Observation Manual
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Table of Contents
Introduction
Section 1: Sample Labs:
Experiment 1
Function of Signal Source
Experiment 2
10
Experiment 3
Function of Pulse Generator
13
Experiment 4
Function of Data Generator
17
Experiment 5
Function of Delay Unit
20
Experiment 6
Function of Adder
23
Experiment 7
Function of Subtractor
26
Experiment 8
Function of Multiplier
29
Experiment 9
32
Experiment 10
37
Experiment 11
42
Experiment 12
46
Experiment 13
AM DSB C
52
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Experiment 14
AM  DSB  SC
61
Experiment 15
SSB  Filter Method
67
Experiment 16
SSB  Phasing Method
75
Experiment 17
Pulse Modulation PAM
83
Experiment 18
Pulse Modulation  PWM
88
Experiment 19
Pulse Modulation  PPM
93
Experiment 20
98
Experiment 21
112
Experiment 22
Natural and Flattop Sampling
118
Experiment 23
Waveform Coding PCM
123
Experiment 24
Waveform Coding  DM
129
Experiment 25
134
Experiment 26
141
Experiment 27
Digital Modulation  ASK
147
Experiment 28
Digital Modulation  FSK
154
Experiment 29
Digital Modulation  PSK
163
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Experiment 30
Digital Modulation  DPSK
170
Experiment 31
Digital Modulation  QPSK
178
186
Sample 2
191
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Introduction
Block diagrams
What is a block diagram and how is it used? A block diagram tells us which jobs or
processes we need, in order to get a larger project done. Each block has a specific
function to perform. Each block also has specific set of inputs and outputs. By
connecting the output of one block to the input of another, we can have the combined
function of both the blocks. This allows us to take simple elements that are individually
easy to understand and combine them to achieve a more complex goal. The selection
of the specific blocks and the way they are connected determines how the larger
project will operate and how well it will work.
A block diagram describes all the jobs that are needed, but it does not tell us exactly
how to do each job. For example, an engineer might decide that a particular block in a
big project could be done best with a special custom designed circuit or with a general
purpose computer program or with a mechanical device. The choice would depend on
things like how well each of the methods work, how hard each is to do, and how much
each would cost.
In PhySim, File>New Simulation>communication system menu allows the user to
create, simulate and analyze waveforms of a digital communication system via various
blocks. Further, under the sample labs menu, the user can delve into the details of
each communication experiment with the fixed connectivity in the practice mode
(Sample labs >Practice>desired experiment) to analyze the concept of the
module present and then do the experiments by yourself in exam mode(Sample labs
> Exam). This is illustrated in the diagram shown below
Digital Communication Chain
Communication
System
Communication
Subsystem
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Theory
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It
occurs often in pure mathematics, physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other
where
is the angular frequency  specifies how many oscillations occur in unit time interval, in
radians per second
is the phase  specifies where in its cycle the oscillation begins at t = 0.
Implementation diagram
Signal
Source1
x(t)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Signal source. Measure and verify the amplitude, frequency and phase on
the oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.
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Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
[Note: The Generation End Time parameter specifies until when the source has to generate the signal
or data.
To select the generation end time consider the following:
1. If the source is analog (Signal Source/ Carrier Generator/ Saw Tooth Generator/ Pulse Generator)
then
Generation End Time = No. of cycles required * (1 / frequency of source).
Example: To generate 10 cycles of 1 KHz sine source the Generation End Time should be
Generation End Time = 10 * (1/1000) = 10 milliseconds.
2. If the source is digital (Data Generator/ Pulse generator) then
Generation End Time = No. of bits to be generated * (1/source bit rate).
Example: To generate 80 bits with 8 Kbps data rate the Generation End Time should be
Generation End Time = 80 * (1/8000) = 10 milliseconds]
Observation
Measured
Time period for
one cycle
Number
of trials
Measured peak
amplitude
Measured
frequency
1 Volts
1 KHz
Figure1
4 Volts
2 KHz
Figure2
Verify the
Phase
Output
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Experiment 2
Theory
The saw tooth wave is a nonsinusoidal waveform. It is named as saw tooth based on its resemblance
to the teeth on the blade of a saw. The convention is that a saw tooth wave ramps upward and then
sharply drops. However, there are also saw tooth waves in which the wave ramps downward and then
sharply rises.
Implementation diagram
Saw Tooth
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Saw Tooth generator. Measure and verify the frequency on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.
Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz
Parameter value
1 KHz
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10
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
Observation
Number of trials
1
Frequency
1 KHz
2 KHz
Output
Figure 1
Figure 2
11
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12
Experiment 3
Implementation diagram
Pulse
Generator 1
x(t)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Pulse Generator. Measure on time, off time and total time period. Verify with
the given frequency and duty cycle on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.
Parameter
available
Parameter value
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 1000 KHz
1 KHz
Duty Cycle
80, 90
50 %
Parameter
available
13
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
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Observation
Number
of trials
1
Measured
frequency
1 KHz
Duty
Cycle
50 %
Measured
on Time
Measured
off Time
Verify Total
Time period
1 KHz
20 %
Figure2
1 KHz
80 %
Figure3
2 KHz
50 %
Figure4
Output
Figure1
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14
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16
Experiment 4
Theory
Function of this block is to generate message or information in the form of 0s and 1s. The information
may be of fixed length, with known or unknown sequence or any random data generator.
