You are on page 1of 49

Story Telling & Organizational Change

Using Storytelling as a Communication Tool for Organizational Change

[Your official name]

MA, [University], (year)

BS, [university], (year)

[Name of program]

[Name of University/Institution]
[Last month of quarter you plan to graduate] 2014

Story Telling & Organizational Change

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................................1
About The Company....................................................................................................................1
Recent Strategy of the company..............................................................................................2
Change in Strategy...................................................................................................................3
Organizational Change................................................................................................................8
Organizational Development.....................................................................................................11
Targets of Organizational Change.........................................................................................13
Planning for Organizational Change......................................................................................14
Process of Organizational Change.........................................................................................16
Strategies for Implementing Organizational Change.............................................................17
Resistance to Change.................................................................................................................19
Individual Resistance.............................................................................................................19
Organizational Resistance to Change....................................................................................21
Successful Methods For Addressing Resistance to Change..................................................22
Different Types of Change.........................................................................................................25
Planned vs. Unplanned Change.............................................................................................26
Continuous vs. Episodic change............................................................................................26
Different Models of Organizational Change..............................................................................27
Lewins Three-Step Model:...................................................................................................27
Kotters Model.......................................................................................................................30
Shields Model........................................................................................................................36
Creating the Organizational Transition Plan for future.............................................................37
Step 1.....................................................................................................................................37
Step 2.....................................................................................................................................38
Step 3.....................................................................................................................................38
Step 4.....................................................................................................................................38

Story Telling & Organizational Change

Chapter Summary..........................................................................................................................39

Story Telling & Organizational Change


About The Company
ABC Company is a global leader in home and professional appliances. The company
manufactures more than 40 million products and its products are marketed in nearly every
country across the globe.ABC company manufactures appliances across all major categories
including cooking, dishwashers, refrigeration, fabric care, water filtration and garage
organization..The company focuses on modernization that is thoughtfully designed, based on
extensive consumer insight to meet the demands of consumers and professionals. The aspect
which differentiates company ABC is their commitment to develop strong brands that surpass
customer satisfaction. Across the globe the consumers of Company ABC trust its products and
services in making their life simpler. All efforts are made to build supreme levels of loyalty to
products through enduring relationships with customers.
The mission of the company defines its focus and what different efforts they do to create
value. The company speaks to be a company of people fascinated with creating loyal customers.
From every contact, across every job the company establishes supreme customer loyalty.
Every house.. Everywhere..with Performance, Pride and Passion
The vision of the company underlines that every home is their sphere of influence, every
consumer and consumer activity is an opportunity for them. This vision stimulates the passion
the company acquires for their customers enforcing themselves to offer solutions to effectively
meet the demands of the customers.

Story Telling & Organizational Change

Pride in their work and on each other

Passion for establishing supreme customer loyalty for their products and services
Performance which motivates and rewards investors with high profits.
The values of ABC Company are stable and they describe the way in which their

employees are expected to behave and carryout the business all over the world.
The company strongly emphasizes on establishing trust among its employees and values
the contributions and capabilities of each employee.
The company prefers to conduct all aspects of its business with honor and its chief
principal underlines that there is no right way to practice a wrong action.
Team work
The company recognizes the importance of team work in achieving exceptional outcomes
and it realizes that pride results in working in team.
Spirit of Winning
The company prefers to create an organizational culture that facilitates employees and
teams to attain and take pride in exceptional outcomes and moreover instigates the Spirit of
Winning in all of its employees.
Recent Strategy of the company
At present Company ABC is committed to their value-creation strategy that focuses on
cost, productivity, quality, consumer value and innovation. They continue to enhance their global
operating platform to make sure that best quality and cost effective appliances are being
manufactured globally. They plan strategies to maximize the benefits of their worldwide network

Story Telling & Organizational Change

of resources which stands supreme in the industry. They are creating better and more innovative
appliances that certainly enhance the life style of their customers. They have build customer
centers that facilitate their consumers concerns
Change in Strategy
Recently the company has hired a chief executive officer from North America who is
responsible for designing a significant strategy change in the consumer contact center. The
strategy for change is aimed to transform the consumer contact center into consumer engagement
center. The new consumer engagement center will focus more on the entire product life cycle
instead of focusing on warranty issues. The aim of this transition is to focus on developing longlasting consumer relationships to grow aftermarket sales .This transition is a significant strategy
change for ABC Company.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Change is a constant and it is a thread woven in our professional and personal lives. The
process of change occur in all aspect of our lives, it can take place in the physical environment
we are surrounded with ,in international and national events, in the organizational structure, in
socioeconomic and political issues and their remedies and in social and cultural norms and
values. In the context of business or organization, change is referred to the speed with which the
industry and trade has augmented immensely over a time period and new and innovative services
or products are being launched on regular basis. Seeing that the world is becoming more
multifaceted plus more and more unified, changes apparently do not affect people much.
Therefore changes more often take place randomly and frequently. This demands the
organizations to improve their capabilities in order to effectively meet and manage the changes
which in turn enhance their level of competency. The world in which we live is subjected to
continuous change, changes have been and are being made regularly. In the year 2006, Fleming
and Senior put forward a depiction about the prospect future and in what ways it will influence
people and their enthusiasm to accept changes. According to Fleming and Senior, the future
organizations will comprise of less number of management layers that will in turn incorporate
fewer employees working together. However reduction in the number of employees will result in
a greater pressure level that will force the employees to work harder and for longer time
duration. They also assumed that there might be potential changes in the working pattern of a
workplace. For a specific organization there will be more than one work place and a larger
population of employees will be expected to continue their duties from home. The characteristics
of employees will also change, since the birth rate in future is expected to decrease and
consequently the population of old people will raise. As a result the number of average age

Story Telling & Organizational Change

people in an organization will increase. The characteristics of employees skill are also expected
to alter in future. This change will demand the employees to become more skilled while their
education period. The rise in demand in new skill will be certainly due to continuous
advancement in technologies and rise competency level. According to both the researches, due to
expected changes in future, the employees will get more job opportunities and the selfemployment rate will also increase. Since most of the employees in future will be of average age,
therefore improvements in pension schemes will be necessary (Senior, Fleming, 2006).
At present, majority of the organizations across the globe function under escalating
demands for change. Due to high competition, technological advancement ,increase in customer
demands and globalization the market has drastically changed(Harenstam et al., 2004).This
rapidity in change requires the organizations to change their organizational behavior and policies
so that they can effective become accustomed with the shifts in the market in (Nonas, 2005).On
the other hand Beer and Nohria(2000) argue that high pace changes in development programs
and projects disappointing usually results in disappointing results. For any organization in order
to effectively manage the change, the change competency should increase. Change competency
is defined as the capability of an organization to effectively manage the changes in the
environment and to be competent enough to become the pat of this continuous process. Change
competence is also referred to the selection of appropriate change strategy that go in line with the
company and the experience of its employees regarding the change process (Beer, Nohria ,2000).
Societal changes, political tends, consumer buying habits, economic climates,
management policy or structure, employment levels and financial resources all affect an
organizations ability to change (Buckner, Wakefield, 2006). However, change is dynamic,
constant, and alarming for some organizations. Despite the expectations members of leadership

