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An Introduction

Tuesday, 29 September 2015

6:05 AM

38 Pages of stuff to memorise

It could be worse
Good Luck
~ Kieran~

Key Stuff Page 1

Keywords Crash Course

Sunday, 20 September 2015

3:57 PM


1. Boiling point is the temperature at which a pure liquid boils under atmospheric
2. Crystallization is a process involving the recovery of a crystalline solid from its
saturated solution by allowing the hot solution to cool to its saturation point.
3. Distillation is a process used to recover a solvent from a solution where the
solution is boiled and the vapour of the solvent condensed by cooling.
4. Fractional distillation is a process used to separate a mixture of miscible
liquids using a fractionating column.
5. Melting point is the temperature at which a pure solid changes to the liquid
state under atmospheric pressure.
6. Paper chromatography is a process used to separate a mixture of solutes by
their different rates of movement in a solvent over paper.
7. A saturated solution is a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute
that can dissolve in it at a particular temperature.
1. Atomic number (proton number) is the number of protons in an atom.
2. A covalent bond is the force of attraction between two atoms of non-metals as
a result of their sharing a pair of electrons.
3. A covalent compound consists of molecules of non-metals.
4. A molecule containing two atoms is called a diatomic molecule.
5. An ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between positive and
negative ions formed by a transfer of valence electrons from a metal to a non-metal.
6. Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same atomic number (number of
protons) but different mass number (different number of neutrons).
7. A macromolecule is a giant molecule made by large number of atoms
covalently bonded together.
8. Mass number (nucleon number) is the sum of the number of protons and
neutrons in an atom of an element.
9. A metallic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between positive metal
ions and negative electrons.
10. Radioactive is a state in which an unstable atom decays to form a more stable
atom and at the same time releases energy in the form of radiation such as alpha,
beta and gamma rays.
11. A refractory material is a substance with very high melting point and is heat
12. Relative atomic mass of an element is the number of times one atom of that
element is heavier than one-twelfth of an atom of carbon-12.
13. The relative atomic mass of an isotope is the weighted average of the
accurate masses of all its isotopes.
14. Relative molecular mass of an element or compound is the number of times
one molecule of it is heavier than one-twelfth of an atom of carbon-12.
1. An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions as the only positive ions in
2. An alkali is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water.
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2. An alkali is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water.

3. A basic oxide is a metallic oxide which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and
water only.
4. A base is a metal oxide or hydroxide which reacts with an acid to form a salt and
water only.
5. An acidic oxide is a non-metallic oxide which reacts with water to produce an
6. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution (elaborate).
7. A precipitate is a solid which forms when two solutions are mixed.
8. Precipitation is a chemical reaction between solutes in solution, during which
an insoluble product is formed.
9. A salt is a substance made up of positive metallic ion and negative non-metallic
ion from the acid and is formed when the hydrogen ions of an acid are partly or
completely replaced by metallic (or ammonium) ions.
10. A strong acid is one that is completely or almost completely ionized to give
hydrogen ions in aqueous solution.
11. A strong alkali is one that is completely or almost completely ionized in
aqueous solution.
12. Titration is the process whereby a solution from a graduated vessel is added
to a known volume of a second solution until the chemical reaction between the two
is just completed.
13. A weak acid is one that is only partially ionized to give hydrogen ions in
aqueous solution.
14. A weak alkali is one that is only partially ionized in aqueous solution.
1. The Reactivity Series is a list of metals in decreasing order of their tendency to
become positive ions.
1. Corrosion is the gradual destruction of any metal due to reaction with air, water
or other chemicals.
2. Rusting is the slow corrosion of iron, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen
and water, to form brown hydrated iron(III) oxide.
3. Pollutants are substances added which has an adverse effect on living things
and the environment.
1. A Group is a vertical column of elements in the Periodic Table where the
elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.
2. A metal is an element which ionizes by electron loss.
3. A non-metal is an element which ionizes by electron gain.
4. A Period is a horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table where the
elements in the same row have the same number of electron shells occupied by
1. Empirical or simplest formula is the formula which shows the simplest whole
number ratio of atoms in the formula.
2. Molar solution is a solution containing one mole of solute in 1 dm 3 of the
3. A mole is the amount of substance which contains the same number of particles
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3. A mole is the amount of substance which contains the same number of particles
eg molecules, atoms, ions, electrons etc as there are in 12 g of carbon.
4. Molecular formula is the formula which shows the actual number of atoms in
the formula.
1. Electrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a compound brought about by a
flow of direct current through a solution of the compound or the molten compound.
2. An electrolyte is a compound in solution or molten state which will conduct
electricity with the decomposition at the electrodes as it does so.
3. Electroplating is the electrical precipitation of one metal on another to secure
an improved appearance or a greater resistance to corrosion.
4. A non-electrolyte is a solution or molten compound which does not conduct
electricity or be decomposed by it.
1. An endothermic reaction is one in which heat is absorbed from the surrounding.
2. An exothermic reaction is one in which heat is liberated to the surrounding.
3. Photosynthesis is a process whereby green plants manufacture carbohydrates
(glucose) from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll
as catalyst.
1. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction, but remains chemically and
quantitatively unchanged at the end of the reaction.
2. An enzyme is an organic catalyst which controls the rate of a biochemical
reaction in living organism.
3. The rate of a chemical reaction is the amount of reactants or products formed
per unit time.

Oxidation is the addition of oxygen to a substance.

Oxidation is the removal of hydrogen from a substance.
Oxidation is the removal of electrons from a substance.
Oxidation is an increase in oxidation number.
2. The oxidation number or state of an element in any molecule or ion is defined
as the electrical charge it appears to have as determined by a set of rules.
3. A redox reaction is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation state of any
element changes (elaborate).
4. Reduction is the removal of oxygen from a substance.
Reduction is the addition of hydrogen to a substance.
Reduction is the additional of electrons to a substance.
Reduction is a decrease in oxidation number.

1. Fertilizers are compounds containing plant nutrients which are essential for
plant growth.
2. Thermal decomposition is an irreversible reaction in which a compound is split
up by heat into simpler substances, which do not recombine on cooling.
3. Thermal dissociation is a reversible reaction which involves the splitting up of
a compound by heat into simpler substances which recombine on cooling.
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1. Allotropes are the different forms of the same element in the same physical
1. An alloy is a uniform mixture prepared by adding other metals or non-metals to
a basic metal, so as to obtain desirable qualities.
3. Electrolytic reduction is the conversion of metal ion into metal atom by the
gain of electron(s) at the cathode, brought about by passing direct current through an
2. Recycling means recovering the materials using chemical process for reuse.

1. An addition reaction is one which occurs between an unsaturated compound
and an attacking reagent, to form a single product.
2. An alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon with the general molecular formula CnH2n+
2, where n is an integer.
3. An alcohol is an organic compound containing a hydroxyl group with the
general molecular formula CnH2n+2O, where n is an integer.
4. An alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing carbon-carbon double
bond, with the general formula CnH2n, where n is an integer.
5. A carboxylic acid is an organic compound containing a carboxylic acid group
with the general molecular formula CnH2nO2, where n is an integer.
6. Hydration is the addition of molecules of water to a compound to form a single
7. A hydrocarbon is a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen.
8. Hydrolysis is a decomposition caused by the chemical action of water.
9. A saturated compound is a compound which contains only single covalent
bond and does not allow other atoms to add onto it.
10. The structural formula of a compound is a formula which shows how the
atoms are joined in the molecules.
11. A substitution reaction involves the direct displacement of an atom or group
of atoms e.g. hydrogen from a substance, which is then replaced by other atom of
group of atoms of the attacking reagent.
12. An unsaturated compound is a compound which contains a double or triple
bond between pairs of carbon atoms, allowing other atoms to add across the bond.

