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A 0.

25-V 28-nW 58-dB Dynamic Range Asynchronous Delta

Sigma Modulator in 130-nm Digital CMOS Process
In this paper, we present a single-bit clock-less asynchronous deltasigma
modulator (ADSM) operating at just 0.25 V power supply. Several circuit
approaches were employed to enable such low-voltage operation and maintain high
performance. One approach involved utilizing bulk-driven transistors in
subthreshold region with transconductance-enhancement topology. Another
approach was to employ distributed transistor layout structure to mitigate the effect
of low output impedance due to halo drain implants employed in todays digital
CMOS process. The ADSM achieved a characteristic center frequency of 630 Hz.
It had an effective signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 58 dB or
effective number of bits (ENOB) 9 b and just 28-nW power dissipation. A detailed
analytical model capturing the effect of nonidealities of the individual circuit
components is also presented for the first time with a close agreement with
experimental results.

EMERGING biomedical and sensor applications operating with energy harvested
from the environment require very low-voltage and low-power analog circuits.
Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which are key building blocks in such
applications, consume significant power. There is a growing trend to explore
alternative architectures for analog-to-digital conversion, such as activity driven
ADC [1] or clock-less asynchronous deltasigma modulators (ADSM) [2][4].
ADSMs encode input signals into variation in pulse width and pulse density of the
digital output, essentially providing a means for time-encoding of input analog
signals [2]. No clocks are used in the design making it highly applicable to
autonomous low-power sensor nodes. Compared to conventional ADC, ADSM has
the advantages of being quantization-noise free with a good frequency
performance needing just a first-order modulator in the loop [3], [4].


The proposed circuit and layout approaches were employed to realize a

first-order clock-less ADSM based on Rozas architecture [2][4], which
is a closed-loop system consisting of an integrator and a hysteretic
comparator. One implementation of the first-order ADSM is given in Fig.
1, in which a realistic comparator with time delay and a nonunitary
feedback loop is implemented. In this section, we revisit the
expressions for output bit stream as a function of the input signal
considering the effects of all the nonidealities in the system. Such an
analytical study with experimental validation has been performed for
the first time-to-date.

Software Implementation:
Modelsim 6.0

Xilinx 14.2

Hardware Implementation: