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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

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Introduction
In order to increase the productivity in the organization, they need to connected each

other to make the communication more efficient and the data movement is smoother.
Furthermore, it is compulsory to organization to have their networks infrastructure and cutting
edge technology. For the newly establish organization like University ADF, it is a must for the
management set up the networking infrastructure first for a collaborative environment where
sharing resources, such as files, is essential for business operation.
LAN technology refers to the technologies used to create a local area network. A LAN is
a Local Area Network, which is a group of networked computers residing in a small geographical
area, such as University ADF. These technologies usually consist of servers, clients, data and
various applications.
In the situation of University ADF that were newly established, to make all the
departments to get interconnected via network, the suggestion of network local area network
technologies are by using Ethernet and FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface).
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First LAN Technology


The first Local Area Network technologies that can be implemented at University ADF

are by using Ethernet. In fact, Ethernet are the most widely deployed LAN technology because
of its operational simplicity and low cost. Nevertheless, the main disadvantage of this technology
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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

is that it is probabilistic based on CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision


Detection), which is a bus arbitration scheme with the side effect of rapid degradation of
available bandwidth in heavy traffic condition. In details, CSMA/CD indicates that computers
wait until the Ethernet is free. In this case, no electrical signal denotes when Ethernet is free.
The carrier of the Ethernet is signal. The act of waiting for the opportunity to send on
the Ethernet is carrier sense. Since network are not instantaneous, it is possible for two stations to
check the Ethernet, deem it time to send and both send at the same time. This is called a
collision. Furthermore, when its occurs, the sender immediately stop transmission, and wait
some random length of time, and then begin transmission again. Collisions do not damage the
equipment, but in forces the two machines that caused the collision to wait, and therefore it will
slow down the network.

Figure: Typical Ethernet collision


Furthermore, the operation of this technology still remains a logical bus topology, even
though the physical configuration since advent of 10BaseT describes not a bus but a physical
star. In a logical/physical bus network, every packet travels the length of the bus and is seen by
every devices attached to the bus. Unfortunately, the biggest problem in the environment was
that of improper segment termination. Bridging and switching can segment the network into
multiple collision domains, but even a switched Ethernet remains a single broadcast domain.
Although collisions are normal events in Ethernet, an excessive number of collisions will further
reduce available bandwidth.
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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

Currently, Ethernet can be known as Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. Fast Ethernet is
Ethernet that has been upgraded to 100 Mbps. It uses the standard Ethernet broadcast-oriented
logical bus topology that has been use in Ethernet 10BaseT, along with the familiar CSMA/CD
method for Media Access Control (MAC). The Fast Ethernet standard is actually consists of
three different standards which two based on copper-pair wire (100BaseTX, 100BaseT4) and one
on fiber (100BaseFX). In fact, there is no Fast Ethernet version for copper coaxial cable.
Currently, the Gigabit Ethernet is becoming increasingly popular in many networks. It runs at
1000 Mbps and is based on familiar CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Detection) technology. In fact, this Ethernet technology is the most widely deployed local area
network technology because its operational simplicity and low cost.

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Second LAN Technology


Next local area network technology that can be implementing at University ADF is Fiber

Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). This technology makes their data transmission on fiber optic
lines in a LAN. It can be extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles). Furthermore, this
technology is based on the token ring protocol. Token ring is the access mechanism which based
on token passing. Once the sent information makes a complete turn around the ring, the sender
passes the token to the next machine. This is strict-alternation scheme where all machines have
the same chance to transmit the information. In addition, to being large geographically, FDDI
local area network can support thousands of users. It actually frequently used on the backbone
for a wide area network.
Furthermore, FDDI uses fiber optics between stations, that make it much more expensive
than others technology. Actually, FDDI uses counter-rotating rings in which data flows in
opposite directions. Its contains two token rings, one of the two rings is a primary ring, and the
other is called the secondary ring. Primary ring is used for data transmission while the secondary
ring is mostly used as a backup ring. In case of fiber or station failure, remaining station loop
back and reroute data through spare ring. All stations automatically configure loop back
monitoring data ring.
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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

Figure: Example of basis FDDI ring


In the case of a broken cable or a nonresponsive station on the network, the ring wraps
around on itself on both sides of the fault to correct the problem. This permits the LAN to
operating without disruption of service to the other stations on the ring. Fault isolation and
recovery is under the control of the Station Management (SMT) specification. It determines how
ring data is collected and configured at setup or after a failure. Station Management is
responsible for seeing that there is a problem and implementing the fault protection features.
Currently, FDDI is at a crossroads and is slowly losing favor for most new installations.
FDDI is considered a legacy transport technology and is slowly being replaced by ATM and
Gigabit Ethernet.

