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Insights Mock tests 2015: Test 27 Solutions

1. Solution: c)
http://www.fssai.gov.in/AboutFSSAI/introduction.aspx
http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/nestle-approaches-bombay-high-court-againstfssai-maharashtra-fda-order-770688
It has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which
consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in
various Ministries and Departments. FSSAI has been created for laying down science
based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage,
distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for
human consumption.
Various central Acts like Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 , Fruit Products
Order , 1955, Meat Food Products Order , 1973, Vegetable Oil Products (Control)
Order, 1947,Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation)Order 1988, Solvent Extracted Oil,
De- Oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967, Milk and Milk Products
Order, 1992 etc were repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.

2. Solution: a)
Anti-dumping duty is imposed by government on imported products which have
prices less than their normal values or domestic price.
Usually countries initiate anti-dumping probes to check if domestic industry has
been hurt because of a surge in below-cost imports.
Anti-Dumping Duty is imposed under the multilateral WTO regime and varies from
product to product and from country to country.
In India, anti-dumping duty is recommended by the Union Ministry of Commerce,
while the Union Finance Ministry imposes it.
3. Solution: c)
The Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill has been passed by the Parliament of India
on 7th May 2015.While India will gain 510 acres of land, ten thousand acres of land
will notionally go to Bangladesh. However, these are remote enclaves which India
cannot access. This legislation will redraw Indias boundary with Bangladesh by
exchanging enclaves in Assam, West Bengal, Tripura and Meghalaya.
Implications of the agreement are:
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It will secure the long stranded boundary and enable to curb the illegal
migration, smuggling and criminal acts cross the border.
It would help those stateless citizens by granting the citizenship from their
respective countries.
It would help settle the boundary dispute at several points in Meghalaya,
Tripura, Assam, and west Bengal.
It would improve the access to the underdeveloped north-eastern state and
would further enhance the developmental works in the region.
It would help to increase the connectivity with the south-east Asia as part of
Indias North-eastern policy.

4. Solution: a)
Recently Union Home Ministry has appointed Senior IPS Officer RC Tayal as the
new Director General (DG) of Indias elite counter-terror force National Security
Guard (NSG).
It also nodal agency for counter-terror and counter-hijack operations and later was
tasked to protect high-risk VVIPs. It operates under the oversight of the Ministry of
Home Affairs and is headed by the Director General of the Indian Police Service
(IPS).
The NSG members are also known as Black Cats because of the black drill cotton
coveralls and balaclavas or helmets they wear.
5. Solution: a)
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/us-doctors-perform-worlds-firstskullscalp-transplant/article7285933.ece
Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from
a donor site to another location on the person's own body, to replace the recipient's
damaged or absent organ.
Organs that can be transplanted are
the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Tissues
include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal
grafts),cornea, skin, heart valves, nerves and veins.
Organ donors may be living, brain dead, or dead via circulatory death.

6. Solution: b)
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Under the nationwide campaign a village with acute water scarcity on a pilot project
will be selected as Jal Gram.
In this identified village a comprehensive integrated development plan will be
framed and several water conservation activities will be launched.
Activities proposed under the campaign include rain water harvesting, recycling of
waste water, micro irrigation for using water efficiently and mass awareness
program. Along with it, a cadre of local water professional Jal Mitra will be created
and they will be given training to create mass awareness.
As pilot project, activities under this nation campaign will be run in one water
stressed village in each 672 districts in the country.

7. Solution: b)
Al-Birunis Kitab-ul-Hind, written in Arabic, is simple and lucid. It is a voluminous
text, divided into 80 chapters on subjects such as religion and philosophy, festivals,
astronomy, alchemy, manners and customs, social life, weights and measures,
iconography, laws and metrology. Generally (though not always), Al-Biruni adopted
a distinctive structure in each chapter, beginning with a question, following this up
with a description based on Sanskritic traditions, and concluding with a comparison
with other cultures. Some present-day scholars have argued that this almost
geometric structure, remarkable for its precision and predictability, owed much to
his mathematical orientation. Al-Biruni, who wrote in Arabic, probably intended his
work for peoples living along the frontiers of the subcontinent. He was familiar with
translations and adaptations of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit texts into Arabic these
ranged from fables to works on astronomy and medicine. However, he was also
critical about the ways in which these texts were written, and clearly wanted to
improve on them.

8. Solution: c)
Recently, India has lost a poultry case against United States at World Trade
Organization (WTO) after WTOs Dispute Settlement Board (DSB) ruled that Indias
ban on import of poultry meat, eggs and live pigs from US is inconsistent with the
international norms.
India had banned imports of various agriculture products including poultry meat and
eggs from the US in 2007.

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These poultry products were banned as a precautionary measure to prevent
outbreaks of Avian Influenza and bird flu fears. In March 2012, US had dragged
India to the WTO for banning these products and had contended Indias import
prohibition saying that it was not based on the relevant international standard or on
a scientific risk assessment.
Earlier in October 2014 WTO Appellate Body had ruled in favour of US and clearly
mentioned that Indias ban measures are arbitrarily and unjustifiably discrimination
on international trade and constitutes a disguised restriction on it.
Protectionism (saving domestic industries) is a clear violation of WTO rules.
9. Solution: b)
Refer to this article. It has been explained beautifully
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/082113/understanding-interestrates-nominal-real-and-effective.asp
You should also know that the higher is the difference between the real and nominal
rates; the less profitable is the lending business to the bank.

10.

