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788437 089805

Los trabajos que se incluyen en este libro


son el fruto del Coloquio Internacional
sobre el Lujo y el Poder en la Antigedad
organizado en la Universidad de Valencia
a finales del ao 2010 dentro del marco
del Proyecto Clothing and Identities.
New perspectives on Textiles from the
Roman Empire :

Textiles in Zoroastrianism (M. A. Andrs); New views on the


analysis of dress, ritual and prestige in Iberian sanctuaries: preliminary results (C. Rueda Galn); La vestimenta de la heroizacin y
la guerra en la cultura castrea (B. Garca Fernndez-Albalat); Purple and aristocracy: colour, blood, and luxury as social identifiers
in Antiquity (C. Alfaro Giner); Repression of luxury in Rome: the
specific case of garments (F. J. Casinos); Textiles y coberturas para
uso animal en el mundo antiguo (F. J. Fernndez Nieto); The
habits of the Emperors as different expressions of political power
(I. Benda-Weber); Cheapening the luxury: some curious recipes
with vegetal dyes (M. J. Martnez Garca); Luxury? The northwest end of the silk-purple-and-gold horizon (J. P. Wild); Power
dressing in Pannonia. Tunics with arrow-shaped purple decoration
represented in a Roman wall-painting at Brigetio (A. Paetz gen.
Schieck - J. Psztkai-Szeke) y Textiles of Chersonesos Taurian
in the Roman Period (T. Krupa).

Carmen Alfaro Giner


Jnatan Ortiz Garca
M. Julia Martnez Garca
(Eds.)

LU X U RY A N D D R E S S
POLITICAL POWER AND APPEARANCE
IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND ITS PROVINCES

C. ALFARO / J. ORTIZ / M. J. MARTNEZ

POLITICAL POWER AND APPEARANCE IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

000 cubierta:Maquetacin 1 11/12/13 13:48 Pgina 1

UNIVERSITAT DE VALNCIA
2013

CARMEN ALFARO GINER


JNATAN ORTIZ GARCA
M. JULIA MARTNEZ GARCA
(Eds.)

LUXURY AND DRESS


POLITICAL POWER AND APPEARANCE
IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND ITS PROVINCES

SEXUALIDAD Y SENTIMIENTOS
EN EL MEDITERRNEO ANTIGUO

UNIVERSITAT DE VALNCIA
2013

Editores:
Carmen Alfaro Giner - Jnatan Ortiz Garca- M. Julia Martnez Garca

Reservados todos los derechos. De conformidad con lo dispuesto en los artculos 270-272 del Cdigo
Penal vigente, podrn ser castigados con penas de multa y privacin de libertad quienes reprodujeren
o plagiaren, en todo o en parte, una obra literaria, artstica o cientfica fijada en cualquier tipo de soporte
sin la preceptiva autorizacin.

de los textos: Los autores


Diseo de cubierta: Carmen Alfaro y Artes Grficas Soler
Imgenes de cubierta: Lienzo del artista Inge Boesken Kanold, confeccionado con prpura y oro.
Mscara cermica actual representando a Baco.
I.S.B.N.: 978-84-370-8980-5
Depsito legal: V.
Artes Grficas Soler, S. L. - www.graficas-soler.com

NDICe

Preface ...........................................................................................................

Introduction ...................................................................................................

11

Abreviations ..................................................................................................

19

M. A. ANDRS TOLeDO, Textiles in Zoroastrianism ......................................

23

C. RueDA GALN, New views on the analysis of Dress. Ritual and Prestige in
Iberian Sanctuaries: Preliminary results ..................................................

31

B. GARCA FeRNNDeZ-ALBALAT, La vestimenta de la heroizacin y la guerra


en la cultura castrea ................................................................................

51

C. ALFARO GINeR, Purple and Aristocracy: Colour, blood and luxury as social
identifiers in Antiquity .............................................................................

75

F. J. CASINOS MORA, Repression of luxury in Rome: The specific case of garments ........................................................................................................

99

F. J. FeRNNDeZ NIeTO, Textiles y coberturas para uso animal en el Mediterrneo Antiguo ......................................................................................... 115
I. BeNDA-WeBeR, The habits of the emperors as different expressions of political power ............................................................................................. 133
M. J. MARTNeZ GARCA, Cheapening the Luxury: Some curious recipes with
vegetal dyes .............................................................................................. 151
J. P. WILD, Luxury? The north-west end of the silk-purple-and-gold horizon ........................................................................................................... 169
A. PAeTZ gen. SChIeCK and J. PSZTKAI-SZeKe, Power dressing in Pannonia. Tunics with arrow-shaped purple decoration represented in a Roman
Wall-Painting at Brigetio ......................................................................... 181
T. KRuPA, Textiles of Chersonesos Taurian in Roman period ...................

217

ABREVIATIONS
ACant
AC Buenos Aires
ACLE
ActaAntHung
AEAA
AIV
AnCord
AnnSocBotLyon
AntTard
AnuBrig
Arch. Cl.
Arch. NPChT
ArchSchweiz
ATN
Av.
AW
BAR
BAur
BCH
BerVerLeipz
BIEG
BMPLugo
BSA
BSSA
BTextilAnc
CArch
CCJB
CIL
CJ = C
ClPhil
CommAHung
CT
CuadArqNav
Dd
DHA
Dk
DossAParis
DS

Archaeologia Cantiana
Actas y Comunicaciones. Instituto de Historia Antigua y Medieval, Universidad de Buenos Aires
Amsterdam Center for Law & Economics. Working paper
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Archivo Espaol de Arte y Arqueologa
Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti
Anales de Arqueologa Cordobesa
Annales de la Societ Botanique de Lyon
Antiquit Tardive
Anuario Brigantino
Archeologia Classica
Archive National Preserve Chersonesos Taurian
Archologie der Schweiz
Archaeological Textiles Newsletter
Avestan
Antike Welt
British Archaeological Reports
Boletn Auriense
Bulletin de Correspondence Hellnique
Berichte ber die Verhandlungen der Kniglichen Schsichen Gesellschaft
der Wissenschaften Leipzig, Phil. hist. Klasse
Boletn del Instituto de Estudios Giennenses
Boletn do Museo Provincial de Lugo
The Annual of the British School at Athens
Boletn del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologa
Bulletin de Liaison du Centre International dtude des Textiles Anciens
Cahiers Archologiques
Collection du Centre Jean Brard. Npoles
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berln
Codex Justinianus
Classical Philology
Communicationes Archaeologicae Hungariae
Codex Theodosianus
Cuadernos de Arqueologa de la Universidad de Navarra
Ddestn Dng
Dyes in History and Archaeology
Dnkard
Les Dossiers dArchologie
Ch. Daremberg, E. Saglio y E. Pottier, Dictionnaire des Antiquits Grecques
et Romaines, Pars 1877-1919
19

20
EastWest
EHR
EME
ENV
EspacioHist
FCE
FGrH
FuAusgrTrier
GrBd
HAnt
HistriaAnt
ILS
INSTAP
IntJFoodSciNutr
IrAnt
JA
JASc
JChemEduc
JdI
JESHO
JNES
JRA
JRS
Komrom
La Porpora
Lichenol
MannGeschBl
MAA
MASCA
MBAH
MEFRA
MGH
MX
MM
MUP
N
NESAT
NIB
NP
NPChT
Pharma
Phl.
PV I
PV II
PV III

Abreviations
East and West
The Economic History Review
Early Medieval Europe
Estudis numismtics valencians
Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Serie II. Historia Antigua
Fondo de Cultura Econmica. Mxico
F. JACoBy, Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Berln 1923-1968
Funde und Ausgrabungen im Bezirk Trier
Gran Bundahin
Hispania Antiqua
Histria Antiqua
H. Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Berln 1892-1916
Institute for Aegean Prehistory
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Iranica Antiqua
Journal Asiatique
Journal of Archaeological Science
The Journal of Chemical Education
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Journal of Roman Archaeology
The Journal of Roman Studies
Komrom Esztergom Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnyei
o. Longo (ed.), La Porpora. Realt e immaginario di un colore simbolico.
Atti del Convegno di Studio (Venezia, 24 e 25 ottobre 1996), Venecia 1998
The Lichenologist
Mannheimer Geschichtsbltter
Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry
Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania
Mnstersche Beitrge zur Antiken Handelgeschichte
Mlanges de lcole Franaise de Rome. Antiquit
K. vom Stein et al. (eds.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica
The Book of the Mainyo-i-Khard
Madrider Mitteilungen
Manchester University Press
Nrangestn
North European Symposia for Archaeological Textiles
Nme-ye Irn-e Bstn
New Persian
National Preserve Chersonesos Taurian
The Pharma Innovation Journal
Pahlavi
C. ALFARo, J. P. WILD y B. CoSTA (eds.), Purpureae Vestes, Actas del I Symposium Internacional sobre Textiles y Tintes del Mediterrneo en poca romana (Ibiza, 8 al 10 de noviembre, 2002), Purpureae Vestes I. Valencia 2004
C. ALFARo y L. KARALI (eds.), Vestidos, textiles y tintes Estudios sobre la
produccin de bienes de consumo en la Antigedad, Purpureae Vestes II, Valencia 2008
C. ALFARo, J. P. BRUN, PH. BoRGARD y R. PIERoBoN BENoIT (eds.), Textiles
y tintes en la ciudad antigua (Npoles, 13 al 15 de noviembre, 2008), Purpureae Vestes III, Valencia-Npoles 2011

Abreviations
RA
RCel
RE
REG
REIb
REL
RGA
RGuim
RIDA
RM
RmQSchr
SaalbJb
MAN
MSEMA II
SEMA
SHA
n
Stu. Ph.
StudIr
TAPA
TP
TrZ
UHA
V
VEB
yt

21

Revue archologique
Revue Celtique
A. PAULy et al. (eds.), Realencyclopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Stuttgart, 1894-1978
Revue des tudes Grecques
Revista de Estudios Ibricos
Revue des tudes Latins
H. BECK, H. STEUER y D. TRIMPE (eds.), Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Berln Nueva york 1968-2007
Revista de Guimarens
Revue Internationale des droits de lAntiquit
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Rmische Abteilung
Rmische Quartalschrift fr christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte
Saalburg-Jahrbuch
Museo Arqueolgico Nacional Lisboa
C. ALFARo, M. J. MARTNEz y J. oRTIz-GARCA (eds.), Mujer y vestimenta. Aspectos de la identidad femenina en la Antigedad, Monografas del SEMA de Valencia II, Valencia 2011
Seminario de Estudios sobre la Mujer en la Antigedad, Universidad de Valencia
Scriptores Historiae Augustae
yest n yest
Studia Phoenicia
Studia Iranica
Transactions of the American Philological Association
Trabajos de Prehistoria
Trierer Zeitschrift fr Geschichte und Kunst des Trierer Landes und seiner Nachbargebiete
Universit de Haute Alsace
Vdvdd
Vidas de los emperadores de Bizancio (Chronographia)
yat

POweRDRessInGInPAnnOnIA.
TunICswIThARROw-shAPeDPuRPle
DeCORATIOnRePResenTeD
InAROMAnwAll-PAInTInGATBrigeTio

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck* and Judit Psztkai-Szeke**

Abstract: Thearticlefocusesontheinterpretationoftheextraordinarywall-paintingofthe
Roman Peristyle house III excavated in the civil town of ancient Brigetio (todays
Komrom-szny,hungary)datingtolate2ndandearly3rdcenturyAD.Basedontheanalysisofthedepictedmalegarmentsanewiconographicinterpretationispresentedhere,which
differsfromtheformeropinionthatthetwoportrayedmenareservants.Thepresentpaper
arguesforthealternativethatRomanmilitaryofficersofhighrankarepresentedintheir
leisure-time.
evidently,thearchitecturaldesignofthisbuilding,thehighqualityofitswall-decoration
andthepictorialelementstogetherattestthewealthoftheownerorthelodgerofthisbuilding.ItalsodemonstratesthatthepresenceoftheRomanmilitaryforceandespeciallyits
high-rankingofficersstationednearbydidbringprosperitytotheciviltownandinspirea
newlifestylebythenewlydemandedexpensiveandluxuriousgoodsofforeignorigin.
Keywords: wall-painting,Brigetio,Pannonia,garments,arrow-shapeddecoration,purple,
skinsoffelidae,Romanlifestyle,luxury,militaryofficers,luxuriouspass-timeactivity.
Resumen: elartculosecentraenlainterpretacindelaextraordinariapinturamuralromanadelaCasadelPeristiloIIIexcavadaenlapoblacincivildelaantiguaBrigetio (la
actualKomrom-szny,hungra)datadaentrefinalesdelsigloIIyprincipiosdelsigloIII
d. C. Basada en el anlisis de los vestidos masculinos representados, una nueva interpretaciniconogrficaespresentadaaqu,lacualdifieredelaanterioropinindequelos
doshombresretratadoseransirvientes.elpresenteartculoargumentacomoalternativaque
militaresromanosdealtorangoestnpresentadosensutiempodeocio.
** Classicalarchaeologistspecialisedonancienttextiles,directoroftheDeutsches Textilmuseum
Krefeld (Germany),project-managerofDressID(www.DressID.eu)untilJanuary2012.
** Archaeologist(XantusJnosMzeum,Gyr)withaspecialinterestonancienttextilesand
textileproductionoftheRomanPeriod.OneofthetwospokespersonsofstudygrouponProduction
andTradewithintheframeworkoftheDressIDproject(www.DressID.eu).
181

182

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

evidentemente,eldiseoarquitectnicodeesteedificio,laaltacalidaddesudecoracin
muralyloselementospictricosconjuntamenteatestiguanlariquezadelpropietariooinquilinodeesteedificio.ellotambindemuestraquelapresenciadefuerzamilitarromana
y especialmente sus militares de alto rango estacionados cerca trajo prosperidad a la
poblacincivileinspireunnuevoestilodevidaporlosnuevos,carosylujusosbienesde
origenextranjerodemandados.
Palabras clave: Pinturamural,Brigetio,Pannonia,vestidos,decoracinenformadeflecha,
prpura,pielesdefelidae,estilodevidaromano,lujo,militares,pasatiemposlujosos.

