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Technical Reports Compendium II, 1996

Archiving Tips and Hints

®

Technical Paper

Archiving Tips and Hints

Lawrence To

Center of Expertise
Worldwide Customer Support
Oracle Corporation
August 1996

Oracle Release 7.0

5-1

...................3 OVERVIEW AND CONCEPTS ..........................................................................................................................0 ..................................3 FURTHER READING..........................................................11 DETERMINE WHAT ARCH IS CALLING .. Printed in the U................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 REDO LOG AND ARCHIVE FILE CONFIGURATION... All other products or company names are used for identification purposes only...................................................................... 5-2 Oracle Release 7...................................9 MONITORING FOR STALE LOGS .........................................................................................8 ARCHIVING STRATEGY............................................................................................ and may be trademarks of their respective owners................................... Center of Expertise.........................................................11 CHECK ANY ARCHIVE TRACE FILES ....................10 CHECK THE V$ VIEWS...................... Cary Millsap................6 Posting ARCH ...................S......................................... No part of this document may be reproduced without the prior permission of the publishers................................................................................................................... Sameer Patkar Contributors: Carol Colrain..............................................5 OPS: Archiving Log Switches...............................................................3 Threads ...............................................................................................8 ARCHIVING TUNING...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 DEBUGGING WITH ARCHIVE COMMANDS ........................... Oracle Worldwide Customer Support...................................................................................................................... 1996 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .............11 CHECK FOR PLATFORM SPECIFIC BUGS ..............................11 PREVENTING THE PROBLEM RECURRING .......................................................................................... Author: Lawrence To Writer: Brian Quigley Reviewers: Roderick Manalac.......6 ARCH PROCESS FLOW............................................................................................................Archiving Tips and Hints Technical Reports Compendium II....................................................3 AUDIENCE AND REQUIRED BACKGROUND ........................................................................................11 ATTENTION READERS INCLUDING ORACLE EMPLOYEES....................... Copyright  Oracle Corporation 1995 All rights reserved....................... Oracle7 is a trademark of Oracle Corporation........................................................................................................................................................................................ Reem Munakash Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation....................................................................................... Reem Munakash............10 PROBLEM SOLVING............................................A.............................................

You should find this information useful in improving your understanding or administrative skills regarding archiving. it is necessary to issue manual archiving commands to start extra ARCH processes to expedite archiving. the database was created with the default NOARCHIVELOG clause and then the ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG issued. RAID: High Performance Reliable Secondary Storage.Technical Reports Compendium II. the term archiving refers specifically to the copying of redo logs by the ARCH process. or. 1996 Archiving Tips and Hints INTRODUCTION Audience and Required Background You are interested in improving your knowledge of Oracle archiving. Manual archiving must be performed when archiving is enabled and the database is started with initialization parameter LOG_ARCHIVE_START=FALSE (the default value). Oracle Parallel Server Internal Notes by Carol Colrain. The text for bugs: 282224. For example. although manual archiving provides control over when redo log files are copied. In this case. it is the responsibility of the database administrator to perform manual archiving to start ARCH processes to copy redo log files. Sections after this review section provide information that is not generally available in the Oracle7 documentation set. This concept is thoroughly described in Transaction Processing: Concepts and Technology by Jim Gray and Andreas Reuter. Knowledge of Oracle internals is not essential. In some automatic archiving cases. by Peter Chen. (Active redo log files are being written to by LGWR. (The second method in the previous sentence is the quickest method. Automatic archiving occurs when archiving is enabled and the database is started with initialization parameter LOG_ARCHIVE_START=TRUE.2 Recovery Outline by Andrea Borr and Bill Bridges. available in the corporate repository. and the Oracle7 Parallel Server Administrator’s Guide. the Oracle7 Administrator’s Guide. ARCH looks for and copies inactive redo log files. Oracle7 v7. you should have a working understanding of the Oracle archiving mechanism. VLDB Best Practices by Cary Millsap. a brief review is given of the most important archiving concepts. the database was created with the CREATE DATABASE ARCHIVELOG command. Further Reading Oracle archiving uses physiological logging. published by Morgan Kaufman. 20126. In this case. 189963. Automatic archiving can be restarted by issuing the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE START command. That is. Overview and Concepts In this section. The information in the rest of this paper is only meaningful if archiving is enabled for a database. Manual archiving tends to be an administrative nightmare. an ARCH background process is started. In this case.) From an Oracle viewpoint and as used in this paper. manual archiving in conjunction with automatic archiving can be beneficial. Oracle Release 7.) Automatic archiving can be halted by issuing the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE STOP command. it is not recommended. but will help in reading this paper.0 5-3 . information in this review section is available in the Oracle7 Concepts Guide. 238308. Most. Before reading this paper. your database could hang during an unexpectedly busy period of processing because Oracle will not continue until the appropriate redo log files are copied by an ARCH process. but not all. However.

