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Contents
Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Unit 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Unit 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Unit 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Worksheets Answer Key


2

UNIT 1
Worksheet 1
1

1. Carbohydrates are responsible for storing


and transporting energy
2. Fats and oils are responsible for storing energy.
3. Waxes are used for protection.

1. water; 2. oxygen; 3. ribonucleic acid;


4. carbon dioxide; 5. deoxyribonucleic acid;
6. endoplasmic reticulum.

4. Phospholipids are used in the structure of cell


membranes.
5. Steroids act as sexual hormones.

O M O

M M

Worksheet 4

S
T

Mystery word: biomolecules.


3

Contents

1. vital; 2. amino; 3. Cells; 4. catabolism; 5. glucose;


6. Binary.

3, 7, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1.

See drawing of autotrophic cell nutrition, Students


Book, page 14.

2, 4, 1, 5, 3.

See drawing of heterotrophic cell nutrition, Students


Book, page 14.

Worksheet 5
1

1T; 2T; 3F; 4T; 5F; 6T.

1. The females lay the eggs in spring.


2. Emperor penguins can live for up to 20 years.

Worksheet 2
1

1. Photosynthesis; 2. Chemosynthesis;
3. Heterotrophic; 4. receptors; 5. effectors;
6. receptors; 7. stimuli; 8. Sexual; 9. female;
10. one parent.
1. Biomolecules; 2. Water; 3. Lipids;
4. polysacchararides; 5. Unicellular; 6. Yeast;
7. Carbohydrates; 8. Anabolism.

Worksheet 3
1

1. polysaccharides: cellulose, starch; 2. disaccharides:


sucrose; 3. amino acids: haemoglobin 4. enzymes;
5. antibiotics; 6. olive oil, bacon; 7. steroids: cholesterol;
8. waxes, phospholipids; 9. nucleic acids: nucleotide;
10. DNA, RNA.

3. The males survive by standing in tight groups to


keep warm.

Test 1
1

1a; 2c; 3c; 4b; 5a; 6a; 7b; 8b; 9c; 10a.

1. To carry out chemical reactions, transport


substances, regulate body temperature and transmit
nervous impulses.
2. 35 %.
3. The skeleton.
4. They are necessary for chemical reactions to take
place.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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Worksheets Answer Key

Pulmonary respiration: air enters the organism through


the nose and mouth; respiration takes place in the
lungs.

Worksheet 1
B

D
S

N U

S M

Worksheet 4
1

Open: spider, crab, snail;


Simple closed: trout, shark, salmon;
Double closed: horse, whale, bat.

Open circulatory system


1 The circulating fluid is pumped by the a. heart.

3 From the body cavity it goes directly to the b. internal


organs.

S
Organs: bladder, anus, heart, gills, skin;

2 From the heart it flows through the c. body cavity.

Substances: enzyme, blood, urine, sap, faeces.

Simple closed circulatory system

1. Urine, faeces; 2. anus; 3. bladder; 4. enzymes;


5. skin, gills.

3 In the gills, it picks up d. oxygen and releases


e. carbon dioxide.

a. pancreas; b. salivary glands; c. anus; d. mouth;


e. large intestine, f. oesophagus; g. small intestine;
h. stomach.

1 The blood passes through the heart f. once.

1c; 2h; 3e; 4d; 5g; 6f.

Double closed circulatory system

2 It goes from the g. heart round the body and passes


through the h. gills.
3 In the lungs, the blood picks up i. oxygen and returns
to the j. heart.

Worksheet 2
1

1e; 2h; 3a; 4d; 5c; 6g; 7b; 8f.

Animal nutrition: 1. ingestion; 2. digestion;


3. absorption; 4. egestion / excretion.
Plant nutrition: 1. absorption; 2. transport of raw sap;
3. gas exchange; 4. photosynthesis; 5. transport of
elaborated sap.

Next

the gills; animal dies if taken out of the water.

UNIT 2

Contents

1 The blood passes through the heart k. twice.


4 In the l. second loop, the blood is pumped to the rest
of the organs, then back to the m. heart.
2 In the first loop, the blood is pumped from the
n. heart to the o. lungs.

Worksheet 5

1. The gastric cavity and the digestive tube.


2. Gastric digestion takes place in the stomach.
3. Water and mineral salts.

a. chew; b. receptacle; c. odour; d. vital.