InTRODuCTIOn
ThemostpowerfulbodyoftheRomanempirewastheRomanarmy.Being
therepresentativesoftheemperorandhisexecutivesofimperialpower,hugenumbersofmenwereemployedinordertodefendtheRomaninterestsespeciallyalong
theborders.Duetotheirneedsinlogistics,mobility,andadministrationandforthe
purposeofsecuringconquests,theRomanarmyestablishednewstructuresandwas
thepowerfulengineoftheacculturationprocessofintheprovinces:e.g.,active
anddischargedsoldierswereinvolvedintheconstructionworksofthecommercial
andcommunicationarteriesoftheempireaswellasinthefoundationofnew
Romancities.Furthermore,itwastheRomanstationarymilitaryforceswhichbecamethemostinfluentialconsumerofthelocallyproducedandtheimportedgoods
intheRomanborderprovinces.
Atthesametime,themilitarycareerseemstohavebeenanattractiveandpromisingsourceforabetterlife,assuringsocialandfinancialadvancementofthose
whowerewillingtosignupatleastfor25years.1 Besides,thecollectiveidentity
oftheRomanarmyprovidedthefeelingofbeingpartofastrong,influentialand
purelymasculinecommunityofranksandstricthierarchywithitsownlegalcodex
andmoralvalues.
soldiersspentmostofthesalarieslocallyandintheregionwheretheyserved
theirduty,leadingtothefinancialimprovementofcraftsmenworkinginthenearby
settlement,andoftradesmenimportinggoodsfromallovertheempire.Inaddition,
thosewhoretiredfromthearmyoftensettledintheneighbourhoodoftheirformer
stationarygarrison.Thesebuildingactivitiesenhancedthefoundingandgrowthof
townsconnectedtomilitaryunits,oftenrecapitulatingItaliangroundplans.2 All
overtheplacesofmilitarysettlements,buildingsofMediterraneanperistyletype
canbefound,provingthereferraltocentralRomanidealofcultureandlifestyle.3
Justastheirstructure,theirfurnishinganddecorationfollowedtheRomanideals,
observablealsoinobjectsofdailyuse.
IntheciviltownofBrigetio,sherdsofterra sigillata dishesfromnorthernItaly
andtheworkshopsofGaulcanbedetermined,aswellasTrierer Spruchbecher,4
1
2
3
4

FIsCheR,2012,24-25.
ThOMAs,1964.
KOvACsOvICs,2008,34-35.
BORhy,2005b,esp.75,79fig.4c.

Power dressing in Pannonia

183

forinstance.non-perishablefragmentsofwineandoliveoilcontainersfromdiverse
locationsoftheempirearealsofoundattheabovementionedsettlement.5 AsrecentlypublishedpiecesofevidencefromAquincum testifyunambiguouslythatbesidesthemassimportsfromthewesternpartoftheempire,goodsarrivedina
considerableamountfromtheeasternMediterraneantolowerPannonia,andthey
evenbroughtamorphologicalinspirationforthelocallyworkingcraftsmen.6
Alloftheseobjectsindicatethecapacitiesoftrade,andtheavailabilityofgoods
fromnearlyanywhereoftheempire,aswellasageneralstandardofequipment.
Alongwiththisasocialstratumwhocouldaffordtheconsumptionofthesegoods
especiallyduringthelatercenturiesoftheRomanoccupationcanbeproven.
TextileshavebeenhighlyprestigioustradinggoodsinAntiquity,especially
whenbeingimportedfromtheeast,andbeingmadeofluxuriousmaterialssuchas
silk,gold-threadsandyarnsofshellfish-purpledye.7 however,duetotheirperishableorganicmaterial,textilescouldsurviveonlyunderveryfortunateconditions.8
Obviously,togetherwiththesematerialgoodshumansandalsotheirideasandnotions,e.g.aboutdresscodes,rolemodelsetc.travelledaroundtheRomanworld.
sinceaconsiderablemilitaryforcewasgarrisonedinBrigetio whichwasregularlyincorporatedintothecampaigningarmysenttofightintheOrientalwarsof
theRomanempire,9 itisnotsurprisingthatseveralpictorialelementsofthewallpaintingsofPeristylehouseIIItestifythetightconnectiontoRomanmilitarycontext,totheeasternMediterranean,moreovertoaluxuriouslifestyle.Basedonthe
analysisoftheseelementsanewpossibilityininterpretationispresentedhere.

lOCATIOn AnD hIsTORICAl BACKGROunD OF BrigeTio


TheancientsiteofBrigetio (Fig.1)islocatedonthesouthernbankofthe
Danubeinhungary.Theterritory,afterbeingpartoftheRomanprovinceofupper
Pannonia(Pannonia superior),wastransferredtolowerPannonia(Pannonia inferior)in214AD.
ThestructureofancientBrigetio comprisedthreedifferentsettlementagglomerations:alegionaryfortress,aciviliansettlementaroundit(canabae)andasecond
civiliansettlement(municipium thenlaterbecomingacolonia)situated3kmtothe
westfromit.10
Bythemid1st centuryADBrigetio becameaRomanmilitaryoutpostatthefluvialborderoftheRomanempire,wherethelegio i adiutrix,whichisoneofthe

15

hRsheGyI,2004.
GABleR et al.,2008;lAssnyI-vMOs,2011.
17
RuFFInG,2007
18
e.g.sTAuFFeR,2011;fortextilesfrommilitarycontext,seeADAMs andCROwFOOT,2001;BenDeR
JRGensen,2000;BIRley,2002,esp.142;BhMe-sChnBeRGeR andMITsChKe,2005;MAnneRInG,
2000;PFIsTeR andBellInGeR,1945;sheFFeR andGRAnGeR-TAylOR,1994;wIlD,2010.
19
sPeIDel,1992b;sPeIDel,2009;FIsCheR,2012,77.
10
BORhy,2011;BORhy et al.,2012.
16

184

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.1.locationofBrigetioontheDanubeandstructureofthesettlementJ.Psztkai-szeke.

fourlegionsstationedinPannonia,haditspermanentstone-builtfortressfromthe
turnofthe1st tothe2nd centuryAD.Thelegionaryfortresswaspositionedtothe
oppositeofthemouthofaleft-sideaffluentoftheDanube(therivervg)penetratingintothelandofBarbarianQuadi formonitoringanimportantcrossing-place
leadingtotheImperialterritory.DuringthereignofMarcusAureliusthisdefensive
systemwascompletedbythebuildingofacounter-fortificationinIa-lenyvr
(Celamantia/Kelamantia)ontheBarbariansideoftheDanube.11 Thedefensive
worksofthelegionaryfortresswererepairedandrebuiltforthelasttimeasaresult
oftheconstructioncampaigncarriedoutduringthereignofvalentinianI.12
exceptperiodswhenvexillationsfromtheabovementionedlegionwereenlistedtoexpeditionforcesfightinginotherregions(e.g.totheeastunderCaracalla
etc.)13 thewholelegionwaspermanentlygarrisonedinBrigetio anditsdischarged
soldiersoftensettleddowninPannonia,notuniquelyinthemilitaryorthecivil
townofBrigetio.14
similarlytootherfortresses,thestationaryarmyofBrigetio attractedcivilians:
artisans,crafts andtradespersons,too,whosettlednearthelegionarycampand
foundedthecanabae legionis arounditonmilitaryterritory.15 Itsfirstwoodenbuildingswerereplacedbystone-buildingsoftenfurnishedwithfloor-heatingandde-

11
12
13
14
15

szMAD andBORhy,2003a;BORhy et al.,2012


szMAD andBORhy,2003a.
sPeIDel,1992b;sPeIDel,2009.
BARKCzI,1964,285,295;szMAD andBORhy,2003a.
BORhy et al.,2012,48.

Power dressing in Pannonia

185

corativewall-paintings.16 Theexceeding canabae stretchedouttothewestalong


theriverDanube,butluxuriousprivatehouseswerealsofoundabout1.5kmeast
oftheRomanfort.17
Botharchaeologicalremainsandbrickstampstestifythepresenceofaportof
theclassis Flavia Pannonica inBrigetio,too.18 Besidethelegionaryfortress,the
evidenceofanauxiliaryfortandseveraltemporarycampsunivocallytestifythe
constantpresenceoftheRomanarmyintheterritoryofBrigetio duringthewhole
Romanera.19
ThearchaeologicalremainsoftheciviltownofBrigetio layca.3kmtothe
westfromthemilitarytownandbeneaththemodernhousesandplotsofsznybelongingadministrativelytoKomrom(hungary)(Fig.1).Duringthereignofthe
severandynastytheciviltownofBrigetio receivedtherankofmunicipium and
laterofcolonia.Itsurbanstructurewasbuilt-upofinsulae.Basedontheevidence
fromthelast20yearsofexcavations,itsfirstbuildingshadbeenconstructedentirelyfromadobeprobablyduringthelateFlavianPeriod.Theywererebuilton
stonefoundationwithadobebricksduringtheAntoninePeriod,whileitsstreets
werepavedwithstoneslabsduringthereignofseptimiusseverus.Thebuildings
excavatedsofarwerewell-furnishedwithunderfloorheatingsystemsanddecorated
withhigh-qualitypaintingsontheceilingsandwalls.20 Thefindsfromthehouses
alsoattestunambiguouslythehighlivingstandardoftheirinhabitants.21 ArchaeologicalevidencesuggeststheciviltownofBrigetio tohavebeenabandonedduring
the3rd centuryAD:allofitslatestlayersyieldcoinsnotlaterthanfromthelate
severandynastyorthereignofGordianIII(Fig.5a).22
epigraphicevidenceatteststhatthelocalindigenouspopulationwasnotwellrepresentedamongtheinhabitantsoftheciviltown.AftertheMarcomannicwars
ofemperorMarcusAureliusasignificantchangeisevidentinthestructureofthe
populationofBrigetio andthoseoforientaloriginapparentlybecameinfluential
membersofthelocalsociety.significantnumbersofthemembersofthemunicipal
governmentwereofsyrianorigin.someofthedecuriones wereevendischarged
soldiersofsyrianprovenance.23 Basedalsoonepigraphicrecords,thehigherranks
ofnon-commissionedofficers(e.g.centurions)seemtohavebeenheldmostlyby
descendantsofearlierItaliansettlersfromwesternandsouthernPannoniaandby
Orientals,butnotoflocalorigin.24

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

BORhy,2005b,76;BORhy et al.,2012,49.
BORhy,2005a,51-52.
lRInCz,1990,83;szMAD andBORhy,2003a.
vIsy,2000,29-37;szMAD andBORhy,2003a;szMAD andBORhy,2003b.
BORhy et al.,2010;BORhy et al.2012.
hARsnyI,2011,288-292;hARsnyI,inprintb.
BORhy et al.2012.
BARKCzI,1964;MCsy,1990,238;BORhy,2006a,8.
BARKCzI,1964,287.

186

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.2.ReconstructionofthepaintingsonthewesternandnorthernwallsofhouseIIIatBrigetioe.
harsnyi&zs.Kurovszky.

eXCAvATIOn OF hOuse IIIAT BrigeTio


TheaimofthenewlystartedexcavationsconductedbytheDepartmentofClassicalandRomanProvincialArchaeologyoftheuniversityetvslorndinBudapest
incooperationwiththeMuseumKlapkaGyrgyinKomromsince1992hasbeen
torevealtheciviliansettlementofancientBrigetio ontheopenspaceofmodernMarketPlaceinszny/Komrom(Fig.1b).Duetothelargeamountsoffinds,anewmuseumwasfoundedin1996exclusivelypresentingthearchaeologicalcollectionof
theBrigetianexcavations.25 Oneofthemostoutstandingexhibitsaretheremainsof
thewall-paintingoftheRomanhouseIIIfoundintheyears1999to2001inthe
courseofrescueexcavationsconductedintheclosevicinity(ontheplotofmodern
MarketPlaceno.2)oftheaboveexcavations(Fig.2).26 Duetotheresearchconditions,
onlythoselimitedareasoftheRomanhousecouldhavebeeninvestigatedanddocumented,whichlayexactlybeneaththeauxiliarybuildingaswellastheyardofthe
presenthouseandthefuturebuildingoftheplannedprivategarage(altogetheran
areaof21.46m).Inthecourseofthearchaeologicalworkssomecoherentblocks
andseveralfragmentsofthepainteddecorationofthesidewallsofaprobableperistylecourtyardwerefoundbeneaththeundisturbeddebrislayeroftheroofandon
25
26

BORhy,2011;BORhy et al.,2012.
BORhy,2005a,52;BORhy et al.,2010,83-117;BORhy,2011,54-57;BORhy et al.,2012,51.