Implementation diagram
Data
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Data Generator, measure and verify the bit period, bit rate and given bit
pattern on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different bit rates.
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value
Pattern Generator
8 bits
Pattern Length
16 bits
16 bits
32 bits
Input Pattern
Bit Rate
17
1010110111011001
0.008 1000 kbps
PhySim TM Observation Manual
8 kbps
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Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
Observation
Input
Bit
Rate
Rb
8 kbps
8 kbps
1 kbps
Number
of trials
Measure
input bit
period Tb =
1/ Rb
Pattern Length
Input Pattern
Output
16 bits
1010110111011001
Figure 1
8 bits
10110101
Figure 2
Random(Bernoulli
Distribution)
Figure 3
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19
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Experiment 5
Theory
The function of the delay unit is to introduce one bit delay for the incoming signal. That is y (t) = x (t +
T), where T is the delay interval.
Implementation diagram
x(t)
Data
Generator 1
Delay
Unit 1
y(t) = x (t + T)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of delay unit with respect to data generator output.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different data rate and data pattern.
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value
Pattern Generator
8 bits
Pattern Length
16 bits
16 bits
32 bits
Input Pattern
Bit Rate
1010110111011001
0.008 to 1000 kbps
PhySim TM Observation Manual
8 kbps
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20
2. Delay Unit 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Bit Delay
1 bit
Parameter value
1 bit
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
2 mSecs
Observation
No of
trials
Pattern
length
Input
Pattern
16 bits
10101101
11011001
16 bits
11110001
11000111
Delay Unit
Comment
output
010101101 Delayed all with 1 bit with the
reference bit 0 at the
1101100
beginning
011110001
1100011
Output
Figure 1
Figure 2
21
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22
Experiment 6
Function of Adder
Aim
To understand the concept of an adder.
Theory
The function of adder is to add the amplitude of two incoming signals and output the added signal. That
is y (t) = x1(t) + x2(t).
Implementation diagram
Signal
Source 1
x1 (t)
+
Signal
Source 2
x2 (t)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Adder, corresponding to the signal source, on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes for the signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency for the signal source.
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
23
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
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2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
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Conclusion
Adder 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 4 volts peak to peak, with
Signal Source 1 and Signal Source 2 input having amplitudes of 2 peak to peak. This verifies the
function of the Adder block.
25
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Experiment 7
Function of Subtractor
Aim
To understand the concept of subtractor.
Theory
The function of subtractor is to find the difference of the two incoming signals. That is y (t) = x1(t)
x2(t).
Implementation diagram
Signal
Source 1
x1 (t)
+
Subtractor 1

Signal
Source 2
x2 (t)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of subtractor, corresponding to the signal source.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes for the signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency for the signal source.
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
2V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
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2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
27
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Conclusion
Subtractor 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 2 volts peak to peak, with
Signal Source 1 and Signal Source 2 inputs having amplitudes of 4 and 2 volts peak to peak.
This verifies the function of the Subtractor block.
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Experiment 8
Function of Multiplier
Aim
To understand the concept of multiplier.
Theory
The function of the multiplier is to multiply the two incoming signals. That is y (t) = x1(t) * x2(t).
Implementation diagram
Signal
Source 1
x1 (t)
+
Multiplier 1

Signal
Source 2
x2 (t)
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Multiplier, corresponding to the signal source, on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude of signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency of signal source.
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
29
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
2V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
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2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
2V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
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30
Conclusion
Multiplier 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 0 to 4, with Signal Source 1
and Signal Source 2 inputs having amplitudes of 2 to +2 volts peak. This verifies the function of
the Multiplier block.
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Experiment 9
Theory
Monostable Multivibrators have only ONE stable state (hence the name: "Mono"), and they deliver a
single output pulse when it is triggered externally, only returning back to its first original and stable state
after a period of time determined by the time constant of the RC timing circuit. Monostable
Multivibrators or "OneShot Multivibrators" as they are sometimes called, are used to generate a single
output pulse of a specified width, when a suitable external trigger signal or pulse of duration T is
applied. This trigger signal initiates a timing cycle which causes the output of the monostable to change
its state at the start of the timing cycle and remains in this second state, which is determined by the
time constant of the Capacitor, C and the Resistor, R until it resets or returns itself back to its original
(stable) state. It will remain in this stable state indefinitely until another input pulse or signal is received.
Monostable Multivibrators have only ONE stable state and go through a full cycle in response to a
single triggering input pulse.
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32
Implementation diagram
Pulse
Generator 1
Monostable
Multivibrator 1
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveforms through oscilloscope and verify.
4. Repeat from step 1 to 4 for keeping pulse frequency and duty cycle constant by varying pulse width
of monostable multivibrator (time constant) less than, equal to and greater than the incoming pulse
period.