1. Because photosynthesis does not provide enough


nutrients.

4. From the roots, then through the xylem vessels.

2. They produce liquids which dissolve the soft body


parts of insects.

5. Food transformed from raw sap.

3. The Venus Flytrap catches its prey with its leaves.

Worksheet 3
1

1. yes yes yes yes

4. It releases an odour to attract the insect which is


trapped in its receptacle.

2. yes yes yes yes

5. The digestive process can last up to two weeks.

3. yes no yes no
4. no yes no yes
5. no no yes no
6. no yes no no
7. no no no yes

Test 2
1

1b; 2a; 3c; 4a; 5b; 6c; 7a; 8b; 9b; 10c.

1. autotrophs; 2. chemoautotrophs; 3. heterotrophs;


4. photoautotrophs.

8. yes no no no.
2

Cutaneous respiration: respiration takes place through


the skin; animal dies if skin dries out.
Tracheal respiration: air enters the organism through
spiracles; tracheoles carry the air directly to the cells.
Branchial respiration: respiration takes place through

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

Worksheets Answer Key


3

UNIT 3

N R N

U G U

O N H

N G

P
I

M
I

O N

Example:
The ganglia process the information coming from the
flys eyes and appendages. The fly sends the
appropriate impulses to its legs and wings through the
nerve cord. However, it is unable to escape because it
is stuck in the web.

Worksheet 1
1

Contents

No, the fly doesnt feel fear, because insects cannot feel
emotions. They can only react.

Worksheet 4
1

Stimuli: 2, 7, 12.
Effectors: 3, 5, 8.
Receptors: 4, 9, 11.
The nervous system: 1, 6, 10.

A
Mystery word: interaction.
2

1. All living beings receive and respond to stimuli.

Worksheet 5
1

2. Stimuli are detectable changes in the internal


or external environment.

2. They are kept in a closed container so they cant


jump.

3. In animals, the receptors are the sense organs.

3. They can race, juggle, kick a ball, and dance.

4. The effectors are the structures which produce


responses.

4. They kick the ball because they do not like


citronella.
5. They dance because of the vibrations of the music.

Worksheet 2
1

1e; 2f; 3c; 4b; 5a; 6d.

1. Phototropism; 2. Hydrotropism; 3. gravity;


4. contact; 5. negative; 6. negative; 7. positive;
8. positive.

1T; 2F; They are called effectors; 3T; 4T; 5T; 6F; They
have a nerve net system.

Worksheet 3
1

1. ganglia; 2. sense; 3. legs; 4. nerve cords.

Example:
1. The fly is caught in the spider web. 2. The spider
sees and feels the presence of the fly. 3. The spider
moves towards the fly. The fly tries to escape.

1. They suck blood and transmit terrible diseases such


as typhus.

Individual answers.

Test 3
1

1c; 2a; 3a; 4b; 5b; 6a; 7b; 8c; 9c; 10c.

1. Hormones coordinate response in plants.


2. Plants respond to light, contact, gravity and water.
3. Tropism is a response in plants which permanently
changes the direction of a plants growth.
4. Positive tropism: the plant grows in the direction
of the stimulus. Negative tropism: the plant grows
away from the stimulus.
5. Nastic movements are temporary responses in
plants.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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Worksheet 4

UNIT 4

Worksheet 1

Examples:
Animals:

Asexual: bud, fragment, coral, starfish, unicellular,


progenitor.

Gemmation: freshwater hydra; coral.

Sexual: progenitor, gonad, unisexual, dimorphism,


snail, female.

Hermaphrodite: snail.

(Progenitor belongs to both groups.)

Vegetative: potato; onion.

1e; 2d; 3f; 4a; 5c; 6b.

Spore: moss.

1. Gemmation produces a bud which develops into a


new individual; in fragmentation, the new individual
develops from a piece of the parent.

Pollination: rose, daisy, lilly.

Contents

Unisexual: dog; cat; duck; bird.


Plants:

1. To ensure the perpetuation of the species.


2. It helps attract mates from the opposite sex.

2. The gonads are the sexual reproductive organs; the


gametes are the reproductive cells produced by
these organs.

3. The membranes surrounding the baby are


broken and the uterus contracts until the baby
emerges from the mothers body.

3. Unisexual animals have only one type of gonad;


hermaphrodites have both male and female gonads.

