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SEISMIC DESIGN OF MASONRY

STRUCTURES

NEHRP Recommended Provisions


Masonry Design
Context in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions
Masonry behavior
Reference standards
Seismic resisting systems
Component design
Quality assurance
Summary

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 1

Objectives of Module
Basics of masonry behavior
Basics of masonry specification
The MSJC code and specification and their relationship

to the NEHRP Recommended Provisions documents


Earthquake design of masonry structures and
components using the 2005 MSJC code and
specification
Example of masonry shear wall design

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 2

Context in the NEHRP Recommended


Provisions
Design seismic loads
Load combinations

Chap. 5

Loads on structures

Chap. 5

Loads on components & attachments

Chap. 6

Design resistances

Chap. 11

Strength design (mostly references the 2002 MSJC)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

units of
concrete or
fired clay

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 3

...
... typical
typical
materials
materials in
in
reinforced
reinforced
masonry
masonry

grout

steel
reinforcing
bars

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 4

Essential Elements of Simplified


Design for Wall-type Structures
Starting point for design
Design of vertical strips in walls perpendicular to
lateral loads

Design of walls parallel to lateral loads


Design of lintels
Simplified analysis for lateral loads
Design of diaphragms
Detailing

mortar

grout

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 6

Masonry Structures 1

Starting Point for Wall-type Masonry


Structures

Essential Function of Walls in


Resisting Gravity Loads

No beams or columns
(Example of direction of
span)

Bearing walls resist


axial loads (concentric
and eccentric) as
vertical strips

Vertical reinforcement of
#4 bars at corners and
jambs
Horizontal reinforcement
of two #4 bars in bond
beam at top of wall, and
over and under openings
(two #5 bars with span > 6
ft)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 7

Essential Function of Walls in


Resisting Lateral Forces
Walls parallel to lateral
forces act as shear walls

Bond beams transfer


reactions from walls to
horizontal diaphragms and
act as diaphragm chords

Nonbearing walls resist


concentric axial load as
vertical strips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 8

Effect of Openings
Effective
width of strip
A

Strip A

Effective
width of strip
B

Effective
width of strip
C

Strip B

Strip C

Width B

Width C

Vertical strips of walls perpendicular to lateral


forces resist combinations of axial load and out-ofplane moments, and transfer their reactions to
horizontal diaphragms
Width A
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 9

Effect of Openings
Openings increase original design actions
on each strip by a factor equal to the ratio
of the effective width of the strip divided by
the actual width:

Effective Width B
Actions in Strip B = Original Actions

Actual Width B

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 11

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 10

Design of Vertical Strips in


Perpendicular Walls
Moments and axial forces due to
combinations of gravity and lateral
load
M=Pe

M=Pe/2

M wind

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 12

Masonry Structures 2

Design of Vertical Strips in


Perpendicular Walls

Pn

Design of Parallel Walls


Moments, axial forces, and shears due
to combinations of gravity and lateral
loads

Moment-axial force
interaction diagram
(with the help of a
spreadsheet)

P
V
h

Mu, Pu

Mn

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 13

Design of Parallel Walls


Moment-axial force
interaction diagram
(with the help of a
spreadsheet)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 14

Design of Parallel Walls

Sufficient lateral
capacity comes from
wall density.
Shearing resistance:

Pn

Vn = Vm + Vs

M
Vm = 4.0 1.75 u An fm' + 0.25 Pu
Vu dv

Mu, Pu

Mn
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 15

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Lintels

Design of Lintels
Moments and shears due to
gravity loads:
(Example of
direction of span)

Mu =

Shear design: Provide


enough depth so that shear
reinforcement is not
needed.

w l2
8

wl
Vu =
2

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 16

Flexural design:

Neutral axis

As

Mu
fy 0.9 d

As
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 17

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 18

Masonry Structures 3

Distribution of Shears to Shear Walls

Classical Analysis of Structures with


Rigid Diaphragms

Classical approach

Locate center of rigidity


Treat the lateral load as the

Determine whether the


diaphragm is rigid or
flexible
Carry out an appropriate
analysis for shears

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 19

Simplified Analysis of Structures with


Rigid Diaphragms

8 ft

8 ft
40 ft

stiffness, which is
proportional to plan length
Neglect plan torsion

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft
8 ft
40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Vright
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

40 ft

( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft total
( 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft V
=
( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft total

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 21

Classical Analysis of Structures with


Flexible Diaphragms

8 ft
8 ft

Vleft =

8 ft

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 20

Simplified Analysis of Structures with Rigid


Diaphragms

Consider only the shearing

40 ft

superposition of a load
acting through the center of
rigidity and a torsional
moment about that center of
rigidity

5
Vtotal
8

3
Vtotal
8
Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 22

Classical Analysis of Structures with


Flexible Diaphragms
40 ft

Distribute shears according


to tributary areas of the
diaphragm independent of
the relative stiffnesses of
the shear walls

half

half

8 ft
8 ft

40 ft

8 ft
8 ft
8 ft

Vright

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 23

1
Vtotal
2
1
= Vtotal
2

Vleft =

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 24

Masonry Structures 4

Diaphragm Design

Simplified Diaphragm Analysis

Diaphragm shears are resisted by total depth or by


cover (for plank diaphragms). Diaphragm moments
are resisted by diaphragm chords in bond beams.

