CHAP TE R 14
x 2 +2y 2 +6z2 =1
6z 2 
I= 0.
Step 1. Write out the Lagrange Equations. The gradient vectors are 'V f = (3, 2, 4) and 'Vg = (2x , 4y , 12z), therefore
the Lagrange Condition 'V f = A'V g is:
(3 , 2, 4) =A (2x, 4y, 12z)
3
2
3 = A(2x)
=AX
1
=> 2 =
2 = A(4y)
3 = AZ
4 = A(l2z)
Step 2. Solve for A in terms of x, y , and
we get
AY
A= ,
2y
A=
0, y
A=
3z
Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A gives
3
2x
Substituting x =
2y
=>
3z
G z) +2G z)
+6z =I
_!E z2 = 1 =>
4
Using the relations
Zl
2
2
= .jill ' Z2 =.jill
x= iz, y = iz we get
9
X!
2 .jill=
9
2
 2 .jill 
9
.jill '
3
2
3
y,  '
2..jill
 .jill
9
.jill '
X2  .   

2
Z!
2
= .jill
Y2      
 2 .jill 
Z2
.jill '
=.jill
9
3
2 )
= ( .jill' .jill' .jill
Critical points are also the points on the constraint where 'V g = 0. However, 'V g = (2x , 4y , 12z) = (0, 0, 0) only at the
origin, and this point does not lie on the constraint.
Step 4. Computing fat the critical points. We evaluate f (x, y, z) = 3x + 2y + 4z at the critical points:
27
41
{41
y3
27
41
~ 3.7
{41
y 3
~ 3.7
Since f is continuous and the constraint is closed and bounded in R 3, f has global extrema under the constraint. We
conclude that the minimum value off under the constraint is about 3.7 and the maximum value is about 3.7.
12. f(x , y, z)
= x2 
y
z,
x2  y2
+z= 0
We show that the function f(x , y, z ) = x 2  y  z does not have minimum and maximum values subject
to the constraint x 2  y 2 + z = 0. Notice that the curve (x , x , 0) lies on the constraint, since it satisfies the equation of
the constraint. On this curve we have
SOLUTION
f(x , y , z) = f(x , x , 0) = x 2  x 0 = x 2  x
SEC T I 0 N 14.8
Since
li m (x 2
x>oo
 x)
= oo, f does not have a maximum value subject to the constraint. Observe that the curve (0,
799
,JZ, z)
(z + ,JZ)
= oo,
,JZ, z) = 02
,JZ z = 
(z +viz)
5x + 9y + z = lO
We show that f(x , y, z) = x y + 3xz + 2yz does not have minimum and maximum values subject to the
constraint g (x, y, z) = 5x + 9y + z  10 = 0. First notice that the curve c 1 : (x, x, I 0  14x) lies on the surface of the
constraint since it satisfies the equation of the constraint. On c 1 we have,
SO LUTION
f(x, y, z) = f(x, x, 10 14x) = x 2 + 3x(IO 14x) + 2x(10 14x) = 69x 2 + 50x
Since lim (69x 2 +Sox) = oo, f does not have minimum value on the constraint. Notice that the curve c2
X>00
(x ,  x , 10 + 4x) also lies on the surface of the constraint. The values of f on c2 are
f(x, y, z) = f(x, x, lO + 4x) = x 2 + 3x(LO + 4x) 2x(10 + 4x) = 3x 2 +lOx
The limit lim (3x 2 + lOx) = oo implies that f does not have a maximum value subject to the constraint.
X+00
14.
~ Let
g(x, y)
= x3 
xy
+ y3
(a) Show that there is a unique point P =(a , b) on g(x , y) = I where V fp = A.Vgp for some scalar A..
(b) Refer to Figure 12 to determine whether f(P) is a local minimum or a local maximum off subject to the constraint.
(c) Does Figure 12 suggest that f(P) is a global extremum subject to the constraint?
2
2
FIG URE 12 Contour map of f(x, y) = x 3 + xy + y 3 and graph of the constraint g(x, y) = x 3  xy + y 3 = 1.
SOLUTION
Condition V f = A. V g is
or
3x 2 + y = A.(3x 2  y)
(1)
x+3i =A.(x+3i)
Notice that if 3x 2  y = 0, the first equation implies that also 3x 2 + y = 0, hence y = 0 and x = 0. Since the point
(0, 0) does not satisfy the equation of the constraint, we may assume that 3x 2  y =1= 0. Similarly, if x + 3 y 2 = 0, the
second equation implies that also x + 3y 2 = 0, therefore x = y = 0. We thus may also assume that x + 3y 2 =I= 0.
Using these assumptions, we have by (1):
3x 2 + y
A. 3x 2  y'
X+ 3y 2
A.='.,x + 3y 2
SECT I 0 N 14.8
801
Remark: Since the constraint is not bounded, we need to justify the existence of a minimum value. The values
f(x, y) = xy on the constraint y =ex are f(x, ex)= h(x) = xex. Since h(x) > 0 for x > 0, the minimum value (if it
exists) occurs at a point x < 0. Since
lim xex
x+oo
X
= x+oo
lim
ex
lim
X+00 eX
lim ex= 0,
x+oo
then for x <some negative number R, we have lf(x) 01 < 0.1, say. Thus, on the bounded region R .:5 x .:50, f
has a minimum value of e 1 ~ 0.37, and this is thus a global minimum (for all x).
16. Find the rectangular box of maximum volume if the sum of the lengths of the edges is 300 em.
SOLUTION
We denote by
Then the volume of the box is xyz. We must find the values of x, y and z that maximize the volume f(x, y, z) = xyz,
subject to the constraint g (x, y, z) = x + y + z = 300, x 2: 0, y 2: 0, z 2: 0. (One could also argue that the sums of the
lengths of the edges is 4x + 4 y + 4z = 300, but that would give a different answer, of course. Instead, we will choose to
interpret the problem with the constraint x + y + z = 300).
Step 1. Write out the Lagrange Equations. The Lagrange Condition is
'Vf=).'V g
(yz, xz, xy) =).(I, I, 1)
=).
xz
=).
xy
=).