1. Diffusion describes the movement of solute particles through a medium, along

a diffusion gradient, from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower
2. Sublimation is the process in which a solid changes, upon heating, directly into
a gas without going through the liquid state.

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Friday, 25 September 2015

1:42 AM


Ions is an tom of group of atoms which have become electrically charged due to the gain or loss of electrons.
Positive ions is known as cation
Negative ions is known as anion








Aluminium Al3+









Chromium Cr3+















Ammonium NH4+









Phosphate PO43-




















Dichromate Cr2O72-



Hydrogencarbonate HCO3(bicarbonate)


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Stuff to Know
Friday, 25 September 2015

1:43 AM

Experimental Chemistry

1.1 Experimental design

Candidates should be able to:
(a) name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and
volume, including burettes, pipettes, measuring cylinders and gas syringes
(b) suggest suitable apparatus, given relevant information, for a variety of simple
experiments, including collection of gases and measurement of rates of reaction

1.2 Methods of purification and analysis Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe methods of separation and purification for the components of the following
types of mixtures:
(i) solid-solid
(ii) solid-liquid
(iii) liquid-liquid (miscible and immiscible)



Techniques to be covered for separation and purification include:

(i) use of a suitable solvent, filtration and crystallization or evaporation
(ii) sublimation
(iii) distillation and fractional distillation
(iv) use of a separating funnel
(v) paper chromatography
describe paper chromatography and interpret chromatograms including comparison
with known samples and the use of Rf values
explain the need to use locating agents in the chromatography of colourless
deduce from the given melting point and boiling point the identities of substances
and their purity
explain that the measurement of purity in substances used in everyday life, e.g.
foodstuffs and drugs, is important

1.3 Identification of ions and gases Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the use of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia to identify the
following aqueous cations: aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II),
iron(III), lead(II) and zinc (formulae of complex ions are not required)
(b) describe tests to identify the following anions: carbonate (by the addition of dilute
acid and subsequent use of limewater); chloride (by reaction of an aqueous solution
with nitric acid and aqueous silver nitrate); iodide (by reaction of an aqueous solution
with nitric acid and aqueous lead(II) nitrate); nitrate (by reduction with aluminium and
aqueous sodium hydroxide to ammonia and subsequent use of litmus paper) and
sulfate (by reaction of an aqueous solution with nitric acid and aqueous barium
(c) describe tests to identify the following gases: ammonia (using damp red litmus
paper); carbon dioxide (using limewater); chlorine (using damp litmus paper);
hydrogen (using a burning splint); oxygen (using a glowing splint) and sulfur dioxide
(using acidified potassium manganate(VII))

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2.1 Atomic Structure

Candidates should be able to:
identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative
charges and relative masses
deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in both electric
and magnetic fields
describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom
define proton (atomic) number and nucleon (mass) number
interpret and use such symbols as 126C

(f) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and
ions given proton and nucleon numbers (and charge)
(g) (i) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of
proton number and nucleon number
(ii) define the term isotopes and distinguish between isotopes on the basis of
different numbers of neutrons present
(h) describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal
quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals
(writing of electronic configuration will be limited to the first 20 elements)
(i) describe the shapes of s and p orbitals
(j) state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and



2.2 Chemical Bonding

Candidates should be able to:
describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic
structure of a noble gas
describe the formation of ionic (electrovalent) bonds between metals and non-metals
as the electrostatic force which holds two oppositely charged ions together., e.g.
NaCl, MgCl2 and MgO, including the use of dot and cross diagrams
state that ionic materials contain a giant lattice in which the ions are held by
electrostatic attraction, e.g. NaCl (candidates will not be required to draw diagrams
of ionic lattices or explain the effect of ionic charge and ionic radii on the numerical
magnitude of a lattice energy)
deduce the formulae of other ionic compounds from diagrams of their lattice
structures, limited to binary compounds
relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to
their lattice structure
describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in
order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas
describe, including the use of dot and cross diagrams, the formation of covalent
bonds between non-metallic elements e.g. H2; O2; N2; Cl2; HCl; CO2; CH4; C2H4 (no
knowledge of co-ordinate/dative bonds or hybridisation of orbitals will be expected)
deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules
describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving and bonds (the
concept of bond angles in molecules analogous to those specified in (g) is not
describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as examples of molecules
containing NH and OH groups
outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties including ice
and water
explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to
compare the reactivities of covalent bonds
describe intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) (the concepts of permanent
and induced dipoles are not required)
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and induced dipoles are not required)

(n) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to
their structure and bonding
(o) describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile
electrons (sea of electrons)
(p) relate the electrical conductivity of metals to the mobility of the electrons in the
(q) describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic
bonding; covalent bonding and metallic bonding) on the chemical and physical
properties of substances
(r) show understanding of chemical reactions in terms of energy transfer associated
with the breaking and making of chemical bonds
(s) compare the structure of simple molecular substances, e.g. methane, iodine, with
those of giant molecular substances, e.g. poly(ethene); sand (silicon dioxide);
diamond; graphite in order to deduce their properties
(t)) compare the bonding and structures of diamond and graphite in order to deduce
their properties such as electrical conductivity, lubricating or cutting action
(candidates will not be required to draw the structures)
(a) suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in a
(b) deduce the physical and chemical properties of substances from their structures and




3.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases Candidates should be able
state the properties of acids in reactions with metals (the ability of metals to react
with acids should be linked to their position in the reactivity series), bases and
state the uses of sulfuric acid as in the manufacture of detergents and fertilisers; and
as a battery acid
describe the characteristic properties of bases in reactions with acids and with
ammonium salts
describe importance of water for acidity, i.e., water causes acid molecules to ionise
and form hydrogen ions
define acid as a substance that produces hydrogen ions as the only positive ions in
explain basicity of common acids and relate to concentration of hydrogen ions
describe qualitatively the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of
extent of ionisation of acid in water
describe an alkali as a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water to produce
hydroxide ions
describe the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water,
H+ + OH- H2O as neutralisation
describe aqueous ammonia as a weak alkali
identify aqueous sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as strong alkalis
describe how to test hydrogen ion concentration and hence, relative acidity using
Universal indicator and the pH scale
describe the importance of controlling pH in soil and how excess acidity can be
treated using calcium hydroxide
classify oxides as either acidic, basic, amphoteric or neutral based on metallic / nonmetallic character
classify sulfur dioxide as an acidic oxide and state its uses as a bleach, in the
manufacture of wood pulp for paper and as a food preservative (by killing bacteria)

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3.2 Preparation of salts Candidates should be able to:

define a salt as a substance formed when the hydrogen ions of an acid are partly or
completely replaced by metallic or ammonium ions
describe the general rules of solubility for common salts to include nitrates, chlorides
(including silver and lead), sulfates (including barium, calcium and lead), carbonates,
hydroxides, Group I cations and ammonium salts
describe the techniques used in the preparation, separation and purification of salts
as examples of the techniques specified in section 1.2(a)
(methods for preparation should include precipitation and titration together with
reactions of acids with metals, insoluble bases and insoluble carbonates)
suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given
appropriate information





4.1 Periodic Trends

Candidates should be able to:
describe the Periodic Table as an arrangement of the elements in the order of
increasing proton (atomic) number
describe how the position of an element in the Periodic Table is related to proton
number and electronic structure
describe the relationship between Group number and the ionic charge of an element
explain the similarities between the elements in the same Group of the Periodic
Table in terms of their electronic structure
describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character from left to right across a
Period of the Periodic Table
predict the properties of elements in Group I, VII and the Transition elements using
the Periodic Table
describe the relationship between Group number, number of valence electrons and
metallic/non-metallic character.
4.2 Group properties
Candidates should be able to:
describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection
of relatively soft, low density metals showing a trend in
melting point and in their reaction with water
describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of
diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state and their displacement
reactions with solutions of other halide ions
describe the elements in Group 0 (the noble gases) as a collection of monatomic
elements that are chemically unreactive and hence important in providing an inert
atmosphere, e.g. argon and neon in light bulbs; helium in balloons; argon in the
manufacture of steel
describe the lack of reactivity of the noble gases in terms of their electronic structure
4.3 Transition elements

