SHORT ANSWER TYPE − Short-answer items can be answered by a word, phrase, or number.

− The two types of short-answer items o Question type (students answer a question in a few words or phrases) o Completion type —also referred to as fill-in-the blank (consist of a statement with a key word or words missing; students fill in the blank to complete it or ask students to perform a calculation and record the answer, or to order a list of responses.) − Are useful for measuring student ability to interpret data, use formulas correctly, complete calculations, and solve mathematical-type problems. − Items may ask students to label a diagram, name anatomical parts, identify various instruments, and label other types of drawings, photographs, and the like. Writing Short-Answer Items Suggestions for developing short-answer items are as follows: − Questions and statements should not be taken verbatim from textbooks, other readings, and lecture notes. − Phrase the item so that a unique word, series of words, or number must be supplied to complete it − Write questions that are specific and can be answered in a few words, phrases, or short sentences. − Before writing the item, think of the correct answer first and then write a question or statement for that answer − Fill-in-the-blank items requiring calculations and solving mathematical- type problems should include in the statement the type of answer and degree of specificity desired, − For a statement with a key word or words missing, place the blank at the end of the statement − When students need to write longer answers, provide for sufficient space or use a separate answer sheet − Even though a blank space is placed at the end of the statement, the teacher may direct the student to record one-word answers in blanks arranged in a column to the left or right of the items, thereby facilitating scoring. Advantages 1. 2. 3. 4. Short answer test is to construct them as they measure only simple learning. It is useful in evaluating the ability to interpret diagrams, charts and graphs. Marking is relatively objective as compared with essay type of question. Little scope for the influence of handwriting and spelling.

5. Provides little opportunities for guessing. Disadvantages: 1. Not suitable for measuring complex learning outcomes. 2. Not suitable for the power of analyzing and reasoning of the students.

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