You are on page 1of 199

PhySim TM

Observation Manual

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Tetcos on the issues
discussed as of the date of publication. Because Tetcos must respond to changing market conditions, it
should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Tetcos, and Tetcos cannot guarantee the
accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
This Manual is for informational purposes only. TETCOS MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS,
IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.
Warning! DO NOT COPY
Copyright in the whole and every part of this manual belongs to Tetcos and may not be used, sold,
transferred, copied or reproduced in whole or in part in any manner or in any media to any person,
without the prior written consent of Tetcos. If you use this manual you do so at your own Risk and on
the understanding that Tetcos shall not be liable for any loss or damage of any kind.
Tetcos may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property
rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license
agreement from Tetcos, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these
patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property.
Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail
addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any
real company, organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person, place, or event is
intended or should be inferred.
July 2009 Tetcos. All rights reserved.
PhySim

TM

is registered trademark of Tetcos.

All trademarks are property of their respective owner.

Contact us at Tetcos
214, 39th A Cross, 7th Main,
th
5 Block Jayanagar
Bangalore 560 041,
INDIA.
Tele - Fax: +91 80 2663 0624.
E-Mail: sales@tetcos.com
Visit: www.tetcos.com

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Table of Contents
Introduction
Section 1: Sample Labs:
Experiment 1
Function of Signal Source

Experiment 2

Function of Saw Tooth Generator

10

Experiment 3
Function of Pulse Generator

13

Experiment 4
Function of Data Generator

17

Experiment 5
Function of Delay Unit

20

Experiment 6
Function of Adder

23

Experiment 7
Function of Subtractor

26

Experiment 8
Function of Multiplier

29

Experiment 9

Function of Monostable Multivibrator

32

Experiment 10

Function of Commutator and Decommutator

37

Experiment 11

Function of Bit Combiner and Bit Splitter

42

Experiment 12

Filter Characteristics: Low Pass and Band Pass Filters

46

Experiment 13
AM DSB C

52

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 14
AM - DSB - SC

61

Experiment 15
SSB - Filter Method

67

Experiment 16
SSB - Phasing Method

75

Experiment 17
Pulse Modulation PAM

83

Experiment 18
Pulse Modulation - PWM

88

Experiment 19
Pulse Modulation - PPM

93

Experiment 20

TDM PAM using Two / Four band limited signals

98

Experiment 21

Verification of Nyquist Theorem

112

Experiment 22
Natural and Flattop Sampling

118

Experiment 23
Waveform Coding PCM

123

Experiment 24
Waveform Coding - DM

129

Experiment 25

Line Code: NRZ/ Manchester/ AMI

134

Experiment 26

Error detection and correction: Hamming Code

141

Experiment 27
Digital Modulation - ASK

147

Experiment 28
Digital Modulation - FSK

154

Experiment 29
Digital Modulation - PSK

163

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 30
Digital Modulation - DPSK

170

Experiment 31
Digital Modulation - QPSK

178

Section 2: Communication System Design Examples


Sample 1

Base Band Transmission System

186

Sample 2

Band Pass Communication Transmitter system

191

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Introduction
Block diagrams
What is a block diagram and how is it used? A block diagram tells us which jobs or
processes we need, in order to get a larger project done. Each block has a specific
function to perform. Each block also has specific set of inputs and outputs. By
connecting the output of one block to the input of another, we can have the combined
function of both the blocks. This allows us to take simple elements that are individually
easy to understand and combine them to achieve a more complex goal. The selection
of the specific blocks and the way they are connected determines how the larger
project will operate and how well it will work.
A block diagram describes all the jobs that are needed, but it does not tell us exactly
how to do each job. For example, an engineer might decide that a particular block in a
big project could be done best with a special custom designed circuit or with a general
purpose computer program or with a mechanical device. The choice would depend on
things like how well each of the methods work, how hard each is to do, and how much
each would cost.
In PhySim, File->New Simulation->communication system menu allows the user to
create, simulate and analyze waveforms of a digital communication system via various
blocks. Further, under the sample labs menu, the user can delve into the details of
each communication experiment with the fixed connectivity in the practice mode
(Sample labs ->Practice->desired experiment) to analyze the concept of the
module present and then do the experiments by yourself in exam mode(Sample labs
-> Exam). This is illustrated in the diagram shown below
Digital Communication Chain

Communication
System

Communication
Sub-system

Experiments 1 through 31 allow the user to experiment with different aspects of


analog and digital communication sub-systems.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Section 1: Sample labs:


The Experiments 1 to 31 given in this section guide you to create, simulate and
analyze waveforms for the standard communication sub-systems using PhySim. All
these simulations should be done in PhySim under Sample Labs.
Experiment 1

Function of Signal Source


Aim
To generate sine wave signal and measure the parameters.

Theory
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It
occurs often in pure mathematics, physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other
where

fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (t) is


A is the amplitude - the peak deviation of the function from its center position

is the angular frequency - specifies how many oscillations occur in unit time interval, in
radians per second
is the phase - specifies where in its cycle the oscillation begins at t = 0.

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source1

x(t)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Signal source. Measure and verify the amplitude, frequency and phase on
the oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

[Note: The Generation End Time parameter specifies until when the source has to generate the signal
or data.
To select the generation end time consider the following:

1. If the source is analog (Signal Source/ Carrier Generator/ Saw Tooth Generator/ Pulse Generator)
then
Generation End Time = No. of cycles required * (1 / frequency of source).

Example: To generate 10 cycles of 1 KHz sine source the Generation End Time should be
Generation End Time = 10 * (1/1000) = 10 milliseconds.
2. If the source is digital (Data Generator/ Pulse generator) then
Generation End Time = No. of bits to be generated * (1/source bit rate).
Example: To generate 80 bits with 8 Kbps data rate the Generation End Time should be
Generation End Time = 80 * (1/8000) = 10 milliseconds]

Observation
Measured
Time period for
one cycle

Number
of trials

Measured peak
amplitude

Measured
frequency

1 Volts

1 KHz

Figure1

4 Volts

2 KHz

Figure2

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Verify the
Phase

Output

www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Signal source 1 Output

Figure 2: Signal source 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 2

Function of Saw Tooth Generator


Aim
To generate Saw Tooth wave and measure the parameters.

Theory
The saw tooth wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform. It is named as saw tooth based on its resemblance
to the teeth on the blade of a saw. The convention is that a saw tooth wave ramps upward and then
sharply drops. However, there are also saw tooth waves in which the wave ramps downward and then
sharply rises.

Implementation diagram

Saw Tooth
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Saw Tooth generator. Measure and verify the frequency on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.

Property setting for blocks


1. Saw Tooth Generator 1
Parameter
Frequency

Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value
1 KHz

www.tetcos.com

10

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Observation
Number of trials
1

Frequency
1 KHz

2 KHz

Measured Time period for one cycle

Output
Figure 1
Figure 2

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Saw Tooth Generator 1 Output

11

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Figure 2: Saw Tooth Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

12

Experiment 3

Function of Pulse Generator


Aim
To generate pulse signal and measure the characteristic parameter.

Implementation diagram

Pulse
Generator 1

x(t)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Pulse Generator. Measure on time, off time and total time period. Verify with
the given frequency and duty cycle on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes and frequency.

Property setting for blocks


1. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

1 1000 KHz

1 KHz

10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70,

Duty Cycle

80, 90

50 %

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

13

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

Observation
Number
of trials
1

Measured
frequency
1 KHz

Duty
Cycle
50 %

Measured
on Time

Measured
off Time

Verify Total
Time period

1 KHz

20 %

Figure2

1 KHz

80 %

Figure3

2 KHz

50 %

Figure4

Output
Figure1

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Pulse Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

14

Figure 2: Pulse Generator 1 Output

Figure 3: Pulse Generator 1 Output

15

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Figure 4: Pulse Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

16

Experiment 4

Function of Data Generator


Aim
To generate digital data and measure the data characteristic parameters.

Theory
Function of this block is to generate message or information in the form of 0s and 1s. The information
may be of fixed length, with known or unknown sequence or any random data generator.

Implementation diagram

Data
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Data Generator, measure and verify the bit period, bit rate and given bit
pattern on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different bit rates.