Worksheet 5
Worksheet 2
1

1. fertilisation; 2. zygote; 3. internal fertilisation;


4. uterus; 5. placenta; 6. birth.

1c; 2d; 3a; 4e; 5b.

1. The esca is used by the female to attract hungry


fish.
2. The female does all the work.

3. Male anglerfish have very sharp teeth.

embryo develops
in an egg; the
egg hatches

4. Male anglerfish secrete an enzyme.

VIVIAPAROUS

OVIPAROUS
the zygote
undergoes
cellular
changes

embryo develops
in the uterus;
embrionic
developmente
ends with birth

Test 4
1

1c; 2c; 3b; 4a; 5c; 6a; 7b; 8c; 9a; 10a.

1. In internal fertilisation, the fusion of the gametes


occurs inside the females body.
2. Aquatic animals, some amphibians and insects.
3. The transmission of spermatozoa into the female
reproductive system.

1. To keep them at a constant temperature and to


protect them from predators.

4. Most terrestrial animals and some fish.

2. The males get pregnant.


3. The embryo develops inside an egg which remains
in the female body until it hatches.

Worksheet 3
1

1. Finally, First, Then; 2. Then, First, Finally.

Flower structure: 2, 4, 5, 6.
Pollination: 1, 2, 3, 7.

1. calyx; 2. nectar; 3. stamen; 4. pistil; 5. fruit;


6. cotyledons.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

Worksheets Answer Key


3

UNIT 5

Contents

1. food chain; 2. graphs, ecosystem; 3. three, biomass,


energy; 4. layers, height.

Worksheet 1
1

Worksheet 3

B
I

1e; 2f; 3a; 4d; 5c; 6b.

inorganic matter; organic matter; producers;


decomposers; inorganic matter.

M O

O W O

E M

A M E

S
I

a. terciary consumers
b. secondary consumers

c. producers
d. primary consumers
3

1. This is a number pyramid.


2. It tells you the number of individuals at each trophic
level at a certain time.

Worksheet 4

Mystery word: ecosystem.


1
3

1F; 2T; 3T; 4F; 5F; 6T.

1c; 2e ; 3f ; 4d ; 5b ; 6a.

1. Biotic factors are the effects of different organisms


on a living being in its environment; abiotic factors
are the physical and chemical elements in an
ecosystem.

1. Interactions among living beings of different species


and interactions among living beings of the same
species.
2. Penguins, monkeys, seals, rats and mice, etc.

2. A habitat is a physical place where a species lives.


An ecological niche is the way a species relates to
the biotic and abiotic factors in that place.

3. Predators: cheetahs, lions, tigers, etc.


4. Commensualism is the relationship between two
living organisms where one benefits but the other is
not affected.
5. Gregarious relations are where groups of individuals
live together for some time to provide mutual help.

Worksheet 2
1

Worksheet 5
CONSUMERS

PRODUCERS
autotrophic;
make food from
inorganic matter,
plants, algae;
bottom of food
chain.

BOTH
are living
beings; need
energy to
live

heterotrophic, live
off other organic
matter; carnivores,
herbivores,
omnivores; in the
middle and top of
food chain.

1. shed; 2. minimise; 3. wriggle; 4. naked.

1T; 2F; 3F; 4T.

1. Hermit crabs need to protect their abdomens


because they are soft and they dont have an
exoskeleton.
2. They need to test shells to see if they are big
enough.
3. Interspecific relationships: inquilinism; intraspecific:
gregarious.

Examples:
1. Producers are autotrophs, but consumers are not.
2. Producers are at the bottom of the food chain, but
consumers are higher up.
3. Consumers are animals, but producers are not.

Test 5
1

1b; 2b; 3a; 4a; 5b; 6b; 7a; 8a; 9c; 10c.
1. A lake, a field, a puddle.
2. The biocenosis is the set of living things. The biotope
is the inorganic part.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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Worksheets Answer Key


1

Worksheet 1
I

E
B

N N

U N D

Freshwater ecosystem: lentic and lotic system; water


can be still or moving; salinity is 0.18g/L.

Marine ecosystem: salinity of water is 35g/L. classified


according to near coast, or depth.

Both: light, temperature, pressure, salinity and oxygen


affect the ecosystems.
2

S
A

3. The neritic zone of the ocean receives ample


sunlight and is rich in life. The abyssal plain is deep
in the sea, pressure is incredibly high, temperatures
are very low and little light reaches it.