5. Repeat from step 1 to 4 for different pulse frequency with variable duty cycle as well as different
pulse width of monostable Multivibrator
Parameter
available
Parameter value
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 1000 KHz
10 KHz
Duty Cycle
80, 90
50 %
2. Monostable Multivibrator 1
Parameter
Pulse Width
Input Trigger
33
Options/Range
available
0.0001 1000 mSecs
Negative Edge
Positive Edge
Parameter value
0.05 mSecs
Positive Edge
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Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
5 mSecs
Observation
Pulse frequency of Pulse generator = 10 KHz constant
Pulse period = 1/ 10 KHz = 0.1 mSecs
Incoming pulse width with 50% duty cycle = 0.05
Number
of trials
Monostable
multivibrator pulse
Output at
Comments
different
0.05 mSecs
0.025 mSecs
0.5 mSecs
0.1 mSecs
blocks
Time constant is equal to triggering
pulse width
Time constant is less than
triggering pulse width
Time constant is greater than
triggering pulse width
Time constant is equal to Pulse
generator time period
Figure1
Figure2
Figure3
Figure4
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36
Experiment 10
Theory
The rotating sampling switch is known as commutator that extracts one sample from each input
message signal per revolution. Hence, the output waveform of the commutator is converted into a Pulse
Amplitude Modulation waveform that contains the individual message samples periodically interleaved
in time. Therefore the output of the commutator is made compatible for transmission over the channel.
Let all the input message signals have an identical bandwidth equal to W hertz. Then the commutator
should rotate at a rate fs >= 2W so that successive samples from a given message signal are spaced
by Ts = 1 / fs <= 1/2W. The time interval Ts containing one sample from each message signal is called
frame. If there are N message signals, then the spacing between each pulse in frame is Ts/N = 1/Nfs
seconds.
Thus the total number of pulses per second will be r = Nfs >= 2NW, where, r is known as signaling rate
of Time Division Multiplexed signal.
In PhySim implementation N = 4.
The output at the receiver is sorted out by another rotating sampling switch known as decommutator
working in synchrony with the commutator. Then sorted signals are distributed to appropriate low pass
reconstruction filters to supply to the appropriate destination. In TDM, synchronization of commutator
and decommutator is very important. If the decommutator in the receiver is not synchronized to the
transmitter, messages can get interchanged.
37
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Implementation diagram
Signal
Source 1
Signal
Source 2
Commutator 1
Decommutator 1
Signal
Source 3
Signal
Source 4
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of commutator and decommutator corresponding to the signal source.
4. Repeat above steps for different signaling rates for both commutator and decommutator.
5. Repeat step 2 and 3 by setting commutator and decommutator for different signaling rates, to
observe the synchronization
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 360 degrees
0 degree
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38
2. Signal Source 2
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
2 KHz
Phase
0 360 degrees
0 degree
3. Signal Source 3
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
3 KHz
Phase
0 360 degrees
0 degree
4. Signal Source 4
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
4 KHz
Phase
0 360 degrees
0 degree
5. Commutator 1
Parameter
Sampling Rate
Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz
Parameter value
8 KHz
6. Decommutator 1
Parameter
Sampling Rate
39
Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz
PhySim TM Observation Manual
Parameter value
8 KHz
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Parameter
Parameter value
available
10 mSecs
1 100 mSecs
Observation
Set 4 Signal Source frequencies as 1KHz, 2KHz, 3KHz and 4KHz respectively.
Number of
8 KHz
8 KHz
16 KHz
16 KHz
32 KHz
32 KHz
64 KHz
64 KHz
16 KHz
32 KHz
trials
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41
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Experiment 11
Theory
Bit Splitter
The function of the Bit splitter is conversion of the serial data into parallel data. This block divides the
incoming binary sequence into two separate binary sequences consisting of the odd and even
numbered input bits. These two binary sequences are denoted by bo (t) and be (t). The Odd sequence bo
(t) consists of b1, b3, and even sequence be(t) consists of b2, b4, b6 etc. If the incoming bit is of bit
duration Tb, then the two output odd and even sequences are with a bit duration of 2Tb.
Bit Combiner
The function of the Bit combiner is to combine the two parallel incoming sequences into one serial
sequence. Bit combiner does the reverse function of Bit splitter. If the two incoming sequences of bit
duration 2Tb then the combined bit duration of serial sequence will be Tb.
For this we have to make sure that, the incoming two input sequences must be at the same rate. If not,
the output rate cannot be defined and could result in wrong output sequence.
Implementation diagram
Data
Generator 1
bi = b1, b2, b3
b4, b5...
Bit
Splitter 1
Bit
Combiner 1
bc = b1, b2, b3
b4, b5...
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the input data, Bit splitters odd and even sequence data and Bit combiners output data.
Also observe bit period of the odd and even sequence. It should be twice that of the incoming data
rate.
PhySim TM Observation Manual
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42
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting various input data pattern of data generator block.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by varying input data rate of data generator block and bit rate of Bit combiner
block.