Power dressing in Pannonia

187

theancientpebbletrampledclayfloor.Partsofthenorthern,westernandthesouthern
sidewallsoftheperistyleweredeterminedandrevealedtheevidenceforseveral
(re)buildingphasesofthehouse.Ofthewesternwall,18.5Romanfeet(548cm)
lengthcouldbecompletelyexposed.Itisthenorthernsidewallwhichwasthefirstto
havebeenbuilt;theterminus ante quem foritsconstructionisgivenbyacoinofAntoninus Pius foundintheplanedlayersbeneaththelastclayfloor(Fig.2).27
Althoughtherestorationworkofthewall-paintingshasnotbeenfullycompletedyet,itisalreadyperceivablethatthesidewallsoftheperistylecarriedacontinuous pictorial programme and a theoretical reconstruction of the painted
decorationonthewesternwallaswellasontheexcavatedwesternendofthenorthernwallcouldbemade.28
whentheRomanbuildingwasdestroyedbyafireduringthe3rd centuryAD,
thewall-decorationoftheperistylehadnotbeenfullycompleted.29 Fromtheintact
debrislayerconsistingthefallen-downadobewall-bricksaswellaspiecesand
blocksofthepaintedwall-painting,terra sigillata sherdsdatedbeforetheturnof
the2nd and3rd centuryAD30 andacoinofAlexanderseverusfromsamos(converted
intoapendant)cametolight,whichgivesthepost quem dateforthedestructionof
thehouse.31 Alateseverandatingmightbealsocorroboratedindirectlybythearchaeologicalobservationsduringtheexcavationsoftheotherbuildingsinthecivil
townofBrigetio:theywereabandonedduringthe230sand240sADandtheirrehabitationandrebuildingoccurredonlyduringthereignofemperorAureliusand
Probus.32
The wAll-PAInTInG
sinceitsdebrisconsistsofthehugesectionsofitswall-painting,itisonlythe
westernwallwhichenabledthereconstructionofthegeneralsystem(Fig.2).The
plasteredwallswerecoveredwithawhiteground-colour,subdividedinfourregisters,andabasezone;twohorizontalzonesconsistofthreetypesofpanelseach,
andafinalclosingzoneontop.Thegridcomposingthepanelsiscarriedoutin
darkredcolour.Thelowerofthemainzoneshowsthreetypesofrectangularpanels,
allofthesameheightbutvaryinginwidth.Thewidesttypeofpanelsissurrounded
byadark-orangeframe,andaframeoftwored,verynarrowlinesarrangedparallel.
Fromthecorners,eightdotsrunindiagonaldirection.33 withintheframes,asingle
humanfigureisbeingpositioned,theleftfieldmeasures1.3minwidthandthe
right1.2m.Twopanelsofthiskindwerereconstructedsofar.
27

BORhy andszMAD,2001;BORhy et al.,2010,83-91.


BORhy et al.,2010,esp.fig.11;BORhy,2011,54;hARsnyI andKuROvszKy,inprint.
29
BORhy et al.,2010,91.
30
BORhy andszMAD,2001,90;BORhy et al.,2010,90;hARsnyI,2011,69-70.
31
BORhy,2006b;BORhy et al.,2010;BORhy,2011,54.
32
BORhy,2005b;BORhy et al.,2010,109.
33
Comparethesimilararrangementatvienna,Michaelsplatz,houseC,alsoprovidingfragments
ofapanther-skin,see:sAKl-OBeRThAleR,2008,136fig.20.
28

188

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.3.wall-paintingatBrigetio:(a)leftfigureintotale.harsnyi&zs.Kurovszky;(b)chestofthe
leftperson A.Paetzgen.schieck;(c)lowerseamandknees,(d)bootJ.Psztkai-szeke(c-d).

Thesecondkindofpanelisofslightlynarrowerinwidth,beingframedbya
greenline.Theonefieldonthewesternwallmeasures1.15minwidth,itsinner
fieldisalmostcompletelycoveredbytheskinofafelinebeingstretchedout.up
tonow,twoofthesepanelswerereconstructed.
Thethirdkindofpanelisverynarrow,0.33minwidth,andservesasspacer.
Itissurroundedbyadark-orangeframeandcarriesacandelabrummotifofvegetal
design.
Therhythmofthepanelsstartsinthesouth-westerncorneroftheatriumwith
apaneldepictingaperson,followedbythefirstcandelabrum-panel,afeline-panel
intheverycentreofthewall,thesecondcandelabrum-panel,thesecondpaneldepictingaperson(Fig.2).Thedoor-openingdisturbstherhythmbuthasbeentaken
intoaccountwhenthewall-paintingwascomposed.Afinalcandelabrum-panelfills
thezonebetweenthedoorandthecorner,andthesystemmovesononthenorthern
wallstartingwiththesecondfeline-panel.
Theupperzoneofthewall-decorationisalsosubdividedintorectangularfields,
buttheyareshiftedtothesideandshowthreesectionsonthewesternandoneon
thenorthernwall.Theirsizesvary,whilethetwoleftonesareofgreaterwidth,the
rightoneismuchnarrower.Framelikedecorationsareofasomewhatsteppedshape
beingarrangedinatwo-arch-architecturalframe.Theycarrygarlandsbeingpinned
upinthecentreandfallingtothesidesinbows.34
TwO PAnels TwO Men
Offoremostinterestarethetwomainfigures:twomen,wearingthesamekind
oftunicbutintwodifferentways.Bothpanelsareplacedattheouteredgesofthe
wall,nexttotheleftcornerandthedoorontheright(Fig.2-4).Theyfollowthe
samedecorativeconceptofpositioningthefiguresintheverycentre.still,thisconceptwasnotrealizedconsequentlyintermsofsizeandsymmetryofthepainting.
whilethefigureontherightiscentred,andpositionedinperfectsymmetry,itis
carriedoutinhighquality,providinggreatdetailsandshadesespeciallyintheface.
Theleftfigureisofmuchlargersizeandexceedstheinnerframewiththehead
34

BORhy et al.,2010,83-117;hARsnyI andKuROvszKy,inprint.

Power dressing in Pannonia

189

andrightarm,andthepersonspositionismovedfurtherleft(Fig.3a-b).Thesecondaryburningunfortunatelydamagedthesurfaceofthepaintingonhisfacethat
iswhyhisfeaturesseemtobelessdifferentiated.untilautumn2011,thefigureon
therighthasbeenthebetterpreservedone,butsincethenalargefragmentofthe
leftfigurewasreconstructedanditisnowpossibletoprovidethefollowingdescription(Fig.3;4):Bothmenareshowninstandingpositionslightlyturningto
theirrightwhichistheleftsideofthepainting.Thefigureontherightbendshis
headbackanddirectsfoodtohismouthwithhisrighthand(Fig.4a-b).hisleft
forearmiscoveredbyalargepieceofwhiteclothandcarriesanovalplateofsilver
orglass.35 Theplatebearsthreeelongatedobjectsarrangedparallelly,consistingof
apointedgreenendontheleft,andathickenedwhitishendontheright.lszl
BORhy interpretsthedishasgrilledspringonion(porrus capitatus),36 which,when
beingbroiled,becomessoftandslippery,andhastobemanoeuvredfromabove
whenbeingeatenbyhand.Apicius37 liststhisdishinhiscookbookandsuggests
servingitwithdips,justasitisbeingconsumedattheFestadelaCalotadain
Catalonianowadays,andMartial38 providesadetaileddescriptionofthespring
onionfittingperfectlytotheobjectsdepictedontheplate.
Justrecently,furtherfragmentsofthewall-paintingswereaddedtotheleftfigure,especiallytothesectionfromhispelvisdowntohisfeet(Fig.4a).Theman
standsonadarkbaseline.hisleftarmishangingdownonhisside,whilehisright
armstretchesoutnearlyhorizontalandhisrighthandisturnedupwards.Asimple
vesselofpyxis-shapeisbeingcarriedonthetipsofthumb,ringandmiddlefingers.
lszl BORhy interpretsthevesselasabowlholdingthesauceordiptobeeaten
alongwiththeonions.39 Butthevesselmayaswellbetakenforakindofbasket
justlikethekindpresentedinthewall-paintingsofzeugmaontheeuphratesdating
toaboutthesameperiod.40 Intotal,thegesturemaybeinterpretedasofferingthe
contentofthevesseltoanotherpersonpossiblypicturedonthefollowingpanels
whichhavenotbeenreconstructed,yet,assumingthepanelstotellacontinuous
story.Thelargeclothcoveringtherightpersonsarmmayhaveservedasanapkin.
Onedetailthoughdoesnotseemtobedefiniteininterpretation:23parallel
linesincisedintothewhitegroundoftheleftpanel,rightnexttotheshoulderof
themanontheleft.Borhyinterpretstheselinesasthenumberofonionsthathave
beeneatenbyapersonatafestivityheldintheatriumofthehouse.hedrawsthis
conclusioninanalogytothemodernleek-eatingcompetitionontheCatalonian
calotada.41 But,thephenomenonofincisedlinesintheperiodoftheearly3rd centuryADcanalsobetracedonotherwall-paintings,suchasthemostfamousof
Dura-europosdepictingthetribuneJuliusTerentiusandhiscohors XX Palmyreno35

BORhy et al.,2010,116fig.14;BORhy,2011,55fig.19-20.
BORhy,2005a,53-54;BORhy,2007;BORhy,2011,54-56.
37
De re coq.,3.10.1-2.
38
ep.,XIII.19.
39
e.g.BORhy,2007;BORhy,2011,55.
40
BARBeT,2005,pl.IXfig.1,pl.Xfig.1,3andpl.G.
41
BORhy,2007,264;BORhy et al.,2010,117,fig.17(lines),18(Catalonianseatinggrilledspring
onions);BORhy,2011.
36

190

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.4.wall-paintingatBrigetio:(a)rightfigureintotal;(b)chestofthepersonA.Paetzgen.schieck.

rum whilesacrificingtothePalmyreneGods(Fig.6).About40oftheselinesrun
vertically,arrangedregularlyandparallel.Theystartatthepinkishflowerbetween
thetwotychaionthelowerpartofthepainting,runacrossthealtarandthelower
partofJuliusTerentiusbody.42 Apartfromtheparallelsinthemilitarytopic,these
linescanalsobeobservedwithotherthemes,suchasthewall-paintingsatzeugma
(MaisondePosidon=house1),definitelypresentingservants.43
sKIn COMPleXIOn,PROvenAnCe,AnD The TunICs OF The Men
Bothmenareyoungadultsofaboutthesameage(Fig.3a-b;4a-b).Theyhave
adarkbrownskincomplexion,areplainshaven,havedark-brownhairofavery
shortcut,andwearthesamekindoftunic,butarrangeddifferently.Plentyofinformationcanbedrawnfromthesefeatures,suchasthesocialstatusaswellasthe
occupationalidentityandethnicityoftheinitiatorsofthepainting,theirpeer-groups,
andtheirconceptofluxury,etc.
Thefacialcomplexionandhair-styleespeciallyoftherightpersoninforms
abouttheperiodofthewall-paintingsproduction.Thephysiognomyisgivenhighly
detailedandthree-dimensional,achievedbyhighlightsandreflections.Therather
slendershapeoftheface,theveryshort,andcap-likehair-cut,andtheplain-shaven
facearetobetakenfortypicalfeatureofthetimeofitsproduction,hintingatthe
firsthalfofthe3rd centuryAD(Fig.4a;5a).hair-styleandplainshavebecame
fashionableinseverantimes,havingbeenintroducedbyCaracallaandhisbrother
Getaatabout208AD.44 TheychosetoabandontherathersoftappearanceoffullbeardedemperorswhorelatedthemselvestoGreekphilosopherandintendedan
intellectualconnotation.whenCaracallaandGetacreatedthenewtypeofemperorsimage,thefaceswereofarathersquareshapeandalmostbrutallooking
42

BReAsTeD,1922,pl.XlvIII;CuMOnT,1926,pl.l,lI.1;CARDOn et al.,2011,379pl.15a-b.
BARBeT,2005,24fig.3,30fig.7,32fig.8B(triclinium),51fig.22(peristyle),60fig.26(peristyle),pl.IIIfig.3,pl.h;andhouse1pl.F;house2pl.J,K.
44
PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012,91-92;RssleR,1993,337,340-343.
43