that is. online redo log groups cannot be re-used until the redo log files are successfully copied by the ARCH process. In other words. However. (Note: When archiving is not enabled. Thus.0 . 5-4 Oracle Release 7. When archiving is enabled.archive only the next inactive redo log • ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT -. ARCH can be ahead of DBWR.Archiving Tips and Hints Technical Reports Compendium II. an archive link list is maintained in the control file. In particular.) ARCHIVE LOG ALL is the most advantageous of the manual archiving commands because it archives all redo logs except the current redo log and redo logs already being archived. Thus. This may not be advantageous if the current redo log only contains a small amount of relevant redo. 1996 System Global Area Buffer Cache Redo Cache Control Files Server Process DBWR CKPT LGWR Redo Log Group Database Database Files Files ARCH Archived Redo Logs O/S file copy tape Redo Log Group The three manual archiving commands that are most used are: • ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL -. The archiving mechanism tracks the status of each online redo log by updating status information in the control files. and does not maintain the archive link list. Furthermore.archive all inactive redo logs and the current active log By issuing any of the above commands when an ARCH process is already running. it is possible to concurrently archive several inactive or active (current) online redo log groups.archive all inactive redo logs • ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG NEXT -. ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT archives all logs including the current log. Oracle only maintains which redo log is current. ARCHIVE LOG NEXT fails if the next online redo log is already being archived. a list of inactive redo log files that need to be archived. the database will hang until filled redo logs are copied. it is possible to start extra ARCH processes. the Oracle physiological logging mechanism guarantees that all changes to the database are written to archived log files. it is not possible to overwrite a log that was not checkpointed. This is particularly useful for stopping database hangs during automatic archiving when the redo log rate is much higher than the archive log rate. which are then available if media recovery is required. does not check whether a redo log group was archived. that is. the status of the log will not be updated. if an inactive log is manually archived. Note: Oracle can archive a redo log that was not checkpointed.

If this redo record is encountered during recovery. it may be archiving: • any inactive redo log group within the instance’s thread • any inactive redo log group of a closed and enabled thread for another instance • posting (also known as kicking) other instances of enabled and open threads to archive the posting instance’s thread Oracle Release 7. For a parallel server. OPS: For a parallel server. If THREAD=0. Depending on the mode and status of a thread. the thread open flag is cleared in the control file for closing instance and a final thread checkpoint is updated in that control file. are archived out. OPS: When a thread is closed. OPS: A thread must be closed before the thread can be disabled. the thread open flag is set in the thread’s control file record. However. other than the current redo log. this concept is useful even for non-parallel server discussions on Oracle backup and recovery. then the control file may be updated. OPS: The ARCH process ensures that all online redo logs in an instance’s thread. OPS: A thread is chosen by examining the initialization parameter THREAD. there may be many threads and as many Note: The annotation OPS is used hereon to indicate that information is only relevant to the parallel server option. When an ARCH process is active. It is beneficial to disable a thread if the thread will not be used for a long time. there is only one thread and one set of redo log groups. This command can only be issued through an instance that already has a thread enabled. Redo is not generated to a closed thread.0 5-5 . The ARCH process ensures that a thread of redo is archived and attempts to keep pace with LGWR. archiving of the online redo logs may or may not be enforced. When an instance opens a thread. This thread is chosen at mount time. An open thread is a thread held by an instance once the database is opened by an instance. When a thread is enabled. An enabled thread is a thread that is available for opening by an instance. A thread mount lock prevents other instances from accessing a thread. Disabling a thread also disables media recovery for the instance. the control file for the instance is updated to reflect this event and a redo record is written into the current online redo logs. For a non-parallel server. OPS: If there exist at least two redo log groups for a thread. At database creation. then the thread can be either public or private. OPS: Threads are enabled using the ALTER DATABASE ENABLE THREAD command. LCKnn).Technical Reports Compendium II. Oracle keeps track of enabled threads both in the control file as well as in redo logs. a thread is automatically made available. A thread consists of the online portion of redo log and the archived portions of redo logs. A private thread is named with a particular numeric value and can only be mounted or opened by an instance with THREAD equal to the same numeric value. DBWR. A disabled thread is a thread that is made unavailable to instances. an instance will obtain any available public thread. which is then held by the instance until the instance is closed. thread open locks (RT enqueues) are held by background processes (LGWR. each thread is unique and switches logs independently of all other threads. A public thread is available to the first instance starting with initialization parameter THREAD=0. A closed thread is a thread that is no longer active because of instance shutdown or after instance recovery. 1996 Archiving Tips and Hints Threads A thread of redo or thread is a concept specific to the parallel server option. Once the thread is opened.