Design for the worse of the two cases:


40 ft

L/2

8 ft

5/8V
1/2V

8 ft
V

40 ft

8 ft

3/8V
1/2V

M = w L2 / 8

V=wL/2

8 ft
8 ft
w

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 25

Masonry Behavior

Details
Wall-diaphragm connections
Design of lintels for out-of-plane loads between wall-

On a local level, masonry behavior is nonisotropic,


nonhomogeneous, and nonlinear.

On a global level, however, masonry behavior can be

diaphragm connections

Connections between bond beam and walls


Connections between walls and foundation

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

idealized as isotropic and homogeneous.


Nonlinearity in compression is handled using an
equivalent rectangular stress block as in reinforced
concrete design.
A starting point for masonry behavior is to visualize
it as very similar to reinforced concrete. Masonry
capacity is expressed in terms of a specified
compressive strength, fm, which is analogous to fc.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 27

Masonry Behavior Stress-Strain Curve


for Prism Under Compression

f unit

f mortar

Prism

Mortar

Strain
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 28

Review Masonry Basics


Basic terms
Units
Mortar
Grout
Accessory materials

Masonry unit

f prism

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 26

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 29

Reinforcement (may or may not be present)


Connectors
Flashing
Sealants

Typical details
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 30

Masonry Structures 5

Basic Terms

Head
joints

Bond patterns (looking at wall):

Concrete masonry units (CMU):

Bed
joints

Running bond

1/3 Running bond

Stack bond

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 31

Masonry Units
Specified by ASTM C 62 or C 216
Usually solid, with small core holes
for manufacturing purposes
If cores occupy 25% of net area,
units can be considered 100% solid

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 32

Masonry Mortar

Clay masonry units:

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 33

Masonry Mortar

Mortar for unit masonry is specified by ASTM C 270


Three cementitious systems
Portland cement lime mortar
Masonry cement mortar
Mortar cement mortar

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 34

Masonry Mortar

Within each cementitious system, mortar is specified


by type (M a S o N w O r K):
Going from Type K to Type M, mortar has an
increasing volume proportion of portland cement. It
sets up faster and has higher compressive and tensile
bond strengths.
As the volume proportion of portland cement
increases, mortar is less able to deform when
hardened.
Types N and S are specified for modern masonry
construction.

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Specified by ASTM C 90
Minimum specified compressive
strength (net area) of 1900 psi
(average)
Net area is about 55% of gross area
Nominal versus specified versus
actual dimensions
Type I and Type II designations no
longer exist

Flemish bond

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Masonry Units

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 35

Under ASTM C270, mortar can be specified by


proportion or by property.

If mortar is specified by proportion, compliance is


verified only by verifying proportions. For example:
Type S PCL mortar has volume proportions of 1 part
cement to about 0.5 parts hydrated masons lime to
about 4.5 parts masons sand.
Type N masonry cement mortar (single-bag) has one
part Type N masonry cement and 3 parts masons
sand.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 36

Masonry Structures 6

Masonry Mortar

Masonry Mortar
Under ASTM C270, mortar can be specified

The proportion specification is the default.

by proportion or by property:
Proportion specification is simpler -- verify
in the field that volume proportions meet
proportion limits.
Property specification is more complex: (1)
establish the proportions necessary to
produce a mortar that, tested at laboratory
flow, will meet the required compressive
strength, air content, and retentivity (ability
to retain water) requirements and (2) verify
in the field that volume proportions meet
proportion limits.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 37

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 38

Grout

Grout
Grout for unit masonry is specified by ASTM C 476
Two kinds of grout:
Fine grout (cement, sand, water)
Coarse grout (cement, sand, pea gravel, water)

ASTM C 476 permits a small amount of hydrated lime,


but does not require any. Lime is usually not used in
plant batched grout.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Unless the
property specification is used, no mortar testing is
necessary.
The proportion of water is not specified. It is determined
by the mason to achieve good productivity and
workmanship.
Masonry units absorb water from the mortar decreasing
its water-cement ratio and increasing its compressive
strength. Mortar need not have high compressive
strength.