Power dressing in Pannonia

191

Fig. 5. (a) Portrait of Gordianus III, Capitoline Museums, Rome, inv. no. 479, detail of
www.arachne.uni-koeln.de,FittCap73-15-11_36146,16.tif,photographer:G.Fittschen-Badura;(b)
PaintedshroudoftheegyptianofficerTyranos,foundinDeirel-MedinehB.v.BothmerandK.
Parlasca; (c) Mummy portrait of a young man, found in the Fayum, egypt,Antikensammlung,
staatlicheMuseenzuBerlininv.no.31161/23J.laurentius,Antikensammlung,sMB.

withroughincarnate.Afterawhile,though,thesefeatureswerereducedtoarather
slenderboyishtype,bestrepresentedbyseverusAlexanderorMarcusAntonius
Gordianus(Fig.5a).45
Quiteremarkably,thetanandskincomplexionoftheBrigetianmenisvery
dark,causinglszl BORhy tointerpretthemasblackpeople,implyinganAfrican
origin.46 But,asdescribedabove,thephysiognomyandthestructureofthehair
doesnotverifythisinterpretation,andratherpointstowardstheeasternMediterranean,toegypt,thelevantorsyria(whichistheoriginoftheseverandynasty).
Thedarktancombinedwithotherelementsofthepaintingssuchasthegarments
andthefelineswhichwillbediscussedlatersupportthisthesis.
uniformityhasnotonlybeenpresentedintermsofthemensorigin,butalso
intermsofthedress,consistingofthewhitetunicwithlongsleevesandaflamboyantandsymmetricaldecorationwithpurpleelements(Fig.3a;4;5b-c).Ancient
images(wall-paintings,shrouds,mummyportraitsandmosaics)canbeexclusively
foundinassociationwithmen,frommilitarycontextofthelate2nd andearly3rd
centuriesADandwithintheeasternMediterranean,whichissyriaandegypt(Fig.
5b-c;6).Imagesandoriginaltextilesofthattimepresentthesameornaments.
AtBrigetio thetypeoftunicservesasanouter-garment.Theneck-openingis
cutwideandtheseamsofthesleevesrevealasecondneck-openingandasecond
pairofsleeveswornbeneath,beingpartofabright-whiteundertunic(Fig.3a-c;
45
FITTsChen andzAnKeR,1994,127-128no.107pl.131-132(GordianusPius,238-242AD);110112no.94Beil.80a(Caracalla,215-217AD);114-115no.81Beil.81(Geta,218-219AD);117-121
no.99Beil.86a-d,pl.86-87(Gordianus,222-224AD).
46
BORhy,2005a,52;BORhy,2011.

192

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.6.wall-PaintingofJuliusTerentiusandhiseliteunit,thecohors XX Palmyrenum foundatDuraeuropos,afterCuMOnT,1926,pl.l.

4a).Alongtheleftpersonsseam,anarrowwhitesectionbecomesvisible,being
theedgeoftheundertunic(Fig.3c).someimagesdepictthistypeofouter-garment
combinedwithanochreouscloakwornaboutthechestbeingfastenedontheright
shoulder(Fig.5b).Thedark-brownareasoftheBrigetianfiguresratherhavetobe
interpretedasshadowsofthefigures,asiftheywerestandinginfrontofawall.
Omittingthecloakinthiscontextgivesimportantinformationaboutthetopicof
thedepictedscenery,asforinstanceonanoff-dutyoccupation.
shapeanddesignofthemaintunicmaybestbeobservedontherightfigure,
eventhoughthesectiondepictingtheseamofthegarmentisnotpreserved:the
tunicisofwidecut,haslongandnarrowsleevesofregularshape,andreachesfar
downbelowtheknees.whilethisfigurewearsthetunicwithoutabelt,thesecond
figuremostprobablypresentsthebeltedversionreachingtotheknees,although
thebeltitselfisnotreconstructed(yet),thedraperypullsupthegarment,andreveals
aninterestingdetailtothecombinationofelementsofdress:Theshinsofthefigure
arepaintedinthesameshadeastheface;thereforethelowerpartofthelegistobe
takenforbeingnaked.But,atabouttheheightoftheknees,white,slightlybent
linesarevisible.Theinterpretationoftheselinesturnsouttoratherdifficult,since
onlytheverticallinesarevisiblebutnotextilesectioninbetween.TheBrigetian
depictionmaybeinterpretedaswoundbands47 madeoftranslucentmaterial,which
47
suchbandscanbetracedinthearchaeologicalfindspectrume.g.inmilitarycontexts(personal
informationbysylvia Mitschke),andtheycanbeobservedindepictionsaswellasinwrittensources.

Power dressing in Pannonia

193

isnotmuchlikely.suchverticallines,though,maywellbeobservedintheJulius
Terentiuswall-paintingofDura-europos,namelyonthekneesoftheyoungand
blondmaninthefirstrow(Fig.6).48 IntheBrigetianpainting,thegarmentrather
lookslikebreechesorboxershortsmadeofalightandwhitefabric.49 Averysimilar
knee-length(under)garmentisattestedonbothtightsofAres,thesoldierbyhisfunerarystelewhohasanidenticaloutfitconsistingofabaggybeltedtunicwithtightfittinglongsleevesandprobablythesametypeofbootsasthemalefigurein
Brigetio.50 Anyhow,thistypeofleg-garmentdifferscompletelyfromthetypical
kindsoftrousersoftheperiod,namelytheblousytrousersofParthianorigin,51 the
blousytrouserswith-length(4th-6th centuryADlinentrousersfromegypt),52 the
long-leggedtrousers,53 long-leggedtrouserswithattachedsocksknownratherfrom
northerneuropeancontextsandthedepictionsofsilistra.54 TheBrigetianimage
alsodiffersfromtheRomanmilitarydepictionspresentingtrousersof-length
andlong-leggedonesworninboots.55
ThetypeofshoewearpresentedatBrigetio wasprobablywornwithapairof
darkbrownsocksreachingtothemidcalf(Fig.3d).Thesebootsweresuitableoutdoorwearasthehobnailsstuddingtheiroutersoleattestitclearly.56 Ontheinstep
andthefrontpartoftheshinofthefigurethebootisopenandthetwoendsofthe
shoelacearevisiblycrossingoveroneachotherandgoingthrougheyelets.Asthe
archaeologicalevidenceofRomanshoefindsattestsit,averysimilareyeletboot
ofthesocalledramshaw type wasmadefromasinglepieceofleatherwithadistinctive,frontfasteningandintegrallycutlaces.57 Itwasfashionablethroughoutthe
empirefromlate2nd andduringthe3rd centuryAD.58 Basedontheavailablearchaeologicalandiconographicevidencebothfrommilitaryandciviliancontext,
thistypeofbootcouldnotbecomfortinglyconsideredasexclusivelywornbysol-

Theyaremostlybeingvisibleonthelowerthighs,buttheyarealsoknowntohavebeenwoundaround
theupperthighsespeciallybyridinghuntsmenandsoldiers(CROOM,2002,54).
48
JAMes,2004,58-59.
49
JustasthosedescribedfortheemperorseverusAlexanderwhopreferredthewhitebreechesinsteadofwearingthepurpleones(SHA severusAlexander40.11).
50
PARlAsCA,1999,254-255no.159.
51
sTAuFFeR,2010,216fig.9,13-15.
52
hODAK,1996,293no.332.
53
De MOOR et al.,2008,176-177.
54
DIMITROv,1962,fig.5.
55
FIsCheR,2012,115,204.
56
ItwastheRomans,mostprobablytheRomanmilitaryforces,whohadintroducedhobnailed
footwearintotheeuropeanprovinces(vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1987,33),butlateritbecameacommon
wearamongtheprovincialinhabitantsofdifferentgenderandageforsavingtheirshoesfromwearing
out(GOlDMAn,1994,122).Thenailedwalkingsolewasdesignedforoutdooruseinsoftsoil,butan
inappropriateorevendangerouswearindoorsase.g.thefatalstoryofaRomansoldierwearinghobnailedcaligae whilewalkingonmarblefloorattestsit(Josephus,BJ,6.1.8).
57
vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1993,36;hIMMleR,2008;vOlKen,2008.
58
vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1986,141;vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1987,38fig.8;vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1999,
40;vAn DRIel-MuRRAy 2001,fig.1.23,2.

194

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

diers,59 butinaperiodofinnovationandgreatdiversityinshoewear(whichisthe
3rd century)60 itsremarkablemorphologicaluniformitytogetherwithitsempirewide
distributionmightindicateitsmassproductionandconsumption,orinotherwords,
towarditsmilitaryapplication.61 sincethispartoftheBrigetianwall-paintingisfragmentary,wecannotbetotallysurethattheabovedescribedRamshaw-typebootis
depictedhere,butbasedonthesurvivingdetailsanditschronologyitisveryprobable.Thepointedsoleshapeofthedepictedbootsalsounderlinesthe3rd century
ADdateofthewall-painting.62 Bootswithapointedtoeareacharacteristicfeature
oftheRomansoldiersdepictedonthe3rd centuryPannoniantombstones,too.63
Themostimportantdetailsofthepaintingarepresentedbytheornamentsof
thetunics,though.Beingofdark-red,almostpurplecolour,theyfollowasymmetricalsystemandconsistofawidebandalongtheneck-opening,bendingonboth
endsoftheslit,formingclavi (Fig.3b;4b).Theyrunuponthechest,endjustbelow
itandturnintoanarrowpointingdownwardsandservingasasigillum.Pyramidshapedepaulettesarebeingattachedtotheneck-opening,pointingtothesides,
andcoveringtheshoulders.Thelowerseamofthetunicshowsthesamedecoration
astheneck-openings,butthewidebandflankstheseamandafterbendingthe
arrow-headspointupwards(Fig.3aandc;4a).Thisdecorativeelementmaybe
calledparagaudae.64 Thesleevesaredecoratedwithmanicae,twoparallelbands
positionedontheforearm.
Thisdecorativesystemisgenerallywell-representedonRomandepictionsfrom
thebeginningofthe3rd centuryAD.Thepointedarrows,though,servingassigilla
oftheclavi andparagaudae,arerareandmarkacertaintypeofgarmentwhichis
tobeinterpretedasahigh-rankingofficersgala-dress,65 possiblythatofacenturion.
Imagesandtextilefindsprovetwosortsofarrowhead-clavi:singleanddoubled
bands(Fig.3;4;5b-c;7),implyingdifferentiatedmeanings,buttheinterpretation
oftheexactsignificancestilldeservesintensiveinvestigations.66 still,thistypeof
59
Theempirewidely-usedhobnailedmilitarycaligaeseemstohavegoneoutofusebythebeginningofthe2nd centuryADanditisdifficulttodiscernanyobvioussinglesuccessortoitinthemilitary
wear(vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1986,140;GOlDMAn,1994,122).
60
see:vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1987,39;vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1993,36.
61
ForitsuseintheRomanarmy,see:BIshOP-COulsTOn,1993,154-155fig.110;JAMes,2004,
59;PARlAsCA,1999,254-255no.159;suMneR,2009,202-203;hIMMleR,2008;vOlKen,2008.
62
BusCh,1965,no.172,186,737;MACCOnORAn,1986,no.8.26;vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1999,82.
63
uBl,1969.
64
Thetermparagauda canbefoundinwrittenrecordsfromegypt.IthasjustrecentlybeendiscussedbyJ.P.wIlD inthecontextofweaversmarks(wIlD,2012).hisinterpretationoftheterm
dealswithacertaintypeoftunic,whichhasbeenquiteexpensive.heagreesontheideathatatfirst
onlythedecorationwasnamedthisway,andthenthetermhasbeentransferredtotuniccarryingthis
kindofdecoration(pers.com.byJ.P.wIlD).Thus,hereinthisarticleparagaudae referstoacertain
typeoftunicsdecorationnamelythecolourfulseamwithitsupbendingends.
65
PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2011;PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012.
66
Thesectionoftheleftpersonsshoulderprovidesuncertaintiesinthepresentationwhetherit
mayshowasingleoradoubledclavus ofarrow-shapetype.Itappearsasiftheonesidehasbeendecoratedwithdoubledclavus whiletheothercarriesonlyasingleone.Thisdoesnotgoalongwiththe
generalsymmetricalconceptoftheRomantunics.Thereforethepaintingistakenforarepresentation

Power dressing in Pannonia

195

Fig.7.(a)FragmentsofatunicfoundatDura-europos,terminus ante quem 256AD,afterPFIsTeR and


BellInGeR,1945,pl.vII.3;(b)sketchesoftunicdecorationsfoundatDuraeuropos,afterPFIsTeR
andBellInGeR, 1945,fig.1;(c)fragmentofatunicfoundinthegraveofJamblicho,Palmyra,late1st2nd centuryAD,afterPFIsTeR,1934,17T13Iva.

decorationmarkstheonlykindofgarmentthatmaybeinterpretedasakindof
Romanmilitaryuniform,atall.67
Allfindstextilesandimagesrefertothesamedecorativeconcept,material,
dyestuffs,andtechnology:thetunicwaswoventoshape,startingwithasleeve,
usingunpigmentedandundyedwool(whichisthemostexpensivetypeinAntiquity)fortheground-weaveanddyedyarnsoftrueshellfishpurpleorsometimes
ofamixtureofmadderandindigoforthedecorationsmadebytapestry-technique
(Fig.7a-c;8c).Themolluscpurpleisknowntohavebeenthemostexpensive

ofthesingleclavus typeandtheseeminglydoubledversionisrathertobeinterpretedasthedepiction
ofshadowsorfoldsbeneaththearm.
67
latestinvestigationscarriedoutonthetextilefindsfromDidymoiledD.CARDOn totheidea
thatthearrow-shapeoftheclavi referredtosyrianarchersintheRomanarmy(CARDOn et al.,2011,
294no.58).Thisinterpretationistoberejectedwhentakingtheotherelementsandsymbolspresented
inpaintingsliketheoneofTyranosintoaccount(seebelow).Recently,thisthesishasalsobeenacceptedbyThomasFischer(FIsCheR,2012,113).

