You are on page 1of 11


Biaxial strain:
If we have a substrate such as Si and we grow a layer such as
SiGe on the substrate and we form gate and source and drain
(drain and source has implement by P or B). We should apply
strain to layer ( in this example our strain is compressive). This
strain belongs to all part of layer such as source and drain and
channel. In biaxial strain we have defect in layer and we have
alloy scattering which decreases the mobility.
Uniaxial strain:
If we etch two part of Si substrate ( in source and drain part but
not in channel part) and we grow SiGe layer which is doped by
B on part we etched. We should apply strain on the source and
drain parts and we have the same strain in channel part ( our
channel is from Si material), in this case we apply compressive
strain and we have compressive strain in source and channel
and drain.
You can see schematic picture for biaxial and uniaxial below:


The compressive affect on the valence band which belong to

hols. In compressive strain the heavy hols band pull up and

curvature increase and we know curvature 1/m (

m is effective mass

. when we increase the curvature , we decrease

the effective mass , I mean heavy hols band change to light

hols band. We can say the valence band pulls up and band gap
becomes smaller.

Tensile strain affect on the conduction band which belong to

electrons. Tensile

causes to split

2 4 electrons

and it means

electrons downward and the mass of electrons which moves

through the transistor become less (lighter electrons). In tensile

the conduction band pulls down and the band gap becomes

Before tensile strain


tensile strain
In both cases the effective mass and scattering decrease and
relaxation time ( increase which cause increase mobility
according equation:

Spreading resistance and contact resistance
According of equitation

We need to decrease
the effective mass of hols and electrons which do respectively
by tensile and compressive strain and also decreasing of
scattering and increasing the relaxation time which do by
applying strain (compressive or tensile).
Threading dislocation and stacking fault are extended defects.
Threading dislocation grow to surface and stacking fault causes
by any defect in layer ( such as dont grow layer in some part , I
mean layer is empty in some part ) and we can see stacking
fault from top of the sample as square with cross section or in
microscopy image we can see a V shape in layer.


By applying more energy to electrons beam, because E 1/

( is wavelength of beam) and we know resolution formula is r


( is angle for beams which depends on aperture ), r

should be small as possible to have good resolution our image

in SEM. If we increase energy, it means we decrease and it
means we have smaller r and higher resolution.
Other way by best optic, if we apply more potential to
condenser lens we have sharper probe of beam and by
scanning coil we can decrease size of pixels as small as size
beam. It means our beam can cover high area of pixels and we
have higher resolution.
If we apply +200 V to our grid in detector because of positive
field all secondary and backscatter electrons can kick the
scintillator and we tack secondary image. In this image
because of secondary electrons we can take more information
about surface but both BE and SE consist in image.
If apply -200 V to our grid in detector because of negative field
all secondary cannot go to detector and they are repelled by
negative field ( SE has not enough energy to pass the field) but
BE has enough energy and they dont care about negative field
and they pass the field and go to detector and we can take
backscatter image.
If the electrons interact by atoms in the surface and they
reflected or backscatter by elastic scattering interaction by
atom in the surface of sample, it mention backscatter electrons
If electrons interact by other electrons in the outer shell in the
atom and kick out one electron from outer shell, it calls SE.

if electron beam kick out one electron from a shell , for

example from K shell and this electron kick out from shell, we
have a hol which fills by other electron from next shell ( from L
shell in this example). When the electron from L shell fills the
hol, it exist energy which can emit as X-ray or this energy can
gives to other electron in L shell and this electron kick out from
the shell, this is KLL AES electron.

We can do topography by AFM from three modes:
Contact mode: which cantilever ( placed a tip in end of
cantilever) and because of repulsive interatomic force the
cantilever bend during the moving , it can take as asignal for
topography ( this bending cause to change in placement of
reflection laser over the cantilever)
Non contact mode: cantilever vibrate over the sample by its
resonant frequency and because of attractive interatomic force
the resonant frequency chand and this changing can take as a
signal for topography

Tapping mode: the cantilever oscillate over the sample and

because of both attractive and repulsive interatomic force the
resonant frequency changes and it can take as asignal for
topography. In tapping mode the amplitude come to contact
AFM can use for every sample but SEM can use for conductive
We can topography from liqude by AFM but by SEM we cannot
AFM dont need vacuum but SEM need vacuum which is
AFM has higher resolution than SEM
AFM doesnt charge the sample but SEM can charge the sample
which cause to destroy
AFM can destroy the sample by probe which is near the sample
Depth of field for SEM is in range of millimetre but height
topography for AFM is in range of micrometer
oxygen, because oxygen increase the ionization yield.
11 B

which is the main isotope for B.

compare to


B has higher yield )

ions have less yield

We measure the sputter crater. we assume sputter rate is

constant, total sputter time correspond to crater depth .
We need a reference sample by known B concentration and we
do SIMS measurement in the same setting which we do SIM
measurment for unknown sample from the reference sample we
can find conversion factor between count/s to concentration.
Channel number : each channel number build of a small range
of energy
Yield shows number of ions
First pick which start at 100 shows the substrate pick and the
He ions penetrate more and loose more energy and the number
of backscatter ions is less but when we penetrate more the
number of ions which is detected is increased. When the he ion
penetrate more in sample , He ions loos more energy. And also
shows that our substrate build of carbon which has lighter
atomic number compare to elements in film layer.
Second pick shows Ti element which has atomic number 22
which is bigger than carbon and because of this reason the
number of backscatter ions is more compare to substrate and
backscatter ions has more energy compare to backscatter ions
from carbon elemnt.
Third pick shows the Pb which have high atomic number and
each atoms is big and He ions which are backscatter have
highest energy near 2 MeV and the number of backscatter ions
is high too.
We can understand bigger atoms cause to increase the energy
of backscatter ions and also increase the yield of backscatter

b) next page


a) Bright field, because the field seems lighter than some parts
in image which is darker, it means the more beams could pass
from the substrate and we have more absorption in dark parts.


Brighter and darker in bright field causes by three response:
Mass contrast : because of mass, if we have higher mass , it
means more absorption and darker points
Thickness: if thickness is higher the less beams can pass
through the thickness and it means darker part
Bragg contrast: if our crystal in sample is aline zoom axis. We
see dark part.
In our image we can have darker or brighter part because of
these three reasons.

we have the same material, so it can depended of thickness or
bragg contrast
Precipitates defect in second layer and dislocation defects in
top of image and stacking fault in top of image which shows by
V shape.
compressive strain because the layer pick is before the
substrait pick

plane (113) has taken in small angle it means beams dont
penetrate too much and we have brag condition for surface of
sample. We can see the layers and substrate picks as well but
we have dispersion with picks which is because of defects ( in
top and middle of image)
plan (224) has taken in bigger angle , it means beams
penetrate more in the sample and we have brag condition for
bigger area of sample, we can see picks for layers and
substrate but we have yet defects
plan (115) has taken in biggest angel and it means our beam
penetrate more deeply and we can see picks for layer and
substrat but we have good quality in deeper layer and substrate
without any defect. Our sample is good in deeper layer and
substrate. ( without deferct)