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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

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Comparison
Based on two local area network technology that has been discussed, some comparison

and contrast between both technologies need to finalize to make better understanding on both
technologies that can be implementing at University ADF. The comparison that has been made is
based on their characteristic and transmission technique. The characteristic of Ethernet
technology is since this technology is the most widely used in the world; they are response to the
demands for greater bandwidth by the users. It used over 40 million stations worldwide. In
addition, due to its popularity in the computer industry, it may be the best means to create a
network using equipment obtained from multiple vendors. Furthermore, this technology allows
for a steady migration using a familiar technology without the need for much more expensive
technology. In fact, it is proven technology for environments where relatively few stations are
responsible for the majority of network transmission. It continues to evolve in response to
changes in the technology and user needs. In conjunction with switching, 100 Mbps Ethernet
technologies can readily accommodate video services between users on a LAN, such as video
conferencing or multimedia file sharing. Its can make the communication between each
department at University ADF much more interactive and much better for their staff and student
as well.
Second technology is FDDI. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) also has their
characteristic to serves better connection through the technology. In fact, this technology has
been designed to provide high-speed connections over long-distance. As per discussed, FDDI is a
standards-based technology providing a flexible, robust and high-performance solution by using
proven Token-ring access technology. It is often used to interconnect other LAN environments as
a backbone LAN. Since FDDI using Token-ring technology, it also has a very robust and highly
fault-tolerant LAN technology. In addition, this technology has proven technology for
environments where all stations require equal access to the network resources. Once a new
station was added, it will allow for easy expansion with little degradation.
Second comparison between two LAN technologies is based on their transmission
technique and speed as well. Actually, both technologies used the same transmission which is
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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

baseband transmission. Nevertheless, a broadband version of Ethernet is still available. For


Ethernet technology, the transmissions are broadcast over the network by sending station, using
encoding technique called Manchester. In addition, all the attached network stations can hear the
transmission also. While all stations can hear the transmission, only the station for which it was
intended will recognize it and acknowledge it. Ethernet used the most common transmission
speed which is 10 Mbps. There is a version of Ethernet specified which transmits at 1 Mbps.
Since FDDI used baseband transmission, the encoding technique that been used to
represent the data being transmitted is 4B/5B. This encoding scheme uses a 125 MHz bandwidth,
which is multiplied by 4 and divided by 5 to derive the 100 Mbps bit rate. Since it is baseband
transmission technique, only one station is able to transmit at a time. In term of token ring,
possession of token permits a station to transmit using different Manchester encoding. Fiber
Distributed Data Interface used the less sophisticated and more reliable encoding scheme of
NRZI (Non Return to Zero Inverted). In addition, FDDI was designed from the beginning to
operate at 100 Mbps for their speed. It was the first very high-speed LAN technology available.
Furthermore, the data transmission in this technology can be occurs once a station has
possession of a token, it will adds data and control fields to the token. It will create a frame.
Next, the frame passes from station to station until it reaches its destination. The destination
station recognizes its own address and copies the frame. After that, destination station returns the
frame to the network, where it will continue to circulate from station to station until it returns to
the transmitting station. Next, transmitting station will take responsibility for removing the frame
and releasing the new token to be passing again. Each station is responsible for regenerating the
transmission as a frame passes from station to station.