A M E

4. Intertidal areas are affected by the movement of the


waves, submerged at high tide and exposed at low
tide. Coral reefs are tropical ocean habitats which
are rich in life. They are normally near the coast.

Plants: moss, pine, grass, cacti;


Animals: reindeer, bear, zebra, camel.
1. Desert; cacti; camel; hot during the day, cold at
night.
2. Savannah; grass; zebra; a dry season and a wet
season. Warm all year.
3. Taiga; pine; bear; long cold winters, abundant snow.

Worksheet 4
1

Individual answers.

Worksheet 5

Worksheet 2
1

Aquatic ecosystems: 1, 2, 8.
2

1T; 2F; 3T; 4T; 5F; 6F.

1c; 2h; 3a; 4b; 5g; 6i; 7e; 8f; 9d.


Terrestrial ecosystems: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9.

4. Tundra; moss; reindeer; very cold, permanently


frozen soil.
3

1. Lentic ecosystems are found in still water and lotic


ecosystems are found in running water.
2. Rivers receive abundant light and have a high
oxygen content. Marshes are usually shallow and
there may be little oxygen.

Ecosystems: tundra, taiga, savannah, desert;

Venn diagram
Example:

Next

Worksheet 3

UNIT 6

Contents

1. abundant, low; 2. few, many; 3. little, plenty; 4. all.

Arct
ic Cir
cle

1.

Tropic of Cancer

2.

3.
5.

4. They have dark red leaves to absorb more sunlight.


2
5.

5.
4.

3.
4.

The tundras characteristics: cold, low biodiversity, low


precipitation, short growing season.

3.

Test 6
Prime Meridian

Tropic of Capricorn

3. They reproduce asexually by budding and division.

4.

4.

0 Equator

2. Arctic plants concentrate their biomass in their


roots.

1.

2.

1. The tundra is home to millions of black flies and


mosquitoes.

Antar
ctic
Circ
le

1a; 2a; 3b; 4c; 5a; 6a; 7b; 8c; 9c; 10a.

1. Cultivated land is a man-made ecosystem.


2. The climate and the types of crops.
3. The biocenosis.
4. In the tundra.

M826044B02P070

5. Individual answers.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

Worksheets Answer Key


2

UNIT 7
Worksheet 1
1

3
R

Worksheet 4

H O

The solar water heater: 4, 2, 5, 3, 1.

Damage to the ozonosphere: 3, 2, 1, 4.

M N B

Mystery word: solar energy.

See diagrams, Students Book, pages 78, 82 and 83.

1. choices; 2. wind; 3. warming; 4. ingest; 5. creates;


6. cows.

N of cattle: 1.5 billion.


% of greenhouse gases cows produce: 18%.

1. sedimentation; 2. air; 3. sea; 4. climate;


5. anticyclone; 6. global warming.

% of methane cows contribute: 30%.


Water cows drink per day: 80 to 100 litres.

1. The Sun has been active for 4.6 billion years.


2. Meteorology is the science which studies weather
and climate.

Air currents and ocean currents: 4, 1, 3, 2.

Worksheet 5

See diagrams of sea and valley breezes, Students


Book, page 79, and diagram of global warming,
page 82.

1. Area A will heat up most because the Suns rays


reach the Earth perpendicular to the surface.
2. The poles receive less sunlight because the rays
reach Earth at an oblique angle, so they travel
through more atmosphere.

1. smog; 2. reactions; 3. albedo; 4. currents;


5. thermals; 6. ozone; 7. isobars; 8. valleys.

Contents

1. They produce 18 % of all greenhouse gas


emissions.
2. Farmers overfeed the cows to produce more milk
and meat.

3. Hail and snow are types of precipitation.


4. Clouds originate in low pressure areas.
5. Clouds near the ground form fog.

Test 7
Worksheet 2
1

1. The arrows represent warm air rising.

1b; 2b; 3b; 4b; 5c; 6a; 7b; 8c; 9a; 10c.

1. In the Suns core.

2. The air pressure is low in this area.

2. Only a tiny fraction.

3. Clouds form when warm air rises, cools and


condenses into water droplets.

3. The Equator receives more solar energy because the


solar rays that reach it are almost perpendicular and
so sunlight is more direct.

1. meteorology; 2. satellites, weather stations;


3. anticyclones; 4. winds; 5. clouds; 6. hail.

1T; 2T; 3F; 4F.