Archiving Tips and Hints Technical Reports Compendium II. It also be necessary to archive closed and enabled threads. the redo log for an idle instance may only contain head information and possibly not contain any relevant redo. ARCH is posted not to archive when instance or media recovery is occurring. OPS: During the open. which advances the SCN in the log. a log switch occurs on the closed thread. it would not be possible to use archive logs from a primary site to do recovery to a higher SCN at a standby database site. However. 5-6 Oracle Release 7. another instance performs a log switch and the archiving for the closed instance. In this case. so that the log is kept relatively current with other threads. escalation occurs because user processes might be waiting. OPS: The force archive SCN is also used to kick idle instances to archive their logs. However. Posting ARCH Posting refers to signaling ARCH to do some work. LGWR may post ARCH to archive another log. the log with the lowest SCN is archived first. a lock is used to kick an idle instance. ARCH may stop work to archive the log requested by LGWR before continuing with the original log. all threads are maintained such that each thread is relatively current with respect to SCNs. ARCH is posted if the current control file is used. ARCH may also be posted to archive a log so that a closed thread may perform a log switch.) Threads are kept relatively current by forcing log switches or kicking idle instances to archive. For a closed and enabled thread. Thus. For an open and enabled thread. Generally. When ARCH is archiving. 1996 OPS: Archiving Log Switches OPS: Each instance archive its thread and redo logs independently. ARCH is posted only when archiving is enabled. the ARCH process for an active instance will log switch and archive the closed thread. then Oracle also attempts to keep that thread relatively current with respect to SCNs. it is not uncommon to see small archive files containing just header information. Posting ARCH occurs in the following events: • 300 second time-out • each log switch • when archiving is started automatically or manually • during instance recovery • ARCH may post itself. as in the case of a commonly idle instance. Oracle strives to archive any log that contain less than or equal to the force archive SCN. (If an un-archived log for an enabled thread contained a very old SCN. To do so. OPS: When there are idle instances. to archive the log. OPS: The ARCH process scans the archive link list found in the control file and archives all inactive redo logs whose SCN is less than the force archive SCN. if it is archiving a log and another log must be archived When a database is opened and archiving is enabled.0 . Thus. ARCH must complete before LGWR can overwrite the next log. Oracle only kicks open and enabled threads that need to switch the current log because the SCN is too old. A force archive SCN is maintained in the control file to implement this feature. This occurs because Oracle forces idle instances to perform log switches. OPS: If a thread was closed but not disabled.