Step 2. Solve for). in terms of x, y, and z. The Lagrange equations already_give). in terms of x, y, and z. Equating the
expressions for). we get yz = xz = xy.
Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. We have
yz
=0
x(z y) = 0
= xz
z(x y)
xy =xz
If x = 0, y = 0, or z = 0, the volume has the minimum value 0. We thus may assume that x f 0, y f 0, and z f 0.
The first equation implies that x = y and the second equation gives z = y. We now substitute x = y and z = y in the
constraint x + y + z = 300 and solve for y:
y+y+y =300
3y
= 300
::::}
= 100
Therefore, x = 100 and z = 100. The critical point is (100, 100, 100).
Step 4. Conclusions. The value of f(x, y, z) = xyz at the critical point is
= 1003 = 106 cm 3
2: 0, z 2: 0 is the part of the plane x + y + z =
sEcT I 0 N 14.8
811
27. Show that the minimum distance from the origin to a point on the plane ax+ by+ cz =dis
ldl
We want to minimize the distance P = )x 2 + y 2 + z 2 subject to ax+ by + cz = d . Since the square
function u 2 is increasing for u :::: 0, the square P 2 attains its minimum at the same point where the distance P attains
its minimum. Thus, we may minimize the function f(x, y , z) = x 2 + y2 + z 2 subject to the constraint g(x , y, z) =
ax+ by+ cz =d.
Step 1. WriteouttheLagrangeEquations. We have "\1 f = (2x , 2y, 2z ) and 'Vg = (a , b , c), hencetheLagrangeCondition
"\1 f = A'V g gives the following equations:
SOLUTION
2x
= Aa
2y
= Ab
2z = AC
2x
A=,
2z
A=
Step 3. Solve for x, y, and z using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A give the following equations:
2x
a
2y
b
2z
c
2z
c
a
x =  z
c
b
Y = z
c
::::}
~ z ) + b ( ~ z)
( 1)
+ cz =
+ cz = d
a2
b2
 z +  z + cz =d
Since a2 + b 2 + c2
:/= 0, we get z =
a
c
X= .
~~
a2+ +c2
de
a 2 + b 2 + c2  a2
+ b2 + c2 '
(2)
Step 4. Conclusions. It is clear geometrically that f has a minimum value subject to the constraint, hence the minimum
value occurs at the point P. We conclude that the point P is the point on the plane closest to the origin. We now consider
the case where a = 0. We consider the planes ax +by + cz = d , where a :/= 0 and a + 0. A continuous change in
a causes a continuous change in the closest point P. Therefore, the point P closest to the origin in case of a = 0 can
be obtained by computing the limit of P in (2) as a + 0, that is, by substituting a = 0. Similar considerations hold for
b = 0 or c = 0. We conclude that the closest point P in (2) holds also for the planes with a = 0, b = 0, or c = 0 (but not
all of them 0). The distance P of that point to the origin is
P=
+ b2 + c2
(a2 + b2 + c2)2
a2
ldl
28. Antonio has $5.00 to spend on a lunch consisting of hamburgers ($1.50 each) and French fries ($1.00 per order).
Antonio's satisfaction from eating x 1 hamburgers and x 2 orders of French fries is measured by a function U(x, , x2) =
JXIX2. How much of each type of food should he purchase to maximize his satisfaction? (Assume that fractional amounts
of each food can be purchased.)
sEcT I 0 N 14.8
815
Increasing S
Level curves of S
I
Critical point P = (r, h)
Level curve of V
~7reasingV
FIGURE 17
SOLUTION
To minimize surface areaS= 2nrh + 2nr 2 for a fixed volume (subject to the constraint c(r, h)= nr 2h V) we
use the Lagrange equations. Then using '\1 S = A'\1 c, we see
or
2nh +4nr
= 2nArh,
2nr
nr(2 Ar)
=0
= Anr 2
2nr Anr 2
=0
=}
=}
r = O,A =r
Since this is a question about surface area, we are not interested in the point when r = 0.
Using the first equation, rewriting we have:
2nh
+ 4nr = 2nArh
2nh + 4nr
h + 2r
=2nrh
rh
A=
Now to solve for r, h using the constraint to determine the critical point. Using the two derived equations for A we
have:
2
r
h +2r
rh
=}
2rh = hr
+ 2r 2
r(2h  h 2r) = 0
=}
h = 2r
(2nrh, nr 2 } =A (2nh
+ 2nr 2 
S)
+ 4nr, 2nr)
or
A(2nh
+ 4nr) = 2nrh,
rh
A=h +2r '
A(2nr)
= nr 2
r
A=2
rh
h +2r
=}
= 2r
JC= (0, 0, c)
= (0, b, 0)
~=(a, O, O)
X
FIGURE 18
The plane is constrained to pass through the point P = (1, 1, I), hence this point must satisfy the equation
of the plane. That is,
SOLUTION
I
I
I
++=1
a
b
c
We thus must minimize the function V(a, b, c)= ~abc subject to the constraint g(a, b, c)= ~ +
b > 0, c > 0.
t+ ~=
~ac, ~ab}
and V' g = ( ~, 
l, a> 0,
l
l
be= A
a2
l
l
ac =A
6
b2
l
c2
ab =  A
Step 2. Solve for A in terms of a, b, and c. The Lagrange equations imply that
bca 2
acb 2
A=
A=
6 '
6 '
abc 2
A=6
Step 3. Solve for a, b, and c using the constraint. Equating the expressions for A, we obtain the following equations:
bca 2
= acb 2
abc(a b)= 0
abc(c b)= 0
abc
= acb
Since a, b, care positive numbers, we conclude that a = band c = b. We now substitute a = band c = bin the equation
of the constraint ~ + + ~ = l and solve for b. This gives
l
l
l
++=1
b
b
b
3
=1
b
::::}
b=3
3 3 3=
or
x+
y +
z=
Remark: Since the constraint is not bounded, we need to justify the existence of a minimum value of V = !abc under
the constraint ~ + + ~ = 1. First notice that since a, b, care nonnegative and the sum of their reciprocals is l, none of
them can tend to zero. In fact, none of a, b, c can be less than 1. Therefore, if a + oo, b + oo, or c + oo, then V t oo.