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 39

Grout

Under ASTM C476, grout can be specified


by proportion or by compressive strength:
Proportion specification is simpler. It
requires only that volume proportions of
ingredients be verified.
Specification by compressive strength is
more complex. It requires compression
testing of grout in a permeable mold (ASTM
C 1019).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 40

Grout

If grout is specified by proportion, compliance is


verified only by verifying proportions. For example:
Fine grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement to
about 3 parts masons sand.
Coarse grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement
to about 3 parts masons sand and about 2 parts pea
gravel.

Unless the compressive-strength specification is

The proportion of water is not specified.


The slump should be 8 to 11 in.

Masonry units absorb water from the grout


decreasing its water-cement ratio and
increasing its compressive strength. Highslump grout will still be strong enough.

used, no grout testing is necessary.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 41

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 42

Masonry Structures 7

MASONRY DESIGN CODES IN THE US

Accessory Materials
Horizontally oriented expansion joint under
shelf angle:
Weepholes
Flashing
Shelf angle

Sealant gap
~ 3 / 8 in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ANSI process (balance of interests, letter ballots, resolution of


Negatives, public comment)
Technical
Industry
ASTM
Organizations
Groups
(Material
NEHRP
MSJC
MSJC
Specifications)
develops
Code
provisions
MSJC
model codes
Specification
ICC
reference those
(QA,
Other Model
(International
provisions
materials,
Codes
Building Code)
execution)
(NFPA)
local authorities
adopt those model
codes
Building Code
(legal standing)
(contract between society and the designer)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 43

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 44

2005 MSJC Code

What is the MSJC Code and


Specification... ?

MSJC
Specification

Ch. 1, General Requirements

ACI
(ACI 530-05)
(ACI 530.1-05)

2005 MSJC
Code and
Specification
ASCE
(ASCE 5-05)
(ASCE 6-05)

(part of a civil
contract between
owner and
contractor)

TMS
(TMS 402-05)
(TMS 602-05)

Ch. 2,
Allowable
Stress
Design

Ch. 3,
Strength
Design

Masonry Standards
Joint Committee

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

2.1, General ASD


2.2, URM
2.3, RM

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 45

Ch. 4,
Prestressed
Masonry

Ch. 5,
Empirical
Design

3.1, General SD
3.2, URM
3.3, RM

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Relation Between Code and


Specification

Ch. 6,
Veneer

Ch. 7,
Glass
Block

6.1, General
6.2, Anchored
6.3, Adhered

App.A,
AAC

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 46

Role of fm
Concrete:

Code:
Design provisions are given in Chapters 1-7 and
Appendix A
Sections 1.2.4 and 1.14 require a QA program in
accordance with the specification
Section 1.4 invokes the specification by reference.

Specification:

Verify compliance with specified fm


Comply with required level of quality assurance
Comply with specified products and execution

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 47

Designer states assumed value of fc


Compliance is verified by compression tests on
cylinders cast in the field and cured under ideal
conditions

Masonry
Designer states assumed value of fm
Compliance is verified by unit strength method or
by prism test method

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 48

Masonry Structures 8

Example of Unit Strength Method


(Specification Tables 1, 2)

Verify Compliance with Specified fm


Unit strength method (Spec 1.4 B 2):
Compressive strengths from unit manufacturer
ASTM C 270 mortar
Grout meeting ASTM C 476 or 2,000 psi

Prism test method (Spec 1.4 B 3):


Pro -- can permit optimization of materials
Con -- require testing, qualified testing lab, and
procedures in case of non-complying results

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Clay masonry units (Table 1):


Unit compressive strength 4150 psi
Type N mortar
Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

Concrete masonry units (Table 2):


Unit compressive strength 1900 psi
Type S mortar
Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 49

Application of Unit Strength Method


(Spec Tables 1, 2)

Comply with Specified Products and


Execution
Products -- Specification Article 2:

Design determines required material specification:

Units, mortar, grout, accessory materials

Designer states assumed value of fm


Specifier specifies units, mortar and grout that will
satisfy unit strength method

Execution -- Specification Article 3


Inspection
Preparation
Installation of masonry, reinforcement, grout,
prestressing tendons

Compliance with fm can be verified with no tests on


mortar, grout, or prisms

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 51

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 1
1.1 1.6 Scope, contract
documents and
calculations, special
systems, reference
standards, notation,
definitions
1.7 Loading
1.8 Material properties
1.9 Section properties
1.10 Deflections

1.11 Stack bond masonry


1.12 Corbels
1.13 Details of reinforcement
1.14 Seismic design
requirements
1.15 Quality assurance program
1.16 Construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 53

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 50

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 52

Code 1.8, Material Properties


Chord modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, thermal

expansion coefficients, and creep coefficients for clay,


concrete, and AAC masonry
Moisture expansion coefficient for clay masonry
Shrinkage coefficients for concrete masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 54