Solution: a)

Corporate farming is a term used to describe companies that own or influence farms
and agricultural practices on a large scale. This includes not only corporate
ownership of farms and selling of agricultural products, but also the roles of these
companies in influencing agricultural education, research, and public policy through
funding initiatives and lobbying efforts.
Contract farming- In contrast, Farming contracts are agreements between a farmer
and a buyer that stipulates what the farmer will grow and how much they will grow
usually in return for guaranteed purchase of the product or financial support in
purchase of inputs (e.g. feed for livestock growers).

11. Solution: c)
Franois Bernier (25 September 1620 22 September 1688) was a French physician
and traveller. He was born at Jou-Etiau in Anjou. He was briefly personal physician
to Prince Dara Shikoh, the elder son of Shah Jahan, and after Dara Shikoh's fall was
attached to the court of the Emperor Aurangzeb for around 12 years during his stay
in India.

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His 1684 publication Nouvelle division de la terre par les diffrentes espces ou
races qui l'habitent is considered the first published post-Classical classification of
humans into distinct races. He also wrote Travels in the Mughal Empire, which is
mainly about the reigns of Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb. It is based on his own
extensive journeys and observations, and on information from eminent Mughal
courtiers who had witnessed the events at first hand.

12. Solution: a)
African countries have signed a historic The Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) that
facilitates creation of Africas largest free-trade zone.

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13. Solution: d)
The following are denied to foreign citizens, also called aliens:

Right against discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of


birth (Article 15).
Right to equality of opportunity in the matter of public employment (Article
16).
Right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association, movement,
residence and profession (Article 19).
Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29 and 30).
Right to vote in elections to the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly.
Right to contest for the membership of the Parliament and the state
legislature.
Eligibility to hold certain public offices, that is, President of India, VicePresident of India, judges of the Supreme Court and the high courts, governor
of states, attorney general of India and advocate general of states.

14. Solution: d)
Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area
for a long period of time (more than thirty years). Weather refers to the state of the
atmosphere over an area at any point of time. The elements of weather and climate
are the same, i.e. temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity and
precipitation.

15. Solution: c)
The 1919 act divided the provincial subjects into two parts transferred and
reserved.
The transferred subjects were to be administered by the governor with the aid of
ministers responsible to the legislative Council.
The reserved subjects, on the other hand, were to be administered by the governor
and his executive council without being responsible to the legislative Council.

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This dual scheme of governance was known as - dyarchy - a term derived from the
Greek word di-arche which means double rule. However, this experiment was largely
unsuccessful.

16. Solution: a)
When the Presidents rule is imposed in a state, the Parliament becomes empowered
to make laws with respect to any matter in the State List in relation to that state. A
law made so by the Parliament continues to be operative even after the presidents
rule.
All the decisions concerning the state emanate from the President based on the
advice given by Council of Ministers.
The state legislature is also either suspended or dissolved.

17. Solution: d)
In introducing the Permanent Settlement, British officials hoped to resolve the
problems they had been facing since the conquest of Bengal. By the 1770s, the rural
economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural
output. Officials felt that agriculture, trade and the revenue resources of the state
could all be developed by encouraging investment in agriculture. This could be done
by securing rights of property and permanently fixing the rates of revenue demand. If
the revenue demand of the state was permanently fixed, then the Company could
look forward to a regular flow of revenue, while entrepreneurs could feel sure of
earning a profit from their investment, since the state would not siphon it off by
increasing its claim. The process, officials hoped, would lead to the emergence of a
class of yeomen farmers and rich landowners who would have the capital and
enterprise to improve agriculture. Nurtured by the British, this class would also be
loyal to the Company.

18.Solution: d)
Union Government has launched IAP HealthPhone programme, worlds largest
digital mass education programme to address malnutrition in women and children.
This programme is initiative of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) in partnership
with Union Ministry of Women and Child Development (WCD); United Nations
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Childrens Fund (UNICEF); Supported by Vodafone India. It is a public-private
partnership (PPP) initiative that seeks to educate over 6 million girls and women
between 13 and 35 years of age and their families on better health and nutrition
practices by 2018 by leveraging penetration of mobile phones in the country. It will
promote and distribute four re-edited videos from the Poshan (nutritional videos)
series in 18 Indian languages, which are jointly produced by Union Ministry WCD
and UNICEF.
The three-year intensive awareness campaign under IAP HealthPhone programme is
expected to benefit to improve health of around 60 million children born by 2025 in
India and also play important transformative role in Indias fight against
malnutrition.

19. Solution: b)
Mandamus literally means we command. It is a command issued by the court to a
public official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed or refused to
perform. It can also be issued against any public body, a corporation, an inferior
court, a tribunal or government for the same purpose.
The writ of mandamus cannot be issued (a) against a private individual or body; (b)
to enforce departmental instruction that does not possess statutory force; (c) when
the duty is discretionary and not mandatory; (d) to enforce a contractual obligation;
(e) against the president of India or the state governors; and (f) against the chief
justice of a high court acting in judicial capacity.

20.

Solution: d)

GNP is basically GDP plus net factor income from abroad (NFIA).
NFIA includes imports, exports, remittances etc. So any change in them will
immediately change the GNP.
Moreover, lower interest rates in the economy encourage consumption and boost
capital investment leading to a higher GDP (hence GNP) in the short-run.

21. Solution: d)
Article 355: Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and
internal disturbance - It shall be the duty of the Union to protect every State against
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external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the government of
every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
Article 365: Article 365 says that where any state has failed to comply with (or to give
effect to) any directions given by the Centre, it will be lawful for the President to hold
that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on
in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. It means that, in such a
situation, the Presidents rule can be imposed in the state under Article 356.