Story Telling & Organizational Change

have of an organization, the organizations ability to reach those goals many times depend on
how well the organization responds to change (Buckner,Wakefield, 2006).According to Svanberg
(2007) the leadership management of an organization plays a significant role in managing
turbulent environments at the time of change process(Svanberg ,2007).The fundamental
responsibility of leadership management is to convey the goals and vision according to the
change. He argued that employees generally can work harder due to increased in pressure but in
order to enhance the effectiveness of their work, it is imperative to acknowledge them about why
they are required to do so and what are aims and objectives behind it. Moreover he also specifies
that it is significant for the person in charge to carry through with the change and remain patient
since positive outcomes do not come at once. In the recent times there is a significant increase in
the interest of the leadership management regarding the influence a culture has on the ability to
learn and change. Understanding planned and development change or organizational learning is
not possible without taking into consideration culture as a fundamental source of resistance to
change.(Schein, 1992).The culture has a huge impact on the process of change whilst the culture
every time wins the race against strategy. This is due to the fact that a modified strategy will not
result in the required change unless the effective changes in culture are not being made
accordingly. The leadership management cannot simply execute organizational changes only by
the means of systems and structures. They need to focus on their current organizational culture
and determine whether or not their existing culture is adaptive to change, if not they to form new
and stronger basis of unity (Hirschhorn, 2000) .It is important for the organizations to be aware
of their organizational culture, holistic nature and the way in which their employees affect each

Story Telling & Organizational Change

The rapid rise in the change has enforced the organizations and their employees to focus on
the bigger side of the picture and gain awareness how the changes in events and business policies
can affect them. At present the dynamic business environment and technological advancement
greatly demands changes to be made in the operations of the organization and its respective
organizational structure. Turner (1999).It is noteworthy that today change is prevalent and has
turn out to be an essential element in maintaining the competitive edge of an organization
(Abrahamson ,2000). Therefore the old bureaucratic management style is now incompetent of
meeting the challenges of changing business environment (Turner ,1999). In order to effectively
meet the changes it is imperative for the organizations to strengthen their work force so that their
profitability does not get affected due to changes (Eichelberger,1994). The prospect of an
organization greatly depends upon the success of change projects and consequently immense
endeavors are required for successful implementation of projects. Simpler process, increased
productivity, shorter delivery durations and increased employ welfare are some of the typical
examples of the objectives of organizational changes (Jarvenpaa,Eloranta, 2000) ;(Barker 1998);
(Salminen, Perkiomaki,1998).According to a survey carried out in 1991 of major electronic
companies of United States, just 38percent of companies engaged in total quality programs
reported that through the program, more than 10 percent of their quality defects were improved
(Schaffer, Thomson ,1992). The results of the survey illustrated that nearly 50-70 percent of
reengineering endeavors not at all achieve their targets (Hammer, Champy 1993).

Story Telling & Organizational Change

Organizational Change
Organizational Change is referred to a process in which an organization optimizes its
performance as it targets to acquire an idealistic position in the market (Jones, 2004).From a
submissive point of view, organizational change takes place in an organization as a response to
turbulent business environments or as a reaction to crisis situation. Moreover a more pro-active
perspective of organizational change is that it is the change prompt by senior management.
Besides this organizational change is particularly evident in organizations that experience a shift
in its senior management(Haveman, et al.,2001).According to Poole and Van de Ven (1995),the
main causes of organizational change can be determined in the light of following theories:
dialectical theory, life-cycle theory and teleological theory. According to teleological viewpoint
organizational change is an effort made to attain an ideal state in the market through a continuous
process of planning, execution, assessment and reformation. On the other hand the Life cycle
theory argues that an organization is a body whose functions typically depends upon the external
environment, various cycles involved in the phases of birth, growth, maturation and declination.
At last the dialectical theory assumes that an organization to a certain extent is similar to a multicultural society with contrasting principals. In the context of this theory, organizational change is
evident when one force dominates over others. As a result rest of the companies in the market
tends to establish new organizational goals and values in order to remain competent in the
market. Change denotes that new state of things is distinctive from existing one. Therefore
organizational change signifies that new state of business in an organization is distinctive from
the previous one (French, Bell 1999).According to French and Bill (1992) there are several
different sources that stimulate the need for change(Goodstein, Burke 1997);( Kanter etal.,
1992).These sources might be internal as well as external .The external driving forces to change

Story Telling & Organizational Change

include competitors ,customers ,technology and regulators. On the other hand the internal drivers
to change include outdated products and services, fresh market opportunities, increasingly
diversity in the workforce and new strategic directions. Moreover in 1958 Lipitt et al, explained
that the decision of an organization to endeavor for change either depends upon the failures of its
projects and business operations or on new business opportunities in the market (Lipitt et
al.,1958).Change in an organization can also be motivated through an exterior change agent
which takes the initial step towards the endeavor of change. It is observed that majority of the
organizations incorporate change in their business structure or operations due to external
pressures instead of internal aspiration of need (Goodstein,Burke ,1997);(Kleiner,Corrigan ,
1989) ;(Lanninget al. 1999).According to a different research in the same regard, change is
stimulated because of the awareness or experience of potential threat, loss or due to opportunity.
In sum, organizational change is required in the circumstances when the present performance of
an organization or is operational business strategies are no longer equivalent with the internal
requirements of the company or with the exterior business environment and competency level.
With respect to developing organizations two different notions are generally notable, that are
operational change and organizational change. Yet practically both of these concepts are robustly
intertwine with each other and hard to separate since changes in one unit of systems definitely
influence other units also(Salminen,2000);(Sharrat ,McMurdo 1991) Therefore each attempt for
a successful change must involve both operational and organization elements and characteristics.
According to Goodstein and Burke (1997), organizational change in an organization can
be achieved by changing three different levels of an organization. At first stands the changing of
employees which means that changes must be made in their behavior, attitudes, values and skills.
Secondly changing the procedures and systems that encompass reporting relationships,

Story Telling & Organizational Change


rewarding systems and work design. The last is changing the overall climate or culture of an
organization. Tuner (1999) explains that change initiated by a project can be either cultural that is
modifications in the structure processes, systems, attitudes, values and skills or can be technical
that is advancement in the technology or physical environment. Salminen (2000) put forwards
that artificial separation of the two types of changes typically takes place due to boundaries
between different research traditions and academic limitations. Social researchers view
organizational changes from an individuals perspective whereas operational changes from the
perspective of operations research and industrial engineering (Salminen 2000).Moreover the
subject matter and the extent of the change, its meticulousness and necessity might also
differentiate the types of efforts required for the two changes. Frequently large scale changes in
an organizational strategy and culture are often classified as evolutionary changes, incremental
changes, fixing issues, fine-tuning and making necessary adjustments and modifications in the
procedures. The changes should be made in such a manner that the implementation of the change
only enhances the performance of an organization and does not change the organization.
Elementary changes are as well known as fundamental or innovative change, turnaround
,renovation, reorientation or refocus(Barker 1998);( Buhanist 2000);( Mintzberg,Westley
1992).A change can be either premeditated that is planned or accidental that is unplanned. The
process of change can be either slow or past. However it can have an effect on many business
units of an organization or only few can be affected. The number of components of an
organization depends on the degree of change that is being implemented(Cummings, Worley
Westley and Mintzberg (1992) propose that change can occur in all aspects of business
that is from the broadest, most conceptual level for example changing the overall business

Story Telling & Organizational Change


culture of an organization to the narrowest and most confined, for example replacing out-dated
instruments with new advance one. Nevertheless change can take place around two basic spheres
that is change in the operational strategy or pertaining to organization. Although majority of the
scholars believe that the topic of organizational change is currently the centre of attraction for
most of the organizations, a difference in opinions exist regarding the implementation and
management of it. Even though opinions of few scholars seem to contrast with each other, they
still must be viewed as harmonizing to one another. Every approach related to organizational
change is distinctive but still it provides a partial perceptive about it. However by synchronizing
insight from each approach a comprehensive understanding of organizational change can be
established. In fact, this coordinated insight of organizational change is expected to be richer and
effective as compare to the adaption of single approach. (Poole, Van de Ven, 2005).