Masonry Structures 9

Code 1.9, Section Properties


Use minimum (critical) area for computing member
stresses or capacities
Capacity is governed by the weakest section; for
example, the bed joints of face-shell bedded hollow
masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 55

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 1
1.1 1.6 Scope, contract
documents and
calculations, special
systems, reference
standards, notation,
definitions
1.7 Loading
1.8 Material properties
1.9 Section properties
1.10 Deflections

1.11 Stack bond masonry


1.12 Corbels
1.13 Details of reinforcement
1.14 Seismic design
requirements
1.15 Quality assurance program
1.16 Construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 57

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 1
1.1 1.6 Scope, Contract
documents and
calculations, special
systems, reference
standards, notation,
definitions
1.7 Loading
1.8 Material properties
1.9 Section properties
1.10 Deflections

1.11 Stack bond masonry


1.12 Corbels
1.13 Details of reinforcement
1.14 Seismic design
requirements
1.15 Quality assurance program
1.16 Construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 59

Code 1.9, Section Properties


Radius of gyration and member slenderness are better
represented by the average section; for example, the
net area of units of face-shell bedded masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 56

Code 1.13, Details of Reinforcement


Reinforcing bars must be embedded in grout; joint
reinforcement can be embedded in mortar

Placement of reinforcement
Protection for reinforcement
Standard hooks

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 58

Code 1.14, Seismic Design


Applies to all masonry except
Glass unit masonry
Veneers

Seeks to improve performance of masonry


structures in earthquakes
Improves ductility of masonry members
Improves connectivity of masonry members

Different requirements for AAC masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 60

Masonry Structures 10

Code 1.14, Seismic Design


Define a structures Seismic Design Category (SDC)
according to ASCE 7-02
SDC depends on seismic risk (geographic location),
importance, underlying soil

SDC determines
Required types of shear walls (prescriptive
reinforcement)
Prescriptive reinforcement for other masonry elements
Permitted design approaches for LFRS (lateral forceresisting system)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 61

Code 1.14, Seismic Design


Seismic Design Category A:
Drift limit = 0.007
Minimum design connection force for wall-to roof
and wall-to-floor connections

Seismic Design Category B:


Lateral force resisting system cannot be designed
empirically

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 63

Minimum Reinforcement for Detailed Plain Shear


Walls for SDC C
roof connectors
@ 48 in. max oc

roof
diaphragm

#4 bar (min) within


16 in. of top of parapet
Top of Parapet

#4 bars around
openings

24 in. or 40 db
past opening

#4 bar (min) @
diaphragms
continuous through
control joint
#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of all
control joints

#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
corners &
ends of walls

control joint
#4 bars @ 10 ft oc

Seismic design requirements are keyed to ASCE 702 Seismic Design Categories (from A up to F).

Requirements are cumulative; requirements in each


higher category are added to requirements in the
previous category.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 62

Code 1.14, Seismic Design


Seismic Design Category C:
All walls must be considered shear walls unless
isolated
Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for reinforcement and connections
(ordinary reinforced, intermediate reinforced, or special
reinforced)
Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for horizontal or vertical reinforcement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 64

Code 1.14, Seismic Design


Seismic Design Category D:
Masonry that is part of the lateral force-resisting
system must be reinforced so that v + h 0.002, and
v and h 0.0007
Type N mortar and masonry cement mortars are
prohibited in the lateral force-resisting system
Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for reinforcement and connections
(special reinforced)
Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for horizontal and vertical
reinforcement

#4 bars @ 10 ft oc or W1.7 joint


reinforcement @ 16 in. oc

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Code 1.14, Seismic Design

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 65

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 66

Masonry Structures 11

Minimum Reinforcement for Special Reinforced


Shear Walls
roof connectors
@ 48 in. max oc

roof
diaphragm

#4 bar (min) within


16 in. of top of parapet

Seismic Design Categories E and F:

Top of Parapet

#4 bars around
openings

24 in. or 40 db
past opening

Code 1.14, Seismic Design

#4 bar (min) @
diaphragms
continuous through
control joint

Additional reinforcement requirements for stackbond masonry

#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of all
control joints

#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
corners &
ends of walls

control joint
#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 67

Minimum Reinforcement, SW Types


SW Type

Minimum Reinforcement

SDC

Empirically
Designed

none

Ordinary Plain

none

A, B

Detailed Plain

Vertical reinforcement = 0.2 in.2 at corners, within 16 in.


of openings, within 8 in. of movement joints, maximum
spacing 10 ft; horizontal reinforcement W1.7 @ 16 in. or
#4 in bond beams @ 10 ft

