corn

or

officers but

what

nor

DRUIDS.

two

GA-

THEFOIand
Town-

THE

ships niiiketh
Gomot

or

Towns

these

pasture

nor

thers

termed

were

four of these

fiftyof

eth

And

all the

these

Townships,

Countries

GOMOTS,

given some

proper

dominion

of

were

more.

So that when

that

an

Lord

one

offence

containeth

Powysr

Prince's

which

ten

he is gone

name.

di-

were

of these

every
GAFELS

GWLAD

were

Country

or

Prince, whether

two,

or

is gone

for

CANTREDS,

three
from

or

the

four, or

GWLAD

to

Prince's dominion

example, when

from

and

containeth
one

cannot

to
man

NORTHWALKS,

or

fleeth

of another

name

which

another, and the Law

as

or

in GWYNEDD

is the

dominion,

he

to

TOWNS,

or

its

Countreyto Countrey,it is meant

Prince's dominion;

(."ommitUth

TREDS,

or

I say

from

is gone

another

which-

CANTRED

one

that is,from

he

Lord

contain

it hath

and

o-

containeth

dominions

And

one

all

CANTRED

every

Lords

MAENORS,

no

was

KWMWD

whereof

names.

GWLAD

GWLAD,

and

CANTRE,

or

CANTREDS,

the

and

there

Maenol

every

Townships,

vidc-d:by CANTREDS

was

and

neither

ground, and

Every

wastes.

Townships,

of these

hundred

Eor

but fertil arable

thing-measured

Acres,

or

land, and

woods.

nor

contain

Township

or

fifty-sixErw
arable

Ilhan-

every

Gaiel

every

is

that

this reckon

hy

Town

Eveiy

being1 fertile

Erws

meadow

and

hundred

two

And

fourEuw,

sixteen Erw,

Kwmwd

two

Cantred,

or

containeth

sixty-fourErw.

containeth

to

Kantref

Townships,

or

containeth

eth

Goinot, and

or

TYDDYN

ing-every
air

Kwmwd

niaketh

himdicd

HISTORY

ten

Country or
be executed

or

goeth

Country and
other

CAN

dominion
upon

to

THfi

OF

ry and

containeth

was

Country,

And

when

to

nion

And

GWLAD

that

so

times

three,

or

is PAGUS

Cantred

doth

four,

had

place

Brittish

the

Lordshipthat
GWYDD

DOG

is

his

he
doth

Swydd

five Comots.

And

after that

parts of

Sheriff,as

is

next

next

to

him

was

was

to

him
an

Officer

an

a^

made

AMWYTHIG

SWYDD

as

Shires.

Sheriff

was
a

is the

Sheriff of

is

I read

Shire

So

that

the Office of

Shire

an

Lord

Earl
;

Office

or

Salop,"c.

or

Jarll, that is

that

as

greatest and

Teyen, that
Twysog, that is a

Arglwydd, that

Barwrif and

Shire

is

the

Swydd.

Question, The

Brenm,

him

the

and

small, and SWYD

of all states

well

in

called SWYDD

was

or

same

called

was

were

Sheriff, is called

contain

was

of

that

or
Office, and
Sheriff-ship

highestdegree was
and

that is

Office be it great

for the ninth

As

in

that

SWYDDEV

of the Steward, Senescal, or


IX.

and

Country, as

the

constituted

Steward

Officer likewise

SWYDDOG,

sometimes

Comot,

Glamorgan

they

was

Some

of

some

these

is an

an

"whereof

of

Office, and

And

he

Prince,

or

the CANTREFE

Steward,

or

domi

Lord's

or

judgment.

two

tongue SWYDDOG,

the

or

won

Senescal

; as

dominion,

Lord's

one

contain

Count

one

that Lord

to

ia my

containeth

Normans

the

five

or

CANTRED.

one

from

out

Prince

Country

or

Ghvyd

Tegings to DijfrvnGlwyd,

every

so

GWLAD

MORGANWG

or

of

but

the la\v,he went

another.
was

contain

did

and

Count

Cantred, and Dyfrvn

one

did go out

any

for to flee from


ry

but

233

Country. Tegings is a

of the

out

for he is gone

DRUIDS.

and

least of.

is, a king ;
Duke

; and
next

And

next

and
to

to hiin
next

to

THE

is the

that

Squire :
and

next

next

is

these

nine

this is

to

Altiud

an

several

but

nity ;
d

sa

nine

Degrees

all

contained

are

Vche-

Maerdir,

as

also

amongst

other

under

and

names

gotten by birth, by office and

be

they

these

by dig
afore

the nine

Degrees,
As

X.
have

for the
read

not

Question, I do

tenth

neither

knowledge,

to my

find

not

word

I find

but

of

oath

hundred

one

hundred,

fact ; and

the

be

had?

must

men

be

must

that

chief

and

he

must

of all the others.

hwijr, that
that

are

XL
a

Steward

is the

of

next

offender,,to

As

to

man

excuse

be

And
Men

the
to

it

Rhalth,

best

for the

Controller

known

one

and

of the

discreetest

remembrance

of the

and

the foreman

were

my

more

them,,

best, wisest, and

for the eleventh


and

it

excuse

it amongst

excuse

kin, and
him

to

hein

the fact, the

was

Rh-ailk

the

Penrhatth, as

is called

Jury,

heinous

three

or

some

excuse

in

for the

used

hundred

for to

number,

more

to be

two

or

such

Chronicles, and

Rhaiih

men,

like

such

or

and

Laws

word

placesthis

other

many

in the

nor

Chro

in any

nicle,law, History or Poetry, and Dictionary,any

ous

Kaeth,

meanest

And

he

There

to that

next

of Lands,

tenures

lordir, Prwdordir.

and

the

that is a Yeoman

is the

that

Degrees.

several

degrees,which

be called

may

Gwreange,

Slave ; and

three

Vchelur" which

or

that is

to

which

Lad

Prelr

HISTORY

the
be

must

to the

Rhaitof those

supposed

fact

Question, I say that I find


to be

used

for

Distain

in

CATALOGUES
HIBERNICAS

deprekendi,

csse

mihi

quern
Dominus

Jo.

S.

MILUUS

P.

ibidcmque

quas

qua"que

CL

dedit

mutuo

Oxoniensi

ARMORICARUM

quarnndam

vocum

Rev.

et

T.

S.

Aulae

libello

ex

Dominus,
Academia

in

Edmundanat

Sanct.

Principalis, collegiet desumpsi.


Armorici

Angliam

est, Saxonum

patriam

Hiberni

regnum

idem
Clan

colas
bum

Hibernis

tilis

in

videantur

Sic

idem.

ach,
cum

agh,
p,

Sed
in
cum

summo

eadem

de

at,
et

Disscrtatione,

illis est
finales

es

Gvy

voce

intelli-

litterae
se

prae

potestas,

Armoricae,

et

et

ferre
sonus

respondent

initialis

cum

Jit

Scepissime commutantur.

fusius,

et

similis

quam

de

veterum

llomanorum

numine,

ver-

est.

aliquando

dlscrepantiam

tamen

/,/cum

hisce

primum

levem

non

diem

scriptisvidere

Parallelo

Hibernicis.

as

Gallec, qua
usque

gentium

ajft et

cum

ad

dicitur, quod idem

Armoricorum

sequent!

syllable quaedam

Gaolac

sernio

in ambarum

Etiamsi

in-

ipsos

et

Saxones

est,

in hodiernum

linguam

ut

gunt,

variato,

appellant.
Jilios,

gen

Gallorum

id

hoc

vocant,

paululum
solent

indigitare

significatque, ac

sonat

nomine

quo

Sassanacht

na

Saxonum

vero

Bro-saos

arm

scripturisumus.

argument!
Lingua

expert! sunt,

omnibus,
Gallorum,
annuente

OF

Gath

t Cura

THE

etlim Hibernice.
Hibernis Australibus.

t Cardis etiam Hibernice.