platforms support asynchronous I/O.0 and higher.) An invalid redo log block does not need to be archived.0 5-7 . For an erroneous block. In Release 7. only valid redo blocks are archived. If ARCH encounters a redo log block with the wrong SCN. all other logs are read until a good copy of the block is found. the future redo is not relevant and archiving is stopped for the current log. the archive log file sizes can be less than or equal to the corresponding redo log file sizes. (OPS: For parallel server. 1996 Archiving Tips and Hints ARCH PROCESS FLOW Note: Most. For these platforms. If no good copy of the erroneous block is found. you can simply ignore the word asynchronous in the following discussion.Technical Reports Compendium II. A more detailed description of the these phases is as follows: • read control file to find any un-archived logs • open online red log members to be read • allocate LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFERS redo buffers • asynchronous read of the online redo log (read size is LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE) • use alternative redo log members per buffer stream • fill redo log buffers (check if buffers full or at end of log) • if new file needed. A corrupted redo log block is a block that has some error that makes the block not usable in recovery. Thus. allocate and fill archive redo log buffers. and asynchronous write to new or existing archive file. A valid redo log block is a block that must be archived. but not all. Archiving a log encompasses the following three main phases: asynchronous read of online redo log and perform checks. create UFS archive file • asynchronous write to the archive files (write size is LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE) • update control file (modify archive link list and change the status of redo logs) • repeat above steps until finished archiving Async Read Archive Log Buffer Redo Log File Async Write y As Async Read nc Wr ite Archive Log File Archive Log Buffer ALTERNATE REDO LOG MEMBERS PER BUFFER STREAM When an error is encountered in one log. Oracle Release 7. then an error is signaled indicating that archiving failed. ARCH checks the validity of redo headers and redo blocks before copying them to the log archive buffer. valid redo log blocks are thread specific and thus must have the appropriate thread number. a mask is maintained of all logs and what redo log blocks were attempted to be retrieved.

fine grain striping is recommended to improve performance. It is recommended that redo log files be placed on raw disks using a RAID 0+1 configuration (mirroring and fine grain striping). you should check for archiver busy waits or checkpoint busy waits. and read by ARCH (or any process performing recovery).2 fixes this limitation. Generally. If these events occur frequently. It is also a common and best practice to regularly check the alert file for the occurrence of unusual events. Striping introduces parallelism to the disk writes. redo log files should be located on a set of disks separated from all other files.) Tune ARCH process: Some sites have seen a 20 to 30 percent performance improvement by changing LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE and LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFERS. the disks for redo log files are write intensive and at times read intensive. Redo log files should never be placed on the same disks as the archive log files. On some platforms. On some ports. Archive log files should be on separate disks than the redo log files. You can alleviate this bottleneck by one or more of the following methods: use multiple DBWRs. However. or mirrored files. Typically. ARCHIVING TUNING It is a common and best practice to regularly check for system or I/O contention incurred by archiving. (For example. (There is an enhancement to allow for multiple automatic ARCH processes.) However.0 . adding online redo logs may help if there are bursts of redo generation because ARCH has more time to average its processing rate over time. CPU usage. increasing DB_BLOCK_CHECKPOINT_BATCH. LGWR might have to wait on the checkpointing mechanism performed by DBWR or CKPT before re-using an online redo log. channels. CPU waits. Multiple archiver processes: You can initiate extra ARCH processes at fixed intervals to ensure that the automatic archiving ARCH process does not fall behind LGWR. This method is extremely useful in that it allows several inactive red log to be archived concurrently. reducing DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS.Archiving Tips and Hints Technical Reports Compendium II. For example. check with your vendor to see if an upgrade does support the feature. Evaluate the number and size of the online redo log: Often. See bug 260126. When the LOG ALL command is successful. there is low contention between reading and writing. disk writes occur in parallel. Redo log members. should be on different disks and controllers to prevent any single point of failure and to increase throughput.3. on some UNIX ports you can use either sari -d or iostat to identify disk bottlenecks. Evaluate checkpoint interval and frequency: Checkpoint mechanisms are performed independently of the archiving mechanism. Again. It is recommended that redo log files be Oracle multiplexed or hardware mirrored. Check operating system support for asynchronous I/O: Asynchronous reads and writes improve ARCH performance and should be used if possible. which should improve disk write performance. In the case of archiving. the temporary ARCH process terminates. Ideally. the maximum value for these parameters on some ports is 128 and 8. If your platform does not currently support asynchronous I/O. 1996 REDO LOG AND ARCHIVE FILE CONFIGURATION Redo log files are heavily written to by LGWR. Respectively. release 7. you could have scripts running at a regular interval that issue the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL command. and contention at the level of disks. 5-8 Oracle Release 7. increasing the size and number of online redo log groups provides more time to archive (and more time to catch up with LGWR). then you consider the tuning methods described in the rest of this section. or. Generally. That is. a patch needs to be applied to increase the maximum value for these parameters. Archiving log files must be placed on a User File System (UFS in UNIX) and ideally using a RAID 0+1 configuration. only adding online redo logs does not help in a situation where ARCH cannot keep up with LGWR. an online redo log can be archived prior to the log being checkpointed. and controllers. It is recommended that you check for the following potential bottlenecks: disk queue lengths. by enabling Oracle to use asynchronous I/O (if supported by the operating system). That is.