Property setting for blocks


1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type

Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value

Pattern Generator

8 bits
Pattern Length

16 bits

16 bits

32 bits
Input Pattern
Bit Rate

17

1010110111011001
0.008 1000 kbps
PhySim TM Observation Manual

8 kbps
www.tetcos.com

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Observation

Input
Bit
Rate
Rb
8 kbps

8 kbps

1 kbps

Number
of trials

Measure
input bit
period Tb =
1/ Rb

Pattern Length

Input Pattern

Output

16 bits

1010110111011001

Figure 1

8 bits

10110101

Figure 2

Random(Bernoulli
Distribution)

Figure 3

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Data Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

18

Figure 2: Data Generator 1 Output

Figure 3: Data Generator 1 Output

19

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 5

Function of Delay Unit


Aim
To understand the concept of Delay Unit.

Theory
The function of the delay unit is to introduce one bit delay for the incoming signal. That is y (t) = x (t +
T), where T is the delay interval.

Implementation diagram

x(t)

Data
Generator 1

Delay
Unit 1

y(t) = x (t + T)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of delay unit with respect to data generator output.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different data rate and data pattern.

Property setting for blocks


1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type

Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value

Pattern Generator

8 bits
Pattern Length

16 bits

16 bits

32 bits
Input Pattern
Bit Rate

1010110111011001
0.008 to 1000 kbps
PhySim TM Observation Manual

8 kbps

www.tetcos.com

20

2. Delay Unit 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Bit Delay

1 bit

Parameter value
1 bit

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
2 mSecs

Observation
No of
trials

Pattern
length

Input
Pattern

16 bits

10101101
11011001

16 bits

11110001
11000111

Delay Unit
Comment
output
010101101 Delayed all with 1 bit with the
reference bit 0 at the
1101100
beginning
011110001
1100011

Output
Figure 1

Figure 2

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Data Generator 1 and Delay Unit 1 output

21

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Figure 2: Data Generator 1 and Delay Unit 1 output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

22

Experiment 6

Function of Adder
Aim
To understand the concept of an adder.

Theory
The function of adder is to add the amplitude of two incoming signals and output the added signal. That
is y (t) = x1(t) + x2(t).

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source 1

x1 (t)
+

y (t) = x1 (t) + x2 (t)


Adder 1

Signal
Source 2

x2 (t)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Adder, corresponding to the signal source, on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes for the signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency for the signal source.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source 1
Parameter
Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

23

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal source 1 and Signal source 2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

24

Signal source 1 and Adder 1 Output

Conclusion
Adder 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 4 volts peak to peak, with
Signal Source 1 and Signal Source 2 input having amplitudes of 2 peak to peak. This verifies the
function of the Adder block.

25

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 7

Function of Subtractor
Aim
To understand the concept of subtractor.

Theory
The function of subtractor is to find the difference of the two incoming signals. That is y (t) = x1(t)
x2(t).

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source 1

x1 (t)
+
Subtractor 1
-

Signal
Source 2

y (t) = x1 (t) - x2 (t)

x2 (t)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of subtractor, corresponding to the signal source.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitudes for the signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency for the signal source.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source 1
Parameter
Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

2V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

26

2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal source 1 and Signal source 2 Output

27

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal source 1 and Subtractor 1 Output

Conclusion
Subtractor 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 2 volts peak to peak, with
Signal Source 1 and Signal Source 2 inputs having amplitudes of 4 and 2 volts peak to peak.
This verifies the function of the Subtractor block.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

28

Experiment 8

Function of Multiplier
Aim
To understand the concept of multiplier.

Theory
The function of the multiplier is to multiply the two incoming signals. That is y (t) = x1(t) * x2(t).

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source 1

x1 (t)
+
Multiplier 1
-

Signal
Source 2

y (t) = x1 (t) * x2 (t)

x2 (t)

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of Multiplier, corresponding to the signal source, on oscilloscope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude of signal source.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting different amplitude as well as frequency of signal source.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source 1
Parameter
Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

29

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

2V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

2. Signal Source 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

2V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal source 1 and Signal source 2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

30

Signal source 1 and Multiplier 1 Output

Conclusion
Multiplier 1 output as observed in Oscilloscope has an amplitude of 0 to 4, with Signal Source 1
and Signal Source 2 inputs having amplitudes of -2 to +2 volts peak. This verifies the function of
the Multiplier block.

31

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 9

Function of Monostable Multivibrator


Aim
To understand the concept of mono-stable multi vibrator.

Theory
Monostable Multivibrators have only ONE stable state (hence the name: "Mono"), and they deliver a
single output pulse when it is triggered externally, only returning back to its first original and stable state
after a period of time determined by the time constant of the RC timing circuit. Monostable
Multivibrators or "One-Shot Multivibrators" as they are sometimes called, are used to generate a single
output pulse of a specified width, when a suitable external trigger signal or pulse of duration T is
applied. This trigger signal initiates a timing cycle which causes the output of the monostable to change
its state at the start of the timing cycle and remains in this second state, which is determined by the
time constant of the Capacitor, C and the Resistor, R until it resets or returns itself back to its original
(stable) state. It will remain in this stable state indefinitely until another input pulse or signal is received.
Monostable Multivibrators have only ONE stable state and go through a full cycle in response to a
single triggering input pulse.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

32

Implementation diagram

Pulse
Generator 1

Monostable
Multivibrator 1

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveforms through oscilloscope and verify.
4. Repeat from step 1 to 4 for keeping pulse frequency and duty cycle constant by varying pulse width
of mono-stable multivibrator (time constant) less than, equal to and greater than the incoming pulse
period.
5. Repeat from step 1 to 4 for different pulse frequency with variable duty cycle as well as different
pulse width of mono-stable Multivibrator

Property setting for blocks


1. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

1 1000 KHz

10 KHz

10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70,

Duty Cycle

80, 90

50 %

2. Monostable Multivibrator 1
Parameter
Pulse Width
Input Trigger

33

Options/Range
available
0.0001 1000 mSecs
Negative Edge
Positive Edge

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value
0.05 mSecs
Positive Edge

www.tetcos.com

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
5 mSecs

Observation
Pulse frequency of Pulse generator = 10 KHz constant
Pulse period = 1/ 10 KHz = 0.1 mSecs
Incoming pulse width with 50% duty cycle = 0.05
Number
of trials

Monostable
multivibrator pulse

Output at
Comments

different

width (time constant)

0.05 mSecs

0.025 mSecs

0.5 mSecs

0.1 mSecs

blocks
Time constant is equal to triggering
pulse width
Time constant is less than
triggering pulse width
Time constant is greater than
triggering pulse width
Time constant is equal to Pulse
generator time period

Figure1

Figure2

Figure3

Figure4

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Figure 1: Pulse Generator 1 and Monostable Multivibrator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

34

Figure 2: Pulse Generator 1 and Monostable Multivibrator 1 Output

Figure 3: Pulse Generator 1 and Monostable Multivibrator 1 Output

35

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Figure 4: Pulse Generator 1 and Monostable Multivibrator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

36

Experiment 10

Function of Commutator and Decommutator


Aim
To understand commutator and decommutator for variable signaling rates and synchronization.

Theory
The rotating sampling switch is known as commutator that extracts one sample from each input
message signal per revolution. Hence, the output waveform of the commutator is converted into a Pulse
Amplitude Modulation waveform that contains the individual message samples periodically interleaved
in time. Therefore the output of the commutator is made compatible for transmission over the channel.
Let all the input message signals have an identical bandwidth equal to W hertz. Then the commutator
should rotate at a rate fs >= 2W so that successive samples from a given message signal are spaced
by Ts = 1 / fs <= 1/2W. The time interval Ts containing one sample from each message signal is called
frame. If there are N message signals, then the spacing between each pulse in frame is Ts/N = 1/Nfs
seconds.
Thus the total number of pulses per second will be r = Nfs >= 2NW, where, r is known as signaling rate
of Time Division Multiplexed signal.
In PhySim implementation N = 4.
The output at the receiver is sorted out by another rotating sampling switch known as decommutator
working in synchrony with the commutator. Then sorted signals are distributed to appropriate low pass
reconstruction filters to supply to the appropriate destination. In TDM, synchronization of commutator
and decommutator is very important. If the decommutator in the receiver is not synchronized to the
transmitter, messages can get interchanged.

