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Derivation of 3d Rotation Matrix

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rotation of vector r theta degrees and around vector n and becoming vector s

rp = r-parallel = n * r = sp = s-parrallel = n*s (since rotation doesnt change length)

rPerp = r-Perpendicular and sPerp = s-Perpendicular

Find s:

Since I know r, the goal is to get everything in terms of r.

s = sp + sPerp =>

s = rp + sPerp

To find sPerp, lets create a plane that sPerp is on with two basis that I know.

I can get one (call it V) by doing a cross product () with n and rPerp, which will produce a vector that

is perpendicular to rPerp and n. So our two new basis can be rPerp and this new vector V.

sPerp = |sPerp|*cos()*unit_rPerp + |sPerp|*sin()*unit_v

Since sPerp and rPerp are on a circle, I know that their lengths are the same. Also I know the length of

V is the same as rPerp because of a property of the cross product. Namely, |n rPerp| = |n|*|rPerp|

*sin(alpha), ns length is one and the angle betIen them is 90 degrees and sin(90)=1, thus |V|=|rPerp|

This lets us write sSperp like this:

sPerp = |rPerp|*cos()*unit_rPerp + |v|*sin()*unit_v

sPerp = cos()*rPerp + sin()*V

Rewrite s:

s = rp + cos()*rPerp + sin()*V

before I write everything in terms of r, note that (n rPerp) is equal to

(n (r-rp)) => (nr - nrp) and since rp is in the same direction as n, nrp is the 0 vector, and Ire left

with nr. so V is also nr!

s = (n r)* n + cos()*(r - (n r)* n) + sin()*( nr)

Using the tensor product I can rewrite (n r)* n as M*r, where M is matrix that when multiplied with r

produces (n r)* n.

r = (rx,ry,rz) and n= (nx,ny,nz)

(n r)*n=((rx*nx+ry*ny+rz*nz)*nx, (rx*nx+ry*ny+rz*nz)*ny, (rx*nx+ry*ny+rz*nz)*nz)

(rx*nx*nx+ry*ny*nx+rz*nz*nx, rx*nx*ny+ry*ny*ny +rz*nz*ny,

rx*nx*nz+ry*ny*nz +rz*nz*nz)

=>

nx ^ 2

nx * ny

nx * nz

nx * ny

ny ^ 2

ny * nz

nx * nz

ny * nz

nz ^ 2

0

0

0

rx

ry

rz

1 0

= M*r

so now I have:

s = M*r + cos()*(r - M*r) + sin()*( nr)

s = M*r + cos()*r cos()*M*r + sin()*( nr)

s = (1-cos())*M*r + cos()*r + sin()*( nr)

Next Ill write nr also as a matrix (say P) multiplied by r.

ny * rz nz * ry

nr = nz * rx nx * rz

nx * ry ny * rx

0

nz

=>

ny

nz

0

nx

0

ny

nx

0

0

0

0

0

rx

ry

=P*r

rz

So now I have:

s = (1-cos())*M*r + cos()*r + sin()* P*r

since (1-cos), cos and sin are scalars, simply make them scalar matrices!

s= [(1-cos())*M + cos()*I + sin()* P]*r

Rotation Matrix = [(1-cos())*M + cos()*I + sin()* P]

Which is:

(1 cos( )) * nx ^ 2 cos( )

(1 cos( )) * nx * ny nz * sin( ) (1 cos( )) * nx * nz ny * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * nx * ny nz * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * ny ^ 2 cos( )

(1 cos( )) * ny * nz nx * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * nz ^ 2 cos( )

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

nx ^ 2 (1 nx ^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * nx * ny nz * sin( ) (1 cos( )) * nx * nz ny * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * nx * ny nz * sin( )

ny ^ 2 (1 ny ^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * ny * nz nx * sin( )

nz ^ 2 (1 nz ^ 2) * cos( )

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

=>

Note: If I plug in the basis vectors from the 3D Cartesian coordinate system Ill get the three rotation

matrices that rotate about an axis.

Put n = {0,0,1} in and we get:

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

=>

cos( )

sin( )

sin( )

cos( )

0

0

0

0

1

0

=>

cos( )

sin( )

0

1

0

0

sin( )

0

cos( )

0

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

1^ 2 (1 1^ 2) * cos( )

0

0

0

0

0

0

=> which is the Rotation matrix about the z axis!

0

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

0

(1 cos( )) * 0 *1 0 * sin( )

1^ 2 (1 1^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

0

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

0

0

0

=> which is the Rotation matrix about the y axis!

0

0

0

0

1^ 2 (1 1^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

0

(1 cos( )) *1 * 0 0 * sin( )

(1 cos( )) * 0 * 0 1 * sin( )

0^ 2 (1 0^ 2) * cos( )

0

=>

1

0

0

cos( )

sin( )

0

0

sin( )

cos( )

0

0

0

=> which is the Rotation matrix about the x axis!

0

Note: That if you rotate - degrees about n you will have the same rotation as rotating degrees about n.

Put your eye at Q and rotate + degrees is counterclockwise and - degrees is clockwise, and you will be

doing the same rotation.

Proposition to Get Rid of Trig and Square Root calls

If I know vector s (the final vector from the rotation) then I can easily get rid of the trig and square roots.

Let vector V = rs and remember that vector n=rs/(|rs|)

Cos()=rs/(|r|*|s|), |r|=1, |s|=1 => Cos()=rs

Sin()=|rs|/(r||*|s|), |r|=1, |s|=1 => Sin()=|rs|

|V|=|rs|= V .x ^ 2 V . y ^ 2 V .z ^ 2 =Sin()

VV= V .x ^ 2 V . y ^ 2 V .z ^ 2

n.x =

V .x

V .y

V .z

, n.y =

, n.z =

|V |

|V |

|V |

V .x * V .x

V .x * V .x

=>

,

|V |*|V |

V V

V .x * V . y

V .x * V . y

n.x*n.y =

=>

,

|V | *|V |

V V

n.x*n.x =

n.z*Sin() =

V .z

V .z

*|rs| =>

*|V| => V.z

|V |

|V |

V . y *V . y

V .z * V .z

, n.z*n.z =

,

V V

V V

V .x * V .z

V . y * V .z

n.x*n.z =

, n.y*n.z =

V V

V V

n.y*n.y =

0

0

0

n.x*Sin() => V.x

Now I can rewrite the rotation matrix in terms of vector V, which will be without trig and square roots.

V .x * V .x

V .x * V .x

V V (r s ) * (1 V V )

(1 (r s )) * V .x *V . y V .z

V V

V

.

x

*

V

.

z

(1 (r s )) *

V .y

V V

V .x * V . y

V .z

V V

V . y *V . y

V . y *V . y

(r s ) * (1

)

V V

V V

V . y * V .z

V .x

(1 (r s)) *

V V

0

(1 (r s)) *

V .x * V .z

V V

V . y * V .z

(1 (r s )) *

V V

V

V .z * V .z

(r s ) * (1

V V

0

(1 (r s )) *

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