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November 30, 2005

Part IV

Department of
Housing and Urban
24 CFR Part 3280
Manufactured Home Construction and
Safety Standards; Final Rule

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72024 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 30, 2005 / Rules and Regulations

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND MHCC. The National Manufactured General comments.

URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Construction and Safety Whole-house ventilation comments.
Standards Act of 1974, 42 U.S.C. 5401– Fireblocking comments.
24 CFR Part 3280 5426 (the Act), requires HUD to publish Body and frame requirement
any proposed revised Construction and comments.
[Docket No. FR–4886–F–02]
Safety Standards submitted by MHCC in Formaldehyde health notice
RIN 2502–AI12 the Federal Register. The proposed rule comments.
contained the recommended revisions Roof truss testing requirement
Manufactured Home Construction and (including the recommendations made comments.
Safety Standards by MHCC that HUD modified, accepted, Thermal protection comments.
AGENCY: Office of the Assistant or did not accept) and provided an Plumbing system comments.
Secretary for Housing—Federal Housing opportunity for public comment. Heating, cooling, and fuel burning
Commissioner, HUD. HUD will continue to work with requirement comments.
MHCC on its recommendation to Electrical systems comments.
ACTION: Final rule. Comments regarding revisions to
remove the current requirement to post
SUMMARY: This rule amends the Federal a Health Notice on formaldehyde standards incorporated by reference.
Manufactured Home Construction and emissions in each manufactured home. Other public comments.
Safety Standards (the Construction and In addition, HUD is making the Comments of the Manufactured
Safety Standards) by adopting certain following significant changes to the Housing Consensus Committee.
recommendations made to HUD by the proposed rule, based on the public General Comments
Manufactured Housing Consensus comments, in this final rule: Several commenters explained that
Committee (MHCC). As required by the (1) The proposed revisions to improve
they were encouraged that HUD and
National Manufactured Housing the truss testing requirements in
MHCC were working together to update
Construction and Safety Standards Act § 3280.402 have been removed and are
the Construction and Safety Standards.
of 1974 (the Act), HUD published, in the being returned to MHCC for further
Most commenters were very specific in
Federal Register on December 1, 2004, consideration on the recommendation of
commenting on particular amendments
the first group of recommendations the commenters and at the request of
in the proposed rule.
submitted by MHCC to improve various MHCC. Commenters most often discussed the
aspects of the Construction and Safety (2) Limited exceptions to the 5.0 perm Department’s decision not to delete the
Standards. HUD, in publishing MHCC’s requirements for interior wall surfaces requirement for posting of a Health
recommendations in the proposed rule, of up to 50 square feet are permitted by Notice on formaldehyde emissions in
indicated its agreement with all but a the final rule for homes designed to be each manufactured home, the proposed
few of MHCC’s proposals, and most of sited in hot-humid climates. amendments to the testing requirements
the recommendations are included in (3) Updates to a number of the
for roof trusses, and the provisions for
the final rule. HUD has also identified standards incorporated by reference that
condensation control in hot-humid
in this final rule those MHCC proposals are more current than were suggested in
that were not accepted by HUD, the proposed rule are included in the Additional comments referred to
returned to MHCC for further final rule. whole-house ventilation systems,
consideration, or modified by HUD in fireblocking requirements, vapor
II. Analysis of Public Comments
light of public comments received. retarder installation requirements, flow
DATES: Effective Date: May 30, 2006. The Commenters faucet and showerhead restrictions,
The incorporation by reference of HUD received 26 public comments on water heater drain pan requirements,
certain publications in this rule is the proposed rule. Comments were revisions to the standards incorporated
approved by the Director of the Federal received from MHCC; manufactured by reference, and metric equivalent
Register as of May 30, 2006. home builders; a state’s Department of requirements. Commenters also
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Community and Economic submitted comments on whether the
William W. Matchneer III, Associate Development; an independent approval of alternative test methods
Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of inspection agency with experience in should be solely the responsibility of
Regulatory Affairs and Manufactured manufactured home design; a propane Design Approval Primary Inspection
Housing, Department of Housing and gas trade association; an energy Agencies (DAPIAs), or whether DAPIAs
Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, efficiency alliance; a state and a national should provisionally approve
SW., Room 9162, Washington DC 20410; manufactured housing association; and alternative test methods subject to
telephone (202) 708–6401 (this is not a associations representing particleboard, HUD’s approval.
toll-free number). Persons with hearing hardboard, and fiberboard
or speech impairments may access this Whole-House Ventilation Comments
number via TTY by calling the toll-free The December 1, 2004, proposed rule
Federal Information Relay Service at Summary of Public Comments would have amended § 3280.103(b) by
(800) 877–8389. The summary of public comments simplifying the requirements for sizing
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: that follows presents the major issues whole-house ventilation systems of
and questions raised by the public manufactured homes.
I. Background commenters on the December 1, 2004, Comment: The current requirement
On December 1, 2004, at 69 FR 70016, proposed rule. The headings present the for balanced mechanical ventilation
HUD published a proposed rule to issue or question addressed, followed by systems should not be deleted. Two
amend various sections of the Federal a brief description of the commenters’ commenters wrote that permitting any
Manufactured Home Construction and reasoning. A response may be pressure imbalance provides the
Safety Standards (24 CFR part 3280) by applicable to one or more issues or opportunity for unwanted humid air
adopting a majority of the questions. The summary of the public infiltration and would be detrimental to
recommendations made to HUD by comments is organized as follows: homes sited in Thermal Zone I.

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Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 229 / Wednesday, November 30, 2005 / Rules and Regulations 72025