37

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source 1

Signal
Source 2
Commutator 1

Decommutator 1

Signal
Source 3

Signal
Source 4

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output of commutator and decommutator corresponding to the signal source.
4. Repeat above steps for different signaling rates for both commutator and decommutator.
5. Repeat step 2 and 3 by setting commutator and decommutator for different signaling rates, to
observe the synchronization

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 360 degrees

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

38

2. Signal Source 2
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

2 KHz

Phase

0 360 degrees

0 degree

3. Signal Source 3
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

3 KHz

Phase

0 360 degrees

0 degree

4. Signal Source 4
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

4 KHz

Phase

0 360 degrees

0 degree

5. Commutator 1
Parameter
Sampling Rate

Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz

Parameter value
8 KHz

6. Decommutator 1
Parameter
Sampling Rate

39

Options/Range
available
1 1000 KHz
PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value
8 KHz
www.tetcos.com

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

Parameter value

available

Generation End Time

10 mSecs

1 100 mSecs

Observation
Set 4 Signal Source frequencies as 1KHz, 2KHz, 3KHz and 4KHz respectively.
Number of

Signaling Rate of Commutator

Signaling Rate of Decommutator

8 KHz

8 KHz

16 KHz

16 KHz

32 KHz

32 KHz

64 KHz

64 KHz

16 KHz

32 KHz

trials

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Signal Source 2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

40

Signal Source 3 and Signal Source 4 Output

Commutator 1 and Decommutator 11 Output

41

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 11

Function of Bit Splitter and Bit Combiner


Aim
To Functional realization of Bit splitter and Bit combiner blocks.

Theory
Bit Splitter
The function of the Bit splitter is conversion of the serial data into parallel data. This block divides the
incoming binary sequence into two separate binary sequences consisting of the odd and even
numbered input bits. These two binary sequences are denoted by bo (t) and be (t). The Odd sequence bo
(t) consists of b1, b3, and even sequence be(t) consists of b2, b4, b6 etc. If the incoming bit is of bit
duration Tb, then the two output odd and even sequences are with a bit duration of 2Tb.

Bit Combiner
The function of the Bit combiner is to combine the two parallel incoming sequences into one serial
sequence. Bit combiner does the reverse function of Bit splitter. If the two incoming sequences of bit
duration 2Tb then the combined bit duration of serial sequence will be Tb.
For this we have to make sure that, the incoming two input sequences must be at the same rate. If not,
the output rate cannot be defined and could result in wrong output sequence.

Implementation diagram

bo = b1, b3, b5 ...

Data
Generator 1

bi = b1, b2, b3
b4, b5...

Bit
Splitter 1

Bit
Combiner 1

bc = b1, b2, b3
b4, b5...

be = b2, b4, b6 ...

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the input data, Bit splitters odd and even sequence data and Bit combiners output data.
Also observe bit period of the odd and even sequence. It should be twice that of the incoming data
rate.
PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

42

4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by setting various input data pattern of data generator block.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by varying input data rate of data generator block and bit rate of Bit combiner
block.

Property setting for blocks


1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

Parameter value

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Pattern Generator

8 bits
Pattern Length

16 bits

16 bits
32 bits

Input Pattern

1010110111011001

Bit Rate

8 kbps

0.008 to 1000 kbps

2. Bit Combiner 1
Options/Range

Parameter

Parameter value

available

8kbps
Combined Bit Rate

[ Note: Combined bit

0.008 to 1000 kbps

rate must be same as


input bit rate]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

Parameter value

available

Generation End Time

2 mSecs

1 100 mSecs

Observation
No
of
tri
als

Inpu
t Bit
Rate
Rb

Input
Bit
Period
Tb = 1
/ Rb

Patte
rn
lengt
h

Input
Pattern

1
kbps

1mSe
c

16
bits

1010110
1110110
01

Bit
Splitter
Odd
sequen
ce
output
111010
10

Odd
sequenc
e Bit
Period
Todd =
2Tb

Bit
Splitter
Even
sequence
output

Even
seque
nce Bit
Period
Teven
= 2Tb

0011110
1

43

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Combi
ned
Bit
Rate

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and Bit Splitter 1 odd sequence output

Data Generator 1 and Bit Splitter 1 even sequence output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

44

Transmitted data (Data Generator 1) and reconstructed data (Bit Combiner 1) output

45

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 12

Filter Characteristics: Low Pass and Band Pass Filters


Aim
To design and analyze different order Butterworth low pass filter with a cutoff frequency fc, band pass
filter with a center frequency fc and bandwidth Bw. To draw a frequency response and verify the roll off.

Theory
Filtering is the process of separating desired frequency components from the undesired frequency
components. The function of filter is to pass all signals in the band above a certain frequency, called
pass band and blocking all frequencies below this, called stop band (SB). The frequency separating the
two regions is defined as corner frequency. At this frequency the power of signal is attenuated by a
factor of 2.

Filter Type
Low Pass (LP): Low-Pass filters will stop all frequencies greater than cutoff frequency.
High Pass (HP): High-Pass filters stop al frequencies smaller than cutoff frequency.
Band Pass (BP): It will allow a band of frequencies to pass through it. Logically, by using a High-Pass
filter in series with a Low-Pass one can realize a Band-Pass filter.
Band Stop (BS): It will reject particular band of frequencies and allow other frequencies.

Approximation
These emphasize low distortion in the Pass Band of filter while others stress the ability of the filter to
attenuate the signals in the Stop Band. The absence or presence of ripple (variations) in the PB and SB
clearly set different approximation methods.
Butterworth: In Butterworth a smooth magnitude response in both the PB and SB. These are most
popular, general-purpose filters.
Chebyshev: Built for equal amplitude ripples in PB, but a smooth ever decreasing gain in the SB. The
transition slope attenuation is steeper than the Butterworth filter.
Inverse Chebyshev: Built for equal amplitude ripples in SB. No passband ripples ,that is, a smooth
response in the PB.
Elliptic: Equal amplitude ripples in both the passband and the stopband. This also provides the fastest
transition between PB and SB.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

46

Implementation diagram

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules. Apply input sine with constant amplitude of
4V (Vin) and keep the frequency of the input signal (fin) in the pass band range. Keep the filter
cutoff frequency and filter order to required value (It should be constant for one set of experiments).
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Note down the output voltage (Vo) Vo max.
4. Repeat step 1 and 3, keeping input signal amplitude (Vin) constant, vary the input signal frequency
(fin) until the output voltage (Vo) reduces to 0.707 Vo max. The corresponding frequency is the
cutoff frequency of the filter.
5. Draw a frequency response.

6. Repeat the experiment by setting different order and different cutoff frequencies.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source1
Parameter

Signal Type

47

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

4V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

2. Low Pass Filter 1 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value

Low Pass

Butterworth
2
3.4 KHz

Cut off frequency

3. Band Pass Filter 1 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value

Band Pass

Butterworth
2

Center frequency

10 KHz

Bandwidth

2 KHz

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

48

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal source 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

Signal source 1 and Band Pass Filter 1 Output

49

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Observation
Tabulation
Low pass filter

Vin =

Volts (Constant)

Input

Gain Magnitude in

frequency in

Output Voltage in

Gain magnitude

dB = 20log(Vo

Hz

Volts (Vo)

(Vo / Vin)

/Vin)

0.5

Frequency response for Low Pass Filter 1

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

50

Observation
Tabulation
Band pass filter

Vin =

Volts (Constant)

Input

Gain Magnitude in

frequency in

Output Voltage in

Gain magnitude

dB = 20log(Vo

Hz

Volts (Vo)

(Vo / Vin)

/Vin)

Frequency response for Band Pass Filter 1

51

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 13

Amplitude Modulation Double Sideband


with Carrier
Aim
To implement the Amplitude Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample
specifications and to measure the signal at various blocks involved in the AM-DSB-C.

