# Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Oscillations in an LC Circuit
A simple LC circuit. The capacitor has an initial charge Qmax, and the switch is thrown closed at t = 0. With these idealizations– zero resistance and no radiation– the oscillations in the circuit persist indefinitely.

Q2 1 2 max = kA 2C 2

1 2 1 LI max = mv 2 max 2 2

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Oscillations in an LC Circuit
Consider some arbitrary time t after the switch is closed,

Q2 1 2 U = UC + UL = + LI 2C 2

dU d Q 2 1 2 Q dQ dI = ( + LI ) = + LI = 0 dt dt 2C 2 C dt dt Q d 2Q +L 2 =0 C dt d 2Q 1 =− Q 2 dt LC

Q = Q max cos( ωt + φ)

ω=

1 LC

Natural frequency

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Oscillations in an LC Circuit
Q = Q max cos( ωt + φ)
I= 1 ω= LC

dQ = − ωQ max sin(ωt + φ) dt
,

To determine the value of the phase angle = 0. At t = 0, I = 0 and Q = Qmax

Q = Q max cos ωt I = − ωQ max sin ωt = − I max sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Oscillations in an LC Circuit
Q2 1 2 U = UC + UL = + LI 2C 2

Q = Q max cos ωt

I = − I max sin ωt

Q2 LI 2 2 U = U C + U L = max cos ωt + max sin 2 ωt 2C 2 Q2 = max 2C LI 2 = max 2

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Circuit
A series RLC circuit. The capacitor has a charge Qmax at t = 0, and the instant at which the switch is thrown closed.

dU = −I2 R dt d 2Q Q LI 2 + I + I 2 R = 0 dt C

Q dQ dI + LI = − I 2 R C dt dt d 2Q Q L 2 + + IR = 0 dt C

When R is small

Damped harmonic oscillation d 2Q dQ Q L 2 +R + =0 d2x dx dt dt C m 2 + b + kx = 0 dt dt

Q = Q max e − Rt / 2 L cos ωd t

ωd = [

1 R − ( ) 2 ]1/ 2 LC 2 L

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Circuit
Charge versus time for a damped RLC circuit. The charge decays in this way when R << 4 L / C

Q = Q max e

− Rt / 2 L

cos ωd t

1 R 2 1/ 2 ωd = [ −( ) ] LC 2 L

Charge versus time for an overdamped RLC circuit. The charge decays in this way when R >> 4 L / C

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

AC Sources and Phasors
An AC circuit consists of circuit elements and a generator that provides the alternating current. The instantaneous voltage v is

∆v = ∆Vmax sin ωt

Where Vmax is the maximum output voltage of the ac generator, or the voltage amplitude. To simplify our analysis of circuits containing two or more elements, we use graphical constructions called phasor diagrams. In these constructions, alternating (sinusoidal ) quantities, such as current and voltage, are represented by rotating vectors called phasors.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Resistors in an AC Circuits
∆v = ∆v R = ∆Vmax sin ωt
Where vR is the instantaneous voltage across the resistor.

The instantaneous current in the resistor:

The instantaneous voltage across the resistor:

iR =

∆v R ∆Vmax = sin ωt = I max sin ωt R R

∆v R = I max R sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Resistors in an AC Circuits

iR =

∆v R ∆Vmax = sin ωt = I max sin ωt R R ∆v R = I max R sin ωt

In phase

The average value of the current over one cycle is zero.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Resistors in an AC Circuits
I rms = i 2

i ∝ sin ωt
2 2

1 i2 = I2 max 2

I rms =

I max = 0.707I max 2

Pav = I 2 R rms
∆Vmax = 0.707∆Vmax ∆Vrms = 2
When we speak of measuring a 120V alternating voltage from an electrical outlet, we are referring to an rms voltage of 120V.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Inductors in an AC Circuits
di ∆v L = ε L = − L dt

∆v + ∆v L = 0 L di = ∆Vmax sin ωt dt

di ∆v − L = 0 dt ∆Vmax sin ωtdt di = L

iL =

∆Vmax ∆V ∆Vmax π sin(ωt − ) sin ωtdt = − max cos ωt = ∫ L ωL ωL 2

∆v L = − ∆Vmax sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Inductors in an AC Circuits

∆Vmax π sin(ωt − ) iL = ωL 2

I max =
XL =

∆Vmax ∆Vmax = XL ωL

∆v L = ∆Vmax sin ωt

L is called the inductive reactance

For a sinusoidal applied voltage, the current in an inductor always lags behind the voltage across the inductor by 900.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Capacitors in an AC Circuits
∆v − ∆v C = 0 ∆v = ∆v C = ∆Vmax sin ωt

q = C∆Vmax sin ωt
iC = dq π = ωC∆Vmax cos ωt = ωC∆Vmax sin(ωt + ) dt 2

∆v C = ∆Vmax sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Capacitors in an AC Circuits

∆Vmax π I max = ωC∆Vmax = i C = ωC∆Vmax sin(ωt + ) XC 2 ∆v C = ∆Vmax sin ωt XC = 1/ C is called the capacitive reactance
For a sinusoidal applied voltage, the current in a capacitor always leads the voltage across the capacitor by 900.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Series Circuit
assume

∆v = ∆Vmax sin ωt
φ : phase angle

i = I max sin(ωt − φ)

The current at all points in a series ac circuit has the same amplitude and phase.