Parameter
Parameter value
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Pattern Generator
8 bits
Pattern Length
16 bits
16 bits
32 bits
Input Pattern
1010110111011001
Bit Rate
8 kbps
2. Bit Combiner 1
Options/Range
Parameter
Parameter value
available
8kbps
Combined Bit Rate
Parameter
Parameter value
available
2 mSecs
1 100 mSecs
Observation
No
of
tri
als
Inpu
t Bit
Rate
Rb
Input
Bit
Period
Tb = 1
/ Rb
Patte
rn
lengt
h
Input
Pattern
1
kbps
1mSe
c
16
bits
1010110
1110110
01
Bit
Splitter
Odd
sequen
ce
output
111010
10
Odd
sequenc
e Bit
Period
Todd =
2Tb
Bit
Splitter
Even
sequence
output
Even
seque
nce Bit
Period
Teven
= 2Tb
0011110
1
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Combi
ned
Bit
Rate
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44
Transmitted data (Data Generator 1) and reconstructed data (Bit Combiner 1) output
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Experiment 12
Theory
Filtering is the process of separating desired frequency components from the undesired frequency
components. The function of filter is to pass all signals in the band above a certain frequency, called
pass band and blocking all frequencies below this, called stop band (SB). The frequency separating the
two regions is defined as corner frequency. At this frequency the power of signal is attenuated by a
factor of 2.
Filter Type
Low Pass (LP): LowPass filters will stop all frequencies greater than cutoff frequency.
High Pass (HP): HighPass filters stop al frequencies smaller than cutoff frequency.
Band Pass (BP): It will allow a band of frequencies to pass through it. Logically, by using a HighPass
filter in series with a LowPass one can realize a BandPass filter.
Band Stop (BS): It will reject particular band of frequencies and allow other frequencies.
Approximation
These emphasize low distortion in the Pass Band of filter while others stress the ability of the filter to
attenuate the signals in the Stop Band. The absence or presence of ripple (variations) in the PB and SB
clearly set different approximation methods.
Butterworth: In Butterworth a smooth magnitude response in both the PB and SB. These are most
popular, generalpurpose filters.
Chebyshev: Built for equal amplitude ripples in PB, but a smooth ever decreasing gain in the SB. The
transition slope attenuation is steeper than the Butterworth filter.
Inverse Chebyshev: Built for equal amplitude ripples in SB. No passband ripples ,that is, a smooth
response in the PB.
Elliptic: Equal amplitude ripples in both the passband and the stopband. This also provides the fastest
transition between PB and SB.
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46
Implementation diagram
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules. Apply input sine with constant amplitude of
4V (Vin) and keep the frequency of the input signal (fin) in the pass band range. Keep the filter
cutoff frequency and filter order to required value (It should be constant for one set of experiments).
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Note down the output voltage (Vo) Vo max.
4. Repeat step 1 and 3, keeping input signal amplitude (Vin) constant, vary the input signal frequency
(fin) until the output voltage (Vo) reduces to 0.707 Vo max. The corresponding frequency is the
cutoff frequency of the filter.
5. Draw a frequency response.
6. Repeat the experiment by setting different order and different cutoff frequencies.
Signal Type
47
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
4V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
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Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value
Low Pass
Butterworth
2
3.4 KHz
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value
Band Pass
Butterworth
2
Center frequency
10 KHz
Bandwidth
2 KHz
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
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Observation
Tabulation
Low pass filter
Vin =
Volts (Constant)
Input
Gain Magnitude in
frequency in
Output Voltage in
Gain magnitude
dB = 20log(Vo
Hz
Volts (Vo)
(Vo / Vin)
/Vin)
0.5
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50
Observation
Tabulation
Band pass filter
Vin =
Volts (Constant)
Input
Gain Magnitude in
frequency in
Output Voltage in
Gain magnitude
dB = 20log(Vo
Hz
Volts (Vo)
(Vo / Vin)
/Vin)
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Experiment 13
Sample Specifications
Modulating
(Signal Source)
Signal
Amplitude
1 V.
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 degree
(Carrier
Carrier
Generator
Signal
block)
Amplitude
1 V.
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 degree
AM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Adder 1
Product
Modulator 1
Optional
DC
Generator 1
AWGN
Channel 1
Band Pass
Filter 2
Optional
Optional
Carrier
Generator 1
Product
Modulator2
Low Pass
Filter 3
Carrier
Generator2
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52
2. Non Coherent
AM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Adder 1
Product
Modulator 1
AWGN
Channel 2
Band Pass
Filter 4
Optional
Optional
Optional
DC
Generator 1
Demodulated
Output
Diode
Detector 1
Low Pass
Filter 5
Carrier
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Sine Wave
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 kHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
53
Butterworth
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
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Chebyshev
Filter Order
1  10
4
3.4 KHz
3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
4. DC Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
DC Shift
4  +4 V
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1V
5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Signal to
30 to 50 dB
Noise Ratio
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Butterworth
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
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54
Chebyshev
Filter Order
1  10
4
10 KHz
Center Frequency
(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz
Bandwidth
Parameter
available
Sine Wave
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the
receiver should be the same.
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass
55
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9. AWGN Channel 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample specifications
5.0 dB
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
10 KHz
Center Frequency
(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz
Bandwidth
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass with
a Cutoff Frequency of
modulating (signal)
frequency]
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56
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
57
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58
59
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60
Experiment 14
Amplitude Modulation
Double Sideband  Suppressed Carrier
Aim
To implement the Amplitude Modulator Double Side Band  Suppressed Carrier for the given sample
specifications and to measure the signal at various blocks involved in the AMDSBSC.
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Carrier Signal
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Demodulated
Signal
AM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Product
Modulator 1
Optional
AWGN
Channel 1
Band Pass
Filter 2
Optional
Optional
Carrier
Generator 1
Product
Modulator 2
Low Pass
Filter 3
Carrier
Generator 2
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as per Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
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1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Sine Wave
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting
3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
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4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
10 KHz
Center Frequency
(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz
Bandwidth
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Sine Wave
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.