(a) describe the central block of elements (transition metals) as metals having high
melting points, high densities, variable oxidation state and forming coloured
(b) state the uses of these elements and/or their compounds as catalysts,
e.g. iron in the Haber process; vanadium(V) oxide in the Contact process;
nickel in the hydrogenation of alkenes
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Candidates should be able to

(a) state the symbols of the elements and formulae of the compounds mentioned in the
(b) deduce the formulae of simple compounds from the relative numbers of atoms
present and vice versa
(c) determine the formulae of ionic compounds from the charges on the ions present
and vice versa
(d) interpret chemical equations with state symbols
(e) write and/or construct chemical equations, with state symbols, including ionic
(f) define the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on
the 12C scale
(g) define the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant
(h) analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances and molecular fragments
[knowledge of the working of the mass spectrometer is not required]
(i) calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its
isotopes, or its mass spectrum
(j) calculate the percentage mass of an element in a compound when given appropriate
(k) define the terms empirical and molecular formulae
(l) calculate empirical formulae and molecular formulae from relevant data (using
combustion data or composition by mass)
(m) calculate stoichiometric reacting mass (from formulae and equations) and volumes of
gases (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons) (one mole occupies 24 dm 3 at room
temperature and pressure); calculations involving the idea of limiting reactants may
be set (The gas laws and the calculations of gaseous volumes at different
temperatures and pressures are not required)
(n) deduce stoichiometric relationships from calculations such as those in (m)
(o) apply the concept of solution concentrations (in expressed in mol/dm 3 or g/dm3) to
process the results of volumetric experiments and to solve simple problems
(appropriate guidance will be provided where unfamiliar reactions are involved)
(p) calculate % yield and % purity


Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the percentage composition of clean air in terms of 79% nitrogen, 20%
oxygen, and the remainder being noble gases (with argon as main constituent) and
carbon dioxide.
(b) name some common atmospheric pollutants (carbon monoxide; methane; nitrogen
oxides (NO and NO2); ozone; sulfur dioxide; unburnt hydrocarbons)
(c) state sources of these pollutants as
(i) carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carboncontaining
(ii) nitrogen oxides from lightning activity and internal combustion engines.
(iii) sulfur dioxide from volcanoes and combustion of fossil fuels.
(d) describe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some
of the pollutants in (b)
(i) redox reactions in catalytic converters to remove combustion pollutants,
(ii) the use of calcium carbonate to reduce the effects of 'acid rain and in flue gas
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(e) discuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment
(i) the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide
(ii) the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in the formation of acid rain and
its effects on respiration, buildings and plants.
(iii) the role of nitrogen dioxide, methane and unburnt hydrocarbons in the
formation of photochemical smog.
(f) describe the importance of the ozone layer and the problems involved with the
depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds,
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
(g) describe the carbon cycle in simple terms to include
(i) the process of combustion, respiration and photosynthesis
(ii) how carbon cycle regulates the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(h) state that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases and may contribute to
global warming, give the sources of these gases and discuss the possible
consequences of an increase in global warming.

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Periodic Table
Friday, 25 September 2015

6:12 AM

Key Stuff Page 13

Pure Substances
Sunday, 20 September 2015

3:57 PM

Pure Substances is a single substance not mixed with anything else. A mixture consist of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined
Pure Substances have fixed melting and boiling points. The melting and boiling points of substances are also unique, and a pure substance can be
identified via its melting and boiling points.
Impurities in substances can be identified in several ways:
1) The substance has a lower melting point. The greater the amount of impurity, the lower the melting point.
2) The substance melts over a range of temperatures.
3) The substance has a higher boiling point. The greater the amount of impurities, the higher the boiling point.
4) The liquid boils over a range of temperatures.
A pure substance can be obtained through the use of various separation techniques.
1) Decanting
Decanting separates an insoluble solid from a liquid by pouring off that liquid from the container.
2) Filtration
Filtration is used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. The mixture is poured into a filter paper, A liquid passes through the small holes in the filter
paper. The insoluble solid cannot pass through and is trapped in the filter paper. The solid is the residue and the liquid is the filtrate.
3) Evaporation
Evaporation is used to separate dissolved salts from a solution. During evaporation, the solution is heated and water changes into steam. The salt left
behind is the residue
4) Crystallisation
Crystallisation separates a dissolved solid from a solution, forming pure crystals of the substance. Crystallisation is commonly done by heating a solution
to evaporate off the solvent until a saturate solution is obtained. As it cools, pure crystals of the dissolved solid form. Impurities remain in the solution.
This occurs because the solubility of solutes decreases as the temperature decreases. As a hot solution cools, it eventually becomes saturated, and can it
can hold no more solute. The extra solute that cannot be dissolved separates as pure crystals. Impurities remain in the solution. Solids can be melted and
allowed to cool to obtain pure crystals.
5) Sublimation
Sublimation separates a mixture of solids, one of which sublimes. Some substance can undergo sublimation, as they change directly from a solid to a
vapour upon heating. The vapour changes back to solid directly on a cold surface.
6) Simple Distillation
Simple Distillation separates a pure liquid from a solution. The liquid is changed into a vapour by boiling, and the vapour is pure as other substances are
left behind. The vapour is then cooled and condenses to a pure liquid which is called the distillate.
7) Fractional Distillation
Fractional Distillation separates mixtures of miscible liquids with widely different boiling points. Miscible liquids are completely soluble in each other.
Fractional Distillation enlists the help of a fractionating column to help separate the liquids. Liquids with a lower boiling point boils first and is distilled,
thus the temperature would remain constant when the liquid is being distilled. The temperature only rises when the liquid is mostly distilled, and then
remains constant when it reaches the boiling point of the next liquid to be distilled.

Experimental Chemistry Page 14

Experimental Chemistry Page 15

Experimental Chemistry Page 16

Friday, 25 September 2015

2:51 AM

Chromatography is a method of separating and identifying mixtures.

Chromatography has a variety of uses, such as:
- To separate and identify mixtures of coloured substances found in foods and in dyes
- To separate and identify substances in drugs and in blood
- To separate and identify substances in urine to find out if athletes have been using drugs
The process of chromatography goes like so:
1) Get a filter paper and draw a line with pencil near the bottom of the filter paper. Pen is not
used because the ink would separate during chromatography. Hang the filter paper on
2) A solution of whatever you're testing is obtained, and a drop of the solution is placed on the
pencil line near the bottom of a strip of filter paper.
3) The paper is dipped into a suitable solvent, with the solvent level below the spot. This is
important as if the solution is in the solvent, it may dissolve directly into the solvent and taint
it, affecting the chromatography results.
4) The solvent travels up the paper. The solutions on the pencil line dissolve in the solvent and
travel up the paper at different speeds, and hence the dyes are separated. The result is called
a chromatogram.
The number of dots above the pencil line tell you how many different substances where in the
solution you tested. If two solutions are tested and they have dots that stop at the same distance
above the pencil line, they are probably the same.
When the solution is colourless, the chromatogram is sprayed with a locating agent. A locating agent
is a substance that reacts with the substances on the paper to produce a coloured product.
Substances on a chromatogram have a Rf value, which is derived by:
The distance moved by the substance divided by the distance moved by the solvent
The Rf value differs with the solvent and the temperature.