196

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

dyestuffinAntiquity.Butbeyonditsprice,itwasofhighprestigeandofficially
markedthegarmentsofRomansenatorsandknightsonduty.narrowbands(subsumingrelativelysmallamountsofpurpleyarn)signifiedtheknightsandwide
bands(subsumingrelativelylargeamountsofpurpleyarn)thesenators.68

PICTORIAl COMPARIsOns FROM eGyPT AnD syRIA


excavationsbroughtfewimagestolight,depictingmenintunicsofthistype.
Therearetwopaintingsfoundinegyptapaintedshroudandamummyportrait
(Fig.5b-c)whichshowtheupperpartofthetunicingreatdetail.Furthermore,a
wall-paintingfoundatDura-europosinsyriadepictsthiskindofdressflamboyantly(Fig.6).
Tostartwiththeuniqueandmostfascinatingandinformativeimage,thecolourfulpaintingshowsthebustofayoungmandressedinsuchatunic,worninthe
beltedversion,combinedwithanochreouscloak,andthehandleofaswordanda
certaingoldenring(Fig.5b).68bis elementsdepictedtransmitinformationonthesocialstatusaswellastheethnicityoftheperson,andthedatingoftheimagewhich
hasbeenmentionedbeforeandpublishedelsewhere(Paetzgen.schieck2011;
Paetzgen.schieck2012).
Thepaintingisappliedonalargepieceoflinentextilethatservedastheshroud
of a mummy.69 It was found in Deir el-Medineh on the west bank of the
nilewhereaRomangarrisonwasstationed(Maxfield2000,420) oppositeto
luxor/Thebes,inMiddleegypt.nodetailsofthefindingsituationareknown,but
KlausParlascaassumesthatthemummywasbeddedinoneofthemagistrates
grave-chambers which were often reused for burials in Roman times.69bis The
shroudwasdisconnectedfromthemummytobetakentotheluxor-Museum,
whereitseverelysufferedfromwater-damage,asloreleiCorcorannoticedin1995
(Corcoran1995,69-70).Thedecorativecoverofthemummymusthaveconsisted
oftwopaintedshroudsofaboutthesamesize,sincethecompositionofthepreservedpaintingconcentratesontheupperpartofthebodyandleavesanundecoratedzonetobecoveredbyasecondsheet,whichismissing.Inanalogytoother
paintedshrouds,itistobeassumedthatthecanvascarriedthedepictionofthe
mansbodybelowthepelvis.Concerningthedress,itmaybesuggestedthatthe
beltedtunicendedataboutthekneesandwascombinedwithtrousersandboots,

68

PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2011;PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012.


PARlAsCA 1981,186-187no.290fig.154,194pl.Xv;PARlAsCA 1999,23-48esp.39fig.31;
PARlAsCA 2003,63no.763pl.171.1;Cat.luxor1978,113no.290;AuBeRT AnD CORTOPAssI 19981999,16fig.1.
69
luxorMuseuminv.no.J.194/Q1512.-Thepaintingitselfmeasures85.5cminheightand
70.5cminwidth.Itisframedbyanundecoratedzoneofabout5cm.Itservedastheoutercoverofa
mummy,whichtodayislost.
69bis
PARlAsCA 1981,186-187,no.290fig.154,194pl.Xv.
68bis

Power dressing in Pannonia

197

takingthisinformationfromtheJuliusTerentiuswall-paintingofDura-europos
asamodel(Fig.6).70
Theshroudportraysamanwhodiedinthetimeofthe1st quarteror1st thirdof
the3rd centuryADthedatebeingsuggestedbythestyleofthepainting,thefacial
expression,hairstyleandbeard-fashion.hisburialwascompletelyofegyptian
manner,andtheinscriptionprovidinghisnameTyranosiswritteninGreek.
Thereforeitcanbetakenforsurethatheoratleasthisfamilybelongedtothe
egyptianupperclassofGreekeducation,justasthosepersonswhotookcareof
hisburial.Theymighthavebeenhiscomrades.
Mostremarkably,Tyranoswasdepictedinhisoccupationaldress,presenting
himasanofficeroftheRomanarmy.70bis severaldetailsoftheimageprovethis
theory:theredbeltwiththetinygoldenringbuckleaccompaniedbytwosilver
buttons,domedstuds,andtheleatherstraparrangedontherightsideofthemans
body.Itisatypicalmilitarybuckletypedatingtothe3rd centuryAD.71 Thegolden
ringadornedwithgem-stonewornonthetinyfingerofhislefthandistobeinterpretedasanawardtocenturionsandprincipales,asymbolthathasbeeninitiated
byseptimiusseverus.72 ThecloakservedasamarkeroftheRomanmilitaryas
well73 inthiscase,itisofochreouscolourandnotadornedwithfringes.when
comparingtheshroudwiththeDura-europos-paintingtobediscussed(Fig.6),it
becomesevidentthatTyranosmusthavebeenofcenturiosrank,justbelowthe
tribune.74
Onefurtherelementwouldprovideamoreexactdetermination,butthepainting
isdamagedinthissection:thetypeoffibula closingthecloakontherightshoulder.
Inanalogytoegyptianmummyportraitpaintings,Tyranosmayhavewornanoval
typeoffibula madeofgold,adornedwithanovalgemstoneandarowofsmallcirculargemsarrangedalongtherim.75 Takingalloftheseelementsintoaccount,and
interpretingthepostureandfacialexpressionofTyranosastense,thepaintingisto
bereadasshowinghimonduty.sincethisoccupationaldressisofsuchdominance,thetunicitselfanditspurpledecorationhavetobetakenasindicatorsfor
highrankingRomanmilitary.76
Thesecondcolourfulpaintingfromegyptislessinformativeandtosomeextent
confusing(Fig.5c).77 ItwasfoundintheFayumoasisinegypt,andbelongstothe
Antikensammlung oftheStaatliche Museen zu Berlin.78 Theportraitshowsthebust
Paetzgen.schieck2011,316-317,319;Paetzgen.schieck2012,94fig.7.3,95-97,104-105.
PARlAsCA hassuggestedtheinterpretationofthedepictionasbeingthatofaRomanofficer.
Forhisconclusionhefocusedonthesword-handleonly.see:PARlAsCA,1999,39fig.31.Onthesignificanceofswords,seeFIsCheR,2012,103.
71
hOss,2010,118;hOss,2012,39;JAMes,1999;FIsCheR,2012,121,126-128.
72
AlFlDI,1952,26-35;AlFlDy,2000,45.
73
sAnDeR,1963,149-150,152-153;FIsCheR,2012,135-136.
74
PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2011,314-316;PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012,94fig.7.3,95.
75
PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2010,93fig.12.
76
FIsCheR,2012,113.
77
BORG,1998,69,no.82;PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012,103fig.7.9.
78
Antikensammlung,staatlicheMuseenzuBerlin,Inv.no.31162/23.
70

70bis

198

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

ofayoungman.hisincarnateandshorthair-cutreferstothesameperiodasthe
Tyranos-paintingandtheBrigetianwall-paintings.whilethehead-dressiscutvery
short,justonesectionofthehairiswornlong,beingboundtothesideofthehead
withaband.79 Thisfeatureappearstobethehorus-curl,atypicalegyptiantraitdeterminingyoungboys,mostlychildren,asservantsoftheIsis-cult.Butotherthan
expectedthedepictionpresentsayoungadult.Thosecurlshavebeendepictedin
varyingshapesanddeservefurtherinvestigationwhethertheyrefertoIsisormay
havebeenofdifferentmeaningssuchasthehighsocialstatusinegyptiansociety.80
Thepersonsbustshowsthewhiteouter-tunicwithpurplearrow-shapedclavi
ofthedoubledTyranostype,andpyramid-shapedepaulettesdecoratetheshoulders,presentedonhisrightshoulderonly,duetohisposture.Alongtheneckopening,awhiteunder-tunicbecomesvisible,showingclavi ofthreenarrowand
parallelbandseach. OtherthantheTyranos-depiction,themanisshownwithout
acloak,and,duetotheimagesectionpresented,neitherbeltnorringnorthehandleofaswordareenclosedinthepainting,whichwoulddeterminethepersons
occupation.
Anotherbutveryfamouswall-paintingwasfoundintheruinsofDura-europos
intheeastofsyria.Dura-europosservedasagarrisonsoutpostontheeuphrates
Riverandwasbesiegedbyasassaniancampaignin256AD.Theplacewasthen
abandonedandthedateofitsdefeatservesasaterminus ante quem forthoseitems
thatcameintothegroundsduetothebattle.Thepaintinghasbeencarriedoutabit
earlierandistobedatedtotheyear239AD(Fig.6).81 Itwasoneofthepanelsthat
coveredthewallsofthetempleofthePalmyreneGods.Thewallwassubdivided
bybroadredlinesintoseveralpanelsofvaryingsizes,lackingageneralsymmetricalconcept.82 Thepanelofspecialinterestisofrectangularshapeandcomposed
inthreesections,presentingthreePalmyreneGodsandtwoTychaiontheleft,two
rowsofofficersontheright,andastandardbearerandthemainfigureinthecentre.
Theystandoppositetoeachother,flankinganaltaronwhichthemainfigureoffers
incensetotheGods.Aninscriptionclearlynamesthepersonsandthemilitarycontext:themainfigureisdefinedbyaninscriptionasJuliusTerentius,thetribunus,
andheisaccompaniedbyhiselitetroops,thecohors XX Palmyrenorum.83 AccordingtoMichaelspeidel,ancientauthorsdifferentiatedamongregularsyriantroops
oflittlemotivationandinbadshape,andtheeliteunitsofDura-europos,appearing
tohavebeentheearliesteliteunitselectedoutofthesyriantroop,ever.84
79
BORG,1996,187;BORG,1998,68-69.BarbaraBorgstatesthatamongtheancientportraitstwo
typesofthesecurlscanbedetermined.Theonetypecanbestbeidentifiedinamummyportraitatthe
J.PaulGettyMuseumatMalibu(inv.no.78.AP.262)showingaboywithanearlycompleteshaven
head,twotinysectionsifhaironhisforeheadandthelosecurlontherightsideofthebackofhishead.
ThesecondtypeisbeingreflectedbytheBerlinpainting,presentingthehair-cutascutshortbutnot
shaved,andthecurlasakindofpony-tailboundwithaband.seeBORG,1998,68-69figs.81-82.
80
BORG,1998,55-56.
81
BAuR andROsTOvzeFF,1931,67-69;BReAsTeD,1922,199-206;CuMOnT,1926,89-10.
82
CuMOnT,1926,pl.XlIX.
83
Thepaintingmeasures107x165cm.ItwastransferredtotheyaleuniversityArtGalleryat
newhaven,bearingtheinv.no.1931.3806.
84
sPeIDel,1984,esp.305,307-309.