22.

Solution: b)

British General Charles Cornwallis, the 2nd Earl Cornwallis, was appointed in
February 1786 to serve as both Commander-in-Chief of British India and Governor of
the Presidency of Fort William, also known as the Bengal Presidency. Based in
Calcutta, he oversaw the consolidation of British control over much of peninsular
India, setting the stage for the British Raj. He was also instrumental in enacting
administrative and legal reforms that fundamentally altered civil administration and
land management practices in India. According to historian Jerry Dupont,
Cornwallis was responsible for "laying the foundation for British rule throughout
India and setting standards for the services, courts, and revenue collection that
remained remarkably unaltered almost to the end of the British era."

23.

Solution: b)

Scientific forestry is the science of managing forests. It was a system introduced in


the colonial times.
Plantation crops were introduced by replacing the local forests with one type of trees
introduced in a row.
Moreover, the forests were surveyed by officials and various plans were made for
better forest management.
Essentially, the main goal is to create and implement systems that allow forests to
continue a sustainable continuation of environmental supplies and services. The
challenge is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource
and any other resources that might be affected.

24.

Solution: a)

The Battle of Karnal (February 24, 1739 was a decisive victory for Nader Shah, the
emperor of the Iranian Afsharid dynasty during his invasion of India. The Shah's
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forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah which was roughly six times the size of
his own in what is regarded as the crowning achievement in a spectacular military
career. the Indian army was lured into battle in segments and defeated in detail, in
little more than three hours, paving the way for the Afsharid sack of Delhi. The battle
took place near Karnal, 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of Delhi, India.
Aurangzeb had died in 1707 itself. Hence statement 1 is wrong.

25.

Solution: a)

Read the mechanism here http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/cycloneashobaa-slows-monsoon-progress-india


The southwest monsoon winds have entered east and northeast India. Heavy rains
have already been reported in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya.

26.

Solution: d)

Monetary Authority:

Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy.

Objective: maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to


productive sectors.

Regulator and supervisor of the financial system:

Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country's


banking and financial system functions.

Objective: maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors'


interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public.

Manager of Foreign Exchange

Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.

Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly


development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.

Issuer of currency:

Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation.

Objective: to give the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes


and coins and in good quality.

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Developmental role

Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national


objectives.

Related Functions

Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the


central and the state governments; also acts as their banker.

Banker to banks: maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks.

27.

Solution: d)

Read the link for understanding the issue.


http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/environment-ministry-may-allow-huntingnuisance-wild-animals
The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is planning to
allow the legitimate hunting of wild animals such as blue bulls (nilgai) and wild boars
to tackle man-animal conflict.
According to environment minister Prakash Javadekar, the ministry is mulling the
implementation of an office memorandum passed in December last year, which
states that wild animals which destroy crops should be treated as vermins. However,
the ministrys move has drawn flak from animal rights groups.

28.

Solution: b)

Maanikavasagar was a 9th-century Tamil poet who wrote Tiruvasakam, a book of


Shaiva hymns. Manikkavasakar was one of the main authors of saivite tirumurai: his
work forms one volume of the Tirumurai, the key religious text of Tamil Shaiva
Siddhanta. A minister to the Pandya king Varagunavarman II (c. 862 C.E. 885
C.E.) (also called Arimarthana Pandiyan), he lived in Madurai. His work is a poetic
expression of the joy of God-experience, the anguish of being separated from God.
Although he is a prominent saint in Southern India, he is not counted among the
sixty-three nayanars.

29.

Solution: b)

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the
tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of
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the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from
the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern
Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its
warm phase. Historically, the trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships
to cross the world's oceans for centuries, and enabled European empire expansion
into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans.

30.

Solution: d)

Tax expenditures are revenue losses attributable to tax provisions that often result
from the use of the tax system to promote social goals without incurring direct
expenditures.
Income tax provisions generally seek to promote one or more of three broad
objectives: measuring income accurately, distributing fiscal benefits and burdens
based on a households ability to pay, and promoting activities or behavior that are
considered socially desirable. Tax expenditures are tax provisions that are not
structural features of the income tax or necessary to measure income accurately.

31. Solution: d)
Printing money is more or less always inflationary if not backed up immediately with
supply side augmentations.
Rupee depreciation feeds in the cost of our imports especially making oil costlier.
This impacts the vital transportation sector from where inflation is fed in other
sectors of the economy too quickly.
High tax rebates quickly increase the purchasing power of the citizens. This leads to
higher demand, and if not backed by greater supply, will lead to inflationary
pressures.

32.

Solution: a)

It has been explained here. Giving the account of the crisis here would be difficult.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/explaining-the-greek-economic-crisiswith-students.shtml
Also read the introduction of this article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_government-debt_crisis
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No need to read in-depth. Just get a general idea.

33.

Solution: c)

Subsidiary Alliance was a system devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798. All those who
entered into such an alliance with the British had to accept certain terms and
conditions: (a) The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from
external and internal threats to their power. (b) In the territory of the ally, a British
armed contingent would be stationed. (c) The ally would have to provide the
resources for maintaining this contingent. (d) The ally could enter into agreements
with other rulers or engage in warfare only with the permission of the British.

34.

Solution: b)

A non-bank financial institution (NBFI) is a financial institution that does not have a
full banking license or is not supervised by a national or international banking
regulatory agency. NBFIs facilitate bank-related financial services, such
as investment, risk pooling, contractual savings, and market brokering. Examples of
these include insurance firms, pawn shops, cashier's check issuers, check
cashing locations, payday lending, currency exchanges, and microloan organizations.
They provide "multiple alternatives to transform an economy's savings into capital
investment [which] act as backup facilities should the primary form of
intermediation fail.