Sample Specifications
Modulating

(Signal Source)

Signal
Amplitude

1 V.

Frequency

1 KHz

Phase

0 degree
(Carrier

Carrier

Generator

Signal

block)

Amplitude

1 V.

Frequency

10 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for AM-DSB-C


1. Coherent
Demodulated
Output

AM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Adder 1

Product
Modulator 1

Optional
DC
Generator 1

AWGN
Channel 1

Band Pass
Filter 2

Optional

Optional

Carrier
Generator 1

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Product
Modulator2

Low Pass
Filter 3

Carrier
Generator2

www.tetcos.com

52

2. Non- Coherent

AM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Adder 1

Product
Modulator 1

AWGN
Channel 2

Band Pass
Filter 4

Optional

Optional

Optional
DC
Generator 1

Demodulated
Output

Diode
Detector 1

Low Pass
Filter 5

Carrier
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the
Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Sine Wave

Signal Type

Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 kHz

1 kHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Low Pass Filter 1 (Band limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type

53

Butterworth

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth
www.tetcos.com

Chebyshev
Filter Order

1 - 10

4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

4. DC Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

DC Shift

-4 - +4 V

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1V

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to

-30 to 50 dB

Noise Ratio

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB

6. Band Pass Filter 2


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type

Butterworth

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass
Butterworth
www.tetcos.com

54

Chebyshev
Filter Order

1 - 10

4
10 KHz

Center Frequency

(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz

Bandwidth

(Twice the modulating


signal frequency)

7. Carrier Generator 2 (Reference carrier at the receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Sine Wave

Signal Type

Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the
receiver should be the same.

8. Low Pass Filter 3 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency ]

55

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

9. AWGN Channel 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample specifications
5.0 dB

10. Band Pass Filter 4


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
10 KHz

Center Frequency

(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz

Bandwidth

(Twice the modulating


signal frequency)

11. Low Pass Filter 5 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass with

Cut off Frequency

a Cutoff Frequency of
modulating (signal)
frequency]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

56

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

57

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

DC Generator 1 and Adder 1 Output

Carrier Generator 1 and AM Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

58

Product Modulator 1 and Diode Detector 1 Output

Adder 1 and Low Pass Filter 5 Output

59

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Product Modulator 1 and Product Modulator 2 Output

Adder 1 and Low Pass Filter 3 Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

60

Experiment 14

Amplitude Modulation
Double Sideband - Suppressed Carrier
Aim
To implement the Amplitude Modulator Double Side Band - Suppressed Carrier for the given sample
specifications and to measure the signal at various blocks involved in the AM-DSB-SC.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Signal Source)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

1 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

10 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for AM-DSB-SC

Demodulated
Signal

AM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Product
Modulator 1

Optional

AWGN
Channel 1

Band Pass
Filter 2

Optional

Optional

Carrier
Generator 1

Product
Modulator 2

Low Pass
Filter 3

Carrier
Generator 2

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as per Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

61

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Sine Wave

Signal Type

Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Low Pass Filter 1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting

Cut off Frequency

frequency is 3.4 KHz]

3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

62

4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB

5. Band Pass Filter 2


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
10 KHz

Center Frequency

(Carrier Frequency)
2 KHz

Bandwidth

(Twice the modulating


signal frequency)

6. Carrier Generator 2 (Reference carrier at the receiver)


Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Sine Wave
Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.

63

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

7. Low Pass Filter 3 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note : Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency ]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Filter 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

64

Signal Source 1 and Carrier Generator 1 Output

AM-DSB-SC Output

65

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Low Pass Filter 1 and Product Modulator 2 Output

Signal Source 1 and Low Pass Filter 3 Output (Reconstruction Filter)

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

66

Experiment 15

Single Side Band Modulation Filter Method


Aim
To implement Single Side Band (SSB) Modulation and Demodulation using the Filter Method for the
given sample specifications and to measure the signal at various blocks involved in the SSB-Filter
Method.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Signal Source)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

1 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

10 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for SSB Filter

Demodulated
Signal

SSB Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Product
Modulator 1

Optional

Filter 2

AWGN
Channel 1

Band Pass
Filter 3

Optional

Optional

Carrier
Generator 1

Product
Modulator 2

Low Pass
Filter 4

Carrier
Generator 2

Procedure
1. Set block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the
Sample Specifications.

67

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Sine Wave

Signal Type

Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 360 degree

0 degree

2. Filter 1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

68

4. Filter 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
11 KHz
(11 KHz Upper sideband

Center Frequency

and 9 KHz Lower


sideband)
1 KHz

Bandwidth

(Equal to modulating signal


frequency )

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB

6. Band Pass Filter 3


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Filter Type

Low Pass
Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
11 KHz
(Selection based on

Center Frequency

transmitter settings, select


11 KHz for Upper sideband
and 9 KHz for Lower

69

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

sideband)
1 KHz
Bandwidth

(Equal to modulating signal


frequency )

7. Carrier Generator 2 (Reference carrier at the receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.

8. Low Pass Filter 4


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Filter Type

Low Pass
Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
Frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

70

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

Low Pass Filter 1 and Carrier Generator 1 Output

71

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Low Pass Filter 1 and Product Modulator 1 Output

Product Modulator 1 and SSB Filter Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

72

Modulator Signal (Band Pass Filter 2) and Product Modulator 2 Output

Low Pass Filter 4 and Product Modulator 2 Output (Reconstruction Filter)

73

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source 1 and Low Pass Filter 4 Output (Reconstruction Filter)

Experiments of different specification can be performed in a similar manner.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

74

Experiment 16

Single Side Band Modulation - Phasing method


Aim
To implement Single Side Band (SSB) Modulation and Demodulation using phasing method for the
given sample specifications and to measure the signal at various blocks involved in the SSB-Phasing
Method.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Signal Source)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

1 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Amplitude

1V

Frequency

10 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for SSB Phasing

Product
Modulator 1
Carrier
Generator 1
Phase
Shifter 1

Signal
Source 1

Phase
Shifter 2

SSB
Output

Adder 1

Product
Modulator 2

Carrier
Generator 2
Demodulated
Signal

75

AWGN
Channel 1

Band Pass
Filter 1

Optional

Optional

Product
Modulator 3

Low Pass
Filter 2

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Procedure
1. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Sine Wave
Cosine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

3. Phase Shifter 1
Parameter

Phase

Options/Range
available
0/ 90/ 180 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
90 degree

www.tetcos.com

76

4 Phase Shifter 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Phase

0/ 90/ 180 degree

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
90 degree

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
5.0 dB

6. Band Pass Filter 1


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Filter Type

Low Pass
Band Pass
Butterworth

Approximation Type

Chebyshev

Filter Order

1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
9 KHz (Lower side Band)
[Note: Transmitter use
adder for lower sideband

Center Frequency

and use subtractor for


upper sideband. Based on
that select the respective
sideband]
1 KHz

Bandwidth

(Equal to modulating signal


frequency )

7. Carrier Generator 2 (Reference carrier at the receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

77

Cosine Wave
PhySim

TM

Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave
www.tetcos.com

Sine Wave
Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same

8. Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Filter Type

Low Pass
Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

78

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Phase Shifter 1 Output

Carrier Generator 1 and Phase Shifter 2 Output

79

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source 1 and Product Modulator1 Output

Phase Shifted Signal and Product Modulator2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

80

Signal Source 1 and Adder 1 Output

Adder 1 (SSB Output) and Product Modulator 3 Output

81

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Product Modulator 3 and Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter) Output

Signal Source 1 and Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter) Output

Experiments of different specification can be performed in similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

82

Experiment 17

Pulse Modulation - PAM


Aim
To study PAM signal generation and detection for the given sample specifications and to measure the
signal at various blocks involved in the PAM.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

Sine Wave

(Signal Source)
Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency

8 KHz

Duty Cycle

50 %

Implementation Block Diagram for PAM

Reconstructed
Signal

PAM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Switch 1

Filter 2

Optional
Pulse
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click Run and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.

83

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1 to 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.001 to 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 to 360 degree

0 degree

2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

1 - 1000 KHz

8 KHz

10/20/30/40/50/60/70/

Duty Cycle

80/90

50 %

3. Low Pass Filter 1


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

84

4. Low Pass Filter2


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen below to get the waveforms.

85

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source 1 and Band Limiting Filter 1 Output

Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

86

Signal Source 1 and Switch 1 (PAM) Output

Signal Source 1 and Reconstructed Filter Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner.

87

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 18

Pulse Modulation - PWM


Aim
To study PWM signal generator and detector for the given sample specifications and to measure the
signal at various blocks involved in the PWM.

Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)

Sine Wave

Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Ramp / triangular wave


(Saw Tooth Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency

8 KHz

Implementation Block Diagram for PWM

Reconstructed
Signal

PWM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Comparator 1

Filter 2

Optional
Saw Tooth
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

88

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Saw Tooth Generator 1


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Frequency

1 - 1000 KHz

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8 KHz

3. Low Pass Filter1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

89

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

4. Reconstruction Filter
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms

Signal Source 1 Output and Band Limited Filter Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

90

Signal Source 1 Output and Saw Tooth Generator 1 Output

Signal Source 1 Output and Comparator 1 Output (PWM Output)

91

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source Output and the reconstructed signal after reconstruction filter.