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Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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64
AMDSBSC Output
65
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66
Experiment 15
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Carrier Signal
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Demodulated
Signal
SSB Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Product
Modulator 1
Optional
Filter 2
AWGN
Channel 1
Band Pass
Filter 3
Optional
Optional
Carrier
Generator 1
Product
Modulator 2
Low Pass
Filter 4
Carrier
Generator 2
Procedure
1. Set block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the
Sample Specifications.
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1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Sine Wave
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 360 degree
0 degree
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
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68
4. Filter 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
11 KHz
(11 KHz Upper sideband
Center Frequency
Bandwidth
5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB
Parameter
available
Filter Type
Low Pass
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
11 KHz
(Selection based on
Center Frequency
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sideband)
1 KHz
Bandwidth
Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.
Parameter
available
Filter Type
Low Pass
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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74
Experiment 16
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Carrier Signal
Amplitude
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Product
Modulator 1
Carrier
Generator 1
Phase
Shifter 1
Signal
Source 1
Phase
Shifter 2
SSB
Output
Adder 1
Product
Modulator 2
Carrier
Generator 2
Demodulated
Signal
75
AWGN
Channel 1
Band Pass
Filter 1
Optional
Optional
Product
Modulator 3
Low Pass
Filter 2
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Procedure
1. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
1. Signal Source 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Sine Wave
Cosine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
2. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
3. Phase Shifter 1
Parameter
Phase
Options/Range
available
0/ 90/ 180 degree
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
90 degree
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76
4 Phase Shifter 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Phase
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
90 degree
5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB
Parameter
available
Filter Type
Low Pass
Band Pass
Butterworth
Approximation Type
Chebyshev
Filter Order
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
9 KHz (Lower side Band)
[Note: Transmitter use
adder for lower sideband
Center Frequency
Bandwidth
Parameter
available
Signal Type
77
Cosine Wave
PhySim
TM
Observation Manual
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
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Sine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same
Parameter
available
Filter Type
Low Pass
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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82
Experiment 17
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Sine Wave
(Signal Source)
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency
8 KHz
Duty Cycle
50 %
Reconstructed
Signal
PAM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Switch 1
Filter 2
Optional
Pulse
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click Run and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.
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1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
1 to 4 V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0 to 360 degree
0 degree
2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1  1000 KHz
8 KHz
10/20/30/40/50/60/70/
Duty Cycle
80/90
50 %
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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84
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
85
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86
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Experiment 18
Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)
Sine Wave
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
8 KHz
Reconstructed
Signal
PWM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Comparator 1
Filter 2
Optional
Saw Tooth
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
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88
1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Parameter
available
Frequency
1  1000 KHz
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8 KHz
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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4. Reconstruction Filter
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Signal Source Output and the reconstructed signal after reconstruction filter.
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92
Experiment 19
Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)
Sine Wave
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
8 KHz
PWM Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Comparator 1
PPM Output
Monostable
Multivibrator 1
Reconstructed
Signal
Filter 2
Optional
Saw Tooth
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.
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1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Signal Type
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Parameter
available
Frequency
1  1000 KHz
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8 KHz
3. Monostable Multivibrator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pulse Width
Input Trigger
Positive Edge
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.0625 mSecs
Negative Edge
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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94
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Experiment 20
Sample Specifications
Input Signal
Sine Wave
Signal Source1:
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Signal Source2:
Sine Wave
Frequency
2 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Signal Source3:
Sine Wave
Frequency
3 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Signal Source4:
Sine Wave
Frequency
4 KHz
Amplitude
1V
64 KHz
Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency
128 KHz
Duty Cycle
50 %
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Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Filter 5
Reconstructed
Signal
Optional
PAM TDM
Output
Signal
Source 2
Filter 2
Filter 6
Optional
Signal
Source 3
Commutator 1
Switch 1
Switch 2
Filter 3
Filter 7
Pulse
Generator 1
Optional
Signal
Source 4
Reconstructed
Signal
Decommutator 1
Pulse
Generator 2
Reconstructed
Signal
Filter 4
Filter 8
Optional
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.
1. Signal Source 1
Parameter
Signal Type
99
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
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2. Signal Source 2
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
2 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
3. Signal Source 3
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
3 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
4. Signal Source 4
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
4 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
5. Commutator 1
Parameter
Sampling Rate
Options/Range
available
1  1000 KHz
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
64 KHz
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6. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 1000 kHz
128 KHz
10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8
Duty Cycle
0/90
50 %
7. Pulse Generator 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 1000 kHz
128 KHz
10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8
Duty Cycle
0/90
50 %
8. Decommutator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Sampling Rate
1  1000 KHz
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
64 KHz
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
4 KHz
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Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
2 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
103
Butterworth
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
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Chebyshev
Filter Order
1  10
4
3 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
4 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Experiment 21
Theory
The Nyquist Theorem, also known as the sampling theorem, is a principle that engineers follow for the
conversion of analog signals to digital signals.For analogtodigital conversion (ADC) to result in a
faithful reproduction of the signal, slices, called samples, of the analog waveform must be taken
frequently. The number of samples per second is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency.