35.

Solution: a)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/rising-sea-levels-could-force-marine-lifetowards-poles
Rising sea temperatures caused by global climate change could drive many marine
creatures away from the Equator, but their move toward the poles promises to put
them in peril in habitats that are smaller and less hospitable.

36.

Solution: a)

The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months
brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They usually
influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Disturbance
http://www.skymetweather.com/content/weather-faqs/what-is-westerndisturbance/

37.

Solution: a)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Network_of_Biosphere_Reserves_in_Asia_a
nd_the_Pacific#India
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Network_of_Biosphere_Reserves

38.

Solution: d)

An 'Endemic Species' is one that is only found in that region and nowhere else in the
world. As such they are of conservation concern because they are not widespread and
may be confined to only one or two protected areas.
Sal and wild mango are two examples of endemic flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere
Reserve. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are endemic fauna of this
area.
Destruction of their habitat, increasing population and introduction of new species
may affect the natural habitat of endemic species and endanger their existence.

39.

Solution: d)

In some women oviducts are blocked. These women are unable to bear babies
because sperms cannot reach the egg for fertilization. In such cases, doctors collect
freshly released egg and sperms and keep them together for a few hours for IVF or in
vitro fertilization (fertilization outside the body).
In case fertilization occurs, the zygote is allowed to develop for about a week and
then it is placed in the mothers uterus.
Complete development takes place in the uterus and the baby is born like any other
baby. Babies born through this technique are called test-tube babies. This term is
actually misleading because babies cannot grow in test tubes.

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40.

Solution: c)

In Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, Marici is a deva or bodhisattva associated


with light and the sun. She is known as Molizhitian or Molizhitian Pusa in China and
Marishi-ten in Japan and in Tibetan as 'Odzer Canma, "Woman Endowed with Rays
of Light" (Wylie: 'od zer can ma). She is one of the 20 (or 24). In Taoism and Chinese
folk religion, Marici is known under the epithet of the Lady of Dipper Mother; or
Doumu, a name sometimes used by Buddhists.

41. Solution: c)
Some gases prevent the escape of heat from the Earth. An increase in the percentage
of such gases in the atmosphere would cause the average temperatures to increase
worldwide and this is called the greenhouse effect.
Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases. An increase in the carbon dioxide
content in the atmosphere would cause more heat to be retained by the atmosphere
and lead to global warming.
Ozone concentration has no relation with the amount of carbon dioxide.

42.

Solution: a)

The study has mentioned that population this bird species which is also known as the
rice bird in China has plunged by 90 percent since 1980 and disappearing from
Eastern Europe, Japan and parts of Russia.

The main reason mentioned in the study for decline of songbirds is illegal hunting for
food and sold on the black market in China.
It should be noted that Yellow-breasted buntings is Eurasian passerine bird that
belongs to the bunting family (Emberizidae). It is migratory bird wintering in southeast Asia, India, and southern China.

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43.

Solution: a)

In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the combined forces of the British East India
Company and the Nizam of Hyderabad defeated Tipu, and he was killed on 4 May
1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna.

44.

Solution: c)

The CVC is headed by a Central Vigilance Commissioner and has two Vigilance
Commissioners.
President Pranab Mukherjee has appointed KV Chowdary new Central Vigilance
Commissioner.
Central Vigilance Commissioner and has two Vigilance Commissioners are appointed
by President on the recommendations of select committee comprising of Prime
Minister as Chairperson, Union Minister of Home Affairs and Leader of the second
largest party in the Lok Sabha or majority group leader in parliament.
Its function is to monitor all vigilance activity under the Union Government and
advise various authorities in Union Government organizations in planning,
executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.

45.

Solution: a)

One or two episodes from Mahabharata are chosen for the nights performance. The
main singer continuously sits throughout the performance and with powerful singing
and symbolic gestures he assumes all the characters of the episode one after another.
Pankida is sung by the peasants of Rajasthan while doing work in the fields, the
peasants sing and speak while playing algoza and manjira. The literal meaning of
the word Pankhida is lover.

46.

Solution: c)

On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist
and dry deciduous. The former is found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 and
100 cm. These forests exist, therefore, mostly in the eastern part of the country
northeastern states, along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa
and Chhattisgarh, and on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Teak is the most
dominant species of this forest. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum,
arjun, mulberry are other commercially important species.
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47.

Solution: d)

The ocean crust rocks are much younger than the continental rocks. The age of rocks
in the oceanic crust is nowhere more than 200 million years old. Some of the
continental rock formations are as old as 3,200 million old.
This is due to sea floor spreading. Lava from deep in the ocean comes out on the
surface creating new sediments on the ocean floor.
Constant eruptions at the crest of oceanic ridges cause the rupture of the oceanic
crust and the new lava wedges into it, pushing the oceanic crust on either side. The
ocean floor, thus spreads.
So, Rocks closer to the mid-oceanic ridges are normal polarity and are the youngest.
The age of the rocks increases as one moves away from the crest.

48.