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

92

Experiment 19

Pulse Modulation - PPM


Aim
To study PPM signal generator and detector for the given sample specifications and to measure the
signal at various blocks involved in the PPM.

Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Signal Source)

Sine Wave

Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Ramp / triangular wave


(Saw Tooth Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency

8 KHz

Implementation Block Diagram for PPM

PWM Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Comparator 1

PPM Output

Monostable
Multivibrator 1

Reconstructed
Signal

Filter 2

Optional
Saw Tooth
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.

93

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal Type

Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Saw Tooth Generator 1


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Frequency

1 - 1000 KHz

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8 KHz

3. Monostable Multivibrator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Pulse Width

0.0001 1000 mSecs


Negative Edge

Input Trigger

Positive Edge

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.0625 mSecs
Negative Edge

4. Low Pass Filter 1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

94

5. Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 Output and Band Limited Filter Output

95

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source 1 Output and Saw Tooth Generator 1 Output

Signal Source 1 Output and Comparator 1 Output (PWM Output)

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

96

Signal Source 1 and Monostable Multivibrator 1 Output (PPM Output)

Signal Source Reconstructed Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

97

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 20

TDM - PAM using Two / Four band limited signals


Aim
To implement TDM - PAM using four band-limited signals for the given sample specifications.

Sample Specifications
Input Signal

Sine Wave

Signal Source1:
Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Signal Source2:

Sine Wave

Frequency

2 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Signal Source3:

Sine Wave

Frequency

3 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Signal Source4:

Sine Wave

Frequency

4 KHz

Amplitude

1V

TDM pulse rate

64 KHz

Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Sampling Rate / Frequency

128 KHz

Duty Cycle

50 %

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

98

Implementation Block Diagram for TDM-PAM Analysis


Reconstructed
Signal

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Filter 5
Reconstructed
Signal

Optional
PAM TDM
Output

Signal
Source 2

Filter 2

Filter 6

Optional

Signal
Source 3

Commutator 1

Switch 1

Switch 2

Filter 3

Filter 7
Pulse
Generator 1

Optional
Signal
Source 4

Reconstructed
Signal

Decommutator 1

Pulse
Generator 2

Reconstructed
Signal

Filter 4

Filter 8

Optional

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Parameter

Signal Type

99

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

2. Signal Source 2
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

2 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

3. Signal Source 3
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

3 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

4. Signal Source 4
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

0.001 - 1000 KHz

4 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

5. Commutator 1
Parameter

Sampling Rate

Options/Range
available
1 - 1000 KHz

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
64 KHz

www.tetcos.com100

6. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

1 1000 kHz

128 KHz

10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8

Duty Cycle

0/90

50 %

7. Pulse Generator 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

1 1000 kHz

128 KHz

10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8

Duty Cycle

0/90

50 %

8. Decommutator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Sampling Rate

1 - 1000 KHz

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
64 KHz

9. Low Pass Filter 1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

101

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

10. Low Pass Filter 2 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting

Cut off Frequency

frequency is 3.4 KHz]

11. Low Pass Filter 3 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz
[Note: audio band limiting

Cut off Frequency

frequency is 3.4 KHz]

12. Low Pass Filter 4 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: Select this based on


Signal Source Frequency]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com102

13. Low Pass Filter 5 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

14 Low Pass Filter 6 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
2 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

15. Low Pass Filter 7 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type

103

Butterworth

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass
Butterworth

www.tetcos.com

Chebyshev
Filter Order

1 - 10

4
3 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

16. Low Pass Filter 8 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
4 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


modulating (signal)
frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com104

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source1 and Commutator 1 Output

Signal Source2 and Commutator 1 Output

105

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source3 and Commutator 1 Output

Signal Source4 and Commutator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com106

Commutator 1 and Switch 1 Output

Signal Source1 and Decommutator 11 Output

107

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source2 and Decommutator 12 Output

Signal Source3 and Decommutator 13 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com108

Signal Source4 and Decommutator 14 Output

Signal Source1 and the corresponding Filter Output

109

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source2 and the corresponding Filter Output

Signal Source3 and the corresponding Filter Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com110

Signal Source4 and the corresponding Filter Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner.

111

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 21

Verification of Nyquist Theorem


Aim
To understand the importance of Nyquist Theorem (Sampling Theorem).

Theory
The Nyquist Theorem, also known as the sampling theorem, is a principle that engineers follow for the
conversion of analog signals to digital signals.For analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) to result in a
faithful reproduction of the signal, slices, called samples, of the analog waveform must be taken
frequently. The number of samples per second is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency.
The Nyquist theorem states that a signal must be sampled at least twice as fast as the bandwidth of the
signal to accurately reconstruct the waveform; otherwise, the high-frequency content will alias at a
frequency inside the spectrum of interest (passband). An alias is a false lower frequency component
that appears in sampled data acquired at too low a sampling rate.

Suppose the highest frequency component, in hertz, for a given analog signal is fmax. According to the
Nyquist Theorem, the sampling rate must be at least 2fmax, or twice the highest analog frequency
component. The sampling in an analog-to-digital converter is actuated by a pulse generator (clock). If
the sampling rate is less than 2fmax, some of the higher frequency components in the analog input signal
will not be correctly represented in the digitized output. When such a digital signal is converted back to
analog form by a digital-to-analog converter, false frequency components appear that were not present
in the original analog signal. This undesirable condition is a form of distortion called aliasing.

Implementation diagram

Sampling Switch
Signal
Source 1

Switch 1

Sinusoidal
signal
generator

Filter 1

Reconstruction
Filter
Pulse
Generator 1
Sampling pulse
generator

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com112

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveform at the filter with respect to signal source.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by keeping the frequency of the signal source (fm) constant and varying the
Pulse generator frequency (fs) to fs = 2 fm, fs > 2fm and fs < 2fm.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for different signal source frequency (fm) and vary the pulse generator
frequency (fs) to fs = 2fm, fs > 2fm and fs < 2fm.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

2 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

8/16/32/64 KHz

8 KHz

Duty Cycle

10/20/30/40/50/
60/70/80/90

50 %

3. Low Pass Filter 1 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value

Low Pass

Butterworth
4
2 KHz

Cut off frequency

[Note: Select Low pass


with a cutoff frequency of
input signal frequency]

113

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Observation
Signal Source frequency (fm) = 2 KHz constant
Number of

Pulse Generator

trials

frequency (fs)

8 KHz

2 KHz

1 KHz

Comments
Sampling rate: fs
> 2fm
Sampling rate: fs
=2fm
Sampling rate: fs
< 2fm

Output at different
blocks
Observation 1

Observation 2

Observation 3

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Observation 1
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com114

Switch 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

Observation 2
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output

115

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Switch 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

Observation 3
Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com116

Switch 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

117

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 22

Natural and Flat Top Sampling


Aim
To understand the Natural and Flat Top sampling.

Theory
To transmit analog information via a digital system, the analog signal must first be transformed into a
digital format. The first step in such a transformation typically involves a sampling process. In the
analogue-to-digital conversion process an analogue waveform is sampled to form a series of pulses
whose amplitude is the amplitude of the sampled waveform at the time the sample was taken.
In natural sampling the pulse amplitude takes the shape of the analogue waveform for the period of the
sampling pulse. Alternatively, in a process called flat top sampling, the amplitude of the sampled pulse
is held constant at the value of the amplitude of the analogue waveform at the time the sampling period
began.

The pulse width determines the amount of energy in each pulse, and therefore can determine the
amplitude of the reconstructed message. But, in a linear and noise free system, the width of the
samples plays no part in determining the amount of distortion of a reconstructed message.

Implementation diagram

Filter 1
Reconstruction
Filter

Sampling Switch
Signal
Source 1

Switch 1
Natural
output

Hold
Circuit 1

Sinusoidal
signal
generator

Filter 2
Hold
output
Reconstruction
Filter

Pulse
Generator 1
Sampling pulse
generator

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com118

Procedure
1. Set the Property for all the blocks of various modules.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the output waveform of Natural and Flattop samples and the reconstructed signal.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for different Signal source frequency, Pulse generator frequency with different
duty cycle values.