The Nyquist theorem states that a signal must be sampled at least twice as fast as the bandwidth of the
signal to accurately reconstruct the waveform; otherwise, the highfrequency content will alias at a
frequency inside the spectrum of interest (passband). An alias is a false lower frequency component
that appears in sampled data acquired at too low a sampling rate.
Suppose the highest frequency component, in hertz, for a given analog signal is fmax. According to the
Nyquist Theorem, the sampling rate must be at least 2fmax, or twice the highest analog frequency
component. The sampling in an analogtodigital converter is actuated by a pulse generator (clock). If
the sampling rate is less than 2fmax, some of the higher frequency components in the analog input signal
will not be correctly represented in the digitized output. When such a digital signal is converted back to
analog form by a digitaltoanalog converter, false frequency components appear that were not present
in the original analog signal. This undesirable condition is a form of distortion called aliasing.
Implementation diagram
Sampling Switch
Signal
Source 1
Switch 1
Sinusoidal
signal
generator
Filter 1
Reconstruction
Filter
Pulse
Generator 1
Sampling pulse
generator
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Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveform at the filter with respect to signal source.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by keeping the frequency of the signal source (fm) constant and varying the
Pulse generator frequency (fs) to fs = 2 fm, fs > 2fm and fs < 2fm.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for different signal source frequency (fm) and vary the pulse generator
frequency (fs) to fs = 2fm, fs > 2fm and fs < 2fm.
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
2 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
8/16/32/64 KHz
8 KHz
Duty Cycle
10/20/30/40/50/
60/70/80/90
50 %
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
2 KHz
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Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
Observation
Signal Source frequency (fm) = 2 KHz constant
Number of
Pulse Generator
trials
frequency (fs)
8 KHz
2 KHz
1 KHz
Comments
Sampling rate: fs
> 2fm
Sampling rate: fs
=2fm
Sampling rate: fs
< 2fm
Output at different
blocks
Observation 1
Observation 2
Observation 3
Observation 1
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output
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Observation 2
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output
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Observation 3
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output
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Experiment 22
Theory
To transmit analog information via a digital system, the analog signal must first be transformed into a
digital format. The first step in such a transformation typically involves a sampling process. In the
analoguetodigital conversion process an analogue waveform is sampled to form a series of pulses
whose amplitude is the amplitude of the sampled waveform at the time the sample was taken.
In natural sampling the pulse amplitude takes the shape of the analogue waveform for the period of the
sampling pulse. Alternatively, in a process called flat top sampling, the amplitude of the sampled pulse
is held constant at the value of the amplitude of the analogue waveform at the time the sampling period
began.
The pulse width determines the amount of energy in each pulse, and therefore can determine the
amplitude of the reconstructed message. But, in a linear and noise free system, the width of the
samples plays no part in determining the amount of distortion of a reconstructed message.
Implementation diagram
Filter 1
Reconstruction
Filter
Sampling Switch
Signal
Source 1
Switch 1
Natural
output
Hold
Circuit 1
Sinusoidal
signal
generator
Filter 2
Hold
output
Reconstruction
Filter
Pulse
Generator 1
Sampling pulse
generator
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Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveform of Natural and Flattop samples and the reconstructed signal.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for different Signal source frequency, Pulse generator frequency with different
duty cycle values.
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degrees
0 degree
2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
8/16/32/64 KHz
8 KHz
Duty Cycle
10/20/30/40/50/
60/70/80/90
50 %
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
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Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low pass
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value
10 mSecs
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Experiment 23
Sample Specifications
Input Signal
Sine Wave
(Signal Source)
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Pulse Frequency
8 KHz
Duty Cycle
50 %
6Quantizer
Quantization level
256
Natural Sampled
Output
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Switch 1
Optional
Hold
Circuit 1
Quantized
Output
Quantize 1
Encoder 1
PCM
Output
Reconstructed
Signal
PCM
Decoder 1
Filter 2
Optional
Pulse
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
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1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet Sample
Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1  1000 KHz
8 KHz
10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8
Duty Cycle
0/90
50 %
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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4. Quantizer 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Quantization levels
8/16/32/64/128/256
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
256
5. Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
3/4/5/6/7/8
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8
6. PCM Decoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
3/4/5/6/7/8
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
125
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Experiment 24
Waveform Coding  DM
Aim
To implement and analyze the Delta Modulation (DM) system for the given sample specifications.
Sample Specifications
Input Signal Source
(Signal Source)
Sine Wave
Frequency
1 KHz
Amplitude
1V
Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Pulse Frequency
16 KHz
Duty Cycle
50 %
Delta Modulator
Step Size
0.25 V
Delta Demodulator
Step Size
0.25 V
Signal
Source 1
Filter 1
Switch 1
Optional
Hold
Circuit 1
Delta
Modulator 1
Delta
Demodulator 1
Optional
Pulse
Generator 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the Sample
Specifications.
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Filter 2
1. Signal Source 1
Parameter value to be
Parameter
Options/Range
selected to
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Sine Wave
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
1V
Frequency
1  1000 KHz
16 KHz
10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8
Duty Cycle
0/90
50 %
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
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4. Delta Modulator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Step Size
0.25  4
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.25
5. Delta Demodulator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Step Size
0.25  4
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.25
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass
Parameter
available
1 10 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Experiment 25
Line Codes
Aim
To study the various Line Coding techniques which includes NRZ, Manchester, and AMI.
Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Data Generator)
Digital Data
Pattern Length
8 Bits
Input Pattern
10110101
Bit Rate
8 kbps
Line Code
NRZ
Optional
NRZ
Encoder 1
AWGN
Channel 1
NRZ
Decoder 1
Optional
Optional
Data
Generator 1
Manchester
Encoder 1
AWGN
Channel 2
Manchester
Decoder 1
Optional
Optional
AMI
Encoder 1
AWGN
Channel 3
AMI
Decoder 1
Optional
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Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Pattern Length
Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
8/16/32 Bits
Input Pattern
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Pattern Generator
8 Bits
10110101
Bit Rate
2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZS
3. NRZ Decoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZS
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4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
5. Manchester Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Normal
Encoder Type
Differential
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Normal
6. Manchester Decoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Normal
Decoder Type
Differential
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Normal
7. AWGN Channel 2
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
8. AWGN Channel 3
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Experiment 26
Sample Specifications
Data Generator
Bit Rate
1000 bps
Hamming Encoder
n, k
Hamming Decoder
7,4
n, k
7,4
Decoder
Corresponding
to Encoder
Anyone Encoder
NRZ
Encoder 1
Data
Generator 1
Hamming
Encoder 1
Manchester
Encoder 1
NRZ
Decoder 1
AWGN
Channel 1
Manchester
Decoder 1
Hamming
Decoder 1
Optional
AMI
Encoder 1
Optional
AMI
Decoder 1
Optional
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1(p)
0 to 1
0.5
Bit Rate
2. Hamming Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
7,4
15,11
n.k
31,26
7,4
63,57
3. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZS
4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
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5. NRZ Decoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZS
6. Hamming Decoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
7,4
15,11
n.k
31,26
7,4
63,57
Parameter
available
143
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
20 mSecs
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Experiment 27
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Bit Rate
600 bps
Data Pattern
Carrier Signal
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Data
Generator
NRZ
Encoder
Product
Modulator1
AWGN
Channel
Product
Modulator2
Integrator
Decision
Device
Optional
Carrier
Generator1
Bit Error
Unit
Optional
Carrier
Generator2
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the property setting for blocks to meet the sample specifications.
2. Click Run and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the sample specifications.
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1 (p)
0 to 1
0.5
Bit Rate
2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Unipolar NRZ
Encoder
Generation Type
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Unipolar NRZ Encoder
For ASK generation the
incoming data should be
in Unipolar format.
3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
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Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.
6. Integrator 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs
The integration time
7. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.4
[Note: For ASK threshold
Threshold Value
4 4 V
Parameter
available
149
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs
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ASK Output
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Experiment 28
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Bit Rate
600 bps
Data Pattern
Carrier Signal
Mark Frequency
10 KHz
Space Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Carrier
Generator 3
Data
Generator 1
NRZ
Encoder 1
Product
Modulator 1
Product
Modulator 3
Integrator 1
Subtractor 1
Carrier
Generator 1
Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional
Adder 1
Carrier
Generator 2
Decision
Device 1
AWGN
Channel 1
Product
Modulator 4
Integrator 2
Optional
Carrier
Generator 4
Logic
Inverter 1
Product
Modulator 2
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1(p)
0 to 1
0.5
Bit Rate
2. NRZ Encoder 1
Parameter
Generation Type
Options/Range
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZM
NRZS
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Signal Type
155
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
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5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs [Note: The
integration time interval = 1 /(
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9. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0
Threshold Value
4 4 V
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs
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Experiment 29
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Bit Rate
600 bps
Data Pattern
Carrier Signal
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Data
Generator 1
NRZ
Encoder 1
Product
Modulator 1
AWGN
Channel 1
Product
Modulator 2
Decision
Device 1
Integrator 1
Optional
Carrier
Generator 1
Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional
Carrier
Generator 2
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1(p)
0 t o1
0.5
Bit Rate
2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Generation Type
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZM
NRZS
be in polar format]
3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50
dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
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Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
5 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.
6. Integrator 1
Options/ Range
available
Parameter
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs
The integration time interval
7. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0
Threshold Value
4 4 V
Parameter
available
165
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs
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PSK Output
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Experiment 30
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Bit Rate
8 kbps
Data Pattern
Carrier Signal
Frequency
16 KHz
Phase
0 degree
Differential
Encoded Sequence
Data
Generator 1
Differential
Encoder 1
NRZ
Encoder 1
DPSK
Signal
Product
Modulator 1
Carrier
Generator 1
Reconstructed
Data
AWGN
Channel 1
Optional
Filter 1
Product
Modulator 2
Integrator 1
Decision
Device 1
Optional
Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional
Delay
Unit 1
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the Sample
Specifications.
PhySim TM Observation Manual
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1(p)
0 to 1
0.5
Bit Rate
2. Differential Encoder 1
Parameter
Reference bit
Options/Range
available
0/1
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0
3. NRZ Encoder 1
Parameter
Generation Type
Options/Range
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Unipolar NRZ
Encoder
NRZM
NRZS
format]
4. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
16 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
[Note: the carrier frequency (fc) is chose such that fc > 1/ Tb, (where Tb is bit period = 1 / Bit rate Rb)
and fc is equal to some integral multiple of 1/Tb.