Experimental Chemistry Page 17

Cations and Anions and Gases

Friday, 25 September 2015

4:09 AM

Experimental Chemistry Page 18

Experimental Chemistry Page 19

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Sunday, 20 September 2015

3:57 PM

An element is a substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical methods. If it
can be broken down, it is a compound. Heat or electricity can help break down a compound. This is
called decomposition. These elements have a name and a chemical symbol, and can be found on the
periodic table. 118 elements have been discovered at the moment.
Elements can be classified in 2 ways. The first is by state. There are 92 naturally occurring elements
that can be found on earth. 11 are gases, 2 are liquids, and 79 are solids. They can also be classified
by how well they conduct electricity, and can be sorted into 3 groups: Metals, Metalloids and Nonmetals.


Good Conductors of Electricity
Most known elements are metals
Properties between those of metals and non-metals
Poor conductors of Electricity
Only 22 of the known elements are non-metals
Some are Noble Gases
All Noble Gases are colourless and unreactive

An atom is the smallest unit of an element, having the properties of that element. A molecule is a
group of two or more atoms chemically combined together. Most non-metals are made up of
molecules. If all the atoms in the molecule are the same kind, it is an element. Symbols are used to
represent atoms, and a chemical formula is used to represent a molecule. The chemical formula of a
molecule shows the number and kinds of atoms contained in it. There are different types of
molecules with different names, based on the number of atoms in it.
1 Atom: Monatomic
2 Atoms: Diatomic
3 Atoms: Triatomic
4 or More Atoms: Polyatomic
A compound is a substance containing two or more elements chemically combined together.
Compounds formed have different properties from their constituent elements. Heat is usually given
out when elements combine to form compounds. There are some general rules that are followed
when naming a compound.
- If a compound contains both a metal and non-metal, the metal usually comes first in the
- A compound with only two elements often ends with -ide
- A compound that contains OH is a hydroxide
- The name of a compound with an ion containing oxygen usually ends in -ate
Compounds are made of 2 different particles: Molecules and Ions.
We already know about Molecules, so let's talk about ions.
An atom or a group of atoms that has an electrical charge is called an ion. Compounds made of ions
are called ionic compounds. Ions that lose an electron have a positive charge, and are called cations.
Ions that gain an electron have a negative charge, and are called anions.
Compounds and mixtures are notably different. A mixture consists of 2 or more substances that are
not chemically combined together. Here are some properties of Compounds and Mixtures.
Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 20

not chemically combined together. Here are some properties of Compounds and Mixtures.
- Has a fixed composition by mass
- Has fixed melting and boiling points
- Has its own physical and chemical properties which are different from its elements
- Cannot be separated into two or more substances by physical means; a chemical reaction is
needed to separate the elements.
- Has a variable composition by mass
- Has variable melting and boiling points
- Does not have its own properties, and has the same properties as its components
- Can be easily separated into its components by physical means without a chemical reaction

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 21

Atomic Structure
Friday, 25 September 2015

5:42 AM

An atom consists of the following: Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.

- Protons carry a positive electric charge, and have a relative mass of 1
- Neutrons also have a relative mass of 1, but does not have a relative charge
- Electrons carry a negative electric charge and a negligible mass
A cloud of electrons that move at nearly the speed of light surrounds a nucleus containing protons
and neutrons. Almost all mass of an atom is contained in its nucleus. Most of the atom is made of
empty space. In normal atoms, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so the
atom is electronically neutral. As we move down the periodic table, that number of protons and
electrons are increased by 1. However, there is no pattern in the number of neutrons in an atom.
The number of protons in an atom is called the proton number. It is also called the atomic number.
Nucleon number is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. It is also called
the mass number.
Number of Protons = Proton Number/Atomic Number
Number of Neutrons= Nucleon Number - Proton Number
Number of Electrons= Number of Protons

Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Atoms of an
Element always have the same number of protons. Isotopes have the same chemical properties and
form compounds with the same formula. However, there are small differences in their physical
properties, such as differing masses.
Electrons in an atom are arranged in orbits around the nucleus of the atom. The orbits are also
called shells. These shells are numbered 1,2,3,4 and so on, outwards from the nucleus. Each shell
can hold a certain maximum number of electrons. The first shell is closest to the nucleus, can hold a
maximum of 2 electrons and is always filled first. The second shell can hold a maximum of 8
electrons, and is usually filled before the third shell fills, which can also hold a maximum of 8
electrons. The shell which is farthest from the nucleus is called the outer shell. It is also called the
valence shell. The electrons in this shell are known as outer electrons or valence electrons. Most of
the time, only the outer electron is drawn in the electronic structure, and this is called the outer
electronic structure.
Noble Gas Atoms have the most stable electronic structures, thus atoms of other elements try to
achieve this electronic structure, also known as a noble gas configuration. They can either form ions
or share outer electrons to achieve this. When atoms share electrons, molecules are formed.
In an atom, the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons, and thus the atom is
electronically neutral. When electrons are added or taken away from an atom, the atom is no longer
electrically neutral, and becomes a charged particle, also known as an ion.
Metal Ions have few outer shell electrons, and lose electrons in their outer shell to obtain a noble
gas configuration. They form positive ions, because they lose electrons. Non-metals have more outer
shell electrons then metals, and gain electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration, The form
negative ion, because they gain electrons.

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 22

Friday, 25 September 2015

6:17 AM

Energy level filling order up to Z = 56 is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p (for Z = 1 to 36) then 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f/5d (for Z = 37 to 56)
However, when writing out the electron configuration you must write them out in order of strict principal quantum with the accompanying s, p, d, f notation i.e. the order 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 6s (upto Z = 58)
The sblock consists of Groups 1 and 2 where the only outer electrons are in an s sub energy level orbital (no outer p electrons, 2 per period).
The pblock corresponds to Groups 3 to 0 (old notation) where the three p sub energy level orbitals are being filled (6 per period).
Starting with period 4, where the first of the d sub shells is low enough in energy to be filled, there are ten elements 'inserted' between groups 2 and 3, the so called d blocks of ten elements (the 1st block, the 3d block Sc Zn is
on Period 4).
Therefore Sc to Zn form the head elements of Groups 3 to 12 using the 'new' group number notation.
Similarly on period 5 there is a 4d block where the 4d subshell level is filled.
So 10 d block elements per period are now permitted\under the quantum number rules.
Starting with cerium (Z=58, period 6), see in full table below, there is a further insertion of fourteen elements where the s even forbital subshell is being filled after the first of the d block metals and similarly with thorium (Z=90) in
period 7 and these are known as the f blocks (14 per period where permitted).
There are differing number of atomic orbitals in the various subshells. You need 2 electrons to fill up 1 atomic orbital. The re is 1 S Orbital, 3 P Orbitals, 5 D orbitals and 7 F Orbitals. Every orbital is first filled with 1 electron, before it is f illed up. Once it
is filled up, then the next subshell can be filled with electrons.
Useful Site:



3d/4d blocks of Transition Metals (Periods 4/5), the

1st/10th are NOT true transition elements, they have
no partially filled d shell in an ion.

s block


p block
















The electronic structure of Elements 1 to

56, ZSymbol, Z = atomic or proton number = total
electrons in neutral atom, [He] = 1s 2, [Ne] =
1s22s22p6, [Ar] = 1s22s22p63s23p6, [Kr] =
Between Groups 2 and 3 (13) are the dblocks and
fblocks where the quantum energy level rules permit
their inclusion and electron filling. Periods 4 and 5
have 18 elements each, including the 3d and 4d
blocks of elements respectively (Groups 3 to 12
new notation).