4. Energy from the Sun and gravity.


5. Geological agents produce erosion, mass
movements and sedimentation.

Worksheet 3
1

Picture A:
rays perpendicular to the surface
Picture B:
rays at an oblique angle

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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Worksheets Answer Key

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Worksheet 3

UNIT 8

Worksheet 1
1

GLACIERS
masses of moving
ice in alpine and
polar regions,
ice moves very
slowly,
cuts U-shaped
valley

1. temperature; 2. biological, mechanical; 3. water,


wind, ice; 4. gravity; 5. erosion, deposition.

U
W T

N W A

S W

G
T

1. gravity; 2. the amount of energy of the agent;


3. eolian processes; 4. alluvial fans; 5. karst
landscapes; 6. calcite (calcium carbonate);
7. sinkholes (dolines); 8. waves, wind, currents, tides.

Individual answers.

1. wind; 2. glaciers; 3. rainwater; 4. waves; 5. tides,


currents; 6. rivers.

Worksheet 4
1

Worksheet 2
1

See diagram, Students Book, page 92.

Atmospheric agents:
Water: groundwater, rainwater.
Wind: sandstorms, hurricanes.
Ice: glaciers
Ocean movements: current, tides.

1.
2.
5.

Some results:
Water: sinkholes, gullies, ravines.
Wind: barchans, ergs, mushroom-shaped rocks.
Ice: moraines, U-shaped valleys, glacial cirques;
Ocean movements: cliff recession, beaches.

3.
7.
8.

1. Chemical weathering changes the mineral


composition of rocks; biological weathering breaks
them down through the activity of living things.

3. Rainwater is precipitation produced by evaporation


and condensation. Groundwater is found on or
under the ground and usually comes from springs.
See diagram, Students Book, page 90.

upper
course
middle
course

6. 9. 10.
4.

lower
course

Title: The Formation of Sedimentary Rocks.


Process: 4, 2, 5, 8, 9, 3, 6, 1, 7.
Note: This process takes millions of years, can come
at the beginning or the end.

2. Transportation is the process which moves eroded


rock material; deposition is the process by which
the transported material is deposited on the ground.

RIVERS
masses of moving
water,
water varies in
velocity, cuts
V-shaped valleys

R
N D

BOTH
both are in
movement,
carry out
erosion,
transportation
and
disposition

Worksheet 5
1

b. Uluru in Australia.

1. An island mountain, a mountain in the middle


of a flat plain.
2. Sandstone is a type of sedimentary rock. It must
erode easily, because the rest of the mountain has
eroded away.

1. Uluru is a sandstone mountain, 348 m high


and 9 km round. It is red because it has a high iron
content.
2. The rock holds a dreaming track which the Anangu
tribe consider sacred. It also has beautiful rock
paintings by their ancestors.
3. Tourists should not tread on the sacred dreaming track.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

Worksheets Answer Key


Test 8

Contents

Worksheet 3

1b; 2c; 3a; 4b; 5c; 6a; 7a; 8a; 9b; 10a.

1. Mechanical weathering: freeze-thaw.

1. extrusive; 2. lava cools and solidifies quickly ;


3. and 4. examples are: volcanic scoria, pumice stone,
obsidian, basalt; 5. intrusive; 6. magma which cools
and solidifies slowly; 7. and 8. examples: granite,
pegmatite, syenite, gabbro.

1. Pumice: spongy appearance, it can float in water,


usually a light colour.

2. Because water freezes in this process, so


the climate must be cold.
3. The water flows into the cracks during the day.
4. Because ice expands when it freezes, so breaks
the rock apart.

2. Granite: it contains crystals of feldspar, it has clear


black bands.

5. Water, wind, ocean movements.

Worksheet 4
UNIT 9
Worksheet 1
1

1. meteorites; 2. iron; 3. solid; 4. molten; 5. 25;


6. 79 AD; 7. tectonic plates; 8. geysers.

1T; 2F; It is hotter; 3F; It was the heat they contained;


4T; 5T; 6F; They occur along their boundaries.

Earthquakes: epicentre, Richter scale, hypocentre,


trembling, seismic wave tsunami.
Volcanoes: crater, chimney, magma, lava, eruption,
tsunami.

1d; 2; 3b; 4a.

1F; It measures the intensity of Earthquakes; 2T; 3T;


4F; They are called seismic waves; 5F; The most
abundant gases are carbon dioxide and water vapour;
6F; They are made up of the crust and the upper mantle.