HUD Response: The final rule does strategy has been successfully employed into closer consistency with other
not eliminate the requirement for in over 100,000 HUD-code homes built building codes.
balanced mechanical systems. Retention in the Pacific Northwest. HUD Response: The final rule
of the requirement in the final rule HUD Response: The Department includes all of the provisions for
better ensures that unwanted air agrees that the concept of effective permitting fireblocking that were
infiltration is not introduced into the whole-house ventilation is an effective identified in the proposed rule and does
home. A HUD study entitled, strategy to improve indoor air quality not include requirements for loose fill
‘‘Alternatives for Minimizing Moisture overall and that the revisions to the insulation to be used as an alternative
Problems in Hot, Humid Climates current requirements will further assist fireblocking material. However, in view
(2003)’’ found that the most significant consumers in dealing with unwanted of the comments received, the
factors contributing to moisture moisture and indoor air pollutants in Department would reconsider its
problems were pressure imbalances in a their homes. position to permit loose fill insulation to
house, including imbalances caused by be used as fireblocking, if an acceptable
uneven distribution of conditioned air; Fireblocking Comments testing procedure could be developed by
duct air leakage; and leakage through The December 1, 2004, proposed rule MHCC or a voluntary consensus
building walls. would have amended § 3280.206 by organization.
Comment: There is no requirement for clarifying existing language, locations,
additional fresh air to be introduced Body and Frame Requirement
and acceptable materials that may be Comments
into the home for the whole-house used where fireblocking is required.
ventilation system. However, HUD had proposed A. Body and Frame Requirements—
HUD Response: There is sufficient modification of a portion of MHCC’s Alternative Test Procedures
leakage around the envelope of even a proposal that would have permitted
‘‘tight’’ home to alleviate any pressure The December 1, 2004, proposal
mineral wool or loose fill insulation to would have amended § 3280.303(g) by
difference between the exterior and the be considered acceptable fireblocking
interior of the home, and there is no eliminating the requirement that a
material. manufacturer submit alternative testing
need for an additional air inlet to be
Comment: HUD should adopt MHCC’s procedures to HUD, except for testing
provided to moderate any imbalance in
recommendations allowing the methods involving one-piece metal
pressure resulting from operating a
alternative fireblocking materials. One roofing as would be required in
small exhaust fan device. Information
provided to the Department by the commenter wrote that HUD stated the § 3280.305(c)(1)(iii). HUD sought
Manufactured Home Research Alliance removal of the recommended language comments specifically on whether the
that was collected for the Energy Star allowing mineral wool and loose fill as final approval of alternative test
Program also indicates there is sufficient acceptable fireblocking material was methods should be solely the
leakage, even in tight homes, to handle because these types of insulation have responsibility of DAPIAs or whether
any imbalance in pressure caused by the not been adequately evaluated for DAPIAs should only be allowed to
whole-house ventilation system. transportation effects that could cause provisionally approve the test method
Comment: Locating the whole-house settling or shifting when installed subject to HUD’s approval.
ventilation system in the bathroom is around pipes or vents in furnace and Comment: DAPIAs should be allowed
not a good idea. Two commenters wrote water heater compartments. The to approve alternate test methods. One
that consumers, attempting to lower commenter wrote that the original commenter wrote that MHCC
their electric bills, will not operate MHCC recommendation addressed these unanimously approved delegating
bathroom fans as often as necessary and concerns with alternative wording. The approval to DAPIAs in its
the effectiveness of the fans will thus be commenter recommended allowing the recommendation to HUD and still
limited. One commenter wrote that the use of the fireblocking alternatives when stands by that position. The commenter
proposed change requires consumer the manufacturer can demonstrate the explained that HUD currently relies on
education on the topic of the whole- materials will remain in place. Another DAPIAs to review and accept or reject
house ventilation system. commenter wrote that HUD modified all drawings, calculations, etc., supplied
HUD Response: The alternative MHCC’s recommendation by totally by the manufacturer for the home
permitting the whole-house ventilation rejecting the inclusion of loose fill design. Another commenter stated that
system to be installed in the bathroom insulation as fireblocking material not current regulations at §§ 3282.203(b)(11)
is not included in the final rule. The only in roofs, but in walls and floors as and 3282.361(b)(2) require the
Department agrees with the commenters well. The same commenter felt that homebuilder to submit reports for all
that consumers may not utilize the MHCC’s recommendations would tests and submit all design drawings
bathroom fans often enough and has address HUD’s concerns about the and that § 3282.203(c) provides the
deleted this alternative for whole-house material staying in place during necessary regulations to carry out the
ventilation from the final rule. transportation, etc., as long as the quality assurance manual approvals,
Comment: Whole-house ventilation is materials would have to pass tests that such as review and approval of the
a good idea. One commenter wrote that address HUD’s concerns before they designs, testing, etc., used by
the proposed rule would improve could be used. A third commenter wrote manufacturers to build according to the
indoor air-quality, reduce energy that HUD should reconsider its rejection Construction and Safety Standards.
consumption associated with of the use of mineral wool or loose fill Commenters noted that they believe this
mechanical ventilation systems, and insulation as an acceptable fireblocking authorization to be in line with current
provide crucial consumer education. material, because technical data shows DAPIA authority and that HUD has
Proper consumer use of quiet, reliable that such material, when properly sufficient remedies under the
whole-house exhaust fans will reduce installed to a specified R value, is regulations to deal with a DAPIA’s poor
mold problems associated with effective when used as fireblocking. performance in any area of
internally generated moisture, and Two commenters wrote that they responsibility. Two commenters also
indoor air pollutant concentrations. The supported fireblocking because it brings wrote that it sometimes takes an
proposed whole-house ventilation the Construction and Safety Standards extremely long period of time for HUD