[Kr] 4d15s2





4fblock (14) and 5dblock (10) 32 elements in

period 6 including the Lanthanide Series of



5fblock and 6dblock including the Actinide

Series of Metals.


Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 23

22Ti [Ar]

40Zr [Kr]

23V [Ar]


24Cr [Ar]



43Tc [Kr]

26Fe [Ar]




28Ni [Ar]


29Cu [Ar]

47Ag [Kr]

30Zn [Ar]

48Cd [Kr]






31Ga [Ar]

32Ge [Ar]

33As [Ar]







34Se [Ar]

35Br [Ar]

36Kr [Ar]



49In [Kr]
50Sn [Kr]
51Sb [Kr]
52Te [Kr]
53I [Kr]
54Xe [Kr]
4d105s25p 4d105s25p 4d105s25p 4d105s25p 4d105s25p 4d105s25p

81Tl [Xe]

82Pb [Xe]

83Bi [Xe]

84Po [Xe]

85At [Xe]

86Rn [Xe]

Chemical Bonding
Friday, 25 September 2015

6:41 AM

There are 3 main ways of forming chemical bonds between atoms.

1. Ionic Bonding, which results when electrons are transferred from one atom to another,
forming positive and negative ions.
2. Covalent Bonding, which results when atoms are joined together by sharing electrons, forming
3. Metallic Bonding, which is only found in metals.
Ionic Bonding occurs when atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions. Atoms of metal lose electrons
to form positive ions, and atoms of non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions. An ionic bond is
the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. When drawing a dot and
cross diagram, you generally only draw the outermost shell.

In an ionic compound, there are no definitive pairs, and instead, there is a repetition of positive and
negative ions throughout the whole structure. Due to the large number of ions in its structure, it is
called a giant ionic structure or a giant lattice structure, as it forms a giant ionic crystal lattice. All
structures formed formed from metal and non-metals have giant lattice structures. The metal or
ammonium ion is always written first in the name of the compound and in the formula. If a
compound has more than one polyatomic atom, the ions is placed in brackets. Polyatomic Ions
consists of more than one atom. The total charge is the total number of protons minus the number
of electrons. To balance out an ionic bond, simply cross multiply the charges. For example, Calcium
ions have a charge of 2+, and Phosphate ions have a charge of 3-, so you would need 3 calcium ions
and 2 phosphate ions to balance out the equation.
An Ionic Compound forms an Ionic Crystal Lattice that contains a network of ions arranged in a
regular pattern. The ions are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction. Ionic
compound are hard, crystalline solids that have flat sides and regular shapes, and are hard due to
the strong ionic bonds. They have high melting and boiling points, To melt an ionic compound, a
large amount of heat is needed to break the strong electrostatic forces holding the ions together.
Therefore, ionic compounds have high melting points. To boil an ionic compound, a large amount of
heat is needed to overcome the strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding the ions in the
liquid. An ionic compound cannot evaporate easily due to the strong forces holding the ions
together. Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity as ions cannot move in the solid state as
they are held in place, so the current cannot flow. However, when in molten state or dissolved in
water, the ion can move and can act as electrical charge carriers and carry the electric current. Many
ionic compounds are soluble in water, as there is an attraction between the ions and the water
molecules, causing the ions to separate and go into the solution. However, most ionic compounds
are insoluble in non-aqueous solvent.
A covalent bond is formed by sharing a pair of electrons. Covalent bonds are formed between atoms
of non-metals. This bond can be formed between atoms of the same elements, or between atoms of
different elements. Covalent bonds occur in substances consisting of molecules, and are called
covalent compounds. Dot and cross diagrams of covalent compounds generally only require you to
draw the outermost shells. Valence electrons are electrons in the outer most shell which are used to
form bonds between atoms. Valency is the number of electrons an atom uses to form bonds
between atoms.

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 24

Elements and compounds consisting of small molecules have simple molecular structures. In the
molecules, the atoms are held together by strong covalent bonds However, between the molecules,
there are only weak forces of attraction called intermolecular forces. The intermolecular forces are
weak at liquid state. These forces are broken and reformed when the molecules slide past one
another. When the liquid is heated, heat energy is converted to kinetic energy, allowing the
molecules to overcome the intermolecular forces holding them together, which cause the liquid to
turn into gas.
Most substances with simple molecular structures are liquids or gases at room temperature. As the
forces between the molecules are weak, the molecules are not held together tightly like particles in
a solid, but are free to move. Substances with a simple molecular structure usually have low melting
and boiling points. Only the weak intermolecular forces between the molecules are overcome when
the substance boils. The covalent bonds that hold the atoms together are strong, the van der waals
forces of attraction between molecules are weak and easy to overcome. Covalent compounds are
volatile and evaporate easily. Substances with a simple molecular structure do not conduct
electricity. To conduct electricity, substances must contain either ions or electrons that are free to
move. Molecules do not contain either. Most molecular substances are insoluble in water. Instead,
they dissolve in organic solvents.
Metal atoms are packed together closely in regular three-dimensional patterns to form giant lattice
structures. A metallic bond is the attractive force between positively charged ions and negatively
charged, free or mobile. Each atom gives up its outer shell electrons to become a positive ion. These
electrons move and occupy the spaces between the ions. The moving electrons are called mobile
electrons or delocalised electrons, and the metal is often described as consisting of positive ions in a
sea of electrons.
Metals are malleable, which means they can be bent. Metals are also ductile, which means they can
be stretched. This is because layers of atoms in a metal can slide over each other easily when a force
is applied. The metal does not break as the sea of electrons hold the atoms in the metal together.
The metallic bonding in most metals is strong and hence a lot of energy is needed to separate the
atoms, resulting in a high melting and boiling point. Electricity conducts electricity, due to the
movement of the free or mobile electrons through the metal, and acts as electrical charge carriers.
Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 25

movement of the free or mobile electrons through the metal, and acts as electrical charge carriers.
Metal conducts electricity both when solid and when molten. Metals conduct heat, and they allow
heat to pass through them easily. When one end of a metal is heated, the delocalised electrons get
more energy. They move faster, colliding with neighbouring electrons. Heat is transferred in the
collisions, causing the whole piece of metal thus becomes hot.
Some substances have giant structures consisting of atoms joined together by covalent bonds. These
are called giant molecular structures.
Diamond is a form of the element carbon. In diamond, each carbon atom forms covalent bonds with
four other carbon atoms. The structure is a giant network of carbon atoms held together by covalent
bonds. The strong covalent bonds throughout diamond make it the hardest natural substance.
Because of its hardness, diamond is used in cutting other hard solids. Hardness is measured on a
scale called the Mohs scale. The scale ranges from 1 to 10, diamond is a 10.

Silicon Dioxide is a compound of silicon and oxygen, and has a giant molecular structure like
diamond. Each silicon atom is joint by covalent bonds to four oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atoms is
joined to two silicon atoms. In the structure, there are no separate molecules.

All substances with a giant molecular structure are solids at room temperature. The solid structure
has many strong covalent bonds between the atoms, which make it quite hard. Substances with a
giant molecular structure have high melting and boiling points. This is because strong covalent bonds
must be broken to melt and boil them. Diamond melts at about 3500 degrees Celsius. Substances
with a giant molecular structure do not conduct electricity, with the exception of graphite. For
electricity to be conducted, there must be movement of free mobile electrons. All the outer shell
electrons in the atoms of covalent structures are used to form covalent bonds. Thus, there are no
free mobile electrons and conduction of electricity does not occur. Substances with a giant
molecular structure are insoluble in any solvent.
Graphite is another form of the element carbon and also has a giant molecular structure. However,
this structure is different from that of diamond or silicon dioxide. Graphite has a macromolecular
structure. In graphite, the carbon atoms are arranged in flat layers. The carbon atoms in each layer
are arranged in hexagonal rings of six atoms, which each atom joined to others by strong covalent
bonds. The covalent bonds between the carbon atoms are strong. However, the intermolecular
forces between the layers are weak. For every three covalent carbon bonds, one electron is
delocalised over the whole sheet of atoms in one layer, and is free to move between these layers of
carbon. The mobile electron can be used as an electrical charge carrier, and thus allows graphite to
Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 26

carbon. The mobile electron can be used as an electrical charge carrier, and thus allows graphite to
conduct electricity. Graphite is also soft, as the forces between the layers of carbon atoms are weak
and so they can easily slide past each other.