Property setting for blocks


1. Signal Source1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degrees

0 degree

2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

8/16/32/64 KHz

8 KHz

Duty Cycle

10/20/30/40/50/
60/70/80/90

50 %

3. Low Pass Filter 1 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value

Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz

Cut off frequency

[Note: Select Low pass


with a cutoff frequency of
input signal frequency]

119

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

4. Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value

Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low pass

Cut off frequency

with a cutoff frequency of


input signal frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal source 1 and Pulse generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com120

Switch 1 and Hold Circuit 1 Output

Signal source 1 and Low Pass Filter 1 Output

121

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal source 1 and Low Pass Filter 2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com122

Experiment 23

Waveform Coding - PCM


Aim
To implement and analyze the PCM system for the given sample specifications.

Sample Specifications
Input Signal

Sine Wave

(Signal Source)
Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Pulse Frequency

8 KHz

Duty Cycle

50 %

6Quantizer
Quantization level

256

Implementation Block Diagram for Design and Analysis of PCM

Natural Sampled
Output

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Switch 1

Optional

Flat top Sampled


Output

Hold
Circuit 1

Quantized
Output

Quantize 1

Encoder 1

PCM
Output

Reconstructed
Signal

PCM
Decoder 1

Filter 2

Optional
Pulse
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

123

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet Sample
Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

1-4V

1V

Frequency

1 - 1000 KHz

8 KHz

10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8

Duty Cycle

0/90

50 %

3. Low Pass Filter 1 (Band limiting filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: audio band limiting


frequency is 3.4 KHz]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com124

4. Quantizer 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Quantization levels

8/16/32/64/128/256

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
256

5. Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Number of bits per sample

3/4/5/6/7/8

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8

6. PCM Decoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Number of bits per sample

3/4/5/6/7/8

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
8

7. Low Pass Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


input signal frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

125

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Signal Source 1 and Pulse Generator 1 Output

Signal Source 1 and Switch 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com126

Signal Source 1 and Quantizer 1 Output

Quantizer 1 and Encoder 1 Output

127

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Encoder 1 and PCM Decoder 1 Output

Signal Source 1 and PCM Decoder 1 Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com128

Experiment 24

Waveform Coding - DM
Aim
To implement and analyze the Delta Modulation (DM) system for the given sample specifications.

Sample Specifications
Input Signal Source
(Signal Source)

Sine Wave

Frequency

1 KHz

Amplitude

1V

Sampling Pulse
(Pulse Generator)
Pulse Frequency

16 KHz

Duty Cycle

50 %

Delta Modulator
Step Size

0.25 V

Delta Demodulator
Step Size

0.25 V

Implementation Block Diagram for Design and Analysis of Delta Modulation

Signal
Source 1

Filter 1

Switch 1

Optional

Hold
Circuit 1

Delta
Modulator 1

Delta
Demodulator 1

Optional
Pulse
Generator 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the Sample
Specifications.

129

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Filter 2

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Signal Source 1
Parameter value to be
Parameter

Options/Range

selected to

available

meet the Sample


Specifications

Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Sine Wave

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

0.001 1000 KHz

1 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

2. Pulse Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

14V

1V

Frequency

1 - 1000 KHz

16 KHz

10/20/30/40/50/60/70/8

Duty Cycle

0/90

50 %

3. Filter 1 (Band Limiting Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
3.4 KHz

Cut off Frequency

[Note: The audio band


limiting frequency is 3.4
KHz]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com130

4. Delta Modulator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Step Size

0.25 - 4

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.25

5. Delta Demodulator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Step Size

0.25 - 4

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.25

6. Filter 2 (Reconstruction Filter)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Low Pass

Butterworth
4
1 KHz
[Note: Select Low Pass

Cut off Frequency

with a Cutoff Frequency of


input signal frequency]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 10 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

131

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Signal Source 1 and Switch 1 Output

Signal Source 1 and Delta Modulator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com132

Signal Source 1 and Delta Demodulator 1 Output

Signal Source 1 and Reconstruction Filter 2 Output

Experiments of different specification can be performed in a similar manner

133

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 25

Line Codes
Aim
To study the various Line Coding techniques which includes NRZ, Manchester, and AMI.

Sample Specifications
Input / Modulating Signal
(Data Generator)

Digital Data

Pattern Length

8 Bits

Input Pattern

10110101

Bit Rate

8 kbps

Line Code

NRZ

Implementation Block Diagram for Line Code

Optional
NRZ
Encoder 1

AWGN
Channel 1

NRZ
Decoder 1

Optional
Optional
Data
Generator 1

Manchester
Encoder 1

AWGN
Channel 2

Manchester
Decoder 1

Optional
Optional
AMI
Encoder 1

AWGN
Channel 3

AMI
Decoder 1

Optional

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com134

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type
Pattern Length

Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution
8/16/32 Bits

Input Pattern

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Pattern Generator
8 Bits
10110101

Bit Rate

0.008 - 1000 kbps

8 kbps (= 8000 bps)

2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ encoder


Generation Type

Polar NRZ encoder


NRZ-M

Uni-polar NRZ encoder

NRZ-S

3. NRZ Decoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ decoder


Generation Type

Polar NRZ decoder


NRZ-M

Uni-polar NRZ decoder

NRZ-S

135

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

5. Manchester Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Normal

Encoder Type

Differential

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Normal

6. Manchester Decoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Normal

Decoder Type

Differential

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Normal

7. AWGN Channel 2
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

8. AWGN Channel 3
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

www.tetcos.com136

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

For NRZ Encoder and NRZ Decoder


Data Generator 1 and NRZ Encoder 1 Output

NRZ Encoder 1 and AWGN Channel 1 Output

137

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and NRZ Decoder 1 Output

For Manchester Encoder and Manchester Decoder


Data Generator 1 and Manchester Encoder 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com138

Data Generator 1 and Manchester Decoder 1 Output

For AMI Encoder and AMI Decoder


Data Generator 1 and AMI Encoder 1 Output

139

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and AMI Decoder 1 Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com140

Experiment 26

Error detection and correction: Hamming Code


Aim
To analyze the Error Detection and Correction capability of Hamming Code with the given sample
specifications.

Sample Specifications
Data Generator
Bit Rate

1000 bps

Hamming Encoder
n, k
Hamming Decoder

7,4

n, k

7,4

Implementation Block Diagram for Error Detection and Correction using


Hamming Code

Decoder
Corresponding
to Encoder

Anyone Encoder
NRZ
Encoder 1

Data
Generator 1

Hamming
Encoder 1

Manchester
Encoder 1

NRZ
Decoder 1

AWGN
Channel 1

Manchester
Decoder 1

Hamming
Decoder 1

Optional
AMI
Encoder 1
Optional

AMI
Decoder 1

Optional

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.

141

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type

Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1(p)

0 to 1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 - 1000 kbps

1 kbps (= 1000 bps)

2. Hamming Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

7,4
15,11

n.k

31,26

7,4

63,57

3. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder


Generation Type

Polar NRZ Encoder


NRZ-M

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder

NRZ-S

4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

www.tetcos.com142

5. NRZ Decoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ Decoder


Generation Type

Polar NRZ Decoder


NRZ-M

Uni-polar NRZ Decoder

NRZ-S

6. Hamming Decoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

7,4
15,11

n.k

31,26

7,4

63,57

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

143

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
20 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and Hamming Encoder 1 Output

NRZ Encoder 1 and Hamming Encoder 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com144

NRZ Encoder 1 and AWGN Channel 1 Output

NRZ Encoder 1 and NRZ Decoder 1 Output

145

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and Hamming Decoder 1 Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com146

Experiment 27

Digital Modulation - ASK


Aim
To implement ASK Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample specifications and to measure the
signal at various blocks involved in the ASK.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Data Generator block)

Bit Rate

600 bps

Data Pattern

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Frequency

5 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for ASK

Data
Generator

NRZ
Encoder

Product
Modulator1

AWGN
Channel

Product
Modulator2

Integrator

Decision
Device

Optional
Carrier
Generator1

Bit Error
Unit
Optional

Carrier
Generator2

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the property setting for blocks to meet the sample specifications.
2. Click Run and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the sample specifications.

147

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type

Pattern Generator
Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1 (p)

0 to 1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 1000 kbps

0.6 kbps (= 600 bps)

2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Uni-polar NRZ
Encoder

Generation Type

Polar NRZ Encoder


NRZ-M
NRZ-S

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Uni-polar NRZ Encoder
For ASK generation the
incoming data should be
in Uni-polar format.