Organizational Development
Organizational change is frequently handled under organizational development.
Organizational development is a field of study that basically originates and is based on the
behavioral science disciplines such as anthropology, system theory, sociology, organization
theory, management and psychology (French, Bell 1999).The role of organizational development
is to address the change and to determine the impacts of change on the organization and its
employees. Therefore effectual organizational development facilitates the organization and its
employees in managing the change in a more effective manner. In order to introduce a planned
change in an organization, various strategies can be designed such efforts can be made to
establish a cohesive team that works together to enhance organizational functioning. Despite the
fact that change is specified, there are numerous approaches to effectively cope with it, however

Story Telling & Organizational Change


some of them are effective while others are not. Organizational development helps an
organization to cope with changing business environments both externally and internally .And it
generally does so by initiating endeavors for a planned change. In the field of business,
organizational development is comparatively a fresh approach for organizations. On the other
hand the approach regarding the professional development of employees has been acknowledged
and implemented in majority of the organizations in the past time. However still indistinctness
exist regarding the approach of organizational development. Nevertheless the chief principal of
organizational development and professional development is similar but a crucial divergence
exists in focus. The aim of organizational development is to enhance the overall profitability,
responsiveness to turbulent environment and productivity of an organization where as
professional development focuses on improving the capabilities and effectiveness of employees.
(Cummings, Huse, 1988).There targets are achieved by involving a number of processes that are
designed to deal with specific issues. The endeavors of organizational development whether
facilitated by an external professional or by an internal expert as a consistent, method results in a
planned change inside the teams and organizations. Change in organization is not triggered until
its requirement becomes crucial for the survival for an organization. This is due to the fact that
usually the organizations and the employees oppose change. In general, the organizations and
employees do not embrace a change until they are forced to do so. One concerned researcher has
explained in his theory about how pain triggers change in an organization. According to him the
situation of pain arises when employees or organization pay the cost of missing a golden
opportunity or for being in perilous state. Therefore in such circumstances change is required to
eliminate the pain. According to this perception, it can be concluded that change will not be
appreciated because it is a good idea. But it will take place because the loss or pain suffered by

Story Telling & Organizational Change


an organization and its employees is adequately immense to justify the complexity of

implementing the change. Thus the person in charge should emphasize more on the utter need of
incorporating change within an organization, instead of just focusing on its benefits. Therefore it
is significant for the person in charge of the change to acknowledge this approach and make
others realize that expect of change there is no other option for an organization in struggling
Targets of Organizational Change
The factors that influence organizational change are extensive. These factors are mainly
related to changes in external environment and strategies that will facilitate in enhancing the
internal administrative efficacy. Prior to planning for change, the organizations must focus on the
potential reasons for change. These reasons generally encompasses internal situation of an
organization and external environment. Recognizing the key reasons behind the change, assist
the change agents to identify the factors that must be changed. The most potential targets of
organizational change take account of present strategy, organizational culture, vision, structure of
an organization, its style of leadership, systems and production technology (Yang, et
al.,2009).Vision of an organization mainly comprises of the organizational core value of a
company, meanwhile it also includes that values which are adapted in accordance to the external
environment. It is imperative to determine the core values of an organization during the process
of organizational change so that they can be preserved. Strategy of a company typically
represents the long-standing goals of an organization and steps and resources required to
accomplish the desired goals. A company can divide its chief strategy into the overall strategic
change for example multiple angle management, enterprise strategy change such as low cost
strategy and global expansion strategy change. The culture of an organization typically

Story Telling & Organizational Change


represents the norms and values of its employees, their behavior towards work and their
perceptions. Moreover it is easier to manage explicit culture as compare to implicit culture.
Structure of an organization refers to the authority relations and official system of duty of an
organization. Changes made in the structure of an organization results in a transformed
horizontal differentiation, level of formalization, vertical disintegration and power allocation.
Production technology includes knowledge, technology, capabilities, and resources such as tools,
equipments and computers that are required for transforming inputs into outputs. System
comprises of formal policies, regulations and procedures such as methods for assessing
performance, goal budget system and reward system which are required for operating the
organization. Leadership refers to an influential force within an organization. The style of
leadership typically influences the interface of its employees and group dynamics. The targets of
organizational change will certainly influence each other. For instance the actualization of vision
of an organization relies on its strategies and culture. Hence in the process of organizational
change the vision of the company should be taken into account so that different change targets
can be considered as a whole to successfully accomplish the organizational change.
Planning for Organizational Change
Prior to initiating an organizational change, it is imperative for the senior management of an
organization to design strategies and forecast prospective issues. Kurt Lewin (1947) had
proposed a technique known as force-field analysis that can be used by the organizations to plan
and manage organizational change. This analysis technique is relatively simple and effective. He
assumed that organizational behavior was a consequence of stability among the two disparate
forces. According to his perspective change might only triggered if there is a shift in balance
among these two forces. He described driving force as a force that influences a positive and

Story Telling & Organizational Change


enhanced change. Driving forces of an organizational change can be the customers or clients of
an organization, changing business trends and resources. Resisting an organizational change are
restrictive forces which are characterized as barriers to preferred change. While both of these
opposing forces are active in an organization, a state of balance exists within an organization.
This signifies that when the weights of restrictive forces and driving forces are comparatively
same, an organization will stay static. However as new changes become effective in an
organization a new state of balance will be established as a result the organization will return to
quasi stationary equilibrium. Force-field analysis facilitates an organization in designing two
major strategies that are: a strategy that is used by the employees to determine their current
organizational framework, brain storming and forecasting the potential changes that are currently
taking place in the business environment. Second strategy acts as a tool for executing the change.
In the former the force-field analysis becomes a technique that can be utilized by the
organizations in environmental scanning which is in turn beneficial for strategic planning. And
through which an organization maintain a record of potential and impending changes. These
changes range from social and cultural trends to employee turnover or replacement of out-date
equipments. Anticipating an organizational change prior to its implementation helps
organizations to effectively prepare to confront the consequences of it. The force-field analysis
also plays a significant role in examining the potential resources which can be brought to
withstand an organizational change and any anticipating restrictive forces. This pre-planning and
analysis facilitates the organizations in designing strategies to effectively implement an
organizational change within an organization.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Process of Organizational Change

The technique such as force-field analysis is an initial step of organizational changes.
There are many other methods for processing an organizational change. Egan in 1988 had
proposed one such simple and straightforward process to bring about an organizational change.
His proposed process comprises of three steps that are as follows:

A critical evaluation of the present state of an organization

The creation of desired organizational state
Designing an effective strategy that shifts the system from present to desired
organizational state

Without any doubt it can be said that the theory of Lewin had influenced Egan, since both of
them essentially emphasize on both evaluation and planning. Additionally, Egan claims that
planning must be directed to an action that generates positive and beneficial results which in turn
enhances the overall performance of an organization. Therefore planning as well as
organizational change should be intended to accomplish a specific goal. As the requirement of
organizational change has been recognized, an organization must follow three steps to bring
about the desired change. The first step is to critically evaluate the present state of an
organization. This can be done with the help of force-field analysis technique. This step will help
the organizations to determine the driving forces of the preferred change and the restrictive
forces that can act as a barrier to the desired organizational change. The second step in the
process of organizational change involves the creation of desired organizational state. This step
can be completed through sessions of brainstorming that chiefly involves the leadership
management of an organization. Effective brain storming sessions helps the management to
create a more prospective future. At the same time as the need that triggers the change is
undeniable, there are numerous ways in which change can take place inside an organization. The

