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Hamilton- Federalist

Jefferson- Republican

Election 1796
Federalists- Prez- John Adams
VP- Thomas Pinckney
Republicans- Prez- Thomas Jefferson
VP- Aaron Burr

Adams’ Presidency- 1797-1801

○ Adams sends reps to France to negotiate a treaty
○ French won’t discuss treaty unless U.S.
 Pays a bribe $250,000
 Lends France $12 million
○ Americans: “Millions for Defense, but not one cent for tribute.”
○ U.S. prepares for war- strengthen army and navy
○ Napoleon comes to power and doesn’t want to fight with U.S.,
but rather, wants to concentrate on Britain
○ Peace is made.
○ Naturalization Act- increases time required to become a citizen
from 5 years to 14 years.
○ Alien Act- president can deport any foreigner
○ Alien Enemies Act- allowed president to deport citizens whose
native countries are at war with U.S.
○ Sedition Act- makes it a crime to criticize the President or the
 Against freedom of speech

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were political statements in favor of

states' rights and Strict Constructionism. The resolutions opposed the Alien
and Sedition Acts, which extended the powers of the federal government.
They argued that the Constitution was an agreement among the states.
Therefore, the federal government had no right to exercise powers not
specifically delegated to it and that if the federal government assumed such
powers, acts under them would be void. So, states could decide the
constitutionality of laws passed by Congress.
Event Federalists Democratic

XYZ Affair The federalists were XYZ Affair was a huge

able to capitalize on the embarrassment for the
embarrassment the XYZ Republicans, who had
Affair caused the supported the French
Republicans, who from the beginning.
supported the French.

Alien and Sedition Acts Were very much in favor Despised and distrusted
of them, since it them, since they
benefited them, as it favored states and
made it harder for new individuals’ rights.
immigrants to join the
Republican party.

Kentucky and Virginia Were very much against Liked them, as they
Resolutions them, since they advocated for states’
favored the Alien and rights.
Sedition Acts.

Election 1800
Federalists- prez- John Adams
VP- Charles Pinckney
Republicans- prez- Thomas Jefferson
VP- Aaron Burr

Result in Electoral College: tie between Jefferson and burr

Vote goes to House of Representatives
Each state has one vote
Tie in house of reps
Vote again: TIE
Vote again: TIE
Vote again: TIE
Eventually, Alexander Hamilton convinces people to vote for Jefferson-
Hamilton prefers him to Burr.
12th Amendment- separate ballots for prez and VP
Judiciary Act of 1801- creates more judgeships
“Midnight judges”- Adams appoints new judgeships until his term is up

Marbury- midnight judge
James Madison- S of S (commissions judges)
Marbury wants his commission. Jefferson tells Madison not to give Marbury
his commission.
Marbury takes Madison to Supreme Court.
Supreme Court declares that they cannot hear Marbury’s case, because the
Judiciary Act (1789) is unconstitutional, and the Act was the only thing that
allowed Marbury to go straight to SC
Judicial Review- court can declare law unconstitutional.

John Marshall
John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court for over three
decades. He played a significant role in the development of the American
legal system. Most notably, he established that the courts are entitled to use
judicial review, the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution.
Marshall has been credited with cementing the position of the judiciary as an
influential branch of government. Marshall made several important decisions
relating to federalism, shaping the balance of power between the federal
government and the states during the early years of the republic.

Judicial Review
Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive action is
subject to cancellation by the judiciary. It gives the Judicial Branch the
power to interpret the laws and actions of the other two branches and is an
important part of the "checks and balances" system established in the
Constitution to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. Judicial
Review may cause a president or Congress to delay some activity or law until
they get an opinion from legal advisers as to the constitutionality of the
action or law, but it establishes how and who will have the final say as to the
constitutionality of that act or law.
Jefferson’s Inauguration
In his inaugural address, the new president set out an agenda that was
marked by his belief in agrarianism, limited government, and the protection
of civil liberties.

Jefferson’s Presidency
As president, Jefferson repealed many federal taxes, and sought to rely
mainly on customs revenue. He pardoned people who had been imprisoned
under the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in John Adams' term, which
Jefferson believed to be unconstitutional. He repealed the Judiciary Act of
1801 and removed many of Adams' "midnight judges" from office, which led
to the Supreme Court deciding the important case of Marbury v. Madison.
However, Jefferson did approve and support some Federalist ideas, such as
the B.U.S (Bank of the United States).

Louisiana Purchase
What land- Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains
Price- $15 million
Spain annoyed with U.S. and wants nothing to do with us because of NO and
MS River disputes. Spain sells land to France.
Haiti overthrows Napoleon, which was the base of Napoleon’s desired empire
in NA. Napoleon decides to leave NA and pursue an empire in Europe.
Jefferson wants land from Napoleon, but:
Jefferson = strict constructionist and Constitution doesn’t say anything
about buying land.
Loose constructionism- can make treaty which includes the purchase
of land.
Jefferson buys land in a treaty with France.

Lewis and Clark Expediton

• Goals:
○ Map the land and rivers
○ Make friends with natives
○ Look for a Northwest Passage- water route to Pacific
○ Write plant and animal journals
• Lewis and Clark were not successful in finding a direct water route to
the Pacific, but they did the other three
• Corps of Discovery
• Sacagawea- key to the Lewis and Clark expedition.
○ Sacagawea was from North Dakota.
○ She took them from ND to Washington state, then back to ND.
• Expedition was from St. Louis, Missouri to what is now Washington
• Lewis and clark followed the Missouri River to ND, where Sacagawea
took them the rest of the way.
• They were gone for a couple of years.

Zebulon Pike- explored the Rockies in Colorado

Pike’s Peak- mt. in Colorado

Good Luck!