3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB
www.tetcos.com148

5. Carrier Generator 2 (reference carrier at receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.

6. Integrator 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs
The integration time

Integration Time Interval

0.001 125 mSecs

interval = 1 / Bit rate in


bps = 1/ (0.6 * 1000) =
1.67 mSecs (It is the
Symbol duration)

7. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.4
[Note: For ASK threshold

Threshold Value

-4 4 V

Value = Sqrt (Eb ) / 2 =


sqrt(1) /2 = 0.5. Set any
value less than 0.5]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

149

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs
www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and NRZ Encoder 1 Output

Data Generator 1 and Carrier Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com150

ASK Output

Reference Carrier Output

151

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and Product Modulator 2 Output

Data Generator 1 and Integrator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com152

Data Generator 1 and Decision Device 1 the reconstructed data

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

153

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 28

Digital Modulation - FSK


Aim
To implement the FSK Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample specifications and to measure
the signal at various blocks involved in the FSK.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Data Generator block)

Bit Rate

600 bps

Data Pattern

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Mark Frequency

10 KHz

Space Frequency

5 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for the FSK

Carrier
Generator 3
Data
Generator 1

NRZ
Encoder 1

Product
Modulator 1
Product
Modulator 3

Integrator 1

Subtractor 1

Carrier
Generator 1

Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional

Adder 1
Carrier
Generator 2

Decision
Device 1

AWGN
Channel 1

Product
Modulator 4

Integrator 2

Optional
Carrier
Generator 4

Logic
Inverter 1

Product
Modulator 2

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com154

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1(p)

0 to 1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 1000 kbps

0.6 kbps (= 600 bps)

2. NRZ Encoder 1
Parameter

Generation Type

Options/Range
available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder

Uni-polar NRZ Encoder

Polar NRZ Encoder

[Note: For FSK generation

NRZ-M

the incoming data should be

NRZ-S

in Uni-polar NRZ Encoder]

3. Carrier Generator 1 (MARK signal)


Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

4. Carrier Generator 2 (Space Signal)


Parameter

Signal Type

155

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

6. Carrier Generator 3 (Reference carrier at receiver for Mark signal)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.

7. Carrier Generator 4 (Reference carrier at receiver for Space signal)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For the coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver
should be the same.

8. Integrator 1 and Integrator 2


Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs [Note: The
integration time interval = 1 /(

Integration Time Interval

0.001 125 mSecs

Bit rate in bps) = 1/ (0.6 *


1000) = 1.67 mSecs. (It is
the Symbol duration. In FSK
one symbol = 1 bit) ]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com156

9. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0

Threshold Value

-4 4 V

[Note: For FSK threshold


Value = 0]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the Oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and NRZ Encoder 1 Output

157

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and Logic Inverter 1 Output

Carrier 1 and Carrier 2 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com158

Multiplier 1 (Product Modulator 1) and Multiplier 2 (Product Modulator 2) Output

Data Generator 1 and Adder 1 (FSK Transmitter) Output

159

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

FSK Transmitter Output and Multiplier (Product Modulator 3) Output

FSK Transmitter Output and Multiplier (Product Modulator 4) Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com160

Outputs of Integrator 1 and 2

Outputs of Data Generator 1 and Subtractor 1

161

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Outputs of Data Generator 1 and Decision Device 1 (reconstructed data)

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com162

Experiment 29

Digital Modulation - PSK


Aim
To implement the PSK Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample specifications and to measure
the signal at various blocks involved in the PSK.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Data Generator block)

Bit Rate

600 bps

Data Pattern

Polar NRZ encoder

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Frequency

5 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for PSK

Data
Generator 1

NRZ
Encoder 1

Product
Modulator 1

AWGN
Channel 1

Product
Modulator 2

Decision
Device 1

Integrator 1

Optional
Carrier
Generator 1

Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional

Carrier
Generator 2

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample
Specifications.

163

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1(p)

0 t o1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 1000 kbps

0.6 kbps (= 600 bps)

2. NRZ Encoder 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation Type

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ encoder

Polar NRZ encoder

Polar NRZ encoder

[Note: For PSK generation

NRZ-M

the incoming data should

NRZ-S

be in polar format]

3. Carrier Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

4. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50
dB

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

www.tetcos.com164

5. Carrier Generator 2 (reference carrier at receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

5 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same.

6. Integrator 1
Options/ Range
available

Parameter

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.67 mSecs
The integration time interval

Integration Time Interval

0.001 125 mSecs

= 1 / Bit rate in bps = 1/


(0.6 * 1000) = 1.67 mSecs
(It is the Symbol duration)

7. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0

Threshold Value

-4 4 V

[Note: For PSK threshold


Value = 0]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

165

1 100 mSecs

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs

www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and NRZ Encoder 1 Output

Data Generator 1 and Carrier Generator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com166

PSK Output

Reference Carrier Output

167

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Multiplier / Balanced Modulator Output

Data Generator 1 and Integrator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com168

Data Generator 1 and Decision Device 1 Output (Reconstructed data)

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

169

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 30

Digital Modulation - DPSK


Aim
To implement the DPSK Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample specifications and to
measure the signal at various blocks involved in the DPSK.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Data Generator block)

Bit Rate

8 kbps

Data Pattern

Polar NRZ Encoder

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Frequency

16 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for DPSK

Differential
Encoded Sequence

Data
Generator 1

Differential
Encoder 1

NRZ
Encoder 1

DPSK
Signal

Product
Modulator 1

Carrier
Generator 1

Reconstructed
Data

AWGN
Channel 1
Optional

Filter 1

Product
Modulator 2

Integrator 1

Decision
Device 1

Optional

Bit Error
Unit 1
Optional

Delay
Unit 1

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample
Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify the Sample
Specifications.
PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com170

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1(p)

0 to 1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 1000 kbps

8 kbps (= 8000 bps)

2. Differential Encoder 1
Parameter

Reference bit

Options/Range
available
0/1

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0

3. NRZ Encoder 1
Parameter

Generation Type

Options/Range
available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni-polar NRZ

Polar NRZ Encoder

Encoder

[Note: For DPSK

Polar NRZ Encoder

generation the incoming

NRZ-M

data should be in polar

NRZ-S

format]

4. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

16 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

[Note: the carrier frequency (fc) is chose such that fc > 1/ Tb, (where Tb is bit period = 1 / Bit rate Rb)
and fc is equal to some integral multiple of 1/Tb.

171

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

6. Filter 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type
Filter Order

Butterworth
Chebyshev
1 - 10

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth
4
16 KHz
[Note: It should be equal to

Center Frequency

Carrier frequency]
8 KHz
Bandwidth

[Note: It should be equal to


data rate]

7. Delay Unit 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Bit Delay

1 bit

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1 bit

8. Integrator 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.125 mSecs
[Note: The integration time

Integration Time Interval

0.001 125 mSecs

interval = 1 / Bit rate in bps


= 1/ (8 * 1000) = 0.125
mSecs (It is the Symbol
duration) ]

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com172

9. Decision Device 1
Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0

Threshold Value

-4 4 V

[Note: For DPSK threshold


Value = 0]

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
10 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and Differential Encoder 1 Output

173

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Differential Encoder 1 and NRZ Encoder 1 Output

Carrier Wave

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com174

DPSK Modulated Data

Product Modulator1 (DPSK Modulated signal) and Delay Unit 1 Output

175

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Delay Unit 1 and Product Modulator 2 Output

Product Modulator 2 and Integrator 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com176

Integrator 1 and Decision Device 1 (Demodulated data) Output

Data Generator 1 and Decision Device 1 (Demodulated data) Output

Experiments of different specifications can be performed in a similar manner

177

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Experiment 31

Digital Modulation - QPSK


Aim
To implement QPSK Modulator and Demodulator for the given sample specifications and to measure
the signal at various blocks involved in the QPSK.