This means that we can find a cube that includes the point ( ~,
the cube, it holds that V > V ( ~,
~, ~) =
Tk.On the part of the constraint inside the cube, V has a minimum value m,
since it is a closed and bounded set. Clearly m is the minimum of V on the whole constraint.
866
CHAP TE R 15
MULTIPLE I NTEGRATION
(LTCHAPTER16)
The double integral is the signed volume of the region between the graph of f(x, y) and the xyplane over
R. In (b) and (c) the function satisfies f (x, y) =  f (x, y ), hence the region below the xy plane, where 1 ~ x ~ 0
cancels with the region above the xy plane, where 0 ~ x ~ l. Therefore, the double integral is zero. In (a) and (d), the
function f(x, y) is always positive on the rectangle, so the double integral is greater than zero.
SOLUTION
Exercises
1. Compute the Riemann sum S4 ,3 to estimate the double integral off (x, y) = xy over R
regular partition and upperright vertices of the subrectangles as sample points.
SOLUTION
= [l, 3]
The rectangle Rand the subrectangles are shown in the following figure:
y
2.5
2
1.5
Pn
p 22
Pn
p42
p"
p21
PJI
p41
L+~~+~ X
1.5
2.5
3 l
=   = 0.5,
4
L:;.y
2.5 I
=  = 0.5
3
=}
= (1.5, 1.5)
p12 = (1.5, 2)
We compute f(x , y)
= xy at these points:
f(Pll) = 1.5 1.5 = 2.25
f(P2J)=2 1.5= 3
j(P31) = 2.5 1.5 = 3.75
j(P41) = 3 1.5 = 4.5
j(P12) = 1.5 2 = 3
j(P22) = 2 2 = 4
j(P32) = 2.5 2 = 5
f(P42) = 3 2 = 6
j(P13) = 3.75
j(P23) = 5
j(P33) = 6.25
j(P43) = 7.5
s4,3 =
"L "L f(P;j)t:;.A = o.25(2.25 + 3 + 3.75 + 4.5 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3.75 + 5 + 6.25 + 7.5) = 13.5
i=lj=l
+ y over R
The rectangle Rand the subintervals are shown in the following figure:
y
0.75
pl2
I
I
I
0.5
0.25

p22
 ~ 
I
I
I
I
I
+  +
Pill
1P21
I
X
/::;.x
pll
i=
0.25
0.75
0.5
0.5 and
= (0.25, 0.25) ,
L:;.y
p21
i=
= (0.75, 0.25),
SECTION 15.1
lntegrationinTwoVariables
(LTSECTION 16.1)
867
= ./0.75 + 0.25 =
f(PI2)
= ./0.25 + 0.75 =
f(P22)
= ./0.75 + 0.75 =
1.225
s22
=L
+ 1 + 1 + 1.225) = 0.983
)=I
i=l
In Exercises 36, compute the Riemann sums for the double integral
Jfn
= [1, 4]
x [1 , 3], for
the grid and two choices of sample points shown in Figure /6.
:Lg_
. ....
y
:3L
: :Q
:
.
(B)
(A)
FIGURE 16
3. f(x,y)=2x+y
The subrectangles have sides of length ~x
We find the sample points in (A) and (B):
(A)
SOLUTION
= (1.5, 1.5)
pl2 = (1.5, 2.5)
= (2.5, 1.5)
p22 = (2.5, 2.5)
Pu
= (3.5, 1.5)
p32 = (3.5, 2.5)
P21
P31
2
(A)
(B)
pll
p21
= (3.5, 1.5)
p23 = (4, 3)
p31
y
4
~31
p 21
X
2
(B)
The Riemann Sum S32 is the following estimation of the double integral:
3
~~ fCx,y)dA~s32=LLf(P;J)~A=LLf(P;J)
R
i=l )=I
i=l )=I
872
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLEINTEGRATION
(LTCHAPTER16)
12. Use the following table to compute a Riemann sum S3,3 for f(x, y) on the squareR= [0, 1.5] x [0.5, 2] . Use the
regular partition and sample points of your choosing.
Values of f(x, y)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
SOLUTION
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.4
I
2.17
1.83
1.5
1.17
0.83
0.5
1.86
1.57
1.29
I
0.71
1.62
1.37
1.12
0.87
0.62
1.44
1.22
0.78
0.56
1.5
The subrectangles and our choice of sample points are shown in the figure:
y
1.5
Pn
PJJ
pl2
Pn
p22
p32
p31
pll
0.5
p21
X
1.5
0.5
Each subrectangle is a square of side 0.5, hence the area of each subrectangle is L'.A = 0.5 2 = 0.25 . By the given data,
the sample points are:
(Pll) = /(0.5, I)
f (P21) = f(l, 0.5)
j(P3J) = /(1.5,1)
f (P12)
f(O, 1.5)
(P13)
f (P23)
f (P33)
= /(0.5, 2)
=
f(l, 2)
= /(1.5, 2)
The Riemann sum S33 that corresponds to these sample points is the following sum:
3
S33 =
L L t (PiJ) L'.A = 0.25(1.5 + 1 + 1.12 + 2.2 + 1.57 + 1.29 + 2.11 + 1.86 + 1.62) ~ 3.58
i=lj=l
13. CR 5
Jo{I Jot
ex
vertex of each subrectangle as sample points. Use a computer algebra system to calculate SN ,N for N = 25, 50, 100.
SOLUTION
14. CR 5
using the regular partition and the upper righthand vertex of each subrectangle as sample points. Use a computer algebra
system to calculate S2N,N for N = 25 , 50, 100.
SOLUTION
Using a computer algebra system, we compute S2N ,N to be 14.632, 14.486, and 14.413.
15.
jJn
3
x dA ,
= [4, 4]
x [0, 5]
The double integral is the signed volume of the region between the graph of f(x, y) = x3 and the xyplane.