*

DRUIDS.

Ganibh,"tiara Hibernice,

237

THE

238

J Uncle forte droi

HISTORY

Druides, doire

neraus.

OF

||Deac

etiam

t Morh
||Haud

et

THE

DRUIDS.

Hihernice.
,

Moir

dubium

etiam.

quin a Latino ofero deducecduia sit.

239

THE

2-40

$ Hiberni

etlam

HISTORY

di^cunt Criban.

j|SpeciatimVacca

Armoricis.

A
z.

Portunm.

Nigerrimus.r

Albiteo-umenti.c Aratorius. D NI"er.


Initialis.
o
Semeatarjus,

VOCARULARIUM
j4rmo.j:ico Hibern
-

icum
.

ARMORICE.

AER.
Aur.
Ar.
All.

Angor..
Argant.
Arm.
Alt.

Ane,
Aval.

Bara.
Brun.

BrecL
Bu.
Brochc
Berr.

Bresych.
Bach,
Brenn,
Bardd.
Baar.
Breur.
Brcn.

Bagl.
Brennyn,

?7, HT9TORY

OF

THE

DRUIDS.

245

246

THE

HISTORY

OF

THE

DRUIDS.

247

248

THR

HISTORY

SPECIMEN
OF

THE

AfcMORICAN

bras

/rus

ct

spc-

Jaon

Etc/us
neri

Von

pcuryeri

rouariietez

rac

apparchdni

bras
drt

rac

douar

ftic ionsolei
Eiirus

ko

sassiet

tedits

Bur

bras

final

an,

art

eo

rac

ae~

rdc

re

re

rac

deve"

gtie/efa

"ti

re

paci

pehetiori

j^lice

lias
tion.

rac

ted art

re

pere

pdlariidur

rbtidnteiez

an

t?a^

Ge,

Opinion,

pic;

gudttet veziril btigale

Miiriis bras

Hea

as

s.

JF

as

Double

mute.

gi sbft.
H

is

final

Gn

as

always

particular
Jet

re

pro
as

as

ni

in

"

s.

pronuncia
Diminutive

art;
as

Map,

MereA, Merchic\
br

gti,

go,

J Consonant

terminations;
ed

of

"c.

shd, "c.

as

nounced;

tniga*

"

dd

kingdom

theirs,

Spi

in

poof

Consonant,

hard

ms^

bove.

fett^i bras

fic^

the

/ is

Dutch;

ho baioiirindtti
taint

ho

re

an

tteiezo.

its bras

Cha

gouel,

in
eo

the

are

$c.

l.

PRONUNCIATION.

vczittt.

burns

is

viil

possedint^
re

an

ven

tiezint.

bras

rit, tor

debon-

ndoiifi hd recheit

tiez

eiif-

an

re

eo

Blessed

ves

unte.

an

co

bras

Eurus

Matt

BEATITUDES,

THE

"

LANGUAGE.

Grfoch

Ala*

OP

250

The
7V

Done
da

raro

calfm"

a a

ernf,hac

of the

Atitraou.

an.

creis

Sum

THE

creis da eiiten-

'(e
da hu

The;

ia

caro

wssaffeueldot

thy ne igh*

sh")lt love

Th""u

self.

thy own

as

In

itr

Commandments

t-n

with

thy soul, and

thy understanding.

bour

'{"n.

thy heart,

will* all

all

with

the Lord

love

siiait

God

thy
all

da rent.

Gospel.

Thou

da

creis

and

Law

Englishprose.

vtrse.

f. En

Doue

un

parfaet ez

shalt then

onelyGod

I. One

Ix-lieve,
Ha
II.

love.
perfectly

parfaetamanta quiry.

And

Doice

II.

vaert

tuuy

ne

Go

By

quct,

not

JVa dememes

erbet.

ncttra

Nor

thou

1 in vain

shalt

swear,

likewise

by

any other

thing.
III.

hac

Sulyon

An

an

II 1.

Sundays
shalt

Goneli/o'tDin
A

In

obse^vy %a"t pedcnnou.