Story Telling & Organizational Change


third and the most crucial step in the process of organizational change is designing an effective
strategy that shifts the system from present to desired organizational state. The strategy is further
classified into a number of plans that can be put into practice by organizations in order to
overcome the restrictive forces in an organization. This is basically a political process that
encourages the employees to tie together and make use of their combined power. Power is crucial
for bringing about an organizational change. It cannot be considered either good or bad since it
simply facilitates the management in achieving their aims and objectives. Mastering the politics
of planning a book created by Benyeniste(1989) explains that even well planned strategies for
organizational change can fail if politics of implementation is not taken into
account(Benyeniste,1989). Effective organizational changes are only possible when the experts
of change combine together to bring about the preferred change within an organization by
utilizing formal networks as well as informal networks.
Strategies for Implementing Organizational Change
It is essential for the management of an organization to combine the resources and
workforce when moving an organizational development endeavor from a planning phase to the
implementation stage. According to Kanter (1983) there are three set of power tools that can be
acquired by the employees of an organization for gaining power essential for moving towards
organizational change. These tools are as follows:

Resources that include staff, materials, funds and time

Information related to statistics, political intelligence, technical data and expertise
Supports that encompasses backing, authorization, authenticity and endorsement.
The first strategy in executing an organizational change is involves the collection of

maximum number of the above mentioned power tools. Once this is done the employees can
plant seeds of support for the planned organizational change. This is predominantly significant in

Story Telling & Organizational Change


convey others the critical necessitate for planned change. The next strategy is to wrap up the
change in such a manner that makes it less intimidating and hence easier to advertise. For
example it is simpler to incorporate an organization change if the desired change is performed on
trial basis, can be reversible if desired outcomes havent been achieved, executed in small steps,
is appropriate with respect to current direction of an organization, is consistent and familiar with
the past organizations experience and fabricated on the earlier projects or commitments of an
organization(Kanter, 1983).This packaging must be accomplished before presenting the
organizational developments endeavors to the person in-charge of the change. However the
responsible person of creating this package will be involved for further assistance in packaging
and selling of the proposed change.
Establishing alliances with other organizations having the same interest is considered as
an essential strategy throughout the executing phase of organizational change. Furthermore
support from all the areas across different levels of organization that are expected to be affected
because of the desired change must be gathered prior to the implementation of organizational
change. In order to cater concerns or questions of supporters regarding the proposed
organizational change it shall be convenient for the change masters to make use of their informal
networks instead of discussing the issues in formal meetings. However pre-meetings can provide
a platform for addressing the concerns of supporters or employees regarding the designed
organizational change. In addition, the pre-meetings also provide opportunity to responsible
employees to trade some of power tools they have utilized to establish support.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Resistance to Change
In each type of change whether minor or major, resistance to certain extent prevail. This
section of the literature review will discuss some of the causes and types of resistance to change
specifically at organizational level.
Individual Resistance
As discussed above whether a change is major or minor, resistance to change exist in
each type, however the question arises why resistance to change occurs and what are key factors
that promote resistance. Resistance to change prevails because some of the employees in an
organization are fear of the change. They believe that any kind of change in the structure of an
organization might affect their employments; as a result they resist such changes. Another reason
is that most of the employees are not familiar with the benefits of a change. It is the nature of
individuals to accumulate habits easily and follow a certain routine. Therefore any kind of
change might disrupt their daily routine. Initially change represents the unknown. It could mean
the likelihood of disappointment, the surrendering or attenuation of ones span of power and
control. On the other hand it might be possible that the planned change does not have any effect
on the performance and productivity of an organization. Hence, any of these conceivable
outcomes can cause mistrust and in this manner fear, naturally bringing resistance to endeavours
related to change. Moreover the shift from current state to changed state is hard for both the
organization and its employees. On an individual level, it is essential to remind a person that
each move or change effort starts with a finishing that is the closure of present state. The initial
step headed for change is to revise the methodology of closure. The potential outcomes of a
change must be acknowledged and managed before people can completely embrace the change.
Regardless of the fact that the approaching change is required, a feeling of misfortune will exist

Story Telling & Organizational Change


since our sense of self being is characterized by our responsibilities, roles and context. Therefore
any kind of change compels us to redefine ourselves and our reality. However this procedure is
not simple.
Resistance to change is assumed to be one of most significant factor that influence the
success of an organizational change that encompasses new policies, latest organizational
structure and technological advancement. Maurer (1996) had claimed that more than half of the
attempts of organizational change fail and resistance to change is believed to be a chief
contributor to that failure. In the recent times, researchers are more interested in studying
behavior reaction (Maurer,1996). According to Brower and Abolafia (1995) resistance is a sort of
inaction and action(Brower,Abolafia,1995). On the other hand Ashforth and Mael (1998)
explained that resistance to change occurs within an organization when its employees
deliberately perform actions of omission and defiance(Ashforth,Mael,1998). Shapiro et al.
(1995) defined resistance to change as an enthusiasm of deceiving authorities (Shapiro et
al.,1995), whereas Sagie et al.(1985) suggested that resistance to change can be diminished if
employees exhibit acquiescent behavior(Sagie et al.,1985). Despite of the fact that concept of
resistance has been clearly explained; there are certain limitations in the concept. According to
Jermier et al.(1994),while processing an organizational change it must be notified that interests
of senior management must not be privileged above the interests of employees(Jermier et
al.,1994). Block (1993) argued that resistance to change evidently prevail in situations where
employees distrust their management or might have experienced disappointing change outcomes
in the past (Block ,1993).OToole (1995) stated that resistance to change is an attempt to save
conventional social relationships that might be at risk because of change. Graham(1996) pointed

Story Telling & Organizational Change


out that some employees resist organizational changes ,since they lack vision for future, are short
of capabilities required to effectively manage the change or fear of replacement or relocation.
Organizational Resistance to Change
Besides, the individuals resist change; it is evident that resistance to change is observed at
organizational level also. Since organizations are mainly composed of individuals, therefore the
degree to which employees of an organization can manage the change symbolizes the
organizational capacity of change .Nevertheless, apart from individuals behavior there are other
factors also that contribute to resistance to change. Some of these factors are listed below:

Inertia is believed to be one of the most strong force that resists the organization and its
employees to execute organization change. Due to burden of excess work, the necessity of
implementing a change diminishes.

Lack of Clear Instruction

If all the instructions and information regarding the implementation of organizational
change are not clearly communicated with the employees, different perspectives and
expectations concerning the change might prevail.

Low-Risk Environment
In an organization where managers do not encourage change and blame employees for
the failure of initiatives, employees usually resist change. They prefer to work in safer and low
risk environments. As a result they do not appreciate change even though it is well-planned.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Lack of Sufficient Resources.

Lack of adequate resources is assumed to be the most significant factor that leads to
organizational resistance. If an organization does not acquire adequate resources such as
workforce, funds and time to effectively bring about the change, the endeavors of change will
All of these factors and other aspects that are specific to an organization can destabilize
the efforts of desired change and offer resistance to change.
Successful Methods For Addressing Resistance to Change
Recognizing the chief drivers of resistance to change can assist the leadership management to
design effective strategies to address resistance to change. There are many reasons why
employees present a negative reaction to change. The chief reason that encourages employees to
resist change is personal loss. Most of the employees fear that due to organizational change they
might lose some for example:

Security: employees fear loss of their employments because of organizational change

which might result in lessening of workforce or automation.