However, f(x, y) takes opposite values at (x, y) and ( x, y):
SOLUTION
874
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
20.
fo
(LTCHAPTER 16)
x ydxdy
SOLUTION
(y22
= fo2 x3
= 4
fo
dy
23
x dx
= 4. x441:
9
21. [
14
16
I dx dy
3
SOLUTION
1
9
11dx
= llxl:
= 9944 =55
22.
118
4
(5) dx dy
SOLUTION
[~ 1 (5)dxdy = L~ (1 (5)dx) dy
1
(5xl:)
= L~l
1l
= 1l
=
dy
(40 + 20)dy
4
(20)dy
4
1
= 20y
4
1do
= 20 
23.
frr
SOLUTION
x 2 sin
(80)
= 60
y dy dx
We first evaluate the inner integral, treating x as a constant, then integrate the result with respect to x. This
gives
1
1 lo
I
frr x 2 sinydydx
1
1
I
x 2 (cosy)lrr
y=O
dx
1
1
1
x 2 (cosn +cosO)dx
SECTION 15.1
2
32.1
lntegrationinTwoVariables
e 3xy dydx
SOLUTION
1 2 ~4 e3xy dydx
33.
lo
1o 5 dydx
o .Jx + Y
SOLUTION
{4 {5 dydx
1o 1o
{4({5
.Jx + y
dy )
,Jx + Y dx
= 1o 1o
= fo4
(2,Jx + YI:=O) dx
= 2 fo\.Jx + 5 ../X) dx
= 2 G<x + 5)3/2 ~x3f2) 1:
=2
G.
= 36
1
lo
8
34.
~.
27 _
8) _ G.
32
20
  ./5
3
3
53/2 _
76
3
20
3
=   ./5 ~
o)
10.426
xdxdy
Jx2 + y
SOLUTION
{8 [ 2 xdxdy
1o 1t
Jx2+y
[2 (
{8
= 1o
1t
xdx )
Jx2+y dy
= fo\J4 + y Jl+Y)dy
2 + y)3/2 (1
2 + y)3/2 18
= (4
3
68
= 3 + 16.J3 ~ 5.047
35
[ 2 [ 3 ln(xy) dy dx
11 11
SOLUTIO
1)
(LTSECTION 16.1)
877
878
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLEIN T EGRATION
(LTCHAPTER16)
~ [2(1n6) 2 
36.
ll3
loo
1
(x
+ 4y) 3
2
(ln3) ] 
ln(3x)dx 
~ [2(1n2) 2  o] +
lnxdx
2
1
2
1
dxdy
We calculate the inner integral with respect to x, then we compute the resulting integral with respect to y.
SOLUTION
This gives
1
f'f
dxdy=f'(f (x+4y) 3 dx)dy=f'_~(x+4y) 2 1 dy
1o 12 (x + 4y) 3
1o 12
1o 2
x=2
dy=/4 ((3+4y)l
~ (2;4y 3 ; 4 J I~=~ ( G D G D)
G~ + ~  D s
=
1
6
37.
JJn ~dA,
R= [2,4] x [1,3]
SOLUTION
!"{1n ~dA=1
2
= Ox [
) (In y O=
2
~(164)(ln3ln1)
= 61n3
38.
Jfn x ydA, n=
SOLUTION
[1, I]
[0, 2]
+(2+4y)')l~
SECTION 15.1
39.
JJR cosxsin2ydA,
R= [0,
If]
x [0,
879
If]
Since the integrand has the form f(x, y) = g(x)h(y), we may compute the double integral as the product
of two single integrals. That is,
SOLUTION
12
12
12
12
r
r
r
r
r
Jn cosxsin2ydA = Jo
Jo
cosxsin2ydxdy = ( Jo
cosxdx ) ( Jo
sin2ydy )
f
=
= (I 
0)
G D=
+
1lnr
fh
y dAnx+l
!o4o !o2ox+l
y
(!o2ox+I
dxdydx ) (!o4 ydy )
o
1)0
= (ln(x +
2
(y
2
R=[0, 2]x[O.i]
We compute the double integral as the product of two single integrals. This can be done since the integrand
has the form f(x, y) = g(x)h(y). We get
SOLUTION
ffn ex sinydA
42.
fn e 3x+ 4Y dA,
SOLUTION
= forr/
fo ex sinydxdy
= [0, I] x
= (fo
[1, 2]
We can compute this double integral as the product of two single integrals:
f fn e3x+4y dA
12
fo I
fo e3x dx
1
2
!3
e3x+4y dy dx
ce I)
e4y dy
lg
4(e
 e )
fo 1
12
e3x e4y dy dx
= ( ~e3x
0(~e Y 0
13
12
(e  1)(e e)
43. Let f(x,y) = mxy 2 , where m is a constant. Find a value of m such that ffn f(x,y)dA = 1, where R
(Q, 1]
(Q, 2].
Since f(x, y) = mxy 2 is a product of a function of x and a function of y, we may compute the double
integral as the product of two single integrals. That is,
SOLUTION
2 1 =~(I 2 o 2 )=~
lof xdx=~x
2
2
2
1
2
!o0 i
12
8
dy =  Y3 =  (23  o3) = 3
0
3
3
sEcT I 0 N 15.2
(LT SECTION
16.2)
887
Exercises
1. Calculate the Riemann sum for f (x, y) = x  y and the shaded domain D in Figure 19 with two choices of sample
points, and o. Which do you think is a better approximation to the integral off over D? Why?
The subrectangles in Figure 17 have sides of length D.x = D.y = I and area D. A = 1 1 = 1.
(a) Sample points There are six sample points that lie in the domain D . We compute the values off (x, y)
these points:
SOLUTION
f(J, 1) = 0,
/(2 , I)= I ,
/(1,2)=1,
/(2 , 2)
/(1, 3)
= 0,
/(2,3)
=x 
y at
= 2,
= 1
S3,4
= (0
I 2 +I+ 0 1) 1 = 3
1,
= 2,
/(0.5, l.5)
/(1.5 , 1.5)
/(2.5 , 1.5)
= 1,
= 0,
= 1,
/(0.5, 2.5)
/( 1.5 , 2.5)
/(2.5, 2.5)
= 2,
= 1 ,
= 0.