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to finally approve a suggested new metal roofing without structural comprehensively and adequately
method, thereby holding up the sheathing in the high Wind Zones II and evaluate the dynamic and fluctuating
implementation of the material, III. HUD proposed to modify MHCC’s loading effects of the wind on the metal
component, or system being proposed recommendation for one-piece metal roof membrane and its fasteners to resist
by a manufacturer, and that DAPIAs are roofing installed in high wind areas to and their resistance to the applied
the most likely group to make informed be consistent with Interpretative stresses and forces on these elements in
decisions since they are familiar with Bulletin (IB) I–2–98 by requiring prior high wind areas. In addition, in the
the particular manufacturer and its Departmental approval of any testing Department’s report on damage
design process. Another commenter procedures used to demonstrate the assessment to manufactured homes
wrote that ‘‘[i]n a word, the system was acceptability of such systems. caused by Hurricane Charley, it was
working fine before HUD added this Comment: HUD should not have noted that the roof and walls performed
pre-approval criteria to 303(g) about 10 modified MHCC’s recommendation for significantly better for the post–1994
years ago and it will work fine once this adding footnote 9 to the Table in homes, in which metal roofing systems
item is eliminated.’’ Another commenter § 3280.305(c)(1)(ii) for one-piece metal were not used, as compared to homes
explained that HUD should consider the roofing and should not have required constructed prior to the effective date of
changes in the law contained in the the testing procedures for these systems the standards for high wind protection.
amendments made to the Act. to be subject to HUD approval. Two The State of Florida also concluded
Specifically, section 604(b)(3) of the Act commenters wrote that HUD has from its field investigations following
calls for MHCC review of ‘‘interpretative modified MHCC’s proposal and in so last year’s devastating hurricanes, that
bulletins.’’ Requiring HUD staff to pre- doing would destroy the original intent one-piece membrane roofs did not
approve these test procedures could be of MHCC’s recommendation. The perform well, that inadequate fastening
considered equivalent to the issuance of commenters explained that HUD states of metal roofs allowed a large
interpretative bulletins. Another it is modifying MHCC’s proposal to percentage of them to be blown off
commenter wrote that HUD has make it more consistent with IB I–2–98, manufactured homes that were built
interpreted § 3280.303(g) to mean that but the intent of MHCC’s proposal was prior to the implementation of the wind
only manufacturers, not suppliers, can to eliminate the IB by rendering it null standards in 1994. This, the State said,
request such testing work be done. That and void, not to conform to it. The may have led to the total loss of these
has necessitated suppliers having to commenters wrote that HUD had homes. HUD engineers inspecting the
‘‘recruit’’ cooperative manufacturers to received 12 comments on the IB, all of damage caused by the hurricanes in
‘‘sponsor’’ the test requests for the which were negative; however, HUD Florida also observed numerous failures
benefit of the industry. This has caused ignored all comments and issued the IB of metal roofing systems used in pre-
unnecessary delay that could be as proposed. The commenters wrote that 1994 constructed homes. In view of the
eliminated by DAPIAs simply working the addition of the language in the above concerns, the final rule requires
with the technical staff of a supplier to footnote is confusing, because all test HUD approval of test methods for one-
develop a ‘‘universally acceptable’’ test methods are already required to comply piece metal roofing systems. However,
protocol. with § 3280.303(c) and (g) and the Department would be willing to
One commenter wrote that HUD § 3280.401; thus, the addition of this reconsider this decision, if a voluntary
should review all alternative testing language serves no purpose. HUD is consensus test standard were to be
procedures prior to their trying to re-impose the same pre- developed that would adequately assess
implementation. approval of test methods that would be the wind effects on one-piece metal
HUD Response: The Department eliminated by § 3280.303(g) in the roofing membranes and their fastenings.
generally agrees with the commenters proposed rule. There is no valid reason 2. The December 1, 2004, proposed
regarding the use of DAPIAs to approve for such pre-approval by HUD. The rule would have amended
other alternative test methods and Department’s proposal lacks § 3280.305(c)(3) by incorporating a new
procedures developed by justification as to why it believes pre- paragraph (iv) to add a roof load
manufacturers. As HUD has no approval by its staff for this product/ requirement for skylights of the zone for
regulatory authority over suppliers, the design is necessary when it is agreeing which it is designed.
final rule continues to require to eliminate pre-approval for all other Comment: The skylight load
manufacturers to develop the alternative current/future products and designs by requirements described in
testing procedures. Accordingly, the changing § 3280.303(g). The one-piece § 3280.305(c)(3) are a good idea. Two
final rule allows DAPIAs to approve metal roof catenary design is much commenters wrote that the skylight load
alternative testing procedures developed stronger than the prescriptive roof requirements establish necessary
by manufacturers and for the procedures sheathing option currently permitted by performance requirements for skylights.
to thereby become part of the footnote 7 to the Table for Resisting HUD Response: The Department
manufacturer’s approved designs, Uplift Loads. agrees and is including the proposed
except for testing procedures for one- HUD Response: The final rule roof load performance requirements for
piece metal roofing system designs. (See continues to require HUD approval of skylights in this final rule.
the discussion below under ‘‘B. Body testing procedures for one-piece metal 3. The December 1, 2004, proposed
and Frame Requirements—Structural roofing due to the large number of rule would have amended § 3280.305(e)
Design Requirements’’ regarding testing failures of these systems that occurred by clarifying the required performance
procedures for one-piece metal roofing in the 2004 hurricanes in Florida. of fasteners and the connecting
systems.) However, the requirements will be mechanisms for joining the major
contained in § 3280.305(c)(1)(iii) of the structural elements of manufactured
B. Body and Frame Requirements— Construction and Safety Standards homes, and would specify a continuous
Structural Design Requirements rather than in a footnote to the Table of load path for imposed forces to the
1. The December 1, 2004, proposed Design Wind Pressures as indicated in home’s foundation/anchorage system.
rule would have amended the preamble of the proposed rule. Comment: The load path for
§ 3280.305(c)(1)(ii) by adding a footnote Presently, there is no recognized or foundation and anchorage systems
to permit the use of certain one-piece available testing procedure that will described in § 3280.305(e)(1) is a good

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idea. One commenter wrote that the or Architect to seal all Wind Zone II/III Comment: Identifying the marriage
proposal for foundation and anchorage calculations, tests, and details. column support locations as described
systems provides consistency within the HUD Response: The final rule permits in § 3280.306(b) is not a good idea. One
industry. the use of thinner .016 inch steel commenter stated that the drawings and
HUD Response: The Department strapping or engineered connectors specifications provided with each home
agrees and is including the proposed provided they are installed at 24 inches already show the required locations for
revision to the current requirements for on center in Wind Zone II and 16 inches the centerline pier supports and are
fastening of structural systems in the on center in Wind Zone III. The final available to the retailer, installer, and
final rule. rule also permits a combination of consumer prior to the delivery of the
4. The December 1, 2004, proposed strapping or engineered connectors and home. The foundations or support
rule would have amended structural rated sheathing or structural systems for today’s multiple section
§ 3280.305(e)(2) by reducing the rated wall sheathing alone when it manufactured homes are largely
minimum thickness requirements for overlaps the roof and/or floor and is prepared before the arrival of the home
steel strapping or brackets required in substantiated by either engineering on the home site. Thus, the markings
Wind Zones II and III from 26 gauge calculations or suitable load to tests. and their associated costs will be
(0.0179″) to 0.016″. 5. The December 1, 2004, proposed fundamentally wasted. The proposal
rule would have amended would further require that the marking
Comment: The proposed reduction in
§ 3280.305(g)(3) by requiring wood be visible after the home is installed
steel strapping requirements described
panel products used as floor or subfloor even though properly placed foundation
in § 3280.305(e)(2) should be accepted
materials on the exterior of the home to supports will mask the markers from
and additional testing is not needed.
be rated for exterior exposure and be view. This change would place too
One commenter wrote that additional protected from moisture by sealing or
requirements for testing in high wind much reliance on the correct placement
applying nonabsorbent overlay with of the proposed markers.
regions are not required and should not water resistant adhesive. Two commenters wrote that
be imposed. The commenter wrote that Comment: The floor rating and identifying the marriage column support
past instances of staples inadvertently moisture requirements described in locations described in § 3280.306(b) is a
driving through metal strapping of § 3280.305(g)(3) are not a good idea. One good idea and that the recommendation
lesser thickness may reoccur should this commenter wrote that the proposed will improve home installation
proposal go into effect. One commenter body and frame requirements will not compliance and subsequently improve
asked if the DAPIA accepts these design provide the protection desired. The the longevity of manufactured homes at
changes to reduce the minimum exterior rated floor materials provide a minimal cost to the homeowner.
thickness of steel strapping for Wind protection only during the construction Marriage wall column support location
Zones II or III, then why would process. Therefore, the sought-after errors are one of the major problems
additional testing to verify changes of extended life of the material is not found during installation inspection.
this nature be required? As long as the achieved. One of the commenters also wrote that
DAPIA is satisfied, there should be no HUD Response: The final rule the requirements would improve home
reason to require further testing. Two requires wood panel products used as installation compliance and
other commenters recommended that flooring or sub-flooring on the exterior subsequently improve the longevity of
the final rule does not need to require of the home to be rated for exterior manufactured homes at a minimal cost
‘‘suitable load testing.’’ HUD has always exposure and be protected from to homeowners. In addition, members of
allowed calculations and analyses to be moisture by sealing or by applying a the DAPIA Technical Advisory Group,
used instead of testing. Testing, while nonabsorbent overlay with a water at its March 2005 meeting,
more specific than calculations, is resistant adhesive. HUD does not agree recommended that other pier locations,
generally less conservative. It is with the commenter regarding the such as perimeter and shear wall
generally understood that HUD will not extent or period of protection from the support locations required by the
allow testing of simple assemblies that requirement that panels be exterior manufacturer’s designs and instructions,
can be easily calculated. Some of the rated, as these panels will require the also be identified.
connections used in high wind regions use of moisture-resistant adhesives in HUD Response: The final rule
would fall into this situation and need their construction that will enhance requires identification of each column
to be calculated anyway. This change is their durability. These added provisions pier support location along the marriage
also consistent with the preference to will also provide protection against line, as well as for each pier location
use ‘‘performance requirements’’ set deterioration of exterior floor decking required along the perimeter of the
forth in § 3280.1. Another commenter materials that are exposed to moisture. home, each required shear wall support
wrote that a manufacturer should be In particular, when materials such as location, and other special pier support
allowed to choose to utilize larger particleboard become saturated with locations specified in the
brackets, more fasteners, and stronger moisture, significant structural damage manufacturer’s instructions.
strapping to allow for greater spacing of can occur. In addition, the requirement
the anchors and should not be penalized that panel products be rated for exterior Formaldehyde Health Notice Comments
through prescriptive requirements. exposure will assist in identifying those HUD did not accept and include in
Another commenter wrote that it is not materials that are suitable for use in the December 1, 2004, proposed rule,
clear why critical connections cannot be exterior applications. MHCC’s recommendation that would
justified by calculations or tests 6. The December 1, 2004, proposed have removed the Health Notice on
acceptable to the DAPIA and that it may rule would have amended § 3280.306(b) formaldehyde emissions (the Health
be confusing as to which connections by requiring that each column support Notice) currently required by § 3280.309
are ‘‘critical,’’ since it would seem that pier location required along the of the Construction and Safety
most connections are critical for all marriage line(s) of multi-section Standards.
wind zones. The Manufactured Home manufactured homes be identified at Comment: The decision to continue to
Construction and Safety Standards each location by paint, label, or other post the Health Notice in each
already require a Professional Engineer acceptable methods. manufactured home as described in