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 27

Bond Polarity
Monday, 28 September 2015

2:38 AM

In a molecule, atoms with the higher electronegativity has more electron density around it, and thus has
a partial negative charge. The other atom has less electron density, and thus has a partial negative
charge. The centres of positive charge and negative charge do not coincide. This charge separation is
called dipole. Such bonds between atoms with differing electronegativity are polar. Bond polarity
increases as the electronegativity difference increases. A dipole moment is the moment that forces a set
of separate charges to rotate in an electric field. The dipole moment is represented by an arrow with the
tail at the positive centre and the head at the negative centre. A molecule with an electric dipole is said
to be polar and to possess a dipole. A bond with a dipole moment gives rise to bond polarity. A polar
molecule has positive and negative poles, areas where there is a partial charge along the molecule. Polar
molecules orient themselves in an electric field, with the negative ends towards the positive end of the
field and vice versa. A molecule is polar if there is a net charge separation between two ends of the
molecule or net dipole. If there are no polar bonds and the bond dipoles cancels, the molecule is non polar. If the bond dipole does not cancel, the molecule is polar and has a partial charge. The balance of
the attractive and repulsive forces occurs when the nuclei are separated by a distance. The distance is
known as the bond length. Energy is released as the two atoms come together to form the bond, and
the same amount of energy required to break the bond. This is the bond energy.
1) Bond strength increases as bond multiplicity increases.
2) Bond strength increases as orbital overlap increases.
3) Bond strength increases as differences in electronegativity increases.

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 28

Hydrogen Bonding
Monday, 28 September 2015

3:09 AM

Electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine and the lone pair of a neighbouring
nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom is called a hydrogen bond. The hydrogen is attached directly to one of the most
electronegative elements (N,O,F), causing the hydrogen to acquire a significant amount of positive charge. Each of the
elements to which the hydrogen is attaches also has at least one "active" lone pair. H-X has a very polar bond due to the
large electronegativity difference. When X is bonded to H, they pull the bonding pair well away from H, making H
positive and poorly shielded. Lone pairs have the electrons contained in a relatively small volume of space which
therefore has a high density of negative charge. Hydrogen bonded molecules have higher than expected melting points
and boiling points compared with the hydrides of other elements in their respective Group.

Atomic Structure and Bonding Page 29

Acids and Bases

Sunday, 20 September 2015

3:57 PM

Properties of Acid
1) Acids have a sour taste
2) Acids are hazardous
3) Acids turn blue litmus paper red
4) Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt
5) Acids react with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to produce carbon dioxide and water and a salt
6) Acids react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form water and a salt
Hydrogen ions need to be present in acid solutions for the acids to have acidic properties. Pure acids without water
consists of small covalent molecules. In the presence of water, `the acid molecules form ions, and the acid is ionised. The
properties and reactions of acids are due to the hydrogen ions. Therefore, acids only behave as acids when they are
dissolved in water. Thus, and acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
The basicity of the acid is the maximum number of hydrogen ions produced by a molecule of an acid. In a solution of a
strong acid, all the acid molecules become ions in the water. In a solution of a weak acid, most of the acid molecules
remain unchanged in the water, and few acid molecules are ionised to become hydrogen ions. A strong acid is one that
completely ionises in water. A weak acid is one that partially ionises in water. Strong acids react more vigorously than
weak acids. Strong acids and concentrated acids are not the same. Similarly, weak acids are not dilute acids. Strong and
weak refer to the extent of ionisation, while concentration refer to the amount of solute in a solution.

Bases are oxides or hydroxides of metals. Soluble bases are called alkalis. An alkali is a substance that produces
hydroxide ions in water. All alkalis are bases, but not all bases are alkalis.
Properties of Bases
1) Alkalis feel slippery
2) Alkalis are caustic and hazardous
3) Alkalis change red litmus paper blue
4) Alkalis react with acids to form a salt and water
5) Alkalis react with ammonium compounds to form ammonia gas, a salt and water
6) Alkalis react with solutions of metal ions to form a precipitate

Alkalis can also be weak or strong. When strong alkalis are added to water, they form hydroxide ions in solution. An
alkali that only has a small fraction of its molecules react with water to form hydroxide ions are known as weak alkalis.

Acid, Bases and Salts Page 30

Indicators and pH
Monday, 28 September 2015

4:16 AM

An indicator is a substance that has different colours in acidic and alkaline solutions.

pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. All aqueous solutions contain both hydrogen
ions and hydroxide ions. The concentration of these ions differs in solutions of different pH. The pH is a
measure of the concentration of the hydrogen ions in a solution. A solution with pH of less than 7 is
acidic. Acids have a greater concentration of hydrogen ions. The lower the pH level, the greater the
concentration of hydrogen ions and the more acidic the solution. A pH of 7 is neutral. This is the pH of
pure water. The concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is the same. A solution with pH
greater than 7 is alkaline. Alkalis have a greater concentration of hydroxide ions. The higher the pH, the
greater the concentration of hydroxide ions and the more alkaline the solution.
An ionic equation is an equation involving ions in an aqueous solution, only the ions formed or changed
during the reaction are included. In ionic equations, formulae of ions that change are included. Ions that
do not change are spectator ions and are not included. Formulae of solids, liquids and gases are written
in full.

Acid, Bases and Salts Page 31

Neutralisation and Salts

Monday, 28 September 2015

5:22 PM

The reaction of an acid and an alkali is called neutralisation. During neutralisation, the properties of the acid and the
base are taken away or destroyed, thus an acid and a base cancel out each other's properties. An acid-alkali
neutralisation produces a salt and water. Neutralisation is the reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and
water only.
Oxides can be classified into four types. These are acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral.
1) Acidic Oxides
Acidic Oxides are the oxides of non-metals. They are called acidic oxides because they react with water to produce
acids. Acidic oxides react with alkalis to form salts and water.
2) Basic Oxides
Basic Oxides are the oxides of metals. These react with acids to form salts and water.
3) Amphoteric Oxides
Some metallic oxides are amphoteric. This means they can behave as am acidic oxide or as a basic oxide.
Amphoteric oxides react with acids and alkalis to form salts and water.
4) Neutral Oxides
Neutral Oxides do not react with either acids or bases. Therefore, they do not form salts.
A salt is produced when an acid reacts with a base. The method used to prepare a salt depends on the chemicals being
reacted together to make the salt and on the solubility of the salt in water.

An Insoluble Salt is prepared by precipitation.