Solution: c)

After 11 years, Sundaram Ravi became the first Indian after S. Venkataraghavan to be
inducted in the International Cricket Councils (ICC) Elite Panel of Umpires
following an annual review and selection process.
The Emirates Elite Panel of ICC Umpires was selected by the ICC Umpires Selection
Panel consisting of Chairman, Geoff Allardice, ICCs General Manager Cricket, ICC
Chief Match Referee Ranjan Madugalle, ex-England player and coach and umpire,
David Lloyd, and Srinivas Venkataraghavan, the former India captain and
international umpire.
http://www.icc-cricket.com/news/2015/media-releases/88126/icc-announcesemirates-elite-panel-of-icc-umpires-for-2015-2016
http://www.thehindu.com/sport/cricket/ravi-inducted-into-icc-elite-panel-ofumpires/article7282542.ece

49.

Solution: b)

There are sixteen nutrients which are essential for plants.


Air supplies carbon and oxygen, hydrogen comes from water, and soil supplies the
other thirteen nutrients to plants.
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As far as other nutrients are concerned, here is a very important table.

50.

Solution: c)

Klgh painting, short-lived style of watercolour painting produced in the 19th


century in India by artists in the Calcutta marketplace for sale to pilgrims visiting the
Klgh temple. The style is characterized by broad sweeping brush lines, bold
colours, and simplification of forms suitable for their mass production. The
paintings, usually 17 by 11 inches (43 by 28 centimetres), were done on blank sheets,
with no attempt made to fill in the backgrounds.
Most usually depicted were the popular Hindu deities, but scenes of contemporary
life are also found. The school, which rose in response to the competition of cheap
coloured lithographs, soon lost the contest and disappeared rapidly. The charm and
vigour of Klgh painting had an influence on a number of modern Indian painters,
as can be seen in the work of Jamini Roy.

51. Solution: b)
The name Pakistan or Pak-stan is coined by a Punjabi Muslim student at Cambridge,
Choudhry Rehmat Ali.

52.

Solution: a)

http://khoyapaya.gov.in/mpp/home
Khoya Paya is joint initiative of the Union Ministry of Women and Child
Development (WCD) and the Department of Electronics and Information
Technology (DeitY). The first-of-its-kind web portal will serve as a platform for
people to not only report a missing child but also track the efforts towards his or her
recovery.

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The website will also provide links to court orders wherein police have been
mandated to register an FIR in the matter of a child gone missing and treat it as
either abduction or trafficking unless it is proved otherwise in the investigation.

53.

Solution: d)

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has reduced the policy repo rate under the liquidity
adjustment facility (LAF) by 25 basis points from 7.5 per cent to 7.25 per cent with
immediate effect.
The concept of repo rate has been covered in previous tests. You should understand
its consequences here http://blog.bankbazaar.com/rbi-repo-cut-how-it-affects-yourloans-and-deposits/

54.

Solution: c)

An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impacts


that a proposed project may have on the environment, consisting of
the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to
ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding
whether or not to proceed with a project.
The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an
environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting,
evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of
development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments
made."
EIAs are unique in that they do not require adherence to a predetermined
environmental outcome, but rather they require decision makers to account for
environmental values in their decisions and to justify those decisions in light of
detailed environmental studies and public comments on the potential environmental
impacts.
PIB Features

55.

Solution: c)

There were many reasons why the British took upon themselves the task of town
planning from the early years of their rule in Bengal. One immediate reason was
defence. In 1756, Sirajudaula, the Nawab of Bengal, attacked Calcutta and sacked the
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small fort which the British traders had built as their depot for goods. The English
East India Company traders had been continuously questioning the sovereignty of
the Nawab. They were reluctant to pay customs duties, and refused to comply with
the terms on which they were expected to operate. So Sirajudaula wanted to assert
his authority.
Subsequently, in 1757, when Sirajudaula was defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the
East India Company decided to build a new fort, one that could not be easily
attacked. Calcutta had grown from three villages called Sutanati, Kolkata and
Govindapur. The Company cleared a site in the southernmost village of Govindapur
and the traders and weavers living there were asked to move out. Around the new
Fort William they left a vast open space which came to be locally known as the
Maidan or garer-math.
This was done so that there would be no obstructions to a straight line of fire from
the Fort against an advancing enemy army. Once the British became more confident
about their permanent presence in Calcutta, they started moving out of the Fort and
building residences along the periphery of the Maidan. That was how the English
settlement in Calcutta gradually started taking shape. The vast open space around
the Fort (which still exists) became a landmark, Calcuttas first significant town
planning measure.

56.

Solution: a)

These committees present their report to the House or to the Speaker / Chairman.
They have a secretariat provided by the Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha.
The consultative committees, which also consist of members of Parliament, are not
parliamentary committees as they do not fulfill these conditions.
The Constitution of India makes a mention of these committees at different places,
but without making any specific provisions regarding their composition, tenure,
functions, etc. All these matters are dealt by the rules of two Houses.

57. Solution: b)
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/green-climate-fund-racing-get-its-showroad-cop-21
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund within the framework of
the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to redistribute money from the developed to
the developing world, in order to assist the developing countries
in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. The GCF is based
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in the new Songdo district of Incheon, South Korea. It is governed by a Board of 24
members and initially supported by an Interim Secretariat.

58.

Solution: a)

The Sambhar Salt Lake, India's largest inland salt lake, a bowl shape lake encircles
historical Sambhar Lake Town located 96 km south west of the city of Jaipur
(Northwest India) and 64 km north east of Ajmer along National Highway 8 in
Rajasthan.

59.

Solution: d)

Articles 52 to 78 in part V of the Constitution deal with the Union Executive.


The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime
Minister, the council of ministers and the attorney general of India.
Even though other officials are a part of the executive branch of the government, the
constitution does not mention them explicitly.

60.