See diagram, Students Book, page 101.

Worksheet 5
1

1. The people of Pompeii were completely unprepared.


2. Only some of the people left the area immediately.
3. The next avalanche of hot ash, pumice, rock and
gases killed moist people.

Worksheet 2

4. Pompeii has never been rebuilt.


1

I
S

U M

Example:
First, there were earth tremors and smoke from the
volcano. Then, the volcano erupted. Next, there was
a rain of ash. After that, there was an avalanche of hot
ash, pumice, rock fragments and volcanic gases.
Finally, the wave of ash asphyxiated everyone.

R
E

E
P

Test 9

1a; 2b; 3a; 4c; 5 b; 6a; 7c; 8b; 9c; 10a.

See diagram of an earthquake, Students Book,


page 102.

Igneous rocks: pumice, basalt, granite, syenite, gabbro,


obsidian.
Metamorphic rocks: slate, schist, gneis, marble.
2

1. gabbro; 2. gneis; 3. obsidian; 4. syenite; 5. schist;


6. slate; 7. marble; 8. pumice.

1. There are two types of igneous rock.


2. The crystals are large.
3. Metamorphic rocks are formed deep under the
Earths crust.
4. Metamorphism is a very slow process.

10

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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Contents

Worksheets Answer Key

Mystery phrase: Fossil fuels are formed from the


remains of microorganisms, plants and animals buried
millions of years ago.

UNIT 10
Worksheet 1
1

1. fission; 2. joule; 3. gas; 4. biomass; 5. eolic;


6. uranium; 7. energy; 8. oil; 9. solar.
G
J

Next

E
N

M C

Natural gas

1. thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical; 2. natural


gas, coal; 3. geothermal, solar, biomass and
hydroelectric; 4. geothermal, tidal, sunlight, wind,
biomass.

S
O

Worksheet 2
1

Source

1d; 2f; 3 a; 4b; 5c; 6e.

Energy table:

Uranium

Wind

Hydroelectric

Renewable or
non-renewable

1. non-renewable

2. non-renewable

3. renewable

4. renewable

Where found /
produced

5. oil fields, natural


gas fields, coal beds

6. in rocks, soil and


water

produced on wind
farms

7. produced at hydroelectric
power stations

Uses

heat and electricity

8. heat, electricity,
automobile fuel

9. electricity

10. heat and electricity

1c; 2f; 3a; 4e; 5b; 6d.

1. Tidal: example: advantages: abundant, clean, does


not depend on weather conditions; disadvantages: low
efficiency, limited to certain coastal areas, has negative
environmental impact.
2. Eolic: example: advantages: abundant, clean, highly
efficient, cheap to install and maintain; disadvantages:
wind is unreliable, difficult to store, requires large areas
for production, makes noise, interferes with electronic
equipment, a danger to birds.
3. Nuclear energy: example: advantages: nonpolluting, small amounts of fuel produces large
amounts of energy; disadvantages: wastes are highly
contaminating, accidents can be very dangerous.

Worksheet 4
1

Individual answers.

Examples of more ways to save energy:


1. Dont buy things with a lot of packaging.
2. Repair appliances instead of buying new ones.
3. Use your own grocery bag, to save using plastic ones.

Individual answers.

Worksheet 5
1

1T; 2F; Electricity is used to power the appliance even


if it is switched off; 3T; 4F; everyone has a different
carbon footprint.

Bar graph. Individual answers.

Worksheet 3
1

See diagram, Students Book, page 114.


Labels: nuclear reactor, combustion (uranium), cooling
tower, transformer, generator, turbine, vapour generator.
Process: 3, 2, 4, 5, 1.

Hydroelectric energy process: 2, 4, 3, 1.

See diagram, Students Book, page 115.

Test 10
1

1c; 2a; 3c; 4c; 5b; 6a; 7b; 8b; 9a; 10c.

1. Uranium atoms are split by nuclear fission.


2. The water vapour drives the turbines.
3. Nuclear energy is non-polluting; a small amount
of uranium produces a lot of energy.
4. The waste is highly contaminating, accidents are
very dangerous.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

11

Contents

Worksheets Answer Key

Next

UNIT 11
Worksheet 3

Worksheet 1

Fahrenheit (T); joule (H): calorie (H); Celsius (T),


kelvin (T).