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§ 3280.309 is contradictory to MHCC’s included in the Homeowner’s Manual regulations were implemented.
recommendation. One commenter wrote with an explanation that all homes Specifically, the six reasons listed are:
that HUD rejected the proposed MHCC contain some amounts of formaldehyde. (1) Gypsum wallboard has replaced the
recommendation not to prominently Some commenters wrote that the UF bonded plywood as the interior wall
display the Health Notice in each decision to continue to post the Health covering of choice; (2) maximum
manufactured home. The commenter Notice in manufactured homes as formaldehyde emissions from UF
stated that, contrary to HUD’s assertion described in § 3280.309 ignores current bonded plywood and particleboard
that MHCC did not provide any data and available scientific evidence that wood product materials has been
supporting its recommendation to formaldehyde emissions have been drastically reduced; (3) the HUD Code is
remove the requirement, MHCC greatly reduced. HUD should reconsider the only model building code that
discussed this issue with HUD at MHCC its rejection of MHCC’s proposal in light regulates formaldehyde emissions
meetings in 2004, and reviewed several of current research that is available to levels, which makes it not likely that
documents related to formaldehyde. The support MHCC’s recommendation. either manufactured home builders or
commenter stressed that it is not Specifically, three commenters wrote homebuyers would develop a rare nasal
recommending any changes to the that the Manufactured Housing cancer; (4) the HUD Code ventilation
current standards regarding the Research Alliance (MHRA) has requirements increase the volume of
formaldehyde emission controls; the produced the most recent and up-to- indoor air exhausted from the home,
commenter is only recommending date study on the health risks of which can dilute any indoor air
changes to the Health Notice. The formaldehyde in manufactured homes. pollutants; (5) one of the original
commenter continued by stating that all ‘‘Formaldehyde Concentrations in reasons for singling out HUD Code
of this information was considered by Manufactured Homes: The Current homes as having formaldehyde
MHCC in coming to its decision to Situation’’ (July 2004) investigates this problems was the small home size; now,
require that the Health Notice on issue from several different aspects and however, as floor size increases, the
formaldehyde be placed in the shows that formaldehyde should no volume of air in the living space
homeowner’s packet rather than having longer pose any greater concern than in increases, and the dilution of air borne
it prominently displayed in the home. conventional housing. One commenter contaminants can be reduced; and (6)
continued by stating that ‘‘[e]ven though the measured concentration of
A commenter wrote that the decision
it is only one paper, it is a summation formaldehyde levels has been on a
to continue to post the Health Notice in of many other studies that are more
each manufactured home as described downward trend since 1985.
current than the ones used by HUD
in § 3280.309 stigmatizes the almost 20 years ago when the notice HUD Response: HUD had not
manufactured home industry. The became part of the Standards.’’ The accepted for inclusion in the proposed
commenter is disappointed that HUD commenter wrote that the language of rule MHCC’s proposal to remove the
did not issue for public comment the the Health Notice refers to the requirement to temporarily post a
proposal to eliminate the requirement Ventilation Option, which was deleted Health Notice on formaldehyde
for the Health Notice to be placed in in 1994. This Ventilation Option, emissions in each manufactured home
manufactured homes. Manufactured formerly § 3280.710(g), was replaced by (24 CFR 3280.309), because HUD has
homes are the only homes in America the Additional Ventilation requirement not found it supported by a sufficient
that must display these notices and they in § 3280.103(b). Another commenter factual and scientific record. As
stigmatize manufactured homes. wrote that consumer formaldehyde indicated in the proposed rule, a
Another commenter wrote that the complaints have been essentially determination to discontinue the Health
formaldehyde notice serves only as a eliminated. Another commenter wrote Notice would require a similar level of
sales deterrent, while contributing to that it is ‘‘common knowledge’’ that factual and scientific support that was
existing misunderstanding by the public formaldehyde emissions in provided to HUD when the rule was
regarding health-related issues manufactured homes have been being promulgated. As also indicated in
associated with formaldehyde. The dramatically reduced since the the proposed rule, HUD recognizes that
commenter urged HUD to reevaluate its requirement for the Health Notice was improvements have been made in
decision on the Health Notice and put first imposed. Additionally, the particleboard and plywood panel
it forth for another round of public commenter claimed that HUD implied processing resulting in lower emission
comment. One commenter wrote that that only manufactured homes are levels than from panels bonded with UF
this notice shouldn’t be displayed so permitted to use construction materials resin systems that were available at the
prominently and asked, ‘‘Why should it containing urea-formaldehyde (UF) time of the implementation of the
be the first thing a prospective buyer resins, and that this assertion is untrue Department’s formaldehyde emission
sees when they enter a new as the commenter is not aware of such control requirements. HUD also
manufactured home?’’ Another a restriction for modular or site-built recognizes that the measured
commenter wrote that for the past 20 homes. One commenter stated that the formaldehyde concentration levels in
years formaldehyde levels in removal of the Health Notice would manufactured homes produced since
manufactured housing have declined so likely be supported by the findings in 1985 is significantly lower than in
that they are no higher than in any other National Institute of Standards and homes built prior to the implementation
residential structure. The manufactured Technology’s (NIST) IAQ manufactured of the Construction and Safety
home product and materials used to housing research with HUD’s Healthy Standards. HUD is also aware, however,
construct it have progressed to the point Homes Program and asked whether that the sample of homes studied, as
where the need for a displayed Health HUD consulted with NIST before indicated in the MHRA report
Notice ‘‘only contributes to the public’s rejecting MHCC’s proposal. referenced in the comments
notion that manufactured homes are Two commenters submitted six points [‘‘Formaldehyde Concentrations in
somehow ‘‘inferior’’ to other types of to illustrate that data does exist showing Manufactured Homes, The Current
housing.’’ Other commenters suggested that formaldehyde levels in today’s Situation’’] is extremely small in
that if such a warning is still deemed manufactured homes have changed in comparison to the large number of
necessary, then the warning should be the 20 years since Department homes produced during the same period

