Ch2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions

• 5. The Periodic Table • alkali, alkaline earth metals: chalcogens, halogens, noble gases, • 6. Molecules and Molecular Compounds • H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 • structural formulas • 7. Ions and Ionic Compounds • common atomic charges, number of electrons • 8. Naming Inorganic Compounds • Table 2.4 Common Cations • Table 2.5 Common Anions • 9. Some Simple Organic Compounds • methane, ..., propane, ... 1-propanol, 2-propanol

2.5 The Periodic Table
• alkali metals - lithium, sodium, potassium, .... • alkaline earth metals - beryllium, magnesium, calcium, .... • chalcogens - oxygen, sulfur, selenium, .... • halogens - fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, • noble gases - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon • metalloids - B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At (be able to point to metalloids on a periodic table) • atomic number, symbol, mass, electric charge, and average atomic mass (atomic weight)
39 19



our most common form of potassium in our ionic compounds.

2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds

Insulin (4ins)

• Some elements that exist as molecules • H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 • Some common, simple molecules

only showing C, O, N, S (no H shown as that would make drawing too dense)

“cylinder” artistic style. If you have lots of extra time, you can make these drawings with data and tools at: with “4ins”. See also “Software Tools/Molecular Viewers Help”.

structural formulas


• molecular formula • the number and types of atoms in a molecule • if you can “see the molecule”, then it is easy to write
down molecular formula

• empirical formula • the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a molecule • when matter is studied by combustion (like John Dalton),
we only get the ratio of atoms (no picture)

• Ch 3.5 Empirical Formulas from Analyses

Hydrogen peroxide: ! molecular formula = H2O2 ! empirical formula = HO

• Positive and negative ions attract each other with
Ethylene molecular formula = C2H4 empirical formula = CH2 great strength!!

2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds

• Argon boils at 87 Kelvin (very cold) • Potassium chloride boils at 1800 Kelvin (very hot)
a pair of neutral atoms 37 18 a pair of ions 39 19


37 18





87 Kelvin => weak

17 1800 Kelvin => strong


Note: both atom pairs have 36 protons, 36 electrons, and 38 neutrons. It is attraction of positive and negative ions that holds KCl together (and cement, bone, ceramic, ...)

A pattern of atomic charges

He = 2 e Ne = 10 e Ar = 18 e Kr = 36 e

Positive charges: called “cations”. Most metals can “lose” electrons to form cations. Negative charges: called “anions”. Most non-metals can “gain” electrons to form anions (suffix: -ide, -ate, -ite, ...) Pattern: # of electrons same as that of a noble gas (some exceptions to come)

Pattern: Many ions will have same # of electrons same as that of a noble gas (many exceptions to come). ions with 2 e = H–, Li+ ions with 10 e = N3–, O2–, F–, Na+, Mg2+ ions with 18 e = S2–, Cl–, K+, Ca2+

boils at 1686 Kelvin made of sodium cations and chorine anions a metal & a nonmetal Na+ has 11 protons, 10 electrons Cl– has 17 protons, 18 electrons chlorine anion called “chloride” no simple “molecule” in structure, so don’t use “molecular formula” “NaCl” has as many electrons as protons

Sodium Chloride


Sample Exercise 2.9
Which of these are expected to be ionic compounds?

optical microscopy

• N2O • Na2O • CaCl2 • SF4 • Mg3N2

a metal and nonmetal: Na+ and O2– a metal and nonmetal: Ca2+ and Cl–

a metal and nonmetal: Mg2+ and N3–

2+ Question: If you add up all the positive charges on the Mg cations and negative charges on the N3– anions, what is the total charge on the Mg3N2 formula unit? Ans: 3x(2+) + 2x(3–) = 0

Sample Exercise 2.9: the names
What are the names of the ionic compounds?