Da

IV.

tat

da

hep

mam

enory

hac

IV.

keep

thou

That

devoutly,

ftiher and

Thy
shalt

bevypell.

ez

Holy days

serving God

b",ut fell.
A

and

honour,

thou

thou

mother

lead

mayst

long life.
V.

Mountrer

vizy

ne

yeez

V.

quet,

VI.

Lnxuriu$

"ac

rnir ma

By

effet.
vizy; VL

likewise

do

murther,

no

vvioniez

shalt

Thou

Wdl

Nor

Deed.

nor

shalt thou

be luxu

rious

Na

dre

na
effect

VI 1. Latzerez
daou
En

dre

na

desi":

miret

ma

icquen.

VII.

Deed
Th

the

den

ep- guys

la

ue

ry bizu*

Desire.

or

shalt

not

keep

goods of anoiher

Privatelyor

by

force,

OF

ha dan

donur.

Christ

hou.

Hac

Jesus

en

unic hon

map

THE

Au.traoii J)otuj discuezit


diff hos

Antra-

}"etconcevet

so
thirty

cliffho garautehuu. En harm

ves

au

Speret scintel,
guanet

an

ves

an

guerches Mary

santel.

drees

Pilot,
ha
net

Fo

dez resswcitet

Death

pingnet
net

het

("

an

da

l)ouet

duy

da barn

maru.

santely hac

an

an

re

fiane

beu, hac

Me

cret

an

His

communion

mission

beu.

da

ollgalloudec.A

Ha

frede

the

in

an

en

Spent

Re

pechcdon.

pf God

tin

have

me.

Doue

bezet

ben*

nigiicL
Tl"e

of the God

name

be

blessed.,

Resur*

Antraou

hoz

bet

recticn

Father,

f"uue ho pet

Son

Hanu

Catholic.
sent.

the

""U7.iff.

pityupon

an

thy paths,

me

mnp

Jesus

ez

7,

thy

me

holy Spirit.

Jesus
trout

is,

pf

name

Speret

an

shew

tench

Son, nn"i

to

dehou

Goil

disyuen- way-- and

maru

Tat

re

That
Lord

Life} So
Euffaon,hoc ase*

en

Map,

an

Ponce,

ha dan
iffernaou^

'from

Tut,

bet crucifiet,
maru^

so

sebeliet.
en

En

didvi

gouzavet

ha q icleiinet
rntho'.i,

i,ruygarez

Quic.

An

buhez eternel.

Lord

Eu

al-se bezet gract.

have

mercy

upon

bremman, beprctda

us.

bl*

zuicquen.
From

this time

to

Eternity.

So be iL

Numbers*
Untw,

huech, seiz, eiz,

pcmp,

dec,

daoit, tryt pcnar,

unnec,

pcnarzcc,
,

daouzec,
pempzec.

nao,

One, two, three,four,five,


six, seven,

eight,nine, teu,

tryzec^ eleven,twelve.'thirteen, four-

seittec^teen, fifteen,
sixteen,scven-

naontec, uguenl.

teen,

twenty.

eighteen, nineteen,

OF

THP,

DRUIDS.

"c.
rt'ugtnt,
ha?(ter
Tregont, daovgtttfit,

Unun

One

war

try vguent dtc a try u*


a
guent, penur
ugnrnt, uec
Cart,
Mil,
uguentt
peiar
cant

253

au(i

Thirty,toity, iialfn
dred,
tti

an

fourscore

burn

fifty,thie"

e.

score

ei

Million.

len,

and

scoie,

fourscore,

ten,

TtjousaocJi Million.

Days of
Dyssvll*Dyflun, \)tmtu"z,
Dtmercher,

Diziou, Drrgue-

L)essqdorntun'b\z\\ntun

ner,

"c.

twenty,

the Week,
Tues-

Munday,

Sunday,

day, Wednesday, l'hurs"i "y,


Fnday, Saturday, a WeeK,

Dtz.

Done

roiff dez

da

God

mat

dech.

give

you

good

3 ay.