A, B

Ordinary
Reinforced

same as above

A, B, C

Intermediate
Reinforced

same as above, but vertical reinforcement @ 4 ft

A, B, C

Special
Reinforced

same as above, but horizontal reinforcement @ 4 ft, and


= 0.002

any

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 69

Code 1.15, Quality Assurance


Requires a quality assurance program in accordance
with the MSJC Specification:
Three levels of quality assurance (A, B, C)
Compliance with specified fm
Increasing levels of quality assurance require
increasingly strict requirements for inspection, and for
compliance with specified products and execution

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 68

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 1
1.1 1.6 Scope, contract
documents and
calculations, special
systems, reference
standards, notation,
definitions
1.7 Loading
1.8 Material properties
1.9 Section properties
1.10 Deflections

1.11 Stack bond masonry


1.12 Corbels
1.13 Details of reinforcement
1.14 Seismic design
requirements
1.15 Quality assurance program
1.16 Construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 70

Code 1.15, Quality Assurance


Minimum requirements for inspection, tests, and
submittals:
Empirically designed masonry, veneers, or glass unit
masonry

Table 1.14.1.1 for nonessential facilities


Table 1.14.1.2 for essential facilities
Other masonry

Table 1.14.1.2 for nonessential facilities


Table 1.14.1.3 for essential facilities

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 71

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 72

Masonry Structures 12

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 1
1.1 1.6 Scope, contract
documents and
calculations, special
systems, reference
standards, notation,
definitions
1.7 Loading
1.8 Material properties
1.9 Section properties
1.10 Deflections

1.11 Stack bond masonry


1.12 Corbels
1.13 Details of reinforcement
1.14 Seismic design
requirements
1.15 Quality assurance program
1.16 Construction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 73

... Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3, Strength Design (SD)

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
Deformation requirements
-factors
Anchor bolts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 75

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3, Strength Design
Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
factors
Deformation requirements
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Minimum grout spacing (Table 1.16.2)


Embedded conduits, pipes, and sleeves:
Consider effect of openings in design
Masonry alone resists loads

Anchorage of masonry to structural members,


frames, and other construction:
Show type, size, and location of connectors on
drawings

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 74

Fundamental Basis for


Strength Design
Factored design actions must not exceed nominal

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.16, Construction

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 77

capacities, reduced by factors

Quotient of load factor divided by the factor is


analogous to safety factor of allowable-stress design,
and should be comparable to that safety factor.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 76

Code 3.1.2, Loading Combinations


for SD
From governing building code
From ASCE 7-02

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 78

Masonry Structures 13

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
factors
Deformation requirements
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Code 3.1.3, Design Strength for SD


Design strength must exceed required strength
Extra caution against brittle shear failure:
Design shear strength shall exceed the shear
corresponding to the development of 1.25 times the
nominal flexural strength
Nominal shear strength need not exceed 2.5 times
required shear strength

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 79

Code 3.1.4, Strength-reduction


Factors for SD

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
factors
Deformation requirements
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Action

Reinforced Masonry

Unreinforced
Masonry

Combinations of
flexure and axial
load

0.90

0.60

Shear

0.80

0.80

Anchorage and
splices of
Reinforcement

0.80

---

Bearing

0.60

0.60

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 81

Code 3.1.4, Strength-reduction


Factors for SD
Capacity of Anchor Strength-reduction
Bolts as Governed
Factor
by
Steel yield and
fracture

0.90

Masonry breakout

0.50

Pullout of bent-bar
anchors

0.65

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 83

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 80

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 82

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
factors
Deformation requirements
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 84

Masonry Structures 14

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Code 3.1.5, Deformation


Requirements
Drift limits from ASCE 7-02
Deflections of unreinforced masonry (URM) based on
uncracked sections

Deflections of reinforced masonry (RM) based on


cracked sections

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Tensile capacity governed by:

Shear breakout
Yield of anchor in shear

For combined tension and shear, use linear

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 86

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Code 3.1.6, Anchor Bolts

Shear capacity governed by:

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 85

Tensile breakout
Yield of anchor in tension
Tensile pullout (bent-bar anchor bolts only)

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
factors
Deformation requirements
Anchor bolts

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
Deformation requirements
factors
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Reinforced masonry
Unreinforced masonry

interaction

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 87

Code 3.1.7.1.1, Compressive


Strength of Masonry
For concrete masonry, 1,500 psi fm 4,000 psi
For clay masonry, 1,500 psi fm 6,000 psi

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 89

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 88

Code 3.1.7.1.2, Compressive Strength


of Grout
For concrete masonry, fm fg 5,000 psi
For clay masonry, fg 6,000 psi

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 90

Masonry Structures 15

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Code 3.1.8.2, Modulus of Rupture


In-plane and out-of-plane bending

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
Deformation requirements
factors
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 91

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
Deformation requirements
factors
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 93