The disadvantage of a single archive destination is that I/O contention will occur between the backup reads and the archiving writes.3. Assuming that DEST1 and DEST2 are on separate sets of disks. Concurrently. Oracle Release 7. The tape management procedure should have checksums to ensure that an archive file was successfully backed up. Depending on available space. the backup set has minimal information required to bring up a consistent point in time database if recovery attempts fail using newer archived files.Some sites use one very large archive destination. Multiple Archive Destinations Example -. prevents archiver busy waits. If you have idle instances. A successful backup of all database files and these last archive log files. For example. a monitor process should be checking for: space availability in the archive destination (LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST). you should try to keep all archive log files on disk from the last database backup. disk errors. ARCH should be tuned by adjusting LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFERS and LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE as described in the previous section. archiving progress. ensure that the backup set can be used independently if an emergency occurs. you can switch the archive destination by issuing the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG TO ’DEST2’. Single Large Archive Destination Example -. This command forces all inactive logs including the current logs to be archived. Tape backups can be performed while ARCH is writing to DEST2. I/O contention will not occur between backup reads and archiving writes. ARCH will then archive the next log or current log (if ARCH is stuck) to the new destination. archive destination. you can keep a large number of archive log files on disk.0 5-9 . These archive log files are backed up as soon as possible.Technical Reports Compendium II. Two methods are commonly used. the DEST1 archive log files can be purged so that archiving can be switch to DEST1 when DEST2 is 80 percent full.ARCH writes to DEST1. as described in the two following examples. A purging algorithm is used to purge only those archive log files that were successfully backed up and have a file timestamp that is older than the begin time of the last successful online database backup. and reduces recovery time by keeping all archive log files on disk since the last database backup. and tape management errors indicating that an archive file was not backed up. On a successful backup. Ensure All Online Redo Logs Archived and Backed UP: It is essential to monitor the following: database. When DEST1 fills to a certain threshold. OPS Note: All archives from all enabled threads need to be backed up. ARCH checks the validity of redo headers and block headers data structures. Thus. In release 7. 1996 Archiving Tips and Hints ARCHIVING STRATEGY A successful archiving strategy ensures that all online redo logs are archived and backed up. Prevent Archiver Busy Waits: To prevent ARCH busy waits. It is recommended that an ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT command is used after the successful completion of an online backup. the initialization parameter LOG_BLOCK_CHECKSUM is set. they still create archive files containing header information that is essential for media recovery. say 80 percent to allow for two more archive files. For this feature to work. Monitoring archiving progress requires examination of archive trace files and the V$LOG view. Oracle provides optional additional validity checking in the form of a checksum mechanism when redo is copied from the online redo log to the archive log files. Scripts should be written that log onto the database and query V$LOG to build a list of archived log files that must be backed up to tape. Reduce Recovery Time: Mean time to recovery (MTTR) may be dramatically reduced if archive log files do not need to be restored from tape. Error checking and a good reporting too are essential in detecting and resolving archivingtape-backup-restore errors. and the tape management procedure. You should never archive a log until the V$LOG column ARCHIVED is set to YES. Scripts are used to monitor and to log on to the database to determine which archive log files need to be backed up to tape.

