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powe diseing book

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EE 340

Introduction

A power flow study (load-flow study) is a steady-state

analysis whose target is to determine the voltages,

currents, and real and reactive power flows in a system

under a given load conditions.

The purpose of power flow studies is to plan ahead and

account for various hypothetical situations. For example, if

a transmission line is be taken off line for maintenance, can

the remaining lines in the system handle the required loads

without exceeding their rated values.

The basic equation for power-flow analysis is derived from

the nodal analysis equations for the power system: For

example, for a 4-bus system,

Y11 Y12

Y

21 Y22

Y31 Y32

Y41 Y42

Y13

Y23

Y33

Y43

Y14 V1 I1

Y24 V2 I 2

Y34 V3 I 3

Y44 V4 I 4

where Yij are the elements of the bus admittance matrix, Vi are

the bus voltages, and Ii are the currents injected at each node.

The node equation at bus i can be written as

n

I i YijV j

j 1

Relationship between per-unit real and reactive power

supplied to the system at bus i and the per-unit current

injected into the system at that bus:

Si Vi I i* Pi jQi

where Vi is the per-unit voltage at the bus; Ii* - complex

conjugate of the per-unit current injected at the bus; Pi and Qi

are per-unit real and reactive powers. Therefore,

I i* ( Pi jQi ) / Vi

Pi jQi Vi

I i ( Pi jQi ) / Vi *

n

j 1

j 1

*

Y

V

Y

V

V

ij j ij j i

Let

Yij | Yij | ij

and Vi | Vi | i

Then

Pi jQi | Yij || V j || Vi |( ij j i )

j 1

Hence,

Pi | Yij || V j || Vi | cos( ij j i )

j 1

and

Qi | Yij || V j || Vi | sin( ij j i )

j 1

There are 4 variables that are associated with each bus:

o P,

o Q,

o V,

o .

with each bus.

In a power flow study, two of the four variables are defined

an the other two are unknown. That way, we have the

same number of equations as the number of unknown.

The known and unknown variables depend on the type of

bus.

Each bus in a power system can be classified as one of three types:

1. Load bus (P-Q bus) a buss at which the real and reactive

power are specified, and for which the bus voltage will be

calculated. All busses having no generators are load busses. In

here, V and are unknown.

2. Generator bus (P-V bus) a bus at which the magnitude of the

voltage is defined and is kept constant by adjusting the field

current of a synchronous generator. We also assign real power

generation for each generator according to the economic

dispatch. In here, Q and are unknown

3. Slack bus (swing bus) a special generator bus serving as the

reference bus. Its voltage is assumed to be fixed in both

magnitude and phase (for instance, 10 pu). In here, P and Q

are unknown.

Note that the power flow equations are non-linear, thus cannot

be solved analytically. A numerical iterative algorithm is

required to solve such equations. A standard procedure

follows:

1. Create a bus admittance matrix Ybus for the power system;

2. Make an initial estimate for the voltages (both magnitude

and phase angle) at each bus in the system;

3. Substitute in the power flow equations and determine the

deviations from the solution.

4. Update the estimated voltages based on some commonly

known numerical algorithms (e.g., Newton-Raphson or

Gauss-Seidel).

5. Repeat the above process until the deviations from the

solution are minimal.

Example

Consider a 4-bus power system below. Assume that

bus 1 is the slack bus and that it has a voltage V1 = 1.00 pu.

The generator at bus 3 is supplying a real power P3 = 0.3 pu to the

system with a voltage magnitude 1 pu.

The per-unit real and reactive power loads at busses 2 and 4 are P2

= 0.3 pu, Q2 = 0.2 pu, P4 = 0.2 pu, Q4 = 0.15 pu.

Example (cont.)

Y-bus matrix (refer to example in book)

and reactive) in each branch of the circuit can easily be

calculated.

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