Power dressing in Pannonia

199

Mostofthemenhaveaveryshorthaircutandwearafull-beardexceptofone
youngmanontheright.Allaredressedalike,wearingawhitetunicwithdarkreddecorations,reachingjustabovethekneesandbeingbelted.85 Thetuniciscombinedwith
long-legged,darkbrownandtight-fittingtrousers,wornincombinationwithdark
brown,almostblackboots(Fig.6).Allmencombinethetunicwithcloakscovering
theirleftsideandbeingfastenedontheirrightshoulder.Mostofthemareofochreous
colourandwithoutfringes.exceptionstothisrulearethecloakofthemainfigure,
whichisofwhitecolourandpurplefringes,andthatoftheyoungmeninthefirstrow,
secondfromtheright,whosecloakisofwhitecolouraswell,butwithoutfringes.
Thepaintingenvisagesaclearhierarchyamongthemen,becomingevidentinthe
arrangementoftworowsofpersons,ofwhichthefiguresinthefrontarecarriedout
withgreatcare.Thedepictionstriggeredthediscussionontheuseofuniformsinthe
Romanarmy.Oneofthemainproblemsconcerningthistopicishowtodefinethe
termuniform.Accordingtosomescholarsitshouldonlybeusedwhenspea-king
ofgarmentsthathavebeenmass-produced,usingstandardisedmaterialsofpermanent
andreproduciblequality,andshapeasforthemodernmilitary.86 standardizedproductionsofthiskindwerenotprovidedbyancienttextileprodu-cerssinceeachproduct
washand-made,andthegreatnumbersofnecessarygarmentsandshoewearforthe
armyunitswerepurchasedfromseveraldifferentsuppliers87 beforetheinstitutionof
4th centuryADstate-ownedtextilefactories,whichwereestablishedandmanagedfor
mass-producingtextilegoods,e.g.garmentsforthelateRomanarmy.88 Othersstate
thatithasnotbeennecessarytotheRomanarmytodressupalike,sincetheenemies
oftheRomanslookeddifferentanyhow.89 Plus,determinablecolour-codesaretaken
foranecessityoccurringsinceweaponsofyoungerhistory.Canons,forinstance,produceheavysmokeandarmieshadtodeterminethemselvesthroughcolourcombinationsservingasmarkersoftheownunitsunderpoorconditionsofvisibility.uniforms
inthissensehavenotbeenusedbyancientarmies.
still,astrictlystructured,hierarchicalandorder-basedsocietylikethearmy
wasinastrongneedforacertainsetofuniformdress-elementscharacterisingthe
ranksandbeingvisibleandperceivabletoeverybody.90 whiletheindividualpieces
ofgarmentsandaccessorieswereslightlydifferentfromeachother,theoverallappearanceofthesoldiersormilitaryofficers(e.g.generaloutlines,numberofelements,etc.)musthavebeenofadefinedkindandexpressinhesionwithintheRoman
armyandthemilitaryunits.91 uniformityofdressandequipmentmarkstheRoman
army.AccordingtoThomasFischer,though,uniformityofRomansoldiersistobe

85
Oneboyofthe1st rowappearstobedifferent.hishairisblond;hehasnobeard,wearsawhite
cloakwithoutfringes.Butmostofall,h.GRAnGeR-TAylOR andD.CARDOn observedaswastika-motif
decoratingtheknee-zoneofthetunic.seeCuvIGny,2011fig.310a-b,378pl.14a.
86
hOss,2010,115-116.
87
vAn DRIel-MuRRAy,1985;DROss-KRPe,2012;lIu,2012.
88
Forthegynaecea,see:wIlD,1967;JOnes,1974;huRsT,1994;BelAMARI, 2004;TTh,2009,
136-137.
89
FIsCheR,2012,77.
90
FIsCheR,2012,97-98.
91
JAMes,2004,49-56,251-254.

200

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

interpretedasaphenomenonexpressinglocaltraditionsevolvingatthosesites,
wherethearmywasstationedforalongerperiodoftime,ratherthaninterpreting
thisasanexpressionofrulesenforcedfromRome.92
whenreturningtotheJuliusTerentiusdepiction(Fig.6),differentiationsare
beingpresentedtotheaudiencebythehierarchyofdepictingthefiguresintwo
rows,andbythekindandcolourofthecloaks.Othersymbolsaretobetakeninto
considerationaswell,butduetothesmallsizeofthefiguresandthedamagesof
thepainting,detailsofthegarmentsoreventhetypesoffibulae cannotbedetermined.Thetunicsdecoration,though,consistsofwidebandsflankingtheneckopeningandtheedgeofthetunic,andredmanicae decoratethesleeves,thedark
redcolourbeinganimportantelement.Thepaintingdoesnotallowdetailedinsights
intothetextiledecorations,butthegeneraldress-ensembleiscloselyrelatedto
otherdepictions:cloak,belt,sword,whitetunicwithpurpledecorationarequite
alikewithTyranos(Fig.5b),andthewhitetunicwithpurpledesign,thebelted
wear,andthecombinationwithbreechesortrousersandbootsalsoresemblethe
Brigetianwall-painting.ThesesimilaritiessuggesttheDura-europosclavus and
paragaudae-decorationstobeofthearrowheadtypewithepaulettesaswell,especiallywhentakingtheoriginaltextilefindsfromDura-europosintoaccountthat
havebeenfoundatthesamesiteandwhichisdatedtothesameperiod.
AlBATi MiliTeS
Theuniformityofthedressesdepictedinthewall-paintingofJuliusTerentius
atDura-europoshasbeendiscussedquiteoftenandthemilitarycontextofthe
paintingiswidelyaccepted.93 still,thequestionsofhowtodefinethegarments,
andtheoccasionoftheirwear,deserveconsideration.Duetothewhitetunics,FrancoisCumontcalledthemenalbati milites.94 hedefinedthegarmentsasspecial
dresswornbysoldiersonofficialoccasionsbutnotincampaign.simonJamescalls
thisoutfitthecampdress,95 worneverydayinoff-dutysituationincamp,implyingadailyusewhennotbeingonwarcampaign.But,wheninterpretingtheimagespresentingthesamecombinationofgarments,suchastheTyranos-painting
(Fig.5b;6),itbecomesevidentthatthedepictionsenvisagespecialoccasionssuch
asburialwithanofficialeverlastingrepresentationofthedeceasedasanofficer,as
wellasofferingstothePalmyreneGodsasanofficialmilitaryact.Thereforethe
dressratherhastobeinterpretedasakindofgala-uniform,whichmaybewornin
on-dutyandoff-dutysituations.On-dutyisbeingexpressedbytenseposture,
aswellastheequipmentwithbelt,sword,cloak,asforinstanceintheTyranosportraitandtheDura-europoswall-painting(Fig.5b;6).Off-dutyisbeingex-

92
93
94
95

FIsCheR,2012,77.
JAMes,2004,xiii,xiii,xxv,4-5,41-42,figs.18-20.
CuMOnT,1926,95.
JAMes,2004,59-60and257-258.

Power dressing in Pannonia

201

pressedbythepostureandoccupationofthemenatBrigetio,andmaywellbeobservedinthemummy-portrait(Fig.5c),andthemosaicsandthegold-glassknown
fromnorthernAfricaandRome.96 Themostinformativedetail,though,isthequestionwhetherthetuniciswornbeltedornot.Theredleatherbeltheldwithagolden
ring-buckleandsilverdomedstudappearstobetheultimatehintofdifferentiating
asoldierondutyoronleisuretime.
TeXTIle FInDs FROM eGyPT AnD syRIA
Textilefindsshowingthepurplearrow-shapeddecorationconcentrateinthe
ArabianDesertofegyptandtheeasternDesertofsyria(Fig.7a-c).Themostimportantcomplexprovidingtextilefragmentsofthistypehasjustrecentlybeenpublished:Didymoi,aRomanpraesidium intheeasternDesertofegypt,97 locatedon
theroutefromKoptos(onthenileinMiddleegypt)tothesouth-easternharbour
ofBerenikeontheRedsea.98
Koptosservedasanimportanttradingpostwhereluxuriousgoodsweretaken
to.ItisalsotheplacewhereespeciallyPalmyrenetradesmenandaPalmyreneunit
ofarcherscanbeprovenbywrittenrecords.99 AtKoptos,preciousgoodssuchas
emeraldsandotherkindsofgemstonesthatwerefoundintheeasternDesert,gold
andgoodsimportedfromIndiaweretraded,aswellasfoodsupply,amongitoil,
grains,andsalt,neededintheRomanmilitarycampsalongthedesertroutes.
Militarydesertcamps,thepraesidia,wereerectedtoproviderestingplaces,
water-supplyandshelterforcaravans.Theyservedlogisticaswellasadministrative
needsandfunctionedasbasesforpatrolunits.Inthelate2nd andearly3rd century
AD100 theyweregarrisonedbymenwhohadgreatexperienceinprotectingcaravan
routes,suchasPalmyreneirregularswhocanbeprovenbyinscriptionsatKoptos
forinstance,eventhenamesoftheirunitsareknown.101 AccordingtoRaphaela
Drexhage,recruitingPalmyrenesforthesejobsstartedintheageofTrajanandthe
numberswereincreaseduntilthetimeofhadrian.102
Didymoiwasfoundedin76/77ADandabandonedatabout240AD,according
toinscriptions.103 withinthefortress,numerousfragmentsofdiscardedRomantextileswerefound,amongthemnineofundyedandunpigmentedwhitewool,decoratedwithpurpletapestryweavesofthearrow-headmotifinsingleanddoubled
196
DOPPelFelD,1964,37,38no.19pl.31-33;COOney,1969,255;weITzMAnn,1977,89-90;DI
vITA et al.,1999,43.
197
CuvIGny, 2011, 3, 365 pl. 1. The excavations were carried out by the Institut Franais
dArchologieOrientalefrom1997to2000.TheIFAOinvestigatedseveralRomanfortsintheeastern
Desertofegypt.
198
MAXFIelD,1996.
199
DReXhAGe,1982,31;RuFFInG,1995.
100
MAXFIelD,1996.
101
sPeIDel,1992a.
102
DReXhAGe,1982,31.
103
BRun et al.,2011,157,163.

202

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

version.104 Basedonthestratigraphy,thefragmentscanbedatedtothelate2nd and


1st halfofthe3rd centuryAD.Thetextilesarefragmentedandmostlyfoundinwastedumps,beingpartsofgarmentsthatwerewornforlongperiodsoftimebeforebeing
discarded.sincethesitebasicallyhostedmenofamilitarygarrison,itislikelythat
thegarmentsbelongedtomembersoftheunit.Therepetitionofthedecorationas
wellastherelativelylargenumbersuggeststhefragmentstohavebeenpartsofa
uniformkindofdresswornbytheinhabitantsofthefortressinthedesert.
ThesecondcomplexofsuchtextilefindswovenintapestrywasfoundinDuraeuroposontheeuphrates(Fig.7a-c).Thedebrisofatower,forinstance,contained
twofragmentsofagarmentthatwasmadeofoff-whiteandundyedwool,showing
onesetofpurplemanicae,anarrow-shapedclavus andtheattachedpyramid-shaped
epauletteoftheshoulderpointingtothesleeve.105 Otherfragmentsofsimilardesign
havebeenpublishedbyRudolphePfisterandlouisaBellingerinsketches,106 also
documentingalargernumberoftextilesofthiskind(Fig.7b).
ORIGIn OF These TunIC-DeCORATIOns
Takingtheinformationoforiginaltextilefindsandanalogousdepictionstogetheritbecomesevident,thatthepurplearrow-shapedclavi,paragaudae andthe
104
CARDOn et al.,2011,(1)355tab.3;296-297,376pl.12b,nos.D99.3306.1A&B(wool,two
fragmentsofaneck-openingofpurpletapestry-weaveinunpigmentedandundyedground-weave,(A)
12.5x3.2cm,(B)5.6x3.8cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,12threadspercentimetre;z-spunweftthreadofground-weave,28perthreadspercentimetre;tapestry-weavez-spun,40threadspercentimetres;purplecolourachievedbyindigoandmadder;foundinphase11ofthewaste-dump;dating
to176-210AD);(2)298-299,377pl.13c,no.D98.10204.2(wool,fragmentofground-weaveantwo
arrowheads,17x12cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,13threadspercentimetre;s-spunweft-threadof
ground-weave,30perthreadspercentimetre;tapestry-weaves-spun,42threadspercentimetres;purple
colourachievedbyindigoandmadder;foundinthefillingofcistern2;datingto200-225AD);(3)
299,377pl.13e,no.D99.13705.1(wool,fragmentofground-weaveantwoarrowheads,19.5x27.5
cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,21threadspercentimetre;s-spunweft-threadofground-weave,31per
threadspercentimetre;tapestry-weaves-spun,9threadsper0.15cm;datingtoabout200-225AD);
(4)299-300,377pl.14a,nos.D99.13103.1A-C(wool,fragmentofground-weavewithoneclavus of
arrowhead-shapeandswastikaasshoulderdecoration,(A)10x11.5cm,(B)6x6.5cm,(C)0.9x0.7
cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,11-14threadspercentimetre;s-spunweft-threadofground-weave,37
perthreadspercentimetre;tapestry-weaves-spun,45threadsper0.15cm;foundinthefort;datingto
about200-250AD);(5)301,379pl.15c,no.D2000.12207.3(wool,fragmentofground-weaveand
onearrowhead,3.2x3.7cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,12threadspercentimetre;s-spunweft-thread
ofground-weave,21threadspercentimetre;tapestry-weaves-spun,34threadspercentimetres;found
inthefort;datingto220AD);(6)301-302,379pl.15d,no.D2000.12015.2(wool,fragmentofgroundweavewiththreearrowheads,12.5x8.5cm;tights-spunwarp-threads,20threadspercentimetre;sspunweft-threadofground-weave,34threadspercentimetre;tapestry-weaves-spun,34threadsper
centimetres; found in room 20 in the fort; dating to4 225-250 AD); (7) 302, 379 pl. 15e, no.
D99.13501.2(wool,fragmentofground-weavewiththreearrowheads,8.5x14cm;s-spunwarpthreads,13threadspercentimetre;s-spunweft-threadsofground-weave,31threadspercentimetre;
tapestry-weaves-spun,23threadsper0.5centimetres;foundinthefort;datingto4220-250AD).
105
wIlsOn,1931,179pl.XIXno.1;PFIsTeR andBellInGeR,1945,17no.3,5fig.1.3pl.vII.3;
PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2011,322figs.6,7;PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012,100figs.7.6,7.7.
106
PFIsTeR andBellInGeR,1945,18-19nos.11-14figs.1.11-1.14pl.IX,3.