Organization of MSJC Code


Chapter 3

Fundamental basis
Loading combinations
Design strength
Deformation requirements
factors
Anchor bolts

Bearing strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of rupture
Strength of reinforcement
Unreinforced masonry
Reinforced masonry

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 95

Table 3.1.8.2.1
Lower values for masonry cement and airentrained portland cement-lime mortar
Higher values for grouted masonry
For grouted stack-bond masonry, fr = 250 psi
parallel to bed joints for continuous horizontal
grout section

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 92

Code 3.1.8.3, Strength of


Reinforcement
fy 60 ksi
Actual yield strength shall not exceed 1.3 times
the specified value

Compressive strength of reinforcement shall be


ignored unless the reinforcement is tied in
compliance with Code 2.1.6.5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 94

Code 3.3, Reinforced Masonry


Masonry in flexural tension is cracked
Reinforcing steel is needed to resist tension
Similar to strength design of reinforced concrete

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 96

Masonry Structures 16

Code 3.3, Reinforced Masonry


3.3.2 Design assumptions
3.3.3 Reinforcement requirements and details, including
maximum steel percentage
3.3.4 Design of piers, beams and columns:
Nominal axial and flexural strength
Nominal shear strength

3.3.5 Design of walls for out-of-plane loads


3.3.6 Design of walls for in-plane loads

Code 3.3.2, Design Assumptions


Continuity between reinforcement and grout
Equilibrium
mu = 0.0035 for clay masonry, 0.0025 for concrete
masonry

Plane sections remain plane


Elasto-plastic stress-strain curve for reinforcement
Tensile strength of masonry is neglected
Equivalent rectangular compressive stress block in

masonry, with a height of 0.80 fm and a depth of 0.80 c

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Flexural
Assumptions

Axial
Load

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 97

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 98

Code 3.3.3, Reinforcement


Requirements and Details

Locate neutral axis based on extremefiber strains

Calculate compressive force, C

s y

Development length based on pullout and splitting

P=C-T
M = Fi yi ( yi from plastic centroid )

extreme longitudinal bars

0.0025 concrete

Lap splices based on required development length


Welded and lap splices must develop 1.25 fy

0.80 fm
1 = 0.80

fy

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Axial
load

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 99

Code 3.3.3.5, Maximum


Reinforcement
Locate neutral axis based on
extreme-fiber strains

Calculate compressive force, C (can

s = y

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 100

Code 3.3.4, Design of Beams, Piers,


and Columns
Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load
is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2
(interaction diagram)

include compressive reinforcement)

Reinforcement + axial Load = C


Reinforcement
fy

In walls, shear reinforcement must be bent around


Splices:

mu = 0.0035 clay
Reinforcement

Bar diameter 1 / 8 nominal wall thickness


Standard hooks and development length:

Pn

Pure compression
Balance point

mu = 0.0035 clay
0.0025 concrete
0.80 fm
1 = 0.80

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Mn
Pure flexure

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 101

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 102

Masonry Structures 17

Code 3.3.4, Design of Beams, Piers,


and Columns
Slenderness is addressed by multiplying axial
capacity by slenderness-dependent modification
factors

h 2
1

140r

for

h
99
r

for

h
> 99
r

70r
h

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Code 3.3.4, Nominal Shear Strength


Vn = Vm + Vs
Vn shall not exceed:

M / V dv 0.25
Vn 6 An fm
M / V dv 1.0
Vn 4 An fm
Linear interpolation between these extremes
Objective is to avoid crushing of diagonal strut

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 103

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 104

Code 3.3.4, Nominal Shear Strength


Code 3.3.4.2, Requirements for Beams
Vm and Vs are given by:

M u
V m = 4 .0 1 .7 5
An
V u d v

Mu

1 .0
Vu d v

f m' + 0 . 2 5 P u

A
V s = 0 .5 v fy d v
s

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

( 3 2 1)

Pu 0.05 An fm
Mn 1.3 Mcr
Lateral bracing spaced at most 32 times beam
width

Nominal depth not less than 8 in.


(3 2 2 )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 105

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 106

Code 3.3.4.3, Requirements for Piers

Code 3.3.4.4, Requirements for Columns

Isolated elements (wall segments are not piers)


Pu 0.3 An fm
Nominal thickness between 6 and 16 in.
Nominal plan length between 3 and 6 times the

Isolated elements (wall segments are not columns)


g 0.0025
g 0.04, and also meet Code 3.3.3.5
Lateral ties in accordance with Code 2.1.6.5
Solid-grouted
Least cross-section dimension 8 in.
Nominal depth not greater than 3 times the nominal

nominal thickness

Clear height not more than 5 times the nominal plan


length

width

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 107

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 108

Masonry Structures 18

Code 3.3.5, Design of Walls for


Out-of-plane Loads
Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load
is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2
(interaction diagram)
Pn