For example.Archiving Tips and Hints Technical Reports Compendium II. You can also determine if there is a database hanging problems by comparing NEXT LOG TO BE ARCHIVE with the OLDEST REDO LOG SEQUENCE number. and archiving being enabled without an ARCH process running. especially 7x24 sites. you should use the following methodology: • obtain a thorough description of the problem • debugging with archive commands • check the V$ views • check any archive trace files • determine what ARCH is calling • check for platform specific bugs • find a solution to prevent the problem recurring Debugging with Archive Commands Using the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG LIST command reveals whether archiving is enabled and whether an ARCH process is running. When you encounter an archiving problem. The two most common problems encountered are: lack of space in the archive file destination. which should hopefully provide you with a non-damaging resolution. then you should investigate any possible media problems and relocate or recreate new members to main the level of resiliency for the logs. Stale logs imply that there are missing writes in the logs. PROBLEM SOLVING For some mission critical systems. redirecting archiving to another file destination. even if ARCH encountered a corrupt redo log block. an archiving problem may be extremely alarming. It is important to take adequate time to gather all pertinent information.0 . 5-10 Oracle Release 7. If the logs remain stale. Assessing the problem may also require talking with the user community. When detecting a problem. After the LOG LIST command. you can issue an ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG [NEXT|ALL|CURRENT] command. ARCH can easily detect whether there are missing changes in the redo log member when verifying the correctness of redo log blocks. Keep calm. ARCH never complains if an archive log file can be successfully created from the composite information in all online redo log members. or if LGWR cannot write to a redo log member. Incomplete logs are deemed as stale logs by Oracle. which will usually generate a more understandable error message. You can get stale logs after a shutdown abort. ARCH will search other members for good redo log blocks. Deal with the problem in a logical manner to prevent mistakes. 1996 MONITORING FOR STALE LOGS Monitoring V$LOG should always check for STALE or INVALID logs.

The utility may have bugs. V$LOG -. V$ARCHIVE -. archiving should not incur degradation to the performance of a database. V$LOGFILE -. Immediate resolution usually requires freeing up disk space. Caution: oradbx is not support by Oracle. it is time to review your archiving procedures. If the number of rows increase dramatically. or re-directing archiving to a different destination. Determine What ARCH is Calling If there is no I/O contention and ARCH seems too slow. issue an ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL command to allow multiple ARCH processes to archive concurrently. oradbx can usually be found in $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib. you should check the ARCHIVED column to determine if ARCH is falling behind LGWR. You should always check the STATUS column for frequent STALE or INVALID statuses. Check Any Archive Trace Files The alert. However. but there is no evidence of error or hardware problems. In this case. In particular. possibly due to lack of disk space. on some occasions oradbx has killed the ARCH process.This view is useful in that column ARCHIVE_CHECKPOINT shows the last SCN archived.This view is useful in that you can correlate a problem log with a file name. This usually requires the use of an operating system debugger or oradbx (if available). You should always test oradbx prior to using the utility in a production environment. as follows: • V$LOG • V$DATABASE • V$LOGFILE • V$ARCHIVE Each of the above views provides a wealth of data useful in solving problems. you must take measures to ensure that the problem can not happen again. it may be necessary to dump the call stack for ARCH. or an archiver perform issue. V$DATABASE -.This view describes all logs from all threads that need archiving. Evaluation of disk hardware must be prompt and preferably automated. or is hanging. 1996 Archiving Tips and Hints Check the V$ Views There are several views that are useful in debugging archiving problems. Preventing the Problem Recurring If an archiving problem occurs. ensure that archive log files were successfully backed up to tape before purging those archive log files. It will be necessary to link and compile the utility using the make -f oracle. Limitations on ARCHIVE_LOG_BUFFERS and ARCHIVE_LOG_SIZE are the most common port specific bugs. These views are described in detail in the Oracle7 Server Reference Manual. Oracle Release 7. Check for Platform Specific Bugs It is possible that there are port specific bugs that may be causing archiving bottlenecks. Once such a problem is resolved.log or background trace files may indicate that the current archive destination cannot be written to. then this is an archiving hanging situation.mk oradbx command.This view give a lot of information. Archive log files should be backed up to media that can be taken off site. proceed with caution.Technical Reports Compendium II. When done properly.0 5-11 .

1996 Oracle Release 7.0 .Archiving Tips and Hints 5-12 Technical Reports Compendium II.