Power dressing in Pannonia

203

Fig.8.(a)limestonefunerarybanquetscenefromtombno.186(ditdelaviation),Palmyra
Palmyra-ArchivBern,A.schmidt-Colinet;(b)sketchofthewholefigure,late2nd centuryADafter
seyRIG,1937,21,fig.12;(c)textilefragmentfoundatPalmyra,nationalMuseumDamascus
Palmyra-ArchiveBern,A.schmidt-Colinet;(d)loculus-reliefattheArchaeologicalMuseumofPalmyra
A.Paetzgen.schieck.

epauletteswereofmilitaryimportanceandmostlikelyservedassymbolsof
ranks.TheyfirstappearintheeasternMediterraneanregionsofsyriaandegyptin
theperiodofthelate2nd and1st halfofthe3rd centuryAD.Theretheyservedas
decorationsofregionalPalmyrenemalegarmentsoftheratherParthiantype,being
worninbanquetcontextsbymenofmilitarysignificance.
wheninvestigatingarchaeologicalremainsofPalmyra,itseemsthatthepattern-designandcolour-combinationwasprefiguredinPalmyrainthe1st and2nd
centuryAD(Fig.8a-d).earliestpictorialevidenceandtextilefindsderivingfrom
burialcontextsconsistofsmalltextilefragmentsofslightlydifferingdesignandof
funerarysculpture(Fig.8a,bandd).107 Althoughafragmentofashouldersection
whichwasfoundinthetombofJamblichoandwoveninunpigmentedaswellas
purplewoolshowsfourparallelclavi ofarrow-type,itendsinheart-shapedmotives
andanattachedpyramidshapedepaulettecanbetraced(Fig.7c;8d).108 Another
tinyfragmentconsistsofanarrow-shapedmotivewhichformerlydecoratedthe
edgeofashirt(Fig.8c).109
Thedress-ensembleandtheshapeofitselementscanalsobeobservedinlimestonesculptureofthePalmyrenegrave-reliefs.Thearrow-motivesdecoratedthe
clavus-areanexttotheneck-opening,andasparagaudae ontheedgeofashirt(Fig.
8a-d).Additionally a row of triangular elements was arranged along the seam
amongthearrows,formingakindofparagauda.Thesameelementalsodecorated

107

PAeTz Gen.sChIeCK,2012,104,105figs.7.10-11.
PFIsTeR,1934,17T11pl.IIIb,17T13pl.Iva.
109
PFIsTeR,1940,22l.95fig.8pl.Ivc;sChMIDT-COlIneT,1995,31,46figs.69-70;sChMIDTCOlIneT et al.,2000,42,151no.272pl.47d,colourpl.IIIa;187no.514pl.26c,49a-besp.49b.
108

204

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

theseamofthetight-fittinglongsleeves,accompaniedbytwoparallelbands,the
manicae.
sculpturesandtextilesbothbelongedtothelocal,indigenousupperclasswho
couldaffordanexpensiveburialchamberandwhorippeduptheirpreciousgarmentsinordertopreparethecorpsesfortheirafterlives.Thedecorationwasplaced
onmaleshirts,wornwithoutabeltandstillreachingonlyhalfwaydownthethigh
andhavingbeencuttriangularlygaininginwidthtowardstheedge.Combining
withthistypeofupper-garmentwhichAnnemariestauffercallsashirt,110 menwear
widetrousers,andacloakfastenedontheirrightshoulder.Twobanquet-reliefs
werefoundinthetombeau dit de laviation,graveno.186,setupinthehypogaeum
ofthesouth-easternnecropolisinmoderntimesbutdatingtothelate2nd or3rd centuryAD(Figs.8a-b).111 Justasthearrow-headclavi,theepaulettesofstepped
pyramidshapehavebeendepictedinlimestonesculpturesandreliefs,showingthe
combinationwithtriangularfriezesandmanicae.suchreliefsarebeingstoredin
theArchaeologicalMuseumofPalmyra(Fig.8d),andinthenyCarlsbergGlyptotekatCopenhagen.112
somehowthedecorativeelementsweretransferredtotheRomanmilitarygarmentstheiractualmeaningandthereasonsforthistransferralcanhardlybereconstructed.ItmayhavebeenthroughtheemploymentofPalmyreneauxiliary
units.Takingthesedecorationsoverintothemilitaryhierarchicalsystemmayhave
resultedfromameremasculineworldofvirtue,masculinityandhonour,which
mayhaveevenbeenhaveturnedouteasytoacceptbyRomans,sinceitreferredto
thesamecolour-codesystemusedinRomansocietyanyhow:thesocialcodesdifferentiatingbetweensenatorsandknights.Informationwastransmittedthrough
narrowandwideclavi madeofyarnsdyedwiththemostexpensiveandhighlyprestigiousshellfishpurple.
Quitesoon,afterthesetunicshavebeenacceptedwidelybythearmy,theymay
aswellhavebeentakentotherestoftheworldeitherbyOrientalsthatweremoved
toplaceslikeBrigetio,orforinstancePannonianmilitaryunitsthatweretransferred
tothelevantineoralongtheeuphrates(e.g.zeugma)andmovedbacktoPannonia
afterfightingintheeasterncampaigns.Those,whomovedfromtheeasttoCentral
europemaysimplyhavebroughtthesetunicswiththemortransportedpatternbooks,transferredtechniquesorevenbroughtorientalcraftsmentothenorthwhich
110

sTAuFFeR,2010,esp.tab.2P6.
sChMIDT-COlIneT,1995,46fig.69,70;sChMIDT-COlIneT,et al.,2000,pl.26c(=CuvIGny,
2011,377a,b(detail),pl.49b(=CuvIGny,2011,376d-e).
112
PlOuG,1995,180-182no.73;sTAuFFeR,2010,215fig.7;comparewithtextilefragment
sChMIDT-COlIneT et al.,2000,no.272pl.III&47d,no.514pl.49a;sTAuFFeR,2010,215fig.8.while
the combination of the decorative elementsmanicae, paragaudae, arrow-head-clavi and stepped
epaulettescanonlybetracedinPalmyra,laterinDura-europos,andDidymoi,fewtextilefragments
showtheepauletteswithoutclavi.AtKhirbetQazone,Jordan,theneck-openingofachildssleeved
tunicisdecoratedwithawidebandandthepyramid-elementsontheshouldersdatingtothe2nd or3rd
CenturyAD(GRAnGeR-TAylOR,2000,150,159fig.14).Ofaboutthesametime,afragmentofadoubledclavus andanattachedpyramidepaulettehasalsobeenfoundatinthewaste-dumpsofMons
Claudianus(MAnneRInG,2000,287-288fig.6f).
111

Power dressing in Pannonia

205

enabledthemtoproducetheornamentslocally.Clothingformilitarywasnotnecessarilysuppliedlocallyandtherewerealsoothersolutionsavailableatthattime,
too.e.g.similarlytootherunitsintheRomanarmy,thelegio i Adiutrix couldalso
ordergarmentsforitsownsupplyviainterregionaltransactionsandfromother
provinces.113 Consideringtheepigraphicevidenceforthepresenceofwell-to-do
syriansinBrigetio fromthelate2nd centuryADon,wecanassumethattheynurturedaflourishingrelationshipwiththeirmotherlandandpossiblywiththelocal
craftspeopleaswell.evidently,torelyonamediatorinsuchtransactionswasnot
unfamiliarforthislegion,astheinscriptiononasilverplateofunknownprovenance
anddatedprobablytothe1st centuryADattestsitunambiguously.114 Accordingto
thetext,itwasagiftfromadetachmentoflegio i Adiutrix foracertainAemilianus,
aclothesdealer(vestiarius),whotookcareofbusinessinGaulorinCappadocia.
Aemilianusmayhavebeensomehowresponsibleforpurchasingclothingforthis
unitinquestion.sinceitsparticipationinseveraleasternmilitarycampaignsthe
legionitselfcouldhavehadacloseconnectiontothelocaltextilesuppliersinsyria
andcouldpurchasethesetunicsdirectlyfromsyria.unfortunately,duetothelack
offurtherevidence,thereareseveralplausiblepossibilitiesintheinterpretation.
hunTInG FelInes sKIns As syMBOls OF MAle leIsuRe TIMe OCCuPATIOn
whileTyranosandtheJuliusTerentiuscrewareshownintenseandstraight
postures,adornedwiththeirfullmilitaryequipment,othertypesofdepictionsshow
meninratherleisurepostures:eatingwhilestanding(Brigetio),lyingatasymposium,115 ridingonahorsebackwhilehuntingboarsorfelines.116 Both,thesymposiumandhuntingscenesrefertoleisure-timeoccupationsofamasculinesociety,
suchasthatofhigh-rankingofficersofthemilitary,spendingtheirspare-timeon
costlyoccupations.117 especiallytheidealofhuntingwild,largeanddangerousanimalsfromthehorsebackhasbeenverypopularinlateAntiquityandinnorthern
Africa.wealthymenestablishedhugedomainswheretheyfosteredwildanddangerous animals and then celebrated hunting them on festivities and in large
groups.118
Keepingthisinmind,thesecondtypeofpanelsthosefilledwithaspreadout
skinofawildcatgainsimportanceinthedepictedcycleofBrigetio (Fig.9a-c).

113

DROss-KRPe,2008;lIu,2008.
KRuse,2005;lIu,2008,22-24.
115
MosaicofThaenae (sfax),Tunisia,4th centuryAD; inscription:DMS / AMiANTUS ViXiT
ANNiS XX (DOPPelFelD,1964,37,38no.19pl.31-33).
116
Glass-plateattheClevelandMuseumofArtinv.no.69.68;Dm.25.4cm;250-275AD;inscription:Alexander homo felix pie zeses cum tuis (COOney,1969,255;weITzMAnn,1977,89-90).Mosaic
ofthenile-villaatleptisMagna,libya,4th centuryAD(DI vITA et al.,1999,43).
117
Interestingly,basedonthetestimonyofthearchaeozoologicalremainstheretendtobemore
wildanimalsatmilitarythaninciviliansitesinPannonia(ChOyKe 2003,213).
118
sChneIDeR,1982,158-174.
114

206

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Fig.9.wall-paintingatBrigetio:(a)spreadoutskinofthelioness;(b)detailofthelionesshead,(c)
detailofthepantheressheadA.Paetzgen.schieck.

Thedepictionofthelionessonthewesternwallisinbetterconditionandalmost
completelypreservedwhilethedepictionofthepantheressonthenorthernwall
consistsjustofthefragmentshowingtheheadandsomepartsoftheskin.119 The
skinsaredepictedinmostcharacteristicways:thelionessshowsadark-orangetan
withwhitishandfluffyfuralongtheearsandcheeks;thepantheresstanisrather
whitish,slightlygrey,andshowspatchesofcircularandovalshapes,outlinedin
darkcolour.120 Thedangerousnessofbothfelinesisstressedbythelargeripperteeth
pointingupwards,whiletheheadislaidbacktotheneck.Thepresenceoftheteeth
givestheinformationthattheskinissupposedtostillholdtheanimalsskulls.
Thetypeoffelinedepictionsandthecombinationofthemwithcertaindecorative
elementsseemstohavebeenofinterestofthattime.Tinyfragmentsofwall-paintings
thathavebeenfoundinthecentreofvienna,inhouseCatMichaelerplatz,seemto
presentnearlyacopyoftheBrigetianpaintings.Onefragmentholdsthewhiteground
colour,theredframeandtheyellowlineswithdotsheadingfromtheedgeofthe
innerframe.121 whileseveralfragmentsdepicttheovalornamentsofapantherskin.122
slightlydifferentbutstillquitealikeintermsofthedecorativesystemthe
Romanvillaofyvonand-Mordagneinswitzerland123 presentsanimalsskinstoo.124
119

Panther:BORhy andszMAD,2001,96-97fig.7,9.lion:BORhy et al. 2010,112fig.5.