Sample Specifications
Modulating Signal

(Data Generator block)

Bit Rate

2.4 kbps

Data Pattern

Polar NRZ encoder

Carrier Signal

(Carrier Generator block)

Frequency

10 KHz

Phase

0 degree

Implementation Block Diagram for QPSK

NRZ
Encoder 1

Data
Generator 1

Carrier
Generator 1

Carrier
Generator 3

Product
Modulator 1

Product
Modulator 3

BitSplitter 1

Summer 1

Integrator 1

Decision
Device 1

AWGN
Channel 1

Reconstructed
Digital Data

Bit
Combiner 1

Bit Error
Unit 1

Optional
NRZ
Encoder 2

Optional

Product
Modulator 2

Product
Modulator 4

Carrier
Generator 2

Carrier
Generator 4

Integrator 2

Decision
Device 2

Procedure
1. Set the block properties as in the Property setting for blocks to meet the Sample Specifications.
2. Click RUN and set the Generation End Time to run the experiment.
3. Observe the Output at different Blocks through the oscilloscope to verify Sample Specifications.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com178

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Data Generator 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of 1 (p)

0 to 1

0.5

Bit Rate

0.008 1000 kbps

2.4 kbps (= 2400 bps)

2. NRZ Encoder 1 and NRZ Encoder 2


Parameter

Generation Type

Options/Range
available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Uni polar NRZ encoder

Polar NRZ encoder

Polar NRZ encoder

[Note: For QPSK generation

NRZ-M

the incoming data should be

NRZ-S

in polar format]

3. Carrier Generator 1
Parameter

Signal Type

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 360 degree

0 degree

4. Carrier Generator 2
Parameter

Signal Type

179

Options/Range
available
Cosine Wave
Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 - 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 - 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 - 360 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

5. AWGN Channel 1
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

-30 to 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

6. Carrier Generator 3 (reference carrier at receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Cosine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same

7. Carrier Generator 4 (reference carrier at receiver)


Options/Range

Parameter

available
Cosine Wave

Signal Type

Sine Wave

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Sine Wave

Amplitude

0.0001 4 V

1V

Frequency

0.0010 1000 KHz

10 KHz

Phase

0 360 degree

0 degree

Note: For coherent receiver the characteristics of the carrier at the transmitter and the receiver should
be the same

8. Integrator 1 and Integrator 2


Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.8333 mSecs
The integration time

Integration Time Interval

0.001 125 mSecs

interval(2Tb) = 2 / Bit rate in


bps = 2/ (2.4 * 1000) =
0.8333 mSecs (It is the
Symbol duration)

PhySim

TM

Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com180

9. Decision Device 1 and Decision Device 2


Options/ Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0

Threshold Value

-4 4 V

[Note: For DPSK threshold


Value = 0]

10. Bit Combiner 1


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Combined Bit Rate

0.008 to 1000 kbps

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
2.4 kbps

Generation End Time


Options/Range

Parameter

available

Generation End Time

1 100 mSecs

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
100 mSecs

Output at different Blocks


Keep the oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Data Generator 1 and Bit Splitter 1 Odd Sequence Output

181

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Data Generator 1 and Bit Splitter 1 Even Sequence Output

NRZ Encoder 2 (Even Sequence) and Multiplier (Product Modulator 2) Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com182

Data Generator 1 and QPSK Modulated Signal

Reference carriers at the QPSK coherent receiver

183

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Multiplier at the receiver (Product Modulator 3 and 4) Output

Correlators (Integrator 1 and 2) at QPSK receiver Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com184

Decision Device 1 and Decision Device 2 Output

Transmitted data (Data Generator 1) and reconstructed data (Bit Combiner 1) Output

Experiments of different specification can be performed in similar manner

185

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Section2: Communication system design


The sample given below, guides you to create, simulate and analyze the
communication system using Physim. The simulation should be done in Physim under
File->New Simulation -> Communication system menu.
Sample 1

Base Band Transmission System


Aim
To simulate Base Band Transmission System.

Implementation Block Diagram for Base Band Transmission System

Digital
Source

Channel
Encoder

Line
Encoder

Line
Decoder

Channel
Decoder

AWGN
Channel

Procedure
1. Drag the necessary communication sub blocks and drop it in the workspace as in the
Implementation Block Diagram for Base Band Transmission System.
2. Connect the blocks as in the diagram.
3. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks.
4. Click Validate and Simulate to simulate the Base Band Transmission System.
5. Observe the Output at different Blocks through Measurement Device Oscilloscope.

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com186

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Digital Source
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Pattern Generator

Generation Type

Bernoulli Distribution

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Bernoulli Distribution

Probability of Bit 1

0 <= p <= 1

0.5

Bit Rate

1 - 100 kbps

1 kbps (= 1000 bps)

Simulation Time

1 - 100 mSecs

10 mSecs

2. Channel Encoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Encoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Encoder

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Hamming Encoder

Hamming Encoder

(7,4)

(7,4)

3. Line Encoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Line Encoder Type

NRZ

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZ

4. AWGN Channel
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Signal to Noise Ratio

(-30) 50 dB

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
1.0 dB

5. Line Decoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Line Decoder Type

187

NRZ

PhySim TM Observation Manual

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
NRZ

www.tetcos.com

6. Channel Decoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Decoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Decoder

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Hamming Decoder

Hamming Decoder

(7,4)

(7,4)

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Digital Source and Channel Encoder Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com188

Channel Encoder and Line Encoder Output

Line Encoder and AWGN Output

189

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Line Encoder and Line Decoder Output

Line Decoder and Channel Decoder Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com190

Sample 2

Band Pass Communication Transmitter System


Aim
To simulate and analyze Band Pass Communication Transmitter system

Implementation Block Diagram for Base Band Communication Transmitter


System

Analog
Source

Source
Encoder

Filter

Channel
Encoder

Power
Amplifier

Modulator

Transmission
Line

Mixer

Antenna

Procedure
1. Drag the necessary communication sub blocks and drop it in the workspace as in the
Implementation Block Diagram for Band Pass Communication Transmitter System.
2. Connect the blocks as in the diagram.
3. Set block properties as per Property setting for blocks.
4. Click Validate and Simulate to simulate the Base Band Transmission System.

5. Observe the Output at different Blocks through Measurement Devices Oscilloscope, Spectrum
Analyzer and Polar Plot.

191

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Property setting for blocks


Set the properties for each block according to the Sample Specifications and the Procedure.

1. Analog Source
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Amplitude

14V

4V

Frequency

1 4 kHz

1 kHz

Phase

0 360 degrees

No. of Cycles

1 - 100

10

2. Source Encoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Encoder Type

PCM

PCM

Sampling Frequency

1 64 kHz

8.0 kHz

Natural,

Sampling Type

Flattop

Natural

Quantization Level

8/16/32/64/128/256

Number of Bits per Sample

3-8

3. Channel Encoder
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Encoder Type
Select (n, k) Hamming
Encoder

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Hamming Encoder

Hamming Encoder

(7,4)

(7,4)

4. Modulator
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Modulator Type

PSK

PSK

Carrier Amplitude

14V

1.0 V

Carrier Frequency

10 1000 kHz

100 kHz

Carrier Phase

0/90/180/270 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com192

5. Mixer
Options/Range

Parameter

available

LO Frequency

20 10000 kHz

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
800 kHz

6. Filter
Options/Range

Parameter

available
Low Pass,

Filter Type

Band Pass

Approximation Type

Butterworth,
Chebyshev

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
Band Pass

Butterworth

Filter Order

1 - 10

Center Frequency

0.0001 12000 kHz

900 kHz

Bandwidth

0.0001 2000 kHz

50 kHz

7. Power Amplifier
Options/Range

Parameter

available

Desired Power Gain

1-5

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
4

8. Transmission Line
Parameter

Length of Line

Options/Range
available
0.1 0.9

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications
0.5

9. Antenna
Parameter

193

Options/Range
available

Parameter value to be
selected to meet the
Sample Specifications

Antenna Type

Half wave dipole

Half wave dipole

Frequency

20 100000 kHz

900 kHz

Theta

0 180 degree

90 degree

Phy

0 180 degree

0 degree

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Output at different Blocks


Keep oscilloscope settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Analog Source and Source Encoder Output

Source Encoder and Channel Encoder Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com194

Channel Encoder and Modulator Output

Modulator and Mixer Output

195

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Mixer and Filter Output

Keep Spectrum Analyzer settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Mixer 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com196

Band Pass Filter 1 Output

Power Amplifier Output

197

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com

Transmission Line 1 Output

Antenna 1 Output

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com198

Keep Polar Plot settings as in the screen to get the waveforms.

Antenna 1 E - pattern Output

Antenna 1 H - pattern Output

199

PhySim TM Observation Manual

www.tetcos.com