Code 3.3.5, Design of Walls for


Out-of-plane Loads
Maximum reinforcement by Code 3.3.3.5
Procedures for computing out-of-plane moments

Pure compression

and deflections (moment magnifier, vary depending


on axial load)
Nominal shear strength by Code 3.3.4.1.2

Balance point
Mn
Pure flexure
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 109

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 110

Code 3.3.6, Design of Walls for


In-plane Loads

Code 3.3.6, Design of Walls for


In-plane Loads

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

Maximum reinforcement by Code 3.3.3.5


Vertical reinforcement not less than one-half the

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2


(interaction diagram)

horizontal reinforcement

Nominal shear strength by Code 3.3.4.1.2


Pn

Pure compression
Balance point
Mn
Pure flexure

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 111

Code 3.3.6, Alternative Approach to


Maximum Reinforcement

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 112

Organization of MSJC Specification


MSJC
Specification

MSJC Code

For walls expected to have flexural ductility in plane,


provide confined boundary elements in hinging regions
(this is another way of preventing toe crushing)

Part 1
General

Part 2
Products

Part 3
Execution

1.6 Quality
assurance

2.12.1-Mortar
2.22.2-Grout
2.3 Masonry Units
2.4 Reinforcement
2.5 Accessories
2.6 Mixing
2.72.7-Fabrication

3.13.1-Inspection
3.23.2-Preparation
3.3 Masonry erection
3.4 Reinforcement
3.5 Grout placement
3.6 Prestressing
3.7 Field quality control
3.83.8-Cleaning

Detailing requirements for boundary elements have yet


to be developed

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 113

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 114

Masonry Structures 19

Strength Design of Reinforced


Masonry Shear Walls

Compute factored design moments and shears for


in- and out-of-plane loading.
Given practical thickness for wall, design flexural
reinforcement as governed by out-of-plane loading.
Design flexural reinforcement as governed by inplane loading and revise design as necessary.
Check shear capacity using capacity design if
required.
Check detailing.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Practical wall thickness is governed by available


unit dimensions:
8- by 8- by 16-in. nominal dimensions
Specified thickness = 7-5/8 in.
One curtain of bars, placed in center of grouted
cells

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

design permitted
Flexural Capacity

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 119

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 116

Initial estimate (more later)


Computer programs
Spreadsheets
Tables

Flexural Capacity

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 118

Revise Design as Necessary

Axial Capacity

design prohibited

M/V

Axial Capacity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Objective -- Keep compressive stress


block from crushing:
Walls must be below balance
point.
Maximum steel percentage
decreases as axial load
increases, so that design above
balance point is impossible.

MOMENTS

Construct moment axial


force interaction diagram

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 117

Strict Limits on Maximum Flexural


Reinforcement

SHEARS

Design Flexural Reinforcement as


Governed by In-plane Loading

Practical wall thickness = 7-5/8 in.


Proportion flexural reinforcement to resist out-ofplane wind or earthquake forces

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Factored design moments


and shears for in-plane
loading depend on actions
transferred to shear walls by
horizontal diaphragms at
each floor level.
Factored design moments
and shears for out-of-plane
loading depend on wind or
earthquake forces acting
between floor levels

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 115

Design Flexural Reinforcement as


Governed by Out-of-plane Loading

Compute Factored Design Moments


and Shears

If flexural reinforcement required for out-of-plane


moments is less than or equal to that required for
in-plane moments, no adjustment is necessary.
Use the larger amount.
If flexural reinforcement required for out-of-plane
moments exceeds that required for in-plane
moments, consider making the wall thicker so that
in-plane flexural capacity does not have to be
increased. Excess in-plane capacity increases
shear demand.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 120

Masonry Structures 20

Check Shear Capacity (1)

Elastic structures or those with considerable


shear overstrength:
Compute factored design shears based on factored
design actions.

Check Shear Capacity (2)

Vn = Vm + Vs
Vm depends on (Mu / Vudv) ratio
Vs = (0.5) Av fy (note efficiency factor)

Inelastic structures:
Compute design shears based on flexural capacity

shears and moments from


factored design loads
WALL
SHEARS

WALL
MOMENTS

shears and moments


corresponding to nominal
flexural capacity

A v fy

shears and moments


corresponding to
probable flexural capacity

M/V

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

45 o
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 121

Shear Resistance from Masonry,


Vm (1)

Vm depends on (Mu / Vudv) ratio and axial force


(Mu / Vudv) need not be taken greater than 1.0

M
Vm = 4.0 1.75 u
Vu dv

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 122

Shear Resistance from Masonry,


Vm (2)
Vm / h Lw fm

10
8
6

'
An fm + 0.25Pu

P / Lwh = 0 psi

4
2.25

2
0
0.5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Resistance from masonry (Vm) plus resistance


from reinforcement (Vs)
Upper limit on Vm depends on (Mu / Vu dv) ratio
Vn / h Lw fm 10
8
6