Money: Employees concern regarding cutback of their salaries and incentives due to
potential change. They also concern about practicing overtime responsibilities that might
be required to effectively manage the change. In addition, a rise in their expenses can also
occur if the desired change results in reallocation of employees to locations that are far

from their home.

Power and control: Employees fear of losing their power and control that is associated
with their current position and which might be affected due to change.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Friends and important contacts: A change in location as a consequence of organizational

change can result in the loss of friends and important contacts. Therefore employees offer

resistance to change, since do not want to lose their contacts.

Freedom and authority: Organizational changes such as structural changes often result in
the change of leadership management. Therefore employees show concern regarding their
relation with their new boss. They fear that new management or boss can replace personal
freedom and confidence with close supervision that in turn diminishes the opportunity for
decision-making. Moreover the employees also worry that new boss might withdraw their
authority as a result they suffer loss of authority and control over their subordinates.
Resistance to organizational change must not be regarded in terms of defiant and

confrontations, instead it should be recognized as a force or challenge that helps organizations in

overcoming any threats or negative aspects of change that are identified by critics(Waddell,
Sohal, 1998);(Piderit, 2000).It is the responsibility of senior management to encourage those
employees who tend to distrust the planned change and challenge it. Such employees should be
communicated separately about the benefits of the planned change so that their ambiguities
vanish. However unconvinced people are assumed to be the best people that can highlight the
issues associated with the change and can also fix them. Stanley et al.(2005) suggested a learning
and teaching approach to deal with the employees that offer resistance to change. Teaching or
training are considered as the best practices that can convince and establish support of
individuals to play their role in the change process. It is crucial for the leadership management to
refocus their change efforts if a large degree of resistance to change persist(Geller, 2002).The
process of refocusing includes involvement of other employees, listening and receiving feedback
from them, encouraging employees and encouraging their ownership of the change process. In
order to enhance the acceptance of planned change on individual, it is significant to breakdown

Story Telling & Organizational Change


the process and reconstruct (Gotsill,2007).In the first phase of communication if the employees
fail to comprehend the organizational change or fail to see the vision for the future, it is
significant to reconstruct the change process. Reconstruction allows the employees to see the big
and brighter side of the picture and their responsibilities in the change process.
It is vital for the change agents to make every step to widen the sphere of employees
involvement(Axelrod, 2002).The process of organizational change should be conducted in a
democratic manner, despite of the fact that mangers at the top level of the organization possess
formal authority. Instead of conventional command-and-control approach it is vital to create
democratic environment in the work place where the employees are treated with reverence and
their intelligence and opinion is respected. Integration of employees with the change process
resolves the issue of lack of organizational support required for successful change as now
organizational change is an institutional process. It is essential for the managers to establish a
relationship of trust with their employees showing confidence and commitment on all the
members of the organization. Most of the employees disagree with the statement that take care
of the organization and organization will take care of you. Perhaps in the past time, the
employees didnt have much idea but nowadays employees are smart enough to provide logical
reasons of fearing loss of employment. Employees prefer to work in flow instead of changing
their direction of work for improving the performance of the organization. Therefore it is
imperative for change masters to overcome this approach and encourage the employees to
actively participate in the process of change. Once the design of the change process is approved,
the leadership management should establish support with the
employees(Kotter,Cohen,2000).However lack of support and commitment will lead to failure of
change implementation process. It is must for every business organization to employ principals

Story Telling & Organizational Change


of continuous improvement and organizational learning. Moreover it is a vital approach to

maintain the records about the past changes, since these past records can be utilized by the
present organizational leaders to avoid mistakes made in the past.
Different Types of Change
Organizational change can take place in different forms. Initially the change can be referred
as invasive or non-invasive, they can be identified as potential threats or not. It might be possible
that few changes affect the business environment only and not a group of employees whereas
other changes might impact directly on the group such as introduction of new manager as a part
of change. The changes can be made on large scale or vice versa, however large-scaled changes
tend to alter the overall business culture of an organization. On the other hand changes made at
comparatively small scale might only influence a small number of employees. Changes can also
contrast in terms of controllability and predictability. For instance a change is predictable as well
as controllable the only option for the employees is to select appropriate time for executing the
planned change. The benefit of such type of changes is that the methodology for change can be
executed when the change agents are prepared and have sufficient time. In contrast to predictable
and controllable changes, the changes can also be uncontrollable and unpredictable. Such type of
changes are expected to present potentially immense challenges and difficulties for the
organization(Poole,Van de Ven, 2004).The organizational changes can be regarded as planned
and unplanned, episodic and Continuous. Below is the comparison of the four types of change
Planned vs. Unplanned Change
Planned changes are usually executed by change agents who acquire complete
understanding about the change and about the organizational structure where the change has been

Story Telling & Organizational Change


required. A Planned change always tends to enhance the performance of organization and in such
type of change desired goals are defined prior to the implementation of change. In contrast to
planned change, unplanned change does not always occur by the will of individual and it usually
does not direct the organization in a desirable direction. Other major difference between
unplanned change and planned change lies under the extent to which the change can be scripted,
controlled and choreographed. Theories of planned change constructively focus on the ways in
which the change can be controlled or administrated whereas theories of unplanned changes
argue that change is a forced initiative that cannot necessarily be effectively handled or organized
(Poole & Van de Ven, 2004) .
Continuous vs. Episodic change
Changes can also be classified according to their cadence such as continuous or episodic
change. Episodic change is basically discontinuous, intermittent and deliberate. On the other
hand continuous change is often regarded as an evolving, cumulative and an ongoing process.
Episodic change usually takes place while an organization is transiting from its state of
equilibrium. It utilizes a discrete time interval to get accomplished and it usually results in the
change of technology or key personnel. In contrast, continuous change is a turn of phrase which
encompasses cumulative, ongoing and evolving organizational changes. In general, a change can
be illustrated as grounded and positioned in enduring updates of work processes. The concept of
continuous change illustrates those diminutive consistent modifications which are implemented
simultaneously across the business units within the organization can cumulate and bring about a
significant organizational change (Weick, Quinn, 1999).The ways of executing continuous and
episodic change are contrasting. An episodic change is generally executed over a short time
interval and they are frequently well-designed that is from the initial to final, all steps of change

Story Telling & Organizational Change


are clearly defined prior to the implementation of change. This type of change is normally
executed by change masters. On the other hand a continuous change typically involves minor
modifications and enhancements in daily routine processes that can come into view immediately.
While implementing continuous change, change masters require developing an understanding
regarding the ongoing changes. This understanding can be developed by the means of effective
communication (Nonas, 2005)
Different Models of Organizational Change
Lewins Three-Step Model:
After the presentation of theory in 1947, numerous changes have occurred. Beside all
changes that occurred, the model given by Kurt Lewin is functional and pertinent yet. One of the
major points of the theory of Kurt Lewin is that change is not just a single step but it happens
undergoing through various steps and levels. More importantly when we are concern with
psychological stage then change is all and all a venture or a great journey instead of a simple
single step. The journey of change may comprise of various levels of errors, lack of
understandings etc. A theory related to change based on 3 stages was presented by Kurt Lewin.
Stage 1: Unfreeze
It is the first step of change transition stage of Lewis in which various people belonging
to countries that are not ready for change are taken to such other countries that are eager and
ready to take steps for change. This stage of unfreezing is really very important for people and is
really helpful to familiarize with world of change, in which we are living nowadays. This stage
will be about preparing for change. It includes getting to a focus of comprehension that
change will be essential, it will enhance the importance and will help us to understand need of
change and prepared ourselves to move away from our present safe place. This introductory

Story Telling & Organizational Change


stage is about to make ready ourselves, others, before occurrence of change (and conceivably
making a circumstance in which we need the change).we will become more keen and interesting
to make change if we realize the necessity and urgency of change more and more.