ComparesAKl-OBeRThAleR,2008,136fig.21.
121
sAKl-OBeRThAleR,2008,136fig.20.
122
sAKl-OBeRThAleR,2008,136fig.21.
123
DuBOIs,1996;DuBOIs,1999.
124
seeforinstancethewall-paintingsoftheRomanvilla atyvonand-Mordagneinswitzerland.
Thesewall-paintingsshowtheskinsofCapricorns.Theirheadsareshownwiththehornspointingupwards,ratherthandownwardswhichwouldbethecorrectpositionwhenpinningtheskintothewall
andhavingtheheadfallbackwards.DifferingfromtheBrigetio paintings,atinyfigureofagladiator
ispositionedrightinthecentreoftheskin.
120

Power dressing in Pannonia

207

Inthiscase,capricornsarebeingshownwithanatomicallyincorrectlyturnedheads
orientedtothetopandbeingbentbackwards(Fig.9b-c).
Besidesthecloseparallelsofyvonand-Mordagne,differencescanbetraced,
especiallywhentakingthesizeofthehumanfiguresintoaccount,aswellasthe
generaltopic.Thepaintersofyvonand-Mordagnealsopresentedanotherpurely
masculinetopic,andtheyemployedthesameelementstotelltheirstory:the
spreadoutskinandhumanfiguresdepictingmen.ButdifferingfromBrigetio,the
humanfiguresareofverytinysizeandpositionedinthecentreoftheskins,rather
thaninindividualpanels.Thegeneraltopicreferstoanarenasceneandthecapricornsundoubtedlyalsotransmitmalevirtuesaswell,butofratherdifferentmeaning.Themendealingwiththeseanimalshadtobeskilledandversatile,sincethey
standforrapidmovement,andthreatthroughtheirantlers,andtheyareofregional
provenance.AtBrigetio,thepaintingreferstothehuntinggenrecarriedoutonthe
domainsofRomannoblesinnorthernAfrican,andthefelinestransmitotherinformationonthemasculineworldwhichareotherskillsandvirtues.Although,
certainspeciesoffelineshavebeennativeincentraleurope,forinstanceinthe
CarpathianBasin,thedepictionofalionandapantherratherreferstothenorthern
AfricanandlevantinefaunainRomantimes.whentakingtheprovenanceofthe
depictedmenofthewall-decorationcycleintoaccount,thefelinesaretobetaken
asfurtherindicatorshintingattheRomaneast,especiallysyria,egyptandnorthernAfricawhichalwaysstoodforwealthandluxuriouslifestyle.Fromthis
regionluxuriousgoodssuchassilkandpurpleenteredthemarketsoftheRoman
empire,aswellaswildanimalswerecaughtfortheRomanarenaeventsand
whichshuntbecameanindustryinthatregion.Richmenestablishedlargeestates
wheretheyhuntedandkeptthoseanimalsespeciallyinlateAntiquity.hunting
large and undomesticated animals became a highly prestigious and luxurious
leisureoccupationofwell-offmen,bywhichtheydemonstratedtheirenormous
wealthontheonehand,andtheirvirtus ontheother.125 Thisattitudewaswelldocumentedanddemonstratedbycolourfulmosaicsinstalledinthevillasoftheestates
andinthetownhousesofthesemen,bestknownfromthefamoushuntingscenes
oftheimperialvillaofPiazzaArmerina,datingtoaslightlylaterperiod,theearly
4th centuryAD.126 TheyreflectthegeneralspiritofthemaleworldinAntiquity:
wealthandvirtue(themoredangeroustheanimal,thelargertheprestigeofthe
hunter).Femalefelineswereknownasmostdangerousanimalsespeciallywhen
havingcubs.
sincethewall-paintingsofBrigetiobelongedtotheultimate(re)buildingphase
ofthebuilding,thedepictionsofthefelinesinhouseIIIatBrigetiomaybeinterpretedasciphersfortheconnectionofthepersonswhocommissionedthenewdecorationofthebuildingtotheluxuriouswayoflifeinnorthernAfrica.Thedeadand
de-skinnedfelinessymbolisethestrengthandenormousvirtus oftheirhunters.

125
126

25,32.

sChneIDeR,1982,158-174.
CARAnDInI et al.,1982,45fig.16,49fig.17,53fig.18,217fig.122;KhleR 1973,19-21,

208

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

RsuM
Focusingonthemotiveofthepurplearrow-shapedclaviitself,itisevidentthat
itstypeandcolour-codehavebeeninspiredbythePalmyrenetraditionaldressof
the1st and2nd centuryAD,proventhrougharchaeologicaltextilefindsandreliefdepictionsoflimestone.ThisdecorationhasbeenintroducedtotheRomanarmyin
syriainearlyseverantimes,whenthemilitaryhasbeenrestructured.Fromthere
thetypeofdressspreadouttonorthernAfrica,whensyrian,especiallyPalmyrene,
auxiliaryunitsweretransferredtoegyptinordertoguardthetrade-routesrunning
throughtheeasterndesert.Mobilityofthesetroopswithintheentireempireeven
broughtthegarmentstoPannonia,occurringmostlikelybythereturnofthosePannonianmilitaryunitswhichwereregularlyattachedtothefieldarmyoftheoriental
campaigns.126 BasedontheepigraphicevidencefromPannoniaorevenfromBrigetio
thepresenceofaconsiderablenumberofOrientals(bothsoldiersandcivilians)can
beprovenfromthetimeofemperorMarcusAurelius.TheinscriptionsoftheOrientalAurelii arealmostwithoutexceptionfromtheciviltown,andinseveralcases
theexactdenominationoftheplaceoforigin,likeforexampleDoliche,zeugma
canberead.evenanindividualnamedAelius Domitius isknownfromwritten
sources,havinglivedinthecityofBrigetio,asveteranofthelegio ii Adiutrix,derivingfromerapuli,syria.127 Moreover,4th centuryADmummifiedcorpsesfrom
Intercisa,Aquincum,CarnuntumandBrigetioevidentlydocumenttheexistenceof
thiscloseculturalconnectiontotheeastfromlaterperiod.128 Anyhow,acloseconnectionofPannoniaandtheneareastcanbetracedinvariousaspects,anditis
mostlikelythatitwastheRomanmilitarythatopeneduptheseconnections.
Furthermore,thetopicofthisarticle,theclavi terminatinginarrows,wereexclusivelypartofthemalewardrobeinsyria,thusitsgenuineandtraditionalsymbolismcouldhaveprobablyembeddedmasculinevirtues(suchasbraveness,etc.).
sincecontemporariesconsideredthesesyriantroopsofPalmyreneoriginaselite
unitsbeingfamousfortheirextraordinarymilitaryvirtues,aspecialdecorationderivingfromtheirnationalmaledresswornalsoonthebattlefieldcouldhavebeen
easilyaccepted.ThroughthisitpermeatedintheRomanarmyasthesymbolof
certainmilitaryrankpromotions,whichweregainedbyexpressingdistinctivemilitaryvirtuesduringtheservice.TheacceptanceofthisforeignsymbolbytheRoman
armycouldhavebeeneasilyincorporatedintotheRomansystem,because,traditionallyaverysimilarsystem(bothincoloursandmotives)wasalreadyappliedin
Romansociety.Malesocialstatusandrankwastransmittedbyshellfishbandson
masculinedress.socalledlati clavi markedRomansenatorstunicsandtogaswhile
angusti clavi definedtheknights.
AsduringtheeasterncampaignsthewornoutequipmentsoftheRomanmilitaryforceswererefurbishedbythelocallyproducedgoods(armours,othermilitary

126
127
128

BARKCzI,1964,295;sPeIDel,2009.
BARKCzI,1964,272.
PCzy,1999;PCzy,2004,241;lAssnyI,2004a;lAssnyI,2004b.

Power dressing in Pannonia

209

equipments,clothingandfootwear,etc.),someofthesegoodsproducedinthemilitarysupplybasessuchaszeugma(syria)couldbetransferredtoPannoniabythe
soldiersreturningtotheirfinalstationarycampintheDanubianprovince.129 Ata
laterdate,thesegoodscouldhavebecomethearchetypefortheirlocalproduction,
althoughneitherthepossibilityofthesubstitutionoftheworn-outgarmentspurchaseddirectlyfromsyriacanbeeliminated.
ThewallpaintingfromBrigetioistheonlyandearliestdepictionofalong
sleevedwhitetunicwithpurplearrow-shapedclavi decorationineurope.Itisnoteworthythattheoutlinesofasimilarassemblageofpointedboots,trousersandtunics
withtight-fittinglongsleeves(withcloaks)characterisesuniformlytheoutfitof
thesoldierscarvedontothe3rd centuryADPannoniantombstones.Thisnewoutfit
differsfromtheearlier,1st-2nd centuryADdepictionsintheregion.130
AstheRomanauthorCassiusDioinformsus,131 whenthearmyledbyseptimiusseverusmarchedfromthePannonianfrontieronRome,thecivilianpopulation,
whohadnotseenothersoldiersforalongtimethanthosehadbeencarvedonthe
columnsofTrajanandMarcusAurelius,wereshockedtoseehowthefrontiersoldiersactuallylooklike.132
Differentacademicthesesexistfortheoriginofthisnewmilitaryuniform.
Basedontheevidenceofthemostwell-knownThorsbergassemblageofawoollen
cloak,tightfittingtrousersandawoollentunicwithlongsleeves,itismostcommonlyacceptedthatthisclothingstylewithlong-sleevedtunicsandtrousersofthe
europeanindigenouspeoplewasintroducedintotheRomanarmy,firstlybythe
auxiliariesthatwererecruitedbothinthenorthernprovincesorfrombeyondtheir
Imperialborders.133 Accordingtothisopinion,theiconographicwell-documented
shiftintheRomanmilitaryclothingattheturnofthe2nd and3rd centuryADwas
duetoagrowingGermanicinfluenceontheRomanmilitary.
Accordingtoanotheropinionwhichalsoseesthelocal,europeanoriginexclusive,thischangeinmilitaryclothingoccurrednotbecauseofthegrowingethnic
influenceonRomanmilitary,butasanadaptationtoapossibleclimaticshiftfrom
awarmer-dryertoacooler-wetterperiodattheturnofthe2nd and3rd centuries
AD.134
Asthewall-decorationfromBrigetioattestsitunambiguously,akindoflongsleevedoff-whitetunicwithspecialpurplecoloureddecorationinspiredbythe
PalmyrenetraditionaldressandacceptedbytheRomanarmywasevidentlyavailableineuropeatleastatthe1st halfofthe3rd centuryAD.Thus,atleastsomedecorativeelementsofthis3rd centuryADRomanmilitarysartorialassemblagecould
havehaditssyrianoriginandthewholeoutfitcouldhaveresultedfromamixture
ofvarioustraditions.
129
130
131
132
133
134

seee.g.sPeIDel,2009.
uBl,1969.
lXXv2.6.
suMneR,2009.
CROOM,2002,55;MlleR-wIeRInG,2011,116.
veTTeR,1994;zABehlICKy,1994;KRD andsChweITzeR,2010.

210

Annette Paetz gen. Schieck and Judit Psztkai-Szeke

Asitwasmentionedalready,besidesofthetunicsthereareseveralelementsof
theBrigetianpaintingswhichareofItalian,orientalorsimplyexoticorigin,intotal
representingaforeignandluxuriousambiencehereinPannonia.sincethestructure
ofthebuildingitselfanditsdecorationistobeinterpretedasderivingfromthe
Mediterranean,itsinitiatormayhavehadtheintentionofdemonstratingluxuryand
extravaganceoftheMediterraneanwayoflife.Theoriginandidentityoftheperson
whopossessedthishouseandordereditsre-furbishingintheearly3rd centuryAD
isnotknowntous,butregardingthetypeofdress,hemusthavebeenawarethatit
transmittedasymbolicmeaning,atleastaneasternMediterraneanorigin,which
stoodforanexclusiveexoticluxuryattheDanubeatthattime.Forthismoment,
though,itcanbestressedthatthedrivingforcemayhavebeentheOrientalnewcomersfromsyriaandnorthAfricaofcivilianandmilitarybackgroundwhocame
tothisregionduringthedecadesfollowingtheGreatMarcomannicwarandthe1st
thirdofthe3rd century.135 ThesymbolsemployedintheBrigetianwall-paintings
refertothisregion,thewholeconglomerateofelements,includingtheexoticdish,
expresseswealth,luxury,andthemaleworldofRomansavoir vivre ontheDanube.
Thedominanceofthemaletopics,themilitarygarmentsobviouslybeingwornin
leisure-timecontextcantriggerfurtherpossibilitiesintheinterpretationofthefunctionofthisbuildingthanacommonprivatehouse(e.g.asavereinshausora
club-houseformilitaryofficersorthoseofhavingsomekindofmilitarybackground).
ACKnOwleDGeMenT
Ourthanksareduetoeszterharsnyiforprovidingvaluableandsofarunpublishedinformationandhermanuscriptsonthespruchbecherfinds.wealsothank
theconservatorszsfiaKurovszkyandeszterharsnyiforathought-provoking
discussiononthedetailsdepictedbythewall-painting,andfinallywearegrateful
tolszlBorhyandemeseszmadforgrantingusthepermissiontopublishthe
latestresultsofthereconstructions.
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