6.0

4.0

1.5

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 123

Total Shear Resistance, Vn (1)

1.0

Mu / Vu dv

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 124

Check Detailing

Cover
Placement of flexural and shear reinforcement
Boundary elements not required:
Ductility demand is low
Maximum flexural reinforcement is closely
controlled

2
0
0.25 0.5

1.0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

1.5

Mu / Vu dv

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 125

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 126

Masonry Structures 21

Detailing (1)

Flexural Strength of Lineal Walls (1)

Cover:
Automatically satisfied by putting reinforcement in
grouted cells

Approximation to moment-axial force interaction


diagram for low axial load

Placement of flexural and shear reinforcement:


Minimum flexural reinforcement and spacing
dictated by Seismic Design Category
Flexural reinforcement placed in single curtain.
Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @
48 in.
Place horizontal reinforcement in single curtain.
Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @
48 in.
Add more flexural reinforcement if required, usually
uniformly distributed.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Axial capacity

Flexural capacity

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 127

Flexural Strength of Lineal Walls (2)


Flexural
capacity
Mn

Axial
capacity
Pn

s y

Lw

Reinforcement
fy

Sum moments about


centroid of compressive
stress block

0.9Lw
0.9Lw
Mn 0.9 As fy
+ Pn
2
2
Mu
Pu
0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45
Lw

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 128

Design Example (1)

Carry out the preliminary design of the masonry


shear wall shown below. Use fm = 1500 psi.

Vu = 80 kips
per floor

Pu = 100 kips

80 kips
12 ft

960 kip-ft
160 kips

12 ft

Given Mu and Pu , solve

20 ft

2,880 kip-ft
Mu diagram

Vu diagram

for As

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 129

Design Example (2)

Mu
P
0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45 u Lw

2880 kip ft 12 in./ ft


100 kips
0.41 As 60 ksi 240 in. + 0.45
240 in.
0.90
0.9
38,400 5,900 As + 12,000
As 4.47 in.2

Design Example (3)


Refine flexural reinforcement using spreadsheetbased interaction diagram -- use #5 bars @ 16 in.
Strength Interaction Diagram by Spreadsheet
Concrete Masonry Shear Wall
f'm=1500 psi, 20 ft long, 7.63 in. thick, #5 bars @ 16 in.
1800
1600
1400
1200
Pn, kips

Assume out-of-plane flexure is OK.


Check in-plane flexure using initial estimate.

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 130

1000
800
600
400

This is equivalent to #5 bars @ 12 in.

200

(2880 kip-ft, 100 kips)

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Mn, ft-kips
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 131

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 132

Masonry Structures 22

Design Example (4)

Design Example (5)


Compute required shear reinforcement, including capacity
design:

Now check shear:

1.25 Mn
Vu = 160 kips

Mu

Mu
2,880 kip ft
=
= 1.13
Vu d 160 kips 20 0.8 ft
Vm = 2.25 fm' h Lw + 0.25P
Vm = 2.25 1500 7.63 in. 240 in. + 0.25 100 kips
Vm = 159.6 kips + 25.0 kips = 184.6 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1
1.25 3427 kip ft 0.9

= 160 kips 1.65


Vu = 160 kips
2880 kip ft

V
V
160
1.65
kips

Vnrequired = u = u =
= 2.07 Vu 2.5 Vu
0.8
0.8
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 133

Design Example (6)

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 134

Design Example (7)

Compute required shear reinforcement including capacity


design:

Now finish detailing:


required
s

Vsrequired
Avrequired

V
160 1.65
u Vm =
184.6 = 145.4 kips

0.8
d
= 2 Av fy
s
Vsrequired s
145.4 kips 16 in.
=
=
= 0.202 in.2
0.8 240 in. 60 ksi
d fy

Use #5 bars @ 16 in. vertically


Use #4 bars @ 16 in. horizontally
Hook #4 horizontal bars around end #5 vertical bars

7.63 in.
240 in.

Use #4 bars every 16 in.


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 135

Web sites for more information


BSSC = www.bssconline.org
TMS = www.masonrysociety.org
ACI = www.aci-int.org
ASCE / SEI = www.seinstitute.org
MSJC = www.masonrystandards.org

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FEMA 451B Topic 12 Handouts

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 137

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 136

Acknowledgements
This material on masonry was prepared by Prof.
Richard E. Klingner, University of Texas at Austin.

Some of the material was originally prepared by Prof.


Klingner for a US Army short course.

Some of the material was originally prepared by Prof.


Klingner for The Masonry Society and is used with
their permission.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 138

Masonry Structures 23