Step 2: Change (Transition)

The most important thing after preparing the people or making them unfrozen for change
is that to create and make such steps that would make them going on for it, this is really another
important point of concern. As it has been told earlier that according to Lewin change is a
journey or a complete process not a even step. He named that process or journey a transition.
This is the internal development or voyage which is made in response to a change. This second
stage happens as we create the changes which are required. After making people unfrozen, the
most difficult thing is to make them move on for the change. Hence this second stage is the most
difficult stage because people are not sure or afraid of change. Hence people should be provided
with plenty of time to familiarize and to work with them as they are feeding themselves with
changes. People should be provided with full assistance in form of care, guidelines, training and
etc because at this stage support will play a vital role. Their mistakes should be ignored and they
should be allowed to create their ideas for solution of a problem. This would be helpful for
change and also helpful to communicate the image of required change and would not let them
shift away from path of change and make them comfortable.

Step 3: Freezing Or Refreezing

This is the 3rd stage of Lewins theory in which people from the countries that are in the
beginning state of transition are taken and shifted to such countries which are sufficiently

Story Telling & Organizational Change


productive and stable. Some people named this switching and shifting of people as refreezing
while Lewin named it as freezing stage. Establishing stability is another meaning of this stage
after change is happened. The changes are acknowledged and turn into the new standard. People
structure new relationships and get agreeable with their schedules. This can require plenty of
time. In today's universe of change the following new change could happen in few days. There is
simply no opportunity and time to subside into agreeable schedules. This inflexibility of freezing
does not fit with up to date pondering change being a nonstop, at times riotous procedure
in which incredible adaptability will be requested. Hence prominent thoughts have moved far
away from the idea of freezing. Rather, we might as well ponder this last stage as being more
adaptable. By following this "Unfreezing" for the following change could be simpler. Lewin`s
model is an appropriate model that shows the chain of changes that a company or organization
must undergo in a circumstance at a coveted, anticipated. This model will be a moderately
straightforward outline and simple use by chiefs and could be utilized to reshape society. This
model is really helpful in boosting up performance and increase production for such companies
and organization that are having various problems and hurdles in their development instead of
those that are working efficiently and are fully stable. The environment in which we are living is
dynamic therefore organizations should show quick and faster response to change(Lewin,1951)

Kotters Model

Step One: Create Urgency

Story Telling & Organizational Change


The change will easily occur when each and every individual, department and groups of
an organization is willing to make the change instead of few people or departments of an
organization. This will be helpful in boosting up the movement of change more over this will be
helpful in creating the sense of urgency among the people that are associated with change.
Producing the sense of urgency among the people will be in favor of change to occur quicker.
This does not means to call meetings to discuss about the competitors of certain organization or
to give a glance of poor statistics of sales to people or discussing about poor marketing
techniques but to create a platform and invite related people to open talks and conversation on
market situation and requirements. If most of the related people favor and support the cause and
need of change that is putted before them then for sure element of urgency has developed among
What You Can Do

Examine chances that ought to be, or could be, misused.

Sense the alarming threats and create a picture in minds of people showing them the

expected future events and problems.

Initiate platforms of discussions and provide persuading ideas to convince people to talk

and to think efficiently

Request backing from clients, outside shareholders and industry people to reinforce and
empower your ideas.

Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition

Attract people towards change and convince them through persuading ideas. This would
require a rigid leadership. This would be possible only when support and full assistance is
available from the leading people of organization. You should lead and manage the process of
change because only managing is not sufficient. You can easily find strong leaders among the

Story Telling & Organizational Change


people associated with your company or organization. To lead change, you have to unite a
coalition, or group, of persuasive people whose force and power originates from various sources,
counting occupation title, status, aptitude, and political support and importance. When structured,
your "change coalition" it is required to act as a group, keeping on developing urgency and more
energy around the necessity for change.
What You Can Do

Discover the appropriate, effective and strong leaders from your firm
Should work on group forming inside your change coalition.
Judge and check your group for frail zones, weaknesses and guarantee that you have a
great blend of people from various sections and departments and distinctive levels inside

your organization.
You are supposed to Ask for a passionate responsibility from these key people.

Step Three: Create a Vision for Change

At the beginning when you plan for a change to happen, numerous attracting and good
options and remedies may come in your mind. You should join these ideas to a generally vision
that people can get a handle on effortlessly and keep in mind. A vision which is crystal clear can
help everybody comprehend why you're requesting them to accomplish and perform some tasks.
The point when people see what you're attempting to accomplish, then the guidelines and
directions they're given tend to work effectively.
What You Can Do

Develop a technique to bring that vision in action.

Make sure that your change coalition can portray the vision in few minutes.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Frequently deliver your "vision speech".

Create a precise outline that shows your vision for your organization in future.
Should evaluate the characteristics that are vital to the change.

Step Four: Communicate the Vision

Immediate fundamental steps and measures that are taken soon after the creation of vision
will increase the rate of success. You should again and again communicate your message instead
of arranging occasional meetings. By doing so, people will remember your message and process
of change will sped up. Try to solve problems on daily basis by using your vision. All possible
efforts should be made to keep vision fresh in minds of people in order to get quick responses.
Things you do are more important and considerable than what you said. You should convey to
people your expectations and behavior you want, through frequent messages and demonstrations.

What You Can Do

Frequently discuss your vision of change with related people

Free and honestly communicate the peoples problems and suggestions.
You should demonstrate your vision to all parts of operations - from preparing to
execution audits. Attach everything over to the vision

Step Five: Remove Obstacles

You will get good response from your staff and hopeful attitude towards process of change
by following these mentioned steps and upon reaching this stage of change process you will find
your staff working efficiently in order to achieve the results and benefits that you were
promoting since the beginning of process. You might found some elements that will be creating
hurdles in the journey of change. Hence you are required to look into this matter continuously

Story Telling & Organizational Change


and check for such hurdles and problems and should remove them. By removing obstacles you
can empower and boost up your journey towards change.
What You Can Do

Hire such leaders who can play their role in promoting change
Try to maintain check and balance in your organization among department that are
associated with process of change so that your organization may not deviate from your

sight of vision.
Appreciate those people who are promoting their positive efforts for making change to

occur and reward them with benefits.

Strictly deal with those elements and people that are creating obstacles in making change

to occur
Take immediate steps to remove obstacles.

Step Six: Create Short Term Wins

Success is the best key to inspire people towards a cause. Try to give the pleasure of victory
to the people of company at virus stages during the process of change. Inside a brief time
allotment (within a month or few months, contingent upon the sort of change), you'll need to
have comes about that your staff can see. If you failed to do so then some faultfinders or critics
decrease your moral by criticizing upon your progress. For this you can divide your process in
certain intervals and targets and by completion of each interval that leads towards completion of
process of change, will increase moral of people of organization and your change group may
need to work quite hard to think of these targets, however each one "win" that you made can
further propel the whole staff. it will also swipe away those critics.
What You Can Do

Try to choose cheaper targets so that your budget will not exceed your limits.