H"i dechhu

Ivez
hanochhu

Penaus

Yach

ouf

Pea

lech

Me

govezo

Dll

And
Ho.V

tiugarez Doite^

it-hu ?

ez

an

to

do

do

you

well

ti in

Wnit'ier

i:kewise.

you

Cod's

by

J st^aliknow

^uiryonez,

GALLORUMc

the

OFPICIORUM
me

m"

rcy.

^ou

go

truth.

MAXI

sacrorum

no*

TARAMIS,
Hesus.

Teut^es.
Beleuus, vel

I aenflB.

Abili'p

Bardi

Onvana.

Druid^.

Hogmius,
Adiast".

SUMMUS

Bard, Bw'rd, H.

Anara, Hib.
An

date.

Eijbages.
torrupte

pro

MAGISTRATUS^
Ger.

Alauila.

~Bellicae.

Caterva.

Mangae.

MIUTUM

SPECIES,
,

H,

Vargi.

Crupellarii,

i
Mangana.
Mangonalia. )
Currwm
Beuna,

i-v

"

Nomina,

HISTORY,

THE

254

Bagaudoe.

Bagada't.

"c.

Petoritum.

Galearii.

Carrus.
Covinum.

ARMORUM

Essedum.

NOMINA,

Rhfida.

Spatha.
Gessum.
Lancea.

fostiun

Cateia.
Matara.

Rheno.

Thyreus.

Tarei, Hib.

Sagus.

Cetra.

Liana
Car nan,

"

Carnon

(_

videas,

Gaunaeum.

Bardtacus,

quasras.

Bardocucullus,
Braccae,

f.

etiam

Bardis.

Bardis.

pro

omnibus.

pro

pro

Breaccan.

Maniaci.

Nomina,

Animalium

Marc,

Equus.

Rhaphius,

Simia.

Abrana,

Barracaceae,

t
est

Linnae,
textrino

Linna
nis

indnsium

quadra

saga

est

ct

species.

moilia

sunt,

dc

quibus

Plaut.

pinnae

cooperta,

Isidor-

Gallia.

Diodoro

Mus.

Piscis

Clupea.

"c.

Pellium,

Comix.

Lug,

Cervinus.

Lupus

est
non

PSILOS,

SAG

is

una

mutata

et

littera.

FINIS,

Varroni

mollis

sagus,

Ilibernis hodier^

ELEGY

AN
On

TOLAND

Thou

Ihou

And

nature

Each

all

Of

element

The

cooler

That

dampt

Now

leave

And
The

aloft,

flown

weep,

The

Patron

Liberty

Thou
To

Will,

dost
this

of

impart

this

greatly

Isle

Champion's

thy

of

he

dead,

fled.

beams

thy just
has

ray,

heav'nly
radiant

frame,

Day.

is

Hero,
brave

of

Liberty

which

flame,

borrow'd

your

thy

way.

mechanic

the

Sons,

Goddess

thou

blest

like

your

heart,

noble

thy

their

vital

tlie

part

clay,
seek

Prince

the

to

Britannia's

Oh!

Ocean

spark,

re-united

And

nnariimated

must.

Dust.

quench'd

quicken'd

and

mov'd

That

substance

\vat'ry

and

pow'rs,

genial

purer

the

mother

then*

to

stiff

the

lost

native

to

boast

rous

mould'ring

blood,

thy

\voiuf

^Ether

the

and

fluids,

become?

thy

dissolve

degrees,

slow

bre;ith,

home

Non-ens

earth,

to

gone

retir'd
angry

gone

cause;

expir'd

seat

iri boundless

argument,

By

ancient

laws,

Reason's

and

lastbreaih

thy

el'qufnt

Nature's

to

Truth,

TOLAND

thy

Earth

Is

her

to

Master

Is

How

jarring

And

of

support

more

friend

TOLAND.

MR.

ingenious

mighty

great

Art

Is

late

the

cause

undaunted

!'

bright
of

light

darling

train,

maintain?
stood