Soluble Salts of Sodium, Potassium and Ammonium are prepared via the titration method.
(1) A known volume of acid is pipetted into a conical flask and universal indicator added. The acid is titrated
with the alkali from the burette.
(2) The acid is added until the indicator turns green, pH 7 neutral. This means all the acid has been neutralised
to form the salt. I've illustrated the method using universal indicator BUT it isn't that accurate an indicator for
titrations.You should use a more precise indicator like phenolphthalein or methyl orange. I didn't repeat
all the titration details here again, I've just kept to the basic ideas and description, but there lots of detailed
examples on the page
(3) The volume of alkali needed for neutralisation is then noted, this is called the endpoint volume. (1)-(3) are
repeated with both known volumes mixed together BUT without the contaminating indicator, such as
phenolphthalein or methyl orange.
(4) The solution is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated to partially evaporate the water causing
crystallisation or can be left to very slowly evaporate - which tends to give bigger and better crystals.
(5) The residual liquid can be decanted away and the crystals can be carefully collected and dried by 'dabbing'
with a filter paper OR the crystals can be collected by filtration and dried (as above).
Other Soluble Salts are prepared by adding excess metal or insoluble carbonate or insoluble oxide to a suitable dilute
(1) The required volume of acid is measured out into the beaker with a measuring cylinder. The excess of
insoluble metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate is weighed out and the solid added in small portions to the acid
in the beaker with stirring. Doing the weighing will minimise trial and error especially if the reaction is slow, as
long as you know how to do the theoretical calculation!
(2) The mixture may be heated to speed up the reaction. When no more of the solid dissolves it means ALL the
acid is neutralised and there should be a little excess solid. You should see a residue of the solid (oxide,
hydroxide, carbonate) left at the bottom of the beaker.
(3) The hot solution (with care!) is filtered to remove the excess solid metal/oxide/carbonate, into an
evaporating dish.
(4) You may need to carefully heat the solution to evaporate some of the water. Then hot solution is left to cool
and crystallise. After crystallisation, you collect and dry the crystals with a filter paper.

Acid, Bases and Salts Page 32

Group Properties and Transition Elements

Sunday, 20 September 2015

3:57 PM

The Group I elements are known as alkali metals. They are very similar and they are the most
reactive metals in the Periodic Table. All of them have one outer shell electron in their atoms, which
is what makes them similar. They share the following physical properties:
1) Shiny, silvery solids
2) All soft and easily cut with a knife
3) Low densities and low melting points, densities increase down the group while melting point
They also share the following chemical properties:
1) Tarnish easily as they react easily with air, thus they are kept in oil
2) Group I elements are called the alkali metals because they react with water to give alkaline
solutions, turning red litmus blue
3) Elements become more reactive down the group
4) Metals reacts to form ionic compounds, and the ions have a charge of 1+
Group VII elements are known as halogens. They are very similar and are very reactive. All of them
have seven outer shell electrons in their atoms, which is what makes them similar. The share the
following physical properties:
1) The elements consist of small molecules, which each contain 2 atoms, thus they are diatomic
2) Fluorine and Chlorine are gases, Bromine is a liquid and Iodine is a solid
3) Chlorine is greenish-yellow, Bromine is reddish-brown, Iodine is Shiny Black, and the Elements
become darker down a group
4) They have low melting and boiling points, which increases down the group.
They also share the following chemical properties:
1) Halogens react with most metals to form compounds called halides
2) Halogens become less reactive down the group
3) A more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its
ions, and this reaction is called a displacement reaction
Group 0 elements are called the noble gases, and are the least reactive elements in the Periodic
Table. They share the following physical properties:
1) The elements are all colourless gases, and consist of single atoms, thus they are monoatomic
2) All the noble gases have stable electronic arrangements, and with the exception of helium, all
have 8 electrons in the outer shells
3) They have very low melting and boiling points
They are all unreactive and usually do not form bonds.
The transition elements are a block of elements between Group II and III, occurring in Periods 4, 5
and 6. These elements are all metals, and are known as transition metals. They share the following
physical properties:
1) They are Shiny and Silvery
2) Good Conductors of Electricity
3) They are hard and strong, thanks to the strong metallic bonds that are stronger than those in
Group I and II metals
4) They have high densities and high melting points, like most other metals
5) Many solid compounds of the transitional metals and their aqueous solutions are coloured
They also share the following chemical properties:
1) Transition Metals have variable valency in compounds
2) Several transition metals and their compounds are good catalysts, and can speed up chemical

Periodic Trends Page 33

Monday, 28 September 2015

7:56 PM

I swear the rest of this chapter is useless the whole thing can be condensed into this

Mole Concept Page 34

The Atmosphere
Friday, 25 September 2015

1:55 AM

The Earth is surrounded by a layer of air about eight kilometres thick called the atmosphere. Air is
important for living things and without it, there can be no life. Air is a mixture of gases. It consists of
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.03% Carbon Dioxide and almost 1% Noble Gases. The amount of water
vapour in air varies from day to day and from place to place. Air pollutants are also present in small
amounts. Oxygen, nitrogen and the noble gases are useful gases that are obtained from the air. The
air is first compressed and cooled to change into a liquid. The liquid air mixture is then separated by
fractional distillation. In the process, nitrogen, which has the lowest boiling point, distils over first
at -196 degrees Celsius, followed by argon at -186 and oxygen at -183.

This apparatus can be used to find the percentage of oxygen in the air. The copper powder is heated
strong and air in the syringes passed back and forth over the hot copper until there is no further
change in volume. The oxygen in the air combines with the hot copper to form black copper (II)
oxide. The volume of gas in the syringes decreases as the oxygen reacts with the copper and is
Volume of Oxygen in Air = Initial Volume of air in the Syringes - Final Volume of Gas in the Syringes
The presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to living things and the environment
contributes to air pollution. Pure air is colourless, odourless and safe to breathe. However, harmful
substances are often present in the air. The most common air pollutants are carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide.
1) Carbon Monoxide
Caron Monoxide is a colourless, odourless gas, with the formula CO. Some of the carbon
monoxide in the air is natural, resulting from forest fires. However, most of it comes from their
incomplete combustion of fuel in motor engines. Carbon in the fuel burns to form carbon
monoxide instead of carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is poisonous, and it is especially
dangerous because it is colourless and odourless. It can cause breathing problems and
reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen, as it reacts with haemoglobin to produce
carboxyhaemoglobin, causing it to no longer combine with oxygen.
2) Nitrogen Oxides
Oxides of nitrogen include nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. At high temperatures, the
nitrogen and oxygen in the air combine to form nitrogen monoxide. The nitrogen monoxide
combines with more oxygen to become nitrogen dioxide. These reactions occur naturally in
lightning and forest fires. The two oxides of nitrogen are often described simply as NO x. Most
NO x is produced inside vehicle engines, although some come from burners in power stations,
factories and incinerators. The gas irritates and damage the lungs. They are also a cause of
acid rain. The gases also react with sunlight and other pollutants to form ozone.
3) Sulfur Dioxide
Coal and petroleum are important fuels. Large amounts are burnt around the world in power
stations to generate electricity and in industries to provide energy. Both fuels contain sulfur as
an impurity, although there is more of it in coal. Diesel fuel, used in vehicles, also contain a
little sulfur. When the fuels are burnt, the sulfur is oxidised into sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is
also produced in large quantities during volcanic eruptions. It irritates the eyes and causes
breathing problems, as well as affecting plant growth as it enters the leaves. It is the main
cause of acid rain.
4) Other Pollutants
- Unburnt Hydrocarbons come mainly from hydrocarbons in fuel that have not been burnt in
Air and Environment Page 35