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5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
6. Filter 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Low Pass
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Filter Order
Butterworth
Chebyshev
1  10
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
4
16 KHz
[Note: It should be equal to
Center Frequency
Carrier frequency]
8 KHz
Bandwidth
7. Delay Unit 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Bit Delay
1 bit
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1 bit
8. Integrator 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.125 mSecs
[Note: The integration time
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9. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0
Threshold Value
4 4 V
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs
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Carrier Wave
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Experiment 31
Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal
Bit Rate
2.4 kbps
Data Pattern
Carrier Signal
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 degree
NRZ
Encoder 1
Data
Generator 1
Carrier
Generator 1
Carrier
Generator 3
Product
Modulator 1
Product
Modulator 3
BitSplitter 1
Summer 1
Integrator 1
Decision
Device 1
AWGN
Channel 1
Reconstructed
Digital Data
Bit
Combiner 1
Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional
NRZ
Encoder 2
Optional
Product
Modulator 2
Product
Modulator 4
Carrier
Generator 2
Carrier
Generator 4
Integrator 2
Decision
Device 2
Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.
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1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of 1 (p)
0 to 1
0.5
Bit Rate
Generation Type
Options/Range
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZM
NRZS
in polar format]
3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter
Signal Type
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001 4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 360 degree
0 degree
4. Carrier Generator 2
Parameter
Signal Type
179
Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001  4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0  360 degree
0 degree
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5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range
Parameter
available
30 to 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001 4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same
Parameter
available
Cosine Wave
Signal Type
Sine Wave
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave
Amplitude
0.0001 4 V
1V
Frequency
10 KHz
Phase
0 360 degree
0 degree
Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.8333 mSecs
The integration time
PhySim
TM
Observation Manual
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Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0
Threshold Value
4 4 V
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
2.4 kbps
Parameter
available
1 100 mSecs
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs
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Transmitted data (Data Generator 1) and reconstructed data (Bit Combiner 1) Output
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Digital
Source
Channel
Encoder
Line
Encoder
Line
Decoder
Channel
Decoder
AWGN
Channel
Procedure
1. Drag the necessary communication sub blocks and drop it in the workspace as in the
Implementation Block Diagram for Base Band Transmission System.
2. Connect the blocks as in the diagram.
3. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks.
4. Click Validate and Simulate to simulate the Base Band Transmission System.
5. Observe the Output at different Blocks through Measurement Device Oscilloscope.
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1. Digital Source
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Pattern Generator
Generation Type
Bernoulli Distribution
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution
Probability of Bit 1
0 <= p <= 1
0.5
Bit Rate
1  100 kbps
Simulation Time
1  100 mSecs
10 mSecs
2. Channel Encoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Encoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Encoder
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Hamming Encoder
Hamming Encoder
(7,4)
(7,4)
3. Line Encoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
NRZ
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZ
4. AWGN Channel
Options/Range
Parameter
available
(30) 50 dB
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
5. Line Decoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
187
NRZ
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZ
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6. Channel Decoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Decoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Decoder
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Hamming Decoder
Hamming Decoder
(7,4)
(7,4)
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Sample 2
Analog
Source
Source
Encoder
Filter
Channel
Encoder
Power
Amplifier
Modulator
Transmission
Line
Mixer
Antenna
Procedure
1. Drag the necessary communication sub blocks and drop it in the workspace as in the
Implementation Block Diagram for Band Pass Communication Transmitter System.
2. Connect the blocks as in the diagram.
3. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks.
4. Click Validate and Simulate to simulate the Base Band Transmission System.
5. Observe the Output at different Blocks through Measurement Devices Oscilloscope, Spectrum
Analyzer and Polar Plot.
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1. Analog Source
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Amplitude
14V
4V
Frequency
1 4 kHz
1 kHz
Phase
0 360 degrees
No. of Cycles
1  100
10
2. Source Encoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Encoder Type
PCM
PCM
Sampling Frequency
1 64 kHz
8.0 kHz
Natural,
Sampling Type
Flattop
Natural
Quantization Level
8/16/32/64/128/256
38
3. Channel Encoder
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Encoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Encoder
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Hamming Encoder
Hamming Encoder
(7,4)
(7,4)
4. Modulator
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Modulator Type
PSK
PSK
Carrier Amplitude
14V
1.0 V
Carrier Frequency
10 1000 kHz
100 kHz
Carrier Phase
0/90/180/270 degree
0 degree
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5. Mixer
Options/Range
Parameter
available
LO Frequency
20 10000 kHz
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
800 kHz
6. Filter
Options/Range
Parameter
available
Low Pass,
Filter Type
Band Pass
Approximation Type
Butterworth,
Chebyshev
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
Filter Order
1  10
Center Frequency
900 kHz
Bandwidth
50 kHz
7. Power Amplifier
Options/Range
Parameter
available
15
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
4
8. Transmission Line
Parameter
Length of Line
Options/Range
available
0.1 0.9
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.5
9. Antenna
Parameter
193
Options/Range
available
Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Antenna Type
Frequency
20 100000 kHz
900 kHz
Theta
0 180 degree
90 degree
Phy
0 180 degree
0 degree
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Mixer 1 Output
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Antenna 1 Output
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