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and that the sample of homes studied requirements of the Construction and to protect the affordability of
were subject to a variety of testing Safety Standards. manufactured housing. NFPA 501 and
parameters and measurement methods. Comment: The test procedures for the proposed rule are inconsistent with
This leaves some question as to the roof trusses, as described in § 3280.402, the model building codes currently in
statistical validity and overall should be severed from the remaining use for site constructed home and
confidence in the test results due to the proposals, rejected by HUD, and factory built modular homes. NFPA 501
relatively small sample size of homes remanded to MHCC for further and this proposal require excessive data
evaluated. Further, even the MHRA consideration. One commenter wrote collection and a more stringent recovery
report states: ‘‘The health consequences that the revised test protocol will lead deflection limit. Additionally, the
of various formaldehyde levels continue to destructive testing and could limit commenter stated that the cost of
to be a topic of debate among truss designs that would ultimately pass § 3280.402 will adversely affect the
researchers. Particularly, at very low the non-destructive test. Certain truss affordability of manufactured housing
concentration levels (below 0.1PPM) designs could be eliminated. The best and will stand as an obstacle to the
there is no consensus on safe levels of route to take is to send the proposal accomplishment and execution of
durations of environmental back to MHCC for further study. If these section 602(b)(2) of the Act, which
formaldehyde exposure.’’ However, as revised test protocols are implemented states that a purpose of the Act is to
indicated in the preamble of the final by final rulemaking, the industry might ‘‘facilitate the availability of affordable
rule on formaldehyde in 1984, there is have to go to totally engineered truss manufactured homes and to increase
a sector of the population that has designs, which would be more home ownership for all Americans.’’
greater sensitivity to and is at more risk expensive for the industry. Another One commenter wrote that the new
of formaldehyde’s irritant effects and commenter stated that the roof truss test procedures as described
that will react adversely to recommended revisions were extracted in § 3280.402 will not be cost-effective.
formaldehyde at extremely low levels of from the proceedings of the consensus Eliminating the option of 1.75x overload
exposure. This includes the elderly, committee and the National Fire ends one cost effective way of building
young children, and individuals with a Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA the homes at the lower end of the
history of asthma, allergies, or lung 501 Standard on Manufactured Housing, manufactured housing market and will
problems. The purpose of the Health which were based on research place additional costs on sections of the
Notice is to advise prospective conducted by the National Association market that can least afford it. Two
purchasers that the home contains of Home Builders Research Center commenters wrote that the change to the
materials that emit formaldehyde and to (NAHB–RC). The commenter further testing procedure will cost much more
describe acute symptoms that may occur stated that neither organization had a than the $77.28 cited by HUD. The
under formaldehyde exposure for those mandate to consider cost-impact in commenters stated that their truss
individuals who may be at greater risk. proposing standards or formulating the suppliers place the price per truss for
recommendations from its studies. Wind Zone I at 15 to 25 percent, making
However, as indicated in the Similar concerns were expressed about the eventual cost to the consumer about
preamble of the proposed rule, HUD the NFPA 501 Standard on $325 ‘‘ far more than the $77 cited by
will continue to study the formaldehyde Manufactured Housing from which HUD. Other commenters wrote that
issue—including reviewing any new these proposals were derived. deleting the 1.75 proof load test for roof
scientific evidence—and intends to Another commenter wrote that trusses will increase truss member sizes,
consult with the Consumer Product concerns have been expressed by and to thereby increasing the cost of trusses by
Safety Commission, the Environmental MHCC members about the more up to 25 percent. This additional cost
Protection Agency, and the stringent qualification testing of truss may add up to $600 per home. One
Department’s Office of Healthy Homes designs that have been talked about and commenter wrote that increased top and
to study the health risks to occupants at supported by the industry, code bottom chord sizes could raise overall
current formaldehyde exposure levels to development work groups, and task depths of trusses, as well as the
determine if any regulatory controls are forces over the last ten years. The transportation height of the home. In the
still needed to limit formaldehyde commenter stated MHCC’s consensus Eastern United States, where overpasses
emissions in manufactured homes. As development process lacked adequate are low, homes will need to be rerouted,
part of its review and evaluation, HUD consideration of the true costs resulting in increased shipping costs of
will also consider the requirements of associated with the adoption of this $800 and beyond. Finally, another
other building codes as they may relate proposal, the impact these changes may commenter wrote that the recommended
to formaldehyde exposure and indoor have on the testing procedures and the revised truss test protocol needs further
air quality for single-family residential industry, and the proposal’s impact on study and evaluation before
construction. HUD intends to work with roof truss home design and future implementation. The commenter stated
MHCC in developing and supporting innovation. The commenter asked that that many truss suppliers have
any further rulemaking proposals on HUD remove this recommendation from indicated that there may be a 25 percent
formaldehyde. the rule and return the proposal to increase in costs for truss design and
Roof Truss Testing Requirement MHCC for further consideration and testing depending on the style of roof
Comments development. design being considered. Every truss
One commenter wrote that the test design would need to be re-qualified
Based on the recommendations of procedures for roof trusses, as described under the test procedures, and cost
MHCC, the December 1, 2004, proposed in § 3280.402, are not consistent with estimates run from $200 to $500, far
rule would have amended § 3280.402 by statutory directives. Although the more than the $77.28 per home as
providing more stringent initial proposed rule’s wording closely follows indicated.
qualification of truss designs and by the text found in NFPA 501, Standard Two commenters asked specifically
expanding and clarifying the on Manufactured Housing, published by why the new roof truss test procedures
requirements for follow-up testing to NFPA, the NFPA standard is not in use as described in § 3280.402 are needed.
better ensure that subsequent for manufactured housing and the NFPA The commenters wrote that they do not
production of trusses will meet the is not under a mandate from Congress see any information indicating that