Heat: energy, expansion, contraction, conduction,


convection, radiation; calorie. Temperature: scale,
degree, thermometer, boiling point, freezing point.

b. radiation: gases;
c. conduction: solids.
2

O N

O N D U

Worksheet 4
1

1. Fahrenheit, kelvins; 2. expansion; 3. exothermic;


4. convection; radiation.

1. Heat flows from a higher to a lower temperature;


2. One joule is equivalent to 0.24 calories;
3. Temperature is the amount of heat in a system;
4. Solids usually expand less than liquids;
5. Conduction is the transfer of heat in most solids;
6. The boiling point is 212 F.

A: For example, an ice cube melting and a puddle of


water. B: Water evaporating when heated.

Scientist

Galileo Galilei

Gabriel
Fahrenheit

Anders
Celsius

Lord Kelvin

David
Phillips

Date of
invention

1593

1724

1742

1848

1984

Invention

water
thermometer

Fahrenheit
scale

Centigrade
scale

Kelvin scale

infrared
thermometer

Test 11

1. 7, 750

1c; 2c; 3c; 4a; 5c; 6c; 7a; 8a; 9b; 10c.

2. Equivalent in Big Macs 5 7, 750 4 492 5 15


and a half Big Macs, approximately.

1. Heat flows from a higher temperature to a lower


temperature.

3. The man needs 150 Kcalories to escape from the


bull. An apple has 60 Kcalories. So the man needs
150 4 60 5 2 and a half apples.

12

Worksheet 5

Heat transfer: 1, 3, 4, 6, 7,
Temperature: 2, 5, 8, 9

Worksheet 2

1. Insulator: a., d., g. cork, plastic, wood.


2. Conductor: b., c., e., f. copper, iron, gold, metal.

1 32 5 98.6
1 32 5 46.4

4. 2110 -32 5 2142 (2142 4 9) 5 215.77


215.77 3 5 5 278.8

O N

(333 4 5) 5 6.6
( 72 4 5) 5 14.4

3. 0 2 32 5 -32 (232 4 9) 5 23.5


23.5 3 5 5 217.7

1. (37 3 9) 5 333
2. (8 3 9) 5 72

a. convection: liquids and gases;

Individual answers.

2. Thermal equilibrium.
3. No, because heat only flows in one direction.
4. Joules and calories.
5. The iron bar will lose heat. The water will gain heat.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

Worksheets Answer Key


2

UNIT 12

W P

O N

1. See Students Book, page 135.

S
P

H O

Worksheet 4
1

E
R

Contents

2. Echoes occur when sound is reflected by an


obstacle which is more than 17 metres away.
Reverberation is produced when the obstacle is less
than 17 metres away.

Worksheet 1
1

Go to start

Light: 2k; 5c; 7a; 9l; 10h; 12d.


Sound: 1i; 3e; 4g; 6j; 8b; 11f.

Individual answers.

Y
Light: photon, lens, ray, infrared.
Sound: pitch, tone, sonar, echo;
2
3

Worksheet 5
1

1. The instruments are made from fresh vegetables.

Both: waves, speed.

2. Since 1998.

1. waves, speeds; 2. photon; 3. lens, rays; 4. infrared;


5. pitch, tone; 6. echo; 7. sonar.

3. They buy fresh vegetables from the market.


4. The audience is given vegetable soup.

1. Individual answer.

2. Seven colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue,


indigo, violet.

Worksheet 2

1. The thin carrot would have the highest pitch.


2. Individual answers.
Individual answers.

Test 12

See diagram, Students Book, page 132.

1b; 2a; 3c; 4b; 5c; 6c; 7c; 8b; 9a; 10c.

1. Light is electromagnetic energy; 2. It does not


require a medium. 3. Each colour has a different
wavelength. 4. Sound is mechanical energy;
5. The speed of sound is much slower. 6. Pitch
is measured in Hertz.

1. The impossibility of seeing the night sky, wastage


of energy and resources.

Worksheet 3
1

1. Incident rays hit the surface of an object and


the reflected rays bounce off it.

2. Birds can collide with lighted buildings when they


are migrating.
3. Artificial light sources: street lamps, floodlights,
advertising displays.
4. Point street lamps towards the ground; build
modern office blocks outside the city.

2. The light is refracted as it travels from one medium


to another which has a different density.

K ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 K PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L. K

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