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p60-67)
1. Positive Ions (cations) (a) cations of metal atoms have same name as metal (b) if a metal can form different positive charges, use a Roman numeral to show positive charge Fe2+ iron(II) cation Fe3+ iron(III) cation Note: old names still exist: ferrous cation ferric cation (c) cations made of nonmetals have names ending in “-ium” NH4+ ammonium cation H3O+ hydronium cation

N2O No. It’s a molecular compound made from two nonmetals Yes. sodium oxide, with Na+ and O2–

• Na2O

• CaCl2 Yes. calcium chloride, with Ca2+ and Cl– • SF4 No. It’s a molecular compound made from two

• Mg3N2 Yes. magnesium nitride, with Mg2+ and N3–

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p60-67)
2. Negative Ions (anions) (a) monoatomic anions have “-ide” suffix H– hydride O2– oxide exceptions: HO– hydroxide CN– cyanide (b) polyatomic anions with oxygen end in “-ate” or “-ite” NO3– nitrate NO2– nitrite prefixes: per- hypo(c) H+ adds “hydrogen” to the name CO32– carbonate HCO3– hydrogen carbonate

capitalization: normal noun rules

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p57-62)
2. Negative Ions (anions) (one more rule) (b) polyatomic with oxygen and prefixes ClO– hypochlorite ClO – chlorite 2 ClO3– chlorate – ClO4 perchlorate

sodium hypochlorite is the active ingredient in bleach

capitalization: normal noun rules

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p60-67)
3. Ionic Compounds Names consist of the cation name followed by the anion name CaCl2 calcium chloride Al(NO3)3 aluminum nitrate Cu(ClO4)2 copper(II) perchlorate (old name: cupric perchlorate)

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p57-62)
Names and Formulas of Acids 1. anions with “-ide” change to “hydro-...-ic” CN– cyanide and HCN hydrocyanic acid

2. anions with “-ate” change to “-ic” anions with “-ite” change to “-ous” NO3– nitrate and HNO3 nitric acid HNO2 nitrous acid

NO2– nitrite and

2.8 Naming Inorganic Compounds (study p60-67)
Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compds. 1. element leftmost periodic table is usually first in name. exception: oxygen is always last in name, except w/ F 2. if both in same group, element with higher atomic number is named first 3. second element has “-ide” ending Table 2.6 Prefixes 4. Greek prefixes give atom count 1 monoCl2O dichlorine monoxide NF3 nitrogen trifluoride N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide P4S10 tetraphosphorus decasulfide AlCl3 2 2 4 5 ditritetrapenta-

2.9 Some Simple Organic Compounds (partial coverage)

• recognize these as “organic compounds” ethanol • methane, ethane, propane CH3CH2OH • methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, • ethylene, acetic acid, acetone acetic acid • “organic compounds” are CH CO H 3 2 • molecular • not “ionic compounds” • acetic acid can form “acetate” anion, and then be part
of an ionic compound acetate CH3CO2–

ethane CH3CH3

(note: vowel dropping is common)

aluminum chloride (is ionic, not molecular)

Chapter 2 suggested problems Atomic theory and the discovery of atomic structure: 7, 9, 13 Modern view of atomic structure; atomic weights: 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 27, 32 Periodic table; molecules and ions: 35, 37, 39, 41, 45, 47,55 Naming inorganic compounds; organic molecules: 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 72, Additional exercises: 75b, 79, 83, 93, 97

Example of In-Class assignment B Initial of last name Butler, Les last name, first name lbutler pawsID 1) Write about 5 sentences on Rutherford’s alpha particle scattering experiment.
1) Alpha particles were used to image gold atoms. A beam of alpha particles were shot at a few gold atoms arranged in a thin film. The path of alpha particles was detected with a scintillator (glows when hit by alpha). Most alpha went straight, but a few were deflected, sometimes at large angles. The ratio of straight to deflected was used to measure the diameter of the heavy stuff in a gold atom, then labeled the “nucleus”. 2) CsI

2) What is the formula for cesium iodide?