Solution: d)

Article 75 says only that the Prime Minister shall be appointed by the president.
However, this does not imply that the president is free to appoint any one as the
Prime Minister. In accordance with the conventions of the parliamentary system of
government, the President has to appoint the leader of the majority party in the Lok
Sabha as the Prime Minister. But, when no party has a clear majority in the Lok
Sabha, then the President may exercise his personal discretion in the selection and
appointment of the Prime Minister.
Moreover, the PM can be a member of any of the houses.

61. Solution: d)
Fiscal deficit need not always be inflationary.
If enhanced government spending is supplemented by supply increases, it can
actually lead to greater economic growth and low inflation.

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Supply side bottlenecks are caused by low government spending or neglect; low gross
capital formation; and lack of private sector participation in creating infrastructure.

62.

Solution: d)

Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent


disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by
inserting a gene into a patients cells instead of using drugs or surgery. For e.g. it can
be used to treat developmental defects in a child/embryo.
Correction of a genetic defect involves delivery of a normal gene into the individual
or embryo to take over the function of and compensate for the non-functional gene.
Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases
(including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the
technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and
effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases
that have no other cures.

63.

Solution: d)

As per recently published study, camels aged less than four years might be a major
source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The study was published in
the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Refer to
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_East_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus#E
volution
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/262538.php

64.

Solution: c)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vachana_sahitya
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nayanars

65.

Solution: c)

For drinking purposes, water should be tested for fluoride ion concentration.

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Its deficiency in drinking water is harmful to man and causes diseases such as tooth
decay etc. The F ions make the enamel on teeth much harder.
However, F ion concentration above 2 ppm causes brown mottling of teeth. At the
same time, excess fluoride (over 10 ppm) causes harmful effect to bones and teeth, as
reported from some parts of Rajasthan.
The maximum limit of nitrate in drinking water is 50 ppm. Excess nitrate (not
fluoride) in drinking water can cause disease such as methemoglobinemia (blue
baby syndrome).

66.

Solution: d)

The autotrophs capture the energy present in sunlight and convert it into chemical
energy. This energy supports all the activities of the living world.
From autotrophs, the energy goes to the heterotrophs and decomposers when one
form of energy is changed to another, some energy is lost to the environment in
forms which cannot be used again.
When green plants are eaten by primary consumers, a great deal of energy is lost as
heat to the environment, some amount goes into digestion and in doing work and the
rest goes towards growth and reproduction. An average of 10% of the food eaten is
turned into its own body and made available for the next level of consumers.

67.

Solution: b)

Monetary policy review falls under the RBI, which is not the government. It acts
independently of the government in deciding monetary policy.
Fiscal stimulus means greater flow of government spending in productive sectors. It
boosts growth.
Welfare transfers augment the earnings of poor households providing them with
economic security as well as enhanced purchasing power which leads to more
demand and higher economic growth.

68.

Solution: d)

The SDR is an international reserve asset, created by the IMF in 1969 to supplement
its member countries official reserves.

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Its value is based on a basket of four key international currencies, and SDRs can be
exchanged for freely usable currencies.
The SDR is neither a currency, nor a claim on the IMF. Rather, it is a potential claim
on the freely usable currencies of IMF members. Holders of SDRs can obtain these
currencies in exchange for their SDRs in two ways: first, through the arrangement of
voluntary exchanges between members; and second, by the IMF designating
members with strong external positions to purchase SDRs from members with weak
external positions.
In addition to its role as a supplementary reserve asset, the SDR serves as the unit of
account of the IMF and some other international organizations.

69.

Solution: a)

The Labour force participation rate refers to the number of people who are either
employed or are actively looking for work. The number of people who are no longer
actively searching for work would not be included in the participation rate.
During an economic recession, many workers often get discouraged and stop looking
for employment, as a result, the participation rate decreases.

70.

Solution: a)

The DPSP clearly mentions in the articles 39 (a) and (b) that it is the states goal to
reduce income inequalities and ensure that surplus income is redistributed to avoid
concentration of money in the economy.
Preamble merely talks about economic and social equality in general terms.
Hence, DPSP will be a preferred option to Preamble.

71. Solution: d)
Early in 1946 fresh elections were held to the provincial legislatures. The Congress
swept the General category, but in the seats specifically reserved for Muslims the
League won an overwhelming majority. The political polarisation was complete. A
Cabinet Mission sent in the summer of 1946 failed to get the Congress and the
League to agree on a federal system that would keep India together while allowing
the provinces a degree of autonomy. After the talks broke down, Jinnah called for a
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Direct Action Day to press the Leagues demand for Pakistan. On the designated
day, 16 August 1946, bloody riots broke out in Calcutta. The violence spread to rural
Bengal, then to Bihar, and then across the country to the United Provinces and the
Punjab. In some places, Muslims were the main sufferers, in other places, Hindus.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1946_Cabinet_Mission_to_India

72.

Solution: c)

One method of replenishing the soil with nutrients is through crop rotation. This can
be done by growing different crops alternately.
Earlier, farmers in northern India used to grow legumes as fodder in one season and
wheat in the next season. This helped in the replenishment of the soil with nitrogen.
Farmers are being encouraged to adopt this practice.
Moreover, in the alternate rows in the field, two different crops can be grown in
different seasons alternatively.

73.

Solution: d)

http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/grain/grain.htm
But, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them
from pests like rats and insects.
Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home. For storing large
quantities of grains in big godowns, specific chemical treatments are required to
protect them from pests and microorganisms.
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74.