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trusses are failing. They further inquired entire dead load to be applied to the top requested that HUD revise the proposal
whether the study referred to in the chord as is currently permitted. For for up to four hours for recovery
proposal was conducted during the small bottom chord dead loads (up to deflection to reach L/480 or better. The
1980s? If so, today’s trusses are much and including 5 psf), this added step is commenter explained that five minutes
improved from the trusses referred to in not necessary and needlessly adds to the may not be adequate time to allow
that study. Also, deleting the 1.75 proof cost of testing. recovery to occur and could eliminate
tests will limit existing designs and Another commenter wrote that the otherwise acceptable designs thus
prevent new innovative designs by live load test procedures as described in adding cost. Some of the proprietary
increasing the top and bottom chord § 3280.402(d)(2) are dangerous. In 1994, criteria in use today by some home
sizes. This deletion will create criteria HUD and NAHB ran proficiency tests manufacturers specifies four hours and
that are more stringent than and comparing tests that pulled on the top ‘‘is working fine without problems.’’
inconsistent with those model building chord to test in the inverted position. One commenter wrote that the uplift
codes that require only a minimum test The tests determined that pulling on the load test procedure for roof trusses as
period of ten seconds for test loads top chord was difficult, impractical, proposed in § 3280.402(e) makes it
equal to 1.5 times the design wind load. dangerous, and yielded inconsistent difficult to test and require a change of
Two commenters wrote that these new results. It was determined that testing testing facilities. The test procedure for
criteria will create a huge backlog in the truss in the inverted position overload phase requirements increased
truss retesting and redesign, adding to provides adequate results. Testing in to 2.5 times the new uplift load for one
the costs that could be passed on to the accordance with existing uplift minute, which is an increase from the
consumer. Further, assuming the time requirements is simple and provided
1.75 overload factor of the current
frame to perform this task is set at 180 consistent results. Testing uplift in
standard. Additionally, the test
days, that is not enough time to accordance with the new HUD proposal
procedure has been revised to provide
complete the reviews, retests, and will have a significant cost impact on
uplift to the top chord of the truss
approvals. Two commenters wrote that the truss approval process. The set-up
design and not the existing test set-up
low-sloped cathedral designs, which are procedure will take three to four times
of inverting the truss and pushing down
common in the industry, will be longer, which will increase the cost for
on the bottom chord. Truss designs may
eliminated. One commenter wrote that testing a new design substantially. All
not be able to be tested due to their
the proposed truss testing change modifications to truss testing should be
current configuration and may not
should be returned to MHCC for further delayed until such studies can be
prepared for review. provide flexibility in testing for the
evaluation. The same commenter wrote
One commenter wrote that the tension device placement as a 12-inch
that HUD should continue to allow the
overload phase as proposed in spacing might provide. Also, no testing
1.75 proof load test, because the added
§ 3280.402(d)(4) is too stringent. The facility that currently qualifies HUD
costs of eliminating this acceptable test
test procedure for the overload phase Code home roof trusses would be
do not appear to be offset by safety
would be increased to dead load plus capable for testing trusses as described
One commenter wrote that the 2.5 times the live load. Although this by the revised test protocol without a
requirement that deflection of bottom more stringent truss loading criteria has lengthy process to change the test set-
chord be measured, at a minimum, at already been adopted by some up. Another commenter wrote that there
the truss midspan and panel points is manufacturers, combining this with the have been no documented truss failures
overly burdensome and completely more stringent deflection acceptance due to existing design criteria since the
unnecessary. The commenter stated that criteria may cause some truss designs to uplift testing went into effect in 1994.
for many trusses, this requirement fail that would otherwise be acceptable The HUD proposal for testing uplift
would result in a minimum of nine or under the existing provisions. requires 1″ wide straps attached around
ten points of deflection measurement Several commenters wrote that the the top chord at 6″ o.c. In some cases,
during testing, and it is difficult to acceptance criteria for truss designs, as truss designs with closely spaced
obtain these deflections with dead load proposed in § 3280.402(d)(5), are too verticals and webs will be physically
hanging from the bottom chord of the conservative, inconsistent with building impossible to test to the 6″ requirement.
truss at 12 inches on center. Several codes, and too expensive. The recovery This requirement would limit truss
commenters wrote that measuring deflection of L/480 within five minutes design and innovation. Pulling up on
deflection at each panel point, mid-span after live load removal is too straps at 12″ o.c. provides the same
of the truss, and mid-span between each conservative and many manufacturers uplift load and similar results as pulling
panel point is not necessary and that the have permitted up to four hours of on the uplift straps 6″ o.c. Additionally,
current checks at quarter points and recovery time to qualify truss designs. the proposed method requires cylinders
mid-span should be more than Another commenter wrote that the spaced at 12″ o.c., to apply 6″ o.c. uplift
sufficient. A third commenter wrote that recovery requirement is inconsistent strapping. This will require some truss
this change will significantly increase with the model building codes, which manufacturers to redesign their current
the time to perform truss testing and require recovery of not less than 75 truss testing equipment, which
will increase the cost to perform percent of the maximum deflection commonly has cylinders at 24″ o.c. This
required truss testing for each truss within 24 hours after removal of the retrofit will be costly and time
design. load. Another commenter wrote that consuming. One commenter wrote that
One commenter wrote the dead load HUD should remove the requirements to compliance with the requirement
test procedures as described in measure no load to dead load deflection cannot typically be achieved at panel
§ 3280.402(d)(1) are too expensive and and the limit for the same, because this point because of the width of connector
not necessary. HUD should revise the is a totally meaningless requirement. plates. One commenter supported the
new proposed requirement to add dead The deflection from no load to dead conversion of the uplift test to a more
load to both the top and bottom chord load is normally compensated for by reasonable appropriate uplift test. The
of the truss so that this is only required building camber into the truss. This commenter wrote that the spacing of the
if the actual bottom chord dead load added step will add needless cost to the uplift points, however, appears to be too
exceeds 5 psf; otherwise, allow the test procedure. The commenter conservative. Instead of every 6″, it