Story Telling & Organizational Change

try to choose such targets which you can achieve in selected budgets and appropriate

Checkout for the problems and their solutions at regular basis.
Try to achieve success in early and alarming goals because if you failed to do so then it

may risk your change process.

Appreciate and award those who achieve their goals successfully.


Step Seven: Building Change

According to Kotter announcing the victory too early is the reason behind the failure of some
change process. Genuine change runs profound. Speedy wins are just the start of what
requirements to be carried out to accomplish long haul change. Introducing one new item
utilizing new technique is incredible. In any case when you can introduce 10 items, is a sign of
working and performance of that system up to expectations. To achieve that tenth victory, you
have to continue looking for enhancements. Every victory gives a chance to expand what went
right and recognize what you can progress.
What You Can Do

Analyze the improvements which are required for change after achieving each success.
You should believe in the opinion of rapid and regular improvements.
Update your ideas by inviting new leaders in your journey of change.

Step Eight: Anchor the Change in Corporate Culture

After the occurrence of change it is mandatory to make it rigid by making it the fundamental
part of your organization. Immediate steps should be taken in order to reflect the occurrence of

Story Telling & Organizational Change


change in all aspects of your organization. Make sure that change should reflect in corporate
culture. More over the management and key persons of organization should favor the change
because if you lose the backing of these people, your strength winds up back where you began.

What You Can Do

Discuss about progress and prosperity frequently and demonstrate the successful stories

of change.
Make arrangements to swap key pioneers of change as they proceed onward. This will

help guarantee that their legacy is not forgotten or disregarded.

Incorporate the change standards and qualities when procuring and preparing new

Shields Model
The Shieldss model is basically based on the principal that an endeavor of change fails
primarily because of inadequate attention to the cultural and human aspects of business. Sheilds
pointed out that there are certain critical elements that are required by the leaders to bring about a
change within an organization. The units within an organization are interlinked to a certain
extent. Therefore any type of change taking place in one business unit if not aligned with other
units can lead to unproductive work processes. This model amalgamates business process
innovations with human resource management. It is imperative for the organizational
management who are considering organizational change to clearly identify the strategies or the
operations that are crucial to change. They must also define the critical success factors prior to
change so that the degree to which a desired change can be accomplished is well communicated.
A number of models designed for organizational change particularly do not incorporate this
phase of change in their design. It is essential for the organizational leaders to discuss the aims

Story Telling & Organizational Change


and objectives of the strategy for change with their employees. However if the goals of a planned
change are not clearly communicated with the employees the effort for change will be restricted
to a series of unrelated change initiatives. At last the senior management should analysis the
strengthens of their workforce in order to determine the extent to which their employees can
support in the change process (Shields, 1999).Sheilds(1999) proposes 5 steps that can lead to a
successful change. The first step involves defining the expected outcomes and planning the
process of change. The second step is to establish competency and potential to change. The third
step is to design pioneering solutions. The fourth step involves creating and implementing
solutions. The last step is to sustain and strengthen business benefits.
Creating the Organizational Transition Plan for future
Defining the desired changes and fundamental reasons behind the change along with the
potential outcomes of the change makes simpler to create a successful organizational transition
plan for future. Whether the transitioning involves shifting to other location or it tends to take
place in-house, designing a plan for all the phases of transition is crucial. It facilitates in
measuring performance of the change process against the goals. Hence keeping a continuous
track record of all the steps that builds up the change process. The phased-out approach can also
present adequate time span for re-evaluations and modifications between each cycle. The steps
involved in developing an organizational plan for future are explained in detail below:
Step 1
Critically assess the present state of an organization and identify the essential future
prerequisite. Examine the ongoing processes within the organization and identify the processes
which can be transitioned. In the context of human resource management, the strategies such
upgrading the human resource management system, improving the salaries and incentives can be

Story Telling & Organizational Change


performed in order to transit this department. Although forecasting the outcomes of transition
and identifying the potential requirements, for example introducing advance technology or hiring
skilled employees or commencing training programs is essential, but it is costly process.
Therefore organizations have to plan smart and cost effective strategies to assess the
requirements of transition and its overall benefits.
Step 2
Identify the gaps existing and develop an understanding regarding the potential solutions
to the present and future demands. Align professionals with their respective process-related
work-streams to asses every ongoing process and determining the changes required in future. For
example recruitment process, performance management process and compensation process must
be revised to identify the potential requirements needed to be covered for future.
Step 3
Blueprint a proposal model that incorporates all the present and future transition
demands. For example if you are outsourcing your entire organization than include the number of
new hiring, training programs, new location, cost and rent in the proposal model. The design
phase is assumed to be most extensive phase of transition but it is quite essential, since it
highlights the potential prospect requirements. It records the time span required for each stage of
the transition process so that the approximate completion date of the transition project can be
Step 4
Place the approved plan into practice for example start hiring new staff, search new
location and replace the out-dated technology with the new one.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Put the organizational transition in the live mode. For example commence the selected
business centre. Start training of newly hired staff and place the advance technology into action.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Chapter Summary
This chapter had discussed the relevant literature related to the topic. The literature
review was designed to effectively answer the research questions discussed in the first chapter of
the dissertation. Initially the chapter presented an overview about the company that is mainly
focused by the author in the entire dissertation. The operational strategies of the company were
also highlighted in this chapter. The chapter then highlighted the widely used definition of
change and reasons that lead to change process. At present, majority of the organizations across
the globe function under escalating demands for change. Due to high competition, technological
advancement, increase in customer demands and globalization the market has drastically
changed. This rapidity in change requires the organizations to change their organizational
behavior and policies so that they can effectively become accustomed with the shifts in the
market. Organizational Change refers to demands place on organizational subunits that that
require significant departure from peoples current routines and behaviors, and the success of
which depends upon the support of those affected. Change is a constant therefore organizations
must be prepared to address all changes. Organizational change is a process through which an
organization optimizes it productivity and performance in order to acquire an idealistic position
in the market. With respect to submissive perspective, organizational change occurs in
organization in order to cope up with changes in external business environment. The need of
organizational change might also arise to address crisis situation. On the other hand according to
pro-active approach a change is initiation by the senior management of an organization to
enhance the performance of the organization. . Wendell and Bell Jr(1999) have presented another
aspect of change that is concerned with the various threats and challenges faced by the
organizations today. These include challenges from turbulent environments, threats to efficiency

Story Telling & Organizational Change


and effectiveness and increased in competency level and alternating customer demands. All of
these factors acquire great significance and interest in keeping companies viable and healthy. The
process of organizational change is not automatic; it requires proper planning for the desired
change and designing effective strategies to manage the change. Successful organizations
respond sharply to factors which precipitate change. Implementing a change is a very difficult
process especially when the employees and stakeholders offer resistance to the process of
change. Resistance to change is defined as the process through which the employees resist
change. Resistance to change is assumed to be one of most significant factor that influence the
success of an organizational change that encompasses new policies, latest organizational
structure and technological advancement. Frequently resistance to change is so destructive to
change endeavors that the efforts made to address the factors contributor forms the bedrock to
managing the change. Resistance to change is a natural process and takes place when employees
do not prefer to accept the desired change The contact center employees are resistant to the
recent changes that the new chief executive officer is attempting to implement. Employees resist
change because they want things to stay the same and they believe that the planned change can
adversely affect them. Therefore it is essential for the senior management to effectively
communicate the vision and mission of the planned changed with their employees and encourage
them to participate in the change process. Organizational change can take place in different
forms. Initially the change can be referred as invasive or non-invasive. It can be planned change
or unplanned change. Moreover changes can be also classified as Episodic change or continuous
change. Each type of change incorporate different working principals. Various researchers have
presented different models for organizational change. However this dissertation had mainly
focused on models presented by Shields, Kotter and Lewin. The Lewins Three-Step Model