Solution: c)

Westminster is a place in London where the British Parliament is located. It is often


used as a symbol of the British Parliament.
The Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union government. It occupies a preeminent and central position in the Indian democratic political system due to
adoption of the parliamentary form of government, also known as Westminster
model of government.
Indian constitution departs on a number of principles from the British constitution
namely federalism v/s unitary government; monarchy v/s republic; judicial review
etc.

75. Solution: b)
He is provided with a security of tenure. He can be removed only by a resolution
passed by the Lok Sabha by an absolute majority (ie, a majority of the total members
of the House) and not by an ordinary majority (ie, a majority of the members present
and voting in the House). This motion of removal can be considered and discussed
only when it has the support of at least 50 members.
Moreover, his powers of regulating procedure or conducting business or maintaining
order in the House are not subject to the jurisdiction of any Court.
He cannot vote in the first instance. He can only exercise a casting vote in the event
of a tie. This makes the position of Speaker impartial.

76.

Solution: b)

Original jurisdiction means the power of a high court to hear disputes in the first
instance, not by way of appeal.
Some other matters that come under this are:

Matters of admirality, will, marriage, divorce, company laws and contempt of


court.
Cases ordered to be transferred from a subordinate court involving the
interpretation of the Constitution to its own file

Before 1973, the Calcutta, Bombay and Madras High Courts also had original
criminal jurisdiction. This was fully abolished by the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973.
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77. Solution: d)
It is located in Bangladesh.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noakhali_District
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noakhali_riots

78.

Solution: b)

The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar. Flowing west, it enters India in
the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part.
Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the
Kashmir region. The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges from the
mountains at Attock. The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join
together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.

79.

Solution: b)

It makes recommendations on the following matters:

The distribution of the net proceeds of taxes to be shared between the Centre
and the states, and the allocation between the states of the respective shares of
such proceeds.
The principles that should govern the grants-in-aid to the states by the Centre
(i.e., out of the consolidated fund of India).
The measures needed to augment the consolidated fund of a state to
supplement the resources of the panchayats and the municipalities in the state
on the basis of the recommendations made by the state finance commission.
Any other matter referred to it by the president in the interests of sound
finance.

80.

Solution: c)

Manipuri is one of the main styles of Indian Art or Classical Dances.


The origin of Manipuri dance can be traced back to ancient times that go beyond
recorded history. The dance in Manipur is associated with rituals and traditional
festivals, there are legendary references to the dances of Shiva and Parvati and other
gods and goddesses who created the universe.
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Lai Haraoba is one of the main festivals still performed in Manipur which has its
roots in the pre-Vaishnavite period.
The Sattriya dance form was introduced in the 15th century A.D by the great
Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam, Mahapurusha Sankaradeva as a powerful
medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith.

81.Solution: d)
Landmarks in the Discovery and Conservation of Vijayanagara
1800 Colin Mackenzie visits Vijayanagara
1856 Alexander Greenlaw takes the first detailed photographs of archaeological
remains at Hampi
1876 J.F. Fleet begins documenting the inscriptions on the temple walls at the site
1902 Conservation begins under John Marshall
1986 Hampi declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO
Source: NCERT Class XII, History

82.

Solution: c)

83.

Solution: d)

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is the central recruiting agency in
India. It is an independent constitutional body. Even though its advice is not binding
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on the government, it is NOT merely an advisory body (that would make its position
very weak, which is not the case).
The UPSC presents, annually, to the presi-dent a report on its performance. The
President places this report before both the Houses of Parliament, along with a
memorandum explaining the cases where the advice of the Commission was not
accepted and the reasons for such non-acceptance.
All such cases of non-acceptance must be approved by the Appointments Committee
of the Union cabinet. An individual ministry or department has no power to reject
the advice of the UPSC.

84.

Solution: a)

Rotation of earth causes Coriolis force which only leads to the redistribution of heat
(insolation) by way of trade winds, cyclones etc. It does not affect the amount of
insolation received by the Earth.
Similarly, atmospheric circulation only redistributes heat on earth.
On the other hand, if earth was more tilted, it would receive even lesser solar
insolation at the poles.
Clouds reflect solar insolation back in the space. So it reduces the amount received to
earth.

85.

Solution: d)

Reason for statement 1: Generally the amount of solar insolation reduces which leads
to lesser temperature and thus lesser evaporation -> lesser precipitation. This is a
general rule. There can be exceptions to it when the area is given rainfall by cyclonic
depressions etc.
Reason for statement 2: More moisture laden winds are found in the coastal areas
due to the proximity of the ocean, hence more rainfall.
Reason for statement 3: Same as above. Oceans are rich in water -> more
evaporation -> more precipitation.

86.

Solution: c)

Species capture and store energy, produce and decompose organic materials, help to
cycle water and nutrients throughout the ecosystem, fix atmospheric gases and help
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regulate the climate. These functions are important for ecosystem function and
human survival.
The more diverse an ecosystem, better are the chances for the species to survive
through adversities and attacks, and consequently, is more productive. Hence, the
loss of species would decrease the ability of the system to maintain itself.
Hence, the more the variety of species in an ecosystem, the more stable the
ecosystem is likely to be.

87.

Solution: b)

When algae die, they decompose and the nutrients contained in that organic matter
are converted into inorganic form by microorganisms. This decomposition process
consumes oxygen, which reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The
depleted oxygen levels in turn may lead to fish kills and a range of other effects
reducing bio-diversity. Nutrients may become concentrated in an anoxic zone and
may only be made available again during autumn turn-over or in conditions of
turbulent flow.
Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts
normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack
of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive. The water becomes cloudy,
typically coloured a shade of green, yellow, brown, or red. Eutrophication also
decreases the value of rivers, lakes and aesthetic enjoyment. Health problems can
occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment.