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seems that every 12″ would be sufficient matter to leave unaddressed. The § 3280.504(b)(1) and therefore could not
and be easier to convert existing testing standards in place (i.e., reflected in the be used with a vented wall cavity
equipment with hydraulic cylinders at current regulations) have not been specified in § 3280.504(b)(3). From a
24″. modified in many years. The issue, practical-usability standpoint, in order
Finally, commenters urged HUD to having been raised, needs to be for the alternative vapor retarder
allow a lengthy, reasonable time period examined to determine whether, in fact, location to be of any use at all, some
for phase-in of the new requirements for existing standards are adequate to minor exceptions are absolutely
truss testing similar to what has been protect homeowners in all geographic necessary to the requirement that the
done in the past. It is hoped that HUD areas of the country. Accordingly, HUD interior finish have a combined
will allow 12 months for all testing to anticipates MHCC will expeditiously re- permeance of not less than 5.0 perms.
be completed. evaluate and resubmit proposed truss These exceptions were recommended by
HUD Response: In view of comments testing procedures. HUD will work MHCC and are also embodied in the
received from the public, the closely with MHCC in evaluating any NFPA–501 2003 edition at section
Department is returning this proposal new proposals for truss testing Another commenter wrote that
on truss testing procedures to MHCC for procedures and may amend HUD’s the requirement to have the interior
further consideration and requests the requirements, as necessary, in a future finish have a combined permeance of
following be considered by MHCC rulemaking. not less than 5.0 perms makes good
during its deliberations: sense, but a set of exceptions is
1. Whether the non-destructive testing Thermal Protection Comments
necessary, because it is impractical to
procedure for roof trusses that permits The December 1, 2004, proposed rule build a home with all interior surfaces
a lower overall safety factor to be used would have amended § 3280.504(b) to at 5.0 perms or more. Without these
in conducting the tests based on a codify certain provisions of a waiver exceptions, no manufacturer will be
presumed low failure rate for roof that permits manufactured homes able to place the vapor barrier on the
trusses should be eliminated. intended to be sited in humid climates outside in the appropriate zones. HUD
MHCC could consider including the to have the vapor retarder installed had similar wording in its April 2002
non-destructive procedure, if adequate outside of the home’s thermal waiver, but without these necessary
safeguards are provided to assure that insulation. exceptions. As a result, virtually no
initial qualification tests would be Comment: The proposed manufacturer has been able to use the
conducted using minimum quality of condensation control and installation of waiver. The only reason to restrict the
materials and workmanship or if a vapor retarders described in permanence of the interior surfaces is to
statistically valid sample of trusses is § 3280.504(b)(4) is not practical and make sure any moisture that gets past
tested in lieu of the minimum should provide exceptions. Several the exterior barrier is able to exit the
requirements. In addition, enhanced commenters stated that HUD should wall to the interior. These few suggested
follow-up testing provisions would be provide more exemptions, including: (1) exceptions will not trap moisture in the
needed to account for the lower factor Kitchen back-splash materials of less wall. In fact, some materials are usually
of safety of 1.75 currently permitted by than 50 square feet in the area installed not tight-fitted against the framing;
the non-destructive testing procedure. around countertops, sinks, and ranges; therefore, moisture should easily escape
2. The need for the upright tension (2) bathroom tub areas and shower the cavity. The commenter also wrote
tests to evaluate the uplift resistance of compartments; (3) cabinetry and built-in that other building codes have no
the trusses. furniture, in any location; and (4) interior wall restrictions at all
Tests conducted by the NAHB hardwood wall paneling used under associated with vapor barriers. For
Research Center indicated that trusses chair rails in dining room areas, less instance, 2003 IBC—article 1403.3, 2003
tested in the inverted position than 50 square feet in area. One IRC—article R318.1, and 2003 IECC—
consistently failed at average loads commenter explained that these article 502.1 make no mention of
greater than trusses tested in the upright construction features are commonly interior perm ratings. HUD should allow
position and had lower mid-span installed against exterior walls of these exceptions so the industry can
deflections than trusses tested in the manufactured homes and do not catch up to present building science.
upright position. In addition, the failure represent a large exposed wall where Without these exceptions, the vapor
modes were different for some truss condensation due to the hot-humid barrier will remain on the inside in the
designs when tested in the upright climates would appear to be excessive. hot, humid climate and moisture will be
position as compared to the inverted Also, a September 2000 MHRA study trapped in the home.
position. revealed that hardwood paneling is not HUD Response: HUD agrees with
3. Should the factor of safety for uplift detrimental to the established proposal many of the comments; therefore, the
testing be reduced from 2.5 to the waiver requirements of a minimum 5.0 final rule in § 3280.504 now includes
current requirement of 1.75 times the perm rating. Another commenter wrote exceptions to the 5.0 perm requirement
design wind pressures in consideration that it is absolutely necessary to provide for interior finish materials of up to 50
of comments received regarding safety some minor exception to the square feet in area.
during testing. requirement that the interior finish have Comment: The focus of
4. The costs associated with any a combined permeance of not less than § 3280.504(b)(4) should be reducing air
recommended revisions to the truss 5.0 perms. MHCC has already discussed movement rather than vapor retarders.
testing requirements. with HUD the need to include these One commenter wrote that
HUD’s decision to not make final the exceptions, which are part of further § 3280.504(b)(4) does not address any
proposed rule section, as recommended changes to the Construction and Safety effective construction measure to reduce
by MHCC, is consistent with the record Standards that have been approved by the larger problem of air movement into
of comments received from the public, MHCC. These changes are in concept the wall cavity. In fact, the performance
including MHCC itself (the Committee but have not yet been put into proposed measure that would impact the
having reconsidered its prior position). rule form. The vapor retarder location reduction of air movement would be the
However, HUD views truss testing specified in § 3280.504(b)(4) is an use of a continuous air barrier. Homes
procedures as too important a safety alternative to that called for in with low permeable sheathings have