S34
= (1 12 + 0 I 2 +
1 + 0) I
= 4.
2. Approximate values of f(x, y) at sample points on a grid are given in Figure 20. Estimate
jfv
f(x, y) dx dy for
the shaded domain by computing the Riemann sum with the given sample points.
y
FIGURE 20
The subrectangles have sides of length D.x = 0.5 and D. y = 0.25, so the area is D. A = 0.5 0.25 = 0.125.
Only nine of the sample points lie in D , hence the corresponding Riemann sum is
SOLUTION
FIGURE 21
888
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
SOLUTION
(LTCHAPTER 16)
0 ~ y ~ 1  x2
(I)
x=O
x=l
The domain V can also be described as a horizontally simple region. To do this, we must express x in terms of y, for
nonnegative values of x. This gives
y
= I
x2
x2 = 1 y
::::}
::::}
jl"=Y
y=l
OsxsvT=Y
O~y~1,
We now compute the integral off (x, y)
!~
= xy over V
xydA
la0
llalx
xydydx
O~x~jl"=Y
lal xy2~ l x
0
2 }0
dx
y=O
=~ {I(x2x3+x5)dx=~ (x2
2
(2)
_x4
2
+x6)11
6
=~(~~+~)=_!_
2
12
!'Jv{
{I
xydA
= Jo
=
{~
Jo
xydxdy
{I yx2~~
{I y (
2
)
= Jo 2 x=O dy = Jo 2 (!l"=Y) 02
}0
}0
x2 ~ y ~ 4  x2
and evaluate
Jfv y
SOLUTION
dA as an iterated integral.
x= I
6 0
12
dy
890
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
!~
x 2 ydA =
'D
2 2y 2
2 x3y 12y
1 2y (
x ydx d y =
dy=
 (2y) 3
10 10
1 0 3 x=O
0 3
= { 2 8y4 d = ~
]0
d y=
1 2y
8y 3 dy
0 3
= 256 ~ 17.07
512
15 Y 0
o3 )
15
7. (C)
SOLUTION
y _::::
X _::::
7.,
i

!"++++X
I 2 3 4
!'{lv
x2y dA
{ 2 { 4 x2ydxdy
]y
lo
= 32 Y2 3
Ysj2
15 0
The domain V
= [(x, y)
{ 2 x3y lx=4 dy
3 x=y
lo
= 32. 22
 2s
15
+ y_: :
:x
+y
12, x
{2
lo
~ (43 Y3 )
3
{ 2 (64 y Y4 ) dy
3
3
lo
= 608 ~ 40.53
15
~ 4, y~ 4 and compute
_:::: 12, x
dy
4, y
x+y=l2
To compute the integral we described Vas a vertically simple region by the following inequalities (see figure):
y
4SySI2x
~+~~ X
4 _:: :
X _::::
8,
4 _:: : y _:::: 12 
sECT 10 N 15.2
891
SOLUTION
2
To find the inequalities defining the domain as a vertically simple region we first must find the xcoordinates of the two
points where the line y = x + 2 and the parabola y = x 2 intersect. That is,
x + 2 = x2
::::}
::::}
1 = 1,
xz = 2
~X ~ 2,
x 2 ~ y ~X+ 2
2
We now evaluate the integral of f(x, y) = x over the vertically simple region D:
fl
xdA=
2
1 1x2
x+2
 1
1
2
1
x d ydx=
12 lx+2
xy
1
y=x2
dx=
12
x(x+2x )dx
1
x3
x412 =
2
( x 2 +2xx 3 )dx=+x
3
4 1
(8
) ( 1 1) I
+443
+13
4
=24
10. Sketch the region D between y = x 2 andy = x(l  x). Express D as a simple region and calculate the integral of
f(x, y) = 2y over D.
SOLUTION
sEcT I 0 N 15.2
893
in Figure 24.
4
FIGURE 24
lxl + 11YI :S
Since f (x,  y) = f (x, y) and since the rhombus is symmetric with respect to the xaxis, the double integral
equals twice the integral over the upper half of the rhombus. Moreover, since f ( x, y) = f (x, y) and R is symmetric
with respect to theyaxis, the double integral over R equals twice the integral over the right half of the rhombus. Therefore,
denoting by D the part of the rhombus in the first quadrant, we have
SOLUTION
(l)
We now compute the double integral over D . We express D as a vertically simple region. The line connecting the point
(0, 4) and (2, 0) has the equation
Y 4 =
40
0
(x  0)
=}
y  4 = 2x
=}
y = 4 2x
0 :::: x :::: 2,
0 :::: y :::: 4  2x
0:Sy:S4 2x
!~
2
!o2 !o42x 2
!o2 y3~42x
!o2 (4 2x)3
(4 2x)412
44
32
y dA=
y dydx=
dx=
dx=
=0+=o o
o 3 y=O
o
3
12(2) 0
24
3
Jfn i
13. Calculate the double integral of f(x, y)
dA
=4 .