Story Telling & Organizational Change


comprises of three steps that are Unfreeze, Transition and Freeze. The Sheilds model for
organizational change consist of 5 steps. The first step involves defining the expected outcomes
and planning the process of change. The second step is to establish competency and potential to
change. The third step is to design pioneering solutions. The fourth step involves creating and
implementing solutions. The last step is to sustain and strengthen business benefits. The Kotters
model put forward eight steps to successfully implement a change. All these models tends to
facilitate the organizations to effectively bring about the desired change within an organization. It
can be concluded that to effectively lead the change it is significant to identify the reasons that
trigger change and corresponding to those factor a process of change must be designed. In order
to successfully accomplish the goals of change it is essential for the change agents to be
equipped with the skills needed to effectively guide subordinates through organizational change.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Abrahamso, E.(2000). Change Without Pain. Harvard Business Review, July-August 2000:75 79.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. A. (1998). The power of resistance: Sustaining valued identities. In
R. M. Kramer & M. A. Neale (Eds.), Power and influence in organizations: 89120.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Axelrod, R. H. (2002). Terms of engagement: Changing the way we change organizations. San
Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Barker, B. 1998. The Identification of Factors Affecting Change Towards Best Practice in
Manufacturing Organisations. Management Decision 36/8: 549-556.
Beer M. & N. Nohria (2000), Breaking the code of change, Harvard Business School Press,
Boston Massachusetts
Benveniste, G. (1989). Mastering the politics of planning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Block, P. (1989). Flawless consulting. In McLennan, R. (Ed.), Managing organizational change.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brower, R. S., & Abolafia, M. Y. (1995). The structural embedded ness of resistance among
public managers. Group and Organization Management, 20, 149-166
Buckner, K.A., & Wakefield, M. (2006). Leading in the Times of Change. Harvard Management
Buhanist, P. 2000. Organisational Change, Development Efforts and Action Research.Doctoral
Dissertation, HelsinkiUniversity of Technology.
Cumming, T. G., & Huse, E. F. (1989). Organizational development and change (4th ed.)St. Paul,
MN: West Publishing
Cummings, T. G. and Worley, C. G. (1993). Organisation Development and Change, Fifth
edition. St Paul (MN), West Publishing Company.

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Eichelberger, K. A.(1994). Leading Change through Projects. Quality Progress, Vol. 27, No. 1:
French, W. L. and Bell, C. H. (1999). Organization Development Behavioral Science
Interventions for Organization Improvement, Sixth edition. Englewood Cliffs (NJ),
Goodstein, L. D. and Burke, W.W. (1997). Creating Successful Organization Change. In Carnall,
C. A. Strategic Change: 159-173. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann
Gotsill, G., & Natchez, M. (2007). From resistance to acceptance: How to implement change
management. T+D, 61(11), 24-27.
Graham, J. 1986. Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. Research in
Organizational Behavior, 8. 1-52.
Hammer, M. and Champy J.( 1993). Reengineering the Corporation: a Manifesto for Business
Revolution. New York, Harper Collins Publishers
Hrenstam, A., M. Karlqvist, A. Rydbeck, K. Waldenstrom & P. Wiklund, (2004), The
Significance of Organisation for Healthy Work: Methods, study design, analysing
stategies and empirical results from MOA-study, ISBN: 91-7045-729-8
Haveman, H. A., Russo, M. V., & Meyer, A. D. (2001). Organizational environments in Flux: the
impact for regulatory punctuations on organizational domains, CEO succession, and
performance. Organization Science, 12, 253-273
Hirschhorn, L. (2000), Changing Structure Is Not Enough: The moral meaning of Organizational
Design. In Beer, M. & N. Nohria (Ed.) Breaking the Code of Change, Harvard Business
School, Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 161-176

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Jarvenpaa, E. and Eloranta, E. (2000). Organizational Culture and Organizational Development.

In W. Karwowski (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors.
Taylor and Francis Inc.
Jermier, D. Knights, & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Resistance and power in organizations: 69101. New
York : Routledge
Jones, G. R. (2004). Organization Theory, Design, and Change.New York: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company.
Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A. and Jick, D. T.(1992). The Challenge of Organizational Change.New
York, The Free Press.
Kleiner, B. H. and Corrigan, W. A.(1989). Understanding Organisational Change. Leadership &
Organization Development Journal, Vol. 10, No 3: 25-31.
Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people
change their organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Kotter, J.P(1996). Leading Change, Hovard Business School Press,
Lanning, H., Roiha, M. and Salminen, A. (1999). Guide Book to Change How to Develop
Organisations in an Effective And Controlled Manner (in Finnish).
Lewin, K.(1951) Field Theory in Social Science,Harper and Row
Lippitt, R., Watson, J. and Westley, B.(1958). The Dynamics of Planned Change. New
York,Harcourt, Brace & World.
Maurer, R. (1996). Using resistance to build support for change. Journal for Quality &
Participation, 56-63

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Mintzberg, H. and Westley, F. (1992). Cycles of Organizational Change. Strategic Management

Journal, Vol. 13 (Special Issue): 39-59
Nonas, K. (2005), Vision versus reality in organizational change,
OToole, J. (1995). Leading Change: Overcoming the Ideology of Comfort and the Tyranny of
Custom. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco,CA
Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional
view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management
Review,25(4), 783-794.
Poole, M. S. & A. H. Van de Ven (2004) Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation,
Oxford University Press, New York
Sagie, A. & Koslowsky, M. (1994) Organizational attitudes and behaviors as a function
of participation in strategic and tactical decisions: an application of path-goal theory.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(1), 37-47.
Salminen, A.(2000). Implementing Organisational and Operational Change Critical Success
Factors of Change Management. Doctoral Dissertation, Helsinki University of
Technology, Executive School of Industrial Management
Salminen, A. and Perkiomaki, P.(1998). Evaluation of "Kaikki peliin" Productivity Campaign (in
Finnish). Publications of Ministry of Trade and Industry
Schaffer, R. H. and Thomson, H. A.(1992). Successful Change Programs Begin with
Results.Harvard Business Review, Vol. 70, No 1: 80 - 89.
Senior, B. & J. Fleming (2006) Organizational change, Pearson Education Limited, Essex

Story Telling & Organizational Change


Shapiro, D. L., Lewicki, R. J., & Devine, P. (1995). When do employees choose deceptive tactics
to stop unwanted organizational change? Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 5,
Sharrat, J. and McMurdo, A. (1991). Managing the Information Explosion. Bradford, MCB
University Press
Shields, J. (1999), Transforming Organizations, Methods for Accelerating Culture Change
Processes, Information Knowledge Systems Management, V ol.1, No.2, (Apr .),
Stanley, D. J., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2005). Employee cynicism and resistance to
organizational change. Journal of Business & Psychology, 19(4), 429-459
Turner, R. J. 1999. The Handbook of Project Based Management, Second edition. London,
Update. 1-5.
Waddell, D., & Sohal, A. S. (1998). Resistance: A constructive tool for change management.
Management Decision, 36(7/8), 543-548.
Weick, K. E & R. E. Quinn (1999), Organizational Change and Development, Annual Review
Psychology, 50, pp. 361-386
Yang, R. S., Zhuo, X. Z., & Yu, H. Y. (2009). Organization theory and management: cases,
measurements, and industrial applications. Taipei: Yeh - Yeh .