88.

Solution: d)

Irreparable computers and other electronic goods are known as electronic wastes (ewastes). E-wastes are buried in landfills or incinerated. Over half of the e-wastes
generated in the developed world are exported to developing countries, mainly to
China, India and Pakistan, where metals like copper, iron, silicon, nickel and gold are
recovered during recycling process.
Unlike developed countries, which have specifically built facilities for recycling of ewastes, recycling in developing countries often involves manual participation thus
exposing workers to toxic substances present in e-wastes. Recycling is the only
solution for the treatment of e-waste, provided it is carried out in an environment
friendly manner.

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89.

Solution: c)

UV radiation of wavelengths shorter than UV-Blue, are almost completely absorbed


by Earths atmosphere, given that the ozone layer is intact.
But, UV-B damages DNA and mutation may occur. It causes aging of skin, damage to
skin cells and various types of skin cancers.
In human eye, cornea absorbs UV-B radiation, and a high dose of UV-B causes
inflammation of cornea, called snow-blindness, cataract, etc. Such exposure may
permanently damage the cornea.

90.

Solution: d)

Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died,
their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and
clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure
transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

91. Solution: d)
You should know three things by reserved and protected forests:

Declared by the state governments (unlike Wildlife Sanctuaries or National


Parks)

These are forested lands where human activity (like hunting, logging, grazing
etc) may be permitted on a sustainable basis

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The key difference between Reserved Forests and Protected Forests is that in
Reserved Forests explicit permission is required for such activities whereas in
Protected Forests such activities are permitted unless explicitly prohibited

92.

Solution: d)

In the performance of his official duties, the Attorney General has the right of
audience in all courts in the territory of India.
Further, he has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the
Houses of Parliament or their joint sitting and any committee of the Parliament of
which he may be named a member, but without a right to vote.
He enjoys all the privileges and immunities that are available to a member of
Parliament.

93.

Solution: c)

Irrigation without proper drainage of water leads to waterlogging in the soil. Besides
affecting the crops, waterlogging draws salt to the surface of the soil.
The salt then is deposited as a thin crust on the land surface or starts collecting at the
roots of the plants.
This increased salt content is inimical to the growth of crops and is extremely
damaging to agriculture. Waterlogging and soil salinity are some of the problems
that have come in the wake of the Green Revolution.

94.

Solution: d)

Biopiracy is a situation where indigenous knowledge of nature, originating with


indigenous peoples, is used by others for profit, without permission from and with
little or no compensation or recognition to the indigenous people themselves.
Moreover, it is also used to refer to the use of bio-resources by multinational
companies and other organisations without proper authorisation from the countries
and people concerned without compensatory payment.
Traditional knowledge related to bio-resources can be exploited to develop modern
applications and can also be used to save time, effort and expenditure during their
commercialisation.

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95.

Solution: a)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadoba_Andhari_Tiger_Project

96.

Solution: c)

Researchers in Peru have discovered trios of statuettes which belong to some 3,800
years ago. These statuettes are believed to be created by the ancient Caral civilization
some 3,800 years ago.
The Caral civilization had emerged some 5,000 years ago and had lived in Perus
Supe Valley. They have left behind impressive architecture including pyramids and
sunken amphitheaters.
Among discovered statuettes, two are of the figures consisting of a naked man and
woman painted in white, black and red. It is believed that they represent political
authorities. The third statue is of women with 28 fingers and red dots on her white
face. It is believed that she represent a priestess. Researchers also have unearthed
two mud figurines of womens faces wrapped in cloth and covered with yellow, blue
and orange feathers.

97.

Solution: a)

FRBM Act, 2003 strives for Inter-generational equity in government finances. So, it
restricts borrowing from the RBI by the Central government other than in some
specific cases.
Moreover, it puts a rational limit on the fiscal deficit as a percentage of GDP to tackle
political populism.
Annual budgets are scrutinized by various Parliamentary committees and then voted
by the Parliament. Hence, the legislature ensures the executive is spending right.

98.

Solution: c)

Gross Primary Deficit is Gross Fiscal Deficit less interest payments. Net Primary
Deficit is Net Fiscal Deficit minus net interest payments. Net interest payment is
interest paid minus interest receipt.
Even though government runs a primary deficit, it need not borrow to fund its
consumption requirements.
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Revenue deficit (revenue receipts revenue expenditure) will mean that the
government is falling short even for regular budget expenditures.

99.

Solution: a)

It is Indias first indigenously-built largest aircraft carrier. On completion it will carry


up to 36 fixed-wing jets, including MiG-29 K and indigenous Light Combat Aircraft
(LCA) Tejas.
The basic design of the carrier is done by Indian Navys Directorate of Naval Design
and was developed into detailed design by the design team of CSL.
After induction into Indian Navy its primary role will only be to defend the naval
fleet and will be positioned in the Indian Ocean region where the worlds commercial
and economic interests conflate.

100.

Solution: c)

Adipurana is a 10th-century Kannada text written in Champu style, a mix of prose


and verse, dealing with the ten lives of the first tirthankara, Adinatha, also known as
Rishabhanatha . This work is known to be the first work of Kannada poet Adikavi
Pampa (941 CE). It is based on the story narrated by Jinasenacharya in his earlier
Sanskrit work Purvapurana. Vikramarjuna Vijaya and Adipurana are, in some
respects, comparable to Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained.

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