32
""' 42.67
3
SOLUTION
y
Osysv'4x 2
2
2
The domain V
The semicircle can be described as a vertically simple region, by the following inequalities:
2:::: x :::: 2,
0:::: y ::::
J4 x2
898
CHAPTE R 15
(LTCHAPTER 16)
19. f(x, y)
= x;
SOLUTION
We compute the double integral of f(x, y) = x over the vertically simple region D, as the following iterated
0::;: x ::;: I,
integral:
11
o
11
xex dx 
x dx =
11
o
2
xex dx  x211 =
2o
11
o
2
xex dx  1
(I)
OL~x
The resulting integral can be computed using the substitution u = x 2 . The value of this integral is
[ 1
Jo
xex dx
e I
= 2
flv
20. f(x, y) = cos(2x + y);
SOLUTION
! S x S If,
e 1
1
e2
xdA =    =   ~ 0.359
2
2
2
1 S y S 2x
The vertically simple region D defined by the given inequalities is shown in the figure:
y
We compute the double integral of f(x , y) = cos(2x + y) over D as an iterated integral, as stated in Theorem 2. This
gives
!~
12x dx
sin(2x +
f1/2 f2x cos(2x + dy dx = frr/2
1/2
2
= r / (sin(2x + 2x) sin(2x + 1)) dx = {n / (sin(4x) sin(2x + I)) dx
11 /2
11 /2
cos(2x + y) dA =
n /2
y)
y)
y= l
lrr/
2
= _ cos4x + cos(2x +I)
4
2
x=l/2
cos2)
2
The intersection points of the graphs x = y and x = y 2 are (0, 0) (I, 1). The horizontally simple region 'D
is shown in the figure:
SOLUTION
906
CHAPTER 15
(LTCHAPTER 16)
From the sketch of TJ , we see that 1) can be expressed as a vertically simple region. Rewriting the equation of the curve
x = ,JY as y = x 2 , we obtain the following inequalities for TJ:
0 :::: y :::: x 2
0 :S x :S 2,
y
!o
dx=
!o
00
= x 3 + 1,
dx =
y=O
du
19
l ../U 
du = u 312 19 =
3
2 312  I)=~
52 5.78
(9
19
Trying to compute the double integral in the original order we find that the inner integral is impossible to compute:
35.
!o0
l1l
xeY 3 dydx
y=x
SOLUTION
The limits of integration define a vertically simple region 1) by the following inequalities:
0 :S
:S 1,
:S y :S 1
This region can also be described as a horizontally simple region by the following inequalities (see figure):
y
y=x
O:Sy:SI,
O:sx:sy
SECT I 0 N 15.2
907
We thus can rewrite the given integral in reversed order of integration as follows:
l l y xeY 3 dx dy
loo
!o'l2
 eY 3 y 2 dy
!o'o 61
eu  du
e1
= euil = 
6 0
~ 0.286
Trying to evaluate the double integral in the original order of integration, we find that the inner integral is impossible to
compute:
36.
lo0
SOLUTION
The limits of integration define a vertically simple region D by the following inequalities :
0 ::; x ::; 1,
The region D shown in the figure can also be described as a horizontally simple region.
y
We rewrite the equation of the curve y = x 213 as x = y 312 and express the domain D as a horizontally simple region by
the following inequalities:
0 ::: y ::: I ,
y
0 :::
X :::
y 312
912
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLEINTEGRATION
(LTCHAPTER16)
Jfv
(x + 1)dA
J!v,
(x + 1)dA +
Jfv
~ny
(x + 1)dA = 10+ 14
= 24
43. Calculate the double mtegral of f(x, y) =over the regwn V m F1gure 26.
y
FIGURE 26
To describe V as a horizontally simple region, we rewrite the equations of the lines with x as a function of
y, that is, x = y and x = 2y. The inequalities for V are
SOLUTION
I .:::: y .:::: 2,
y .::::
2y
X .::::
x=y
!~
sind
yA
'D Y
44. Evaluate
Jfv
i 2j
fI
2
sin y
Y dxdy
i2
12
sin y x Y dy
I
Y
x=y
=f
2sin y
 ( 2 y  y)dy
Y
0.956
FIGURE 27
We compute the integral usi ng decomposition of a domain into smaller domains. We denote by 'D2 and 'D1
the right semicircles of radius 2 and 1, respectively.
SOLUTION
SECT I 0 N 15.2
913
Then V2 is the union of Vt and V, which do not overlap except on a boundary curve. Therefore,
Jfv2
xdA
Jfvl
xdA
Jfv
xdA
Jfvl
xdA
or
Jfv
xdA
Jfv2
xdA
(1)
To express Vt and V2 as horizontally simple regions, we write the equations of the circles in the form x =
x = J 4  y2, respectively. The equations describing the regions V1 and V2 are
JI=Y2 and
++ x
2
y::: 2,
0 :'::X:':: j4 y2
y::: 1,
O::=x::=Jl=Y2
v2
VI
2:::
1 :::
fh
dA =
!oy4Yi x dx dy =
2 0
'D2
[2
lo
2 x21v4?
dy =
2 2 x=O
2 (
J4="?)
2
2

dy =
2 (
2
y2 )
2 dy
2
2
y312
8
16
(4 Y ) dy = 4y  3 o = 8 3 = 3
(2)
fh
dA =
'D1
1loy'~=?
1
1
r (l 
lo
dx dy =
11
1
x21v'l=?
dy =
2 x=O
1(JI=Y2)
1
1
2
y311
1
2
Y ) dy = Y  3
= 1 3 = 3
dy =
11(
1
1
Y2)
  dy
2
2
(3)
We now combine (1), (2), and (3) to obtain the following solution:
!'lv{ xdA=~~=
3
14
::::::4.67
z = 40 lOy, z = 0, y = 0, y = 4 x 2.
The volume of the region is the double integral off (x, y) = 40  IOy over the domain V in the xyplane
between the curves y = 0 andy = 4  x 2 . This is a vertically simple region described by the inequalities:
SOLUTION
926
CHAPTER 15
M ULTIPLE INTEGRATI ON
4. f(x,y,z) =
(y
+ z) 2
We write the triple integral as an iterated integral in any order we choose, and then evaluate the resulting
integrals successively. We get:
SOLUTION
ffla
.f f(x,y,z)dx=1
2
4
x
dxdydz=1' f ( f
x
dx)dydz
(y+z) 2
Ih lo (y+z) 2
1l2 lo
=
=
1 14 (
1
1
1
I
1
1
!a2 xdx ) dydz
(y+z) 2 0
14
2
dydz =
2 (y+z) 2
1' (14
1
11 14
1
x212 dydz
2 (y+z) 2 2 x=O
1
2
dy ) dz
(y+z) 2
I'
I
34
52
1.176
We write the triple integral as an iterated integral and evaluate the inner, middle, and outer integrals successively. This gives
SOLUTION
Jjfa
fo' fo
=fa'
=
fo\x y) (y z
~z 2 )
C
0
dydx
=fo'
dydx
3
f ((3x+~)
y~x3i)dydx=
f'(~x+~)i~xyy 3 1 y=O dx
lo lo
2
2
lo 2 4
2
1
+ ~) 9 ~x 3 27) dx =
lo ((~x
2
4
2
fo\x y) (3y
1 27
27
= 6.75
f dx =}0
4
4
= f
l:Sx:s3,
O:s y:s2,
0:Sz:S4
SOLUTION
We write the triple integral as an iterated integral and evaluate it using iterated integral of a product function.