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The Best Selection


Based on comparison that has been made between both technologies, the best LAN

technology that should be considered to implement at University ADF that newly establish is by
using Ethernet. The reason being for using Ethernet technology can be summarizing on few
aspects on that technology itself. Ethernet transfer their data on a network via CSMA/CD
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Avoidance).
In addition, University ADF also can use wired and wireless network to connect to their
network from different department. Although, this CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA are commonly
used in wired and geared toward wireless network as well. It can be advantages to University
ADF to choose either to use wired or wireless network for their networking infrastructure.
University ADF can use wired network LAN at the same department and use wireless network
LAN at the different department that need much more cabling to interconnect each other. In term
of data efficiency and transmission, Ethernet use both baseband and broadband transmission
through their technology. Baseband means that a cable can only carry one signal one way at one
time. In other hand, a broadband media type can carry multiple data signals on the same wire
using some type of multiplexing. It can be more beneficial to University ADF that newly
establish. Going through the technology in Ethernet itself, currently it has Fast Ethernet and
Gigabit Ethernet for their technology that widely used. The Fast Ethernet function at 100 Mbps
of speed and Gigabit Ethernet has the potential to become an alternative to different WAN
technologies.
Its more efficient for University ADF to implement the technology in term of efficiency
of communication and data transfer. Collision might be happen in this technology when two
different data frames from two different computers interfere with each other because they were
released onto the network at the same time. Although collisions are normal events in Ethernet, an
excessive number of collisions will further reduce available bandwidth. In reality, the actual
available bandwidth of Ethernet due to collision is reduced to a fraction. Its will take about 35%
to 40% of the theoretical 10 Mbps. Furthermore, this reduction in bandwidth can be remedied by
segmenting the network using bridges, switches, or routers.
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In addition, with the advent of more-powerful end stations and more-demanding applications, it
is now necessary to dedicate bandwidth to smaller groups of users and even individual users. As
solution, Ethernet switching technology provides a relatively simple solution to the LAN
bandwidth problem.
For the newly organization like University ADF, it is much more beneficial on their
network connection since their need to manage that entire thing smother and much more
efficient. Ethernet switches are devices that will micro segment a collision domain. In other
word, conversion from hub to switch technology for a given hub generally doesnt require any
major cabling changes. Therefore, conversion from hub to switch technology for a given hub is
usually done in a short period of time. The result of the micro segmentation with switches is that
it will eliminate the impact of packet collision on the Ethernet. Basically, end users will notice a
positive impact after that.
Finally, the matters that should need to consider in deploying the local area network at
University ADF are personnel and maintenance. Personnel is the important matter need to
consider because once University ADF need to deploy their network hardware and software, they
need person that eligible to know everything that relates to the technology that they need to use.
The personnel here must have an experience in information technology related field such as
networking and data communication. This experience person is important because once the
management need he or she to implement the network, they should know everything from the
device selection, cabling selection, operating system that need to used and the bandwidth needed
for the connection run smoothly. The responsibilities of the personnel are they need to analyze,
design, implement, and maintains the entire system once deployed.
Once the network design has been implementing and all the devices and operating system
installed at University ADF, the maintenance step should be done as well. Since University ADF
have their own personnel that in-charge on the networking system, they also need to aware about
the maintenance of the entire thing that been deployed. The personnel need to consider the
maintenance of the hardware and software as well. Since the University will use Ethernet
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technology, all the cabling and the speed of the network also need to be considered. Furthermore,
maintenance also can be done on the security matters because when computer or devices
connected each other, the data travel and data loss need to take as the important thing. In fact, the
personnel need to aware the entire thing that might happen once the network been implemented.
In nutshell, for situation of University ADF, better technology and better escalation plan need to
analyze first before they start to make the entire department connected via network. Once again,
to increase the productivity of the University, better consideration needs to take to implement
their network in better way and Ethernet technology is the better technology for the newly
establish organization like University ADF.
2508 words

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CBCN 4103: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

REFERENCE
http://www.ictglobal.com/network_types.html
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/basicnetworkingconcepts/a/network_types.htm
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/local-area-network-lan-types.html
http://my.safaribooksonline.com/book/certification/networkplus/9780470430996/domain2-network-media-and-topologies/categorize_lan_technology_types_and_p
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/local_area_network_LAN.html
http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Introduction_to_LAN_Protocols
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Ethernet
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/FDDI
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Token-Ring

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