∆v R = I max R sin ωt = ∆VR sin ωt
π ∆v L = I max X L sin(ωt + ) = ∆VL cos ωt 2 π ∆v C = I max X C sin(ωt − ) = − ∆VC cos ωt 2

∆v = ∆v R + ∆v L + ∆v C

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Series Circuit

i R = I max sin ωt ∆v R = I max R sin ωt

π i L = ∆I max sin(ωt − ) 2

π i C = I max sin(ωt + ) 2

∆v L = I max X L sin ωt

∆v C = I max X C sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Series Circuit

∆Vmax = ∆VR2 + ( ∆VL − ∆VC ) 2 = I max R 2 + ( X L − X C ) 2 = I max Z
The impedance Z of the circuit is defined as

Z ≡ R 2 + ( X L − X C )2 φ = tan −1 ( XL − XC ) R

the phase angle between the current and the voltage

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The RLC Series Circuit

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Power in an AC Circuit
No power losses are associated with pure capacitors and pure inductors in an ac circuit. For the RLC circuit, we can express the instantaneous power P as

= I max ∆Vmax sin ωt (sin ωt cos φ − cos ωt sin φ) 1 2 = I max ∆Vmax sin ωt cos φ − I max ∆Vmax sin 2ωt sin φ 2 1 1 2I rms 2∆Vrms cos φ = I rms ∆Vrms cos φ Pav = I max ∆Vmax cos φ = 2 2 ∆V I R ∆VR = ∆Vmax cos φ = I max R Pav = I rms ∆Vrms cos φ = I rms ( max ) max = I 2 R rms 2 ∆Vmax
The average power delivered by the generator is converted to internal energy in the resistor, just as in the case of a dc circuit. No power loss occurs in an ideal inductor or capacitor.

P = i∆v = I max sin(ωt − φ) ∆Vmax sin ωt = I max ∆Vmax sin(ωt − φ) sin ωt

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit
A series RLC circuit is said to be in resonance when the current has its maximum value. In general, the rms current can be written

I rms

∆Vrms ∆Vrms = = Z R 2 + (X L − XC )2

The frequency 0 at which XL-XC = 0 is called the resonance frequency of the circuit.

ω0 =

1 LC

This frequency also corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of an LC circuit. In addition, at this frequency the current is in phase with the applied voltage.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

( ∆Vrms ) 2 ( ∆Vrms ) 2 R Pav = I 2 R = R= 2 rms 2 Z R + ( X L − X C )2

Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit
X L = ωL X C = 1 / ωC
2 2 ω0 = 1 / LC

1 2 L2 2 2 ) = 2 ( ω − ω0 ) 2 ( X L − X C ) = ( ωL − ωC ω ( ∆Vrms ) 2 Rω 2 Pav = 2 2 R ω + L2 ( ω2 − ω2 ) 2 0

The curve sharpness is usually described by a dimensionless parameter known as the quality ω0 factor, denoted by ϑ

ϑ=

∆ω

Where points

is the width of the curve measured between the half-power

∆ω =

R L

ϑ=

ω0 L R

range from 10~100

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The Transformer and Power Transmission
An ideal transformer consists of two coils wound on the same iron core. An alternating voltage V1 is applied to the primary coil, and the output voltage V2 is across the resistor of resistance R.

dΦ B ∆V1 = − N 1 dt

dΦ B ∆V2 = − N 2 dt

N2 ∆V2 = ∆V1 N1
When N2 > N1 , the output voltage V2 exceeds the input voltage V1 : step-up transformer

When N2 < N1 , the output voltage is less than the input voltage : step-down transformer

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

The Transformer and Power Transmission

In an ideal transformer, where there are no losses, the power I1 V1 supplied by the generator is equal to the power I2 V2 in the secondary circuit.

I1∆V1 = I 2 ∆V2

I 2 = ∆V2 / R L

I1 = ∆V1 / R eq
Impedance matching

N2 ∆V2 = ∆V1 N1

N1 2 R eq = ( ) R L N2

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Rectifiers and Filters
The process of converting alternating current to the direct current is called rectification, and the converting device is called a rectifier. The diode acts as a half-wave rectifier because current is present in the circuit during only half of each cycle. ripple The solid curve represents the current with no filter capacitor, and the dashed curve is the current when the circuit includes the capacitor.

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Rectifiers and Filters

∆Vin = I max Z = I max R 2 + (

∆Vout = ∆Vin

1 2 ) ωC

∆Vout = I max R
RC high-pass filter

R 1 2 ) R +( ωC
2

Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current

Rectifiers and Filters

1 2 ) ∆Vin = I max Z = I max R + ( ωC 1 / ωC ∆Vout = ∆Vin 1 2 2 R +( ) ωC
2

∆Vout = I max X C =

I max ωC

RC low-pass filter