We get
Jjfa
i fo
3
f(x, y, z) dV
= U z
7. f(x, y, z) = (x + z) 3 ;
SOLUTION
fo
(i ~
3
1 dy)
dx)
ffi
f(x,y,z)dV=
lo0
alab lac(x+z)
0
f a fb (<x
Jo
dzdydx=
+ c)44
x4) dydx
4
~ [ (x + c)4 x4]
4
b4 (a + c)
lo lo
= fa
dx =
5
5
 a  c
fa (x
lo
~ [ (x + c)S
4
dydx
z=O
+ c)4 x4 ylb
4
 xs] Ia
5
x=O
b [
s
s
= 20
(a +c) a 
s]
c
y=O
dx
SEC T I 0 N 15.3
8. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION
= (x +
y
d;
Triple Integrals
927
(x
+y 
c) 3
= {a (
]0
(x
+ y)3
3
dydx
(x + y c)4 + (x + y)4lb ) dx
12
12
y=O
{a_ (x
+ b c) 4
12
]0
(x
+ b) 4
12
(x c) 4 _ x dx
12
12
5
5
5
5
(x+bc)
..:._
____:_ + (x+b) + (xc)  x la
60
60
60
60 x=O
(a+ b c) 5
(a+ b) 5
(a c) 5
a5
(b c) 5
b5
(c) 5
60
+
60
+
60
60+
60
60+~
9. f(x, y, z)
=x +
SOLUTION
z= y
and
We compute the integral, using Theorem 2, by evaluating the following iterated integral:
10. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION
= ex+y+z; W: 0::5 z
Exercise 9.
y
z = 0 and z =
928
CHAPTE R 15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
(LTCHAPTER 16)
1
3
2e 3  2e 2
e2 + e
0  e + e0 )
(~e~e
2
2
+ 2 e 2 = 2 ce 3 
3e2 + 3e I)
= xyz; W: 0 ~ z ~ 1, 0 ~ y ~ ~. 0 ~ x ~ 1
W is the region between the planes z = 0 and z = 1, lying over the part D of the disk in the first quadrant.
11. f(x, y, z)
SOLUTION
y=~
1J
OL4x
Using Theorem 2, we compute the triple integral as the following iterated integral:
x(1x2) dx
4
=fa x ~ x3 dx = ~: ~~ =~  =
x82 
12. f(x, y, z)
= x;
116
/6
W: x 2 + y 2 ~ z ~ 4
Here, W is the upper half of the solid cone underneath the plane z = 4. First we must determine the projection
D of W onto the xyplane. First considering the intersection of the cone and the plane z = 4 we have:
SOLUTION
x2
+ y2 = 4
which is a circle centered at the origin with radius 2. The projection into the xyplane is still x 2
The triple integral can be written as the following iterated integral:
+ y 2 = 4.
2
rr
!o
=!o =
2rr 64
15
cos 0 dO
1 5
12
cos 0 dO
5
0
r
=
64
15
sin 0
12rr
930
CHAPTER 15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
(LTCHAPTER16)
IS. Calculate the integral of f(x, y, z) = z over the region Win Figure 10 below the hemisphere of radius 3 and lying
over the triangle Din the xyplane bounded by x = 1, y = 0, and x = y.
FIGURE 10
SOLUTION
The upper surface is the hemisphere z = j9 x2  y2 and the lower surface is the xyplane z
onto the xyplane is the triangle D shown in the figure.
Iff.v
zdV=
./9xLy2
fhv (loo
zdz
dA=
fh
z21./9xLy
v2o
dA=
2
= 9:2  x64~~ = 2/2
lo lo
lo
FIGURE 11
I l.
9 _ x2 _
v
dx=
y=O
fh
y2
dA
r'(9x_2X3)dX
2 3
lo
SECT I 0 N 15.3
Triple Integrals
0, y ~ 0 , z ~ 0 bounded by x
935
+ y + z = 1 and x + y + 2z = 1.
~
The upper and lower surfaces are the planes x + y + z = 1 (or z = I  x y) and x + y + 2z = 1 (or z = z),
respectively. The projection of W onto the xyplane is the triangle enclosed by the line A B : y = 1  x and the positive
x and yaxes.
y
=
=
!!'{lw
fr (
Jv
l dV
= j"f
Jv
( 1 x y)
= j"f
j"Jvf
Jv
zllxy
dA
z=( lxy)/2
1xy
2
dA
lo lo
I !a' ( x2
dx =   x + 1) dx
2 0
2
2
Ia
= ~ ( x: x: +~X) I~=~(~~+ D = /2
2
22. Calculate
1x x(lx)0
2
!
(17)
y = l.
SOLUTION
936
CHAPTER
15
MULTIPLE INTEGRATION
The upper surface is the plane z = 5 and the lower surface is the paraboloid z = x 2
xyplane is the part of the disk x 2 + y 2 ~ 5 between the lines y = 0 and y = I.
onto the
=y
ffJw
r ydv =j"f ({
Jv
Jo
Jv
1x2+y2
l(l~
y (5 x 2 ~
3
= 2 lo[
{l
Y (5 i ) X 
4(5 i
= lo 3
)3/2
x
3
!!!.
+ y 2 + z2
Jffw xzdV,
=
y 2 ) dx
dy
3 ix )I~dy
= 2!ol y (5x ::.._o
x=O
~~
t (
3/2
x=O
dy = 2 lo y (5 i )

31 (5 y 2) 3/2)
dy
(I)
= 5 y 2, du = 2y dy:
14
15
5
4
2) 3/2 y dy =
2 312 du=
2 312 du=u51
4
21
(5y
u
u
0 3
5
3
4 3
15
4
!o
= ~~
23. Evaluate
Jv
z=x2+y2
y dy
ydV=
ydz)dA=j"f yzl
~ 6.37
2
z 2: 0 (Figure
2
Y
9
13).