- Unburnt Hydrocarbons come mainly from hydrocarbons in fuel that have not been burnt in
vehicle engines. Some can cause cancer, and they react with sunlight and other pollutants to
form ozone.
- Methane is a colourless, odourless gas produced when plant and animal matter decay. Cows
and other farm animals produce methane, large amounts of methane are also produced in rice
fields. It contributes to global warming.
- Ozone, O 3, is a form of oxygen and is a colourless gas. Sunlight acts on other air pollutants
such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to produce a mixture called
photochemical smog, and ozone is part of this mixture. Ozone irritates the eyes, nose and
throat, and can cause asthma attacks. It damages plant crops.
Air pollutants are harmful to the environment, causing the formation of acid rain, which has a pH
value of below 5. Regular rain is slightly acidic with a pH value of 5.6 due to carbon dioxide in the air.
Acid rainfall is any rainfall that has an acidity level beyond what is expected in non-polluted rainfall.
Acid rain is formed from two air pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide in the air reacts with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid dissolves
in rainwater, making it acidic. Nitrogen dioxide also undergoes a similar reaction in the air, forming
nitric acid. The nitric acid also dissolves in rainwater, making it acidic. Acid rain with a pH of about 4
is 40 times more acidic than unpolluted rainwater. Some acid rain has been found to have a pH of
less than 1.5, more acidic than lemon juice. Sometimes, wind carries air pollutants over long
distances before they dissolve in rainwater. Therefore air pollutants from one country can produce
acid rain in another country.
Acid rains have harmful effects:
- Acid rain makes soils more acidic, and many plants do not grow well in acidic soil.
- Fish cannot survive in acidic water, with acid rain killing fish in thousands in lakes in
Scandinavia and North America.
- Acid rain corrodes buildings and objects made of calcium carbonate, such as limestone, marble
or cement.
- Acid rain damages trees, and destroys whole forests throughout Europe.
- Acid rain attacks metals, causing galvanised iron sheets to corrode more quickly.
A layer of ozone surrounds the Earth about 40 km above the ground. The ozone absorbs UV
radiation from the Sun, preventing it from reaching the ground. UV radiation is dangerous, as it
causes skin cancer in animals and damages plants. The amount of ozone in the ozone layer has
decreased since 1978, and the depletion is particularly great at the South Pole, where up to half the
ozone over Antarctica has been destroyed. This formed the ozone hole and dangerous ultraviolet
radiation is now streaming through this hole. In the tropics, there is much less depletion of Ozone.
The ozone hole is caused by chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. They are compounds of carbon, chlorine
and fluorine. CFCs have been widely used as propellants in aerosol cans and as coolant liquids in
refrigerators and air conditioners. CFCs in the atmosphere are decomposed by sunlight to produce
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refrigerators and air conditioners. CFCs in the atmosphere are decomposed by sunlight to produce
chlorine atom. These chlorine atoms then react with ozone molecules and destroy them by
converting them into oxygen molecules. In the last few decades, large amounts of CFCs were
released into the atmosphere. CFCs are very stable and can remain in the atmosphere for a long
time. Slowly they react with ozone, destroying the ozone layer.
An international treaty called the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987 to drastically reduce the use
of CFCs. In 1992, major industrial nations agreed to completely phase out ozone-destroying
chemicals by 2020. Although limited use of CFCs is allowed, other compounds are now used for
aerosol propellants, refrigerators and producing plastics. These low boiling point hydrocarbons do
not contain chlorine or are rapidly destroyed in the lower atmosphere to form small molecules that
do not react with ozone. Singapore signed the Montreal Protocol in 1989 and implemented policies
to comply with its obligations, and since 1996, import or manufacture of products containing CFCs
has been banned. Unfortunately, a lot of chlorine from CFCs has accumulated in the atmosphere,
though quantities are now beginning to fall. Still, ozone depletion is expected to be serious until the
middle of this century.
Catalytic Converters attached to the exhaust system of vehicles contains a ceramic catalyst for the
removal of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides helps to reduce air pollution in
Singapore, and has been used since 1994. When the hot exhaust gases from the engine pass over
the catalyst, the harmful pollutants are converted to harmless substances. Nitrogen Oxides react
with Carbon Monoxide to from carbon dioxide and nitrogen and water. Unburnt Hydrocarbons such
as Octane are oxidised to form carbon dioxide and water.
Oil fuels used in Singapore's factories contain no more than 2% sulfur, and the amount of sulfur in
diesel fuel has decreased, from 0.5% in 1996 to 0.05% in 1999. Power stations are now burning more
natural gas while buses and taxis increasingly use compressed natural gas instead of diesel. Natural
gas is mainly methane and contains no sulfur, producing non-polluting products from combustion,
carbon dioxide and water.
Flue Gas Desulfurisation is a process used to remove sulfur dioxide from waste gases produced by a
coal or oil burning power station. The waste gases are called flue gases, and are made up of sulfur
dioxide and small amounts of nitrogen oxides and are produced when fuels are burnt. To remove
sulfur dioxide, powdered limestone is added to hot flue gases, and the heat decomposes the
limestone to give calcium oxide. The calcium oxide then reacts with sulfur dioxide to form calcium
sulfite. This step removes sulfur dioxide from the flue gases, and the remaining gases can now be
safely released. In many instances, calcium sulfite is further oxidised to form calcium sulfate.
The atmosphere is about 0.03% carbon dioxide. However, this small percentage represents many
billion tonnes of the gas. Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere is continuously being removed and
returned to the atmosphere in a variety of processes, and is called the carbon cycle. Photosynthesis,
combustion and respiration are three processes involved in the carbon cycle.

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Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis which occurs in the green
leaves on the plants. In the presence of sunlight, chlorophyll in the leaves converts carbon dioxide
and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch and stored in the plants.
During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into chemical energy which is stored in the glucose
and the starch.
Carbon dioxide is returned into the air via combustion and respiration.
1) Combustion
Fuels such as coal, petrol and natural gas contain hydrocarbons, which are compounds
containing carbon and hydrogen. When the fuels burn in excess oxygen, carbon dioxide and
water are produced. The combustion of methane produces carbon dioxide and water.
2) Respiration
All living things carry out respiration. During this process, carbon and hydrogen in foods are
changed into carbon dioxide and water. Energy is also released during respiration. The
equation for the reaction that takes place during respiration in living cells has food and oxygen
react to form carbon dioxide and water.
The carbon dioxide produced during combustion and respiration enters the atmosphere. Over the
thousands of years, these processes have kept the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
fairly consistent.
Solar energy from the Sun keeps the Earth warm, and without this energy, the earth would be a cold,
lifeless planet. The Earth is just the right temperature for life to exist. However, scientist believe that
the Earth is becoming warmer. The gases in the atmosphere that trap heat are called greenhouse
gases. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Methane, nitrogen dioxide and CFCs are other
greenhouse gases. The gradual increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is causing Earth to
become warmer. The phenomenon is called global warming, Solar energy includes visible radiation
and infrared radiation. We detect infrared radiation as heat. Gases in the atmosphere allow this
radiation to reach the Earth's surface and are able to trap infrared radiation emitted from the Earth.
The warming effect due to the trapping of heat energy by gases in the atmosphere is called the
greenhouse effect.

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Stage 3 is where the greenhouse effect occurs. An increases in the amount of greenhouse gases
present in the atmosphere causes more infrared radiation to be absorbed. This leads to an overall
increase in the earth's temperature. It is 0.5 degrees Celsius warmer than it was 100 years ago, and
by 2050, Singapore may be 10 degrees Celsius hotter than it is today. Greenhouse gases is the main
cause of global warming. The more greenhouse gases there are in the atmosphere, the more heat
from the sun that will be trapped. Over the past 200 years, since the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about 25%. This is
mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels in power stations, factories and motor vehicles. At the same
time, an increase in agriculture is increasing the quantity of methane released into the atmosphere.
There are various consequences of Global Warming:
- Land Ice, such as glaciers and the Antarctic ice cap will melt and cause sea levels to rise even
further, with a rise of 20cm predicted by 2050. This will result in low-lying islands and coastal
lands disappearing.
- There will be big changes in global climate. Equatorial countries such as Singapore will
probably experience more rain, but countries in North America and Europe will probably suffer
drought, resulting in food shortages.
- Hotter weather results in more suitable habitats for Mosquitoes. Mosquito-borne diseases
such as malaria and dengue fever are already starting to spread. Warmer weather in the
oceans will produce more powerful and destructive typhoons

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