FIGURE
13
SOLUTION
y
X
The upper surface is the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16, or z = J 16  x2  y2, and the lower surface is the xyplane, z =0.
The projection of W onto the xyplane is the region in the first quadrant bounded by the ellipse (x /2) 2 + (y /3) 2 = 1,11
y=~J4x2.
SECT I 0 N 15.3
Triple Integrals
937
L+~~ x
Therefore, the triple integral over W is equal to the following iterated integral :
Jf
j'f (
[./16 xLyz
lw xzdV = lv lo
xzdz
dA
j'f
= lv 2xz
2 ./ 16xLyz
z=O
dA
=~j'f
x( 16 x 2 i)dA=~2 lo{ lo[ i~ l6xx 3  xidydx
2 lv
2
1 3
= 1lo2 16xy x 3 y xy
2 0
li~
y=O
~ 3 3 ~ 9
2 3/ 2 dx
= 1 lo 2 24xv4x~xv4x~x(4x)
2
The first and third integrals are simple usubstitution problems. For the second integral, let us use u
du = 2x dx and x 2 = 4 u. Thus, we can write
=4
310
(4 u).,fii du
= 
8 u=4
Therefore we have:
!!.[
lw
xzdV= 12
=12
lo0
x(4x 2) 312
2 xv~
16
9 lo2 x(4 x)
2 3/2 dx
4 x~dx5
16 0
2
= 6 2
( (4 X 2) 3/21 )
3
0
= 4 (0 
8) 
16
5 + 80 (0 
16
+ 9 2
32)
32
( (4 X 2) 5/21 )
5
0
126
=5
SOLUTION
x 2 and thus
428
C HAPTER 12
VECTOR GEOMETRY
(LTCHAPTER 13)
Exercises
In Exercises 14, convert from cylindrical to rectangular coordinates.
1. (4,rr,4)
SOLUTION
=>
(x, y, z)
= (4, 0, 4)
z =4
2. (2, ~ 8)
SOLUTION
r COS()
= 2 COS
11'

= 2 = 1
2
.J3 =>
(x' Y' z) = ( 1,
.J3,  8)
z = 8
3.
(o.~ D
SOLUTION
We haver= 0, () = }, Z =
i Thus,
x =rcose =O cos::_ =0
y = r sine = 0 sin
11' =
S
=>
(x, y, z) = ( 0, 0,
1)
z= 2
SOLUTION
=>
(x , Y, z) = (0, 1,  2)
z = 2
In Exercises 510, convert from rectangular to cylindrical coordinates.
5. ( 1, 1, 1)
SOLUTION
x2
+ y2 =
12
+ (1 )2 = Jz
Next we find () . The point (x, y) = ( 1, 1) lies in the fourth quadrant, hence,
y
I
tan e =  =  = 1,
X
3rr
<() <2rr
2 
7rr
B=4
sECT I 0 N 12.7
e, z) =
(h.7:, 1).
6. (2, 2, I)
SOLUTION
r =
Next we find
x2
+ y2 =
)22
+ 22 = .J8 =
2v'2
!f. Therefore,
 2
~ 1).
7. (1, v'3, 7)
SOLUTION
We have X = 1, y = ../3,
= 7. We first find r :
r =
x2
+ y2 =
tanB=~=
X
../3 =v'3
1
'
12 + (
J3) 2 = 2
~ e~
!f. Hence,
0 <8< ::_
 2
7r
8=
8. 0 3:.9)
SOLUTION
e, z) = (2, ~ , 7) .
3../3/2
  = v'3
3/2
'
o < e <7r2
7r
8=
9. (~ . ~ . 2)
SOLUTION
We have x =
5/../2
 = 1
5j../2
'
o < e <
7r
= (5, ~ 2) .
7r
8=
429
430
CHAPTER 12
VECTOR GEOMETRY
We have x
tane
~.Therefore,
e =7f3
e, z) = (6, ~ , 2) .
+ y2 ~
The inequality describes a solid cylinder of radius I centered on the zaxis. Since x 2
inequality can be written as r 2 ~ I .
SOLUTION
12. x2
+ y2 + z2
SOLUTION
y2 + z2 ~ 4,
= r 2, this
~ I
Since x 2 + y2
13.
+ y2
2 + z2 ~ I
or
2 ~ I  z2
=0
The projection of the points in this set onto the xyplane are points on they axis, thus 8 = ~ or 8 = ~
Therefore, y = r sin ~ = r 1 = r or y = r sin (
= r. In both cases, y 2 = r 2, thus the inequality y2 + z2 ~ 4
becomes r 2 + z2 ~ 4. In cylindrical coordinates, we obtain the following inequality
SOLUTION
*)
37r
7f
8=2
14. x 2 + y 2 + z2
SOLUTION
or
e=T
= 4, x :::: 0,
We express
y :::: 0, z :::: 0
z in terms of x and y. Since z :::: 0 we get
x2 +
+ z2 =
z2 = 4  (x 2 +
=>
il
=>
4  (x 2
+ y2 )
(I)
(2)
We find the interval for 8. The given set is the part of the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 4 in the first octant.
Hence, the angle e is changing between 0 and
7f
i .
(3)
z = )4 r 2 ,
15. x 2
+ y 2 ~ 9,
o < e < ~2
x :::: y
SOLUTION
3,
3rrl4
e ~ rrl4
SECT I 0 N 12.7
16. y 2 + z2
9,
431
2: y
4 :5 8
:5 2rr, 0 :5 8 <
(and the
o < e <
:!'._
or
5rr
4 <B <2rr.
17.
r =
SOLUTION The surface r = 4 consists of all points located at a distance 4 from the zaxis. It is a cylinder of radius 4
whose axis is the zaxis. The cylinder is shown in the following figure:
1s. e =
71'
SOLUTION The equation 8 = ~ defines the half plane of all points that project onto the ray 8
half plane is shown in the following figure:
19.
z = 2
SOLUTION
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