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been observed in the Gulf Coast, and thermal transmittance and resistance to installation in manufactured homes are
they have experienced moisture condensation. of the direct vent design. This requires
problems because the wood sheathing is all air for combustion to enter the water
Plumbing Systems Comments
installed with a required gap to allow heater directly from the outside. An air
for expansion and contraction. These The December 1, 2004, proposed rule tube is provided that penetrates the
expansion and contraction seams would have amended § 3280.607(a) to floor under the water heater to supply
should be the focus, not just vapor require restricted flow faucets and the air from under the coach. Requiring
pressure. The much larger problem showerheads and add a paragraph (b) to a drain pan for this design would
involves large pressure swings in homes require the use of low water present a challenging sealing problem to
where mechanical equipment is consumption toilets. make the drip pan effective. The
operated. Comment: The proposal is consumer- commenter requested that paragraph (h)
HUD Response: HUD and MHCC may friendly. Two commenters wrote that be revised to exempt water heaters of
consider developing, in a future technology has improved low water the direct vent ‘‘through the floor’’
rulemaking, requirements for the use of consumption fixtures and faucets, so it design from the drain pan requirement.
continuous air barriers for exterior walls is a sound proposal. Also, the installation of a popular direct
HUD Response: The final rule gas fired water heater would require an
and requirements for expansion and
requires the use of low consumption approximate four-inch hole to be made
contraction gaps in wall sheathing to
water fixtures and toilets as indicated in through the pan to provide for its
reduce the amount of air movement in
the proposed rule. combustion of air inlet. It is unlikely
exterior wall cavities.
Comment: Ventilated walls as Heating, Cooling, and Fuel Burning that water leakage in the water heater
described in § 3280.504(b)(3) are not a Requirement Comments compartment could result in structural
good idea because there is no deterioration and damage; water heaters
As recommended by MHCC, the are too large in diameter to fit between
ventilation rate or calculated method December 1, 2004, proposed rule would
shown that provides a minimum floor joists as they are commonly
have amended § 3280.709 by requiring installed. This proposal should be
performance to reduce the amount of the installation of a corrosion-resistant
moisture. Also, whole-house testing has removed from consideration.
water drip collection and drain pan One commenter wrote that the drain
shown that air movement created by under each water heater.
negative pressure draws moisture pan issue is already addressed in a
Comment: The requirement was not current requirement. The
through construction seams. The developed with any justification and
creation of even more pathways by supplementary information provided for
should be dropped. One commenter the proposed rule states that the present
ventilating the wall will allow even requested that this section be deleted. rule does not require that a drain pan be
more moisture to be drawn into the The commenter wrote that it believes provided or that the water heater
walls. that the proposal has not been compartment be built in a protective
HUD Response: HUD, in coordination developed in compliance with the HUD manner, such as a shower stall, but fails
with MHCC, may consider, in a future Final Information Quality Guidelines to mention the requirement in
rulemaking, eliminating the current published in the November 18, 2002, § 3280.305(g)(2) that addresses the issue
alternative for controlling condensation Federal Register Notice. Specifically, by requiring that wood, wood fiber, or
in exterior wall cavities as is currently the HUD Guidelines provide in Section plywood floors or subfloors in water
permitted in § 3280.504(b)(3) of the VI that ‘‘information [HUD] heater compartments be moisture-
Construction and Safety Standards. disseminates to the public is objective, resistant by sealing or by an overlay of
Comment: Reference to the American useful, and has integrity.’’ HUD has not nonabsorbent material applied with
Architectural Manufacturers presented any information to justify this water resistant adhesive.
Association (AAMA) 1500 standard in requirement, including any economic or Two commenters wrote that the water
§ 3280.508(e) should be changed to the technical justification for the addition of drip collection pan requirement is a
National Fenestration Rating Council a corrosion-resistant water drip good idea and will eliminate problems
(NFRC) 100 Standard. One commenter collection and drain pan to be installed caused by leaking water heaters at a
wrote that the final rule should under each water heater. In addition, minimal cost. The rule also brings
eliminate reference to AAMA 1500 for such a requirement will result in manufactured homes up to date with
the following reasons: Because the problems of installation, cost, drainage, other building codes.
majority of manufacturers have moved and, for fossil fuel type water heaters, HUD Response: Section 3280.709(h)
to NFRC; the NFRC is supported by can result in the blockage of combustion of the final rule requires a corrosion-
United States Department of Energy air openings for water heaters that resistant water drip and collection pan
(USDOE) and Energy Star; HUD is the obtain combustion air from the bottom to be installed under each water heater.
only federal agency still relying on of the unit, a very typical manufactured Almost all electric or fossil fuel water
AAMA 1500 thermal performance; and home application. heaters currently used in manufactured
NFRC–100 labels provide consumers, Some commenters wrote that a drain homes can be installed on a
plant, and IPIA data on the window, pan would impede air flow into the conventional water heater pan. Only a
while the AAMA label does not provide water heater. One commenter wrote that very small percentage of gas water
that data. to install a drain pan under the water heaters currently being used in
Another commenter wrote that the heater would restrict the ability of the manufactured homes cannot be set on a
proposed rule to permit window water heater to receive the proper conventional pan due to an opening in
manufacturers the alternative to use amount of combustion air. Moreover, the bottom of the water heater that is
NFRC 100 to rate window energy doing so would require modifications to aligned with a hole in the bottom of the
performance is a step in the right the design and construction that could floor that draws combustion air into the
direction. significantly increase the costs without appliance. Further, a drip pan could be
HUD Response: The final rule permits any economic justification. Another designed to have a separate drain hole
the use of either reference standard for commenter wrote that one-half of the alongside the air inlet opening, which
rating window or glazing products for gas-fired water heaters sold for would allow those types of water

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heaters to continue to be used. While of available product and technology in HUD Response: The final rule corrects
the Construction and Safety Standards the market at this time, and would the title of these two reference standards
do require the floor decking directly suggest adopting the 2005 NEC with an as recommended by the comment.
under the water heater area to be exception for the arc-fault protection Comment: One commenter wrote that
moisture-resistant, the drip pan will requirements. HUD should clarify whether ASTM
help prevent water from collecting in HUD Response: The Department E84–91 will be deleted from the HUD
the water heater compartment and agrees with the comments, and the final Code, because § 3280.203 still has both
circulating into surrounding areas, and rule has been revised to incorporate the the ASTM E84 and the NFPA 255 test
being absorbed into surrounding 2005 edition of the NEC. Also, as methods available to determine surface
gypsum panels, deteriorating and/or suggested by the commenters, the burning characteristics of building
warping surrounding area floor decking, provisions for arc-fault circuit materials.
carpet, and padding. In addition, floor protection are not included in the final HUD Response: Section 3280.203(a) of
insulation and bottom board materials rule except that if such protection is the final rule permits the use of either
may also become saturated in installed, it must comply with all test method.
surrounding areas due to the provisions of the NEC. Comment: One commenter
accumulation of water in the recommended that certain updated
compartment, making those materials Comments Regarding Revisions to reference standards be included in the
ineffective and possibly causing mold Standards Incorporated by Reference final rule, including: (1) ANSI Z21.1—
and mildew to form. The installation of 2000—Household Cooking Gas
Comment: The NEC HUD proposes to
the drip pan will enhance the home’s Appliances—§ 3280.703; (2) ANSI
adopt is outdated. HUD should update
durability at a minimal cost to Z21.5.1—2002—Gas Clothes Dryers
all proposed changes to the standards
consumers. Volume 1—§ 3280.703; (3) ANSI
incorporated by reference to the most
Electrical Systems Comments recent editions of those standards. Z21.10.1—2004—Gas Water Heaters—
HUD Response: See discussion under Volume 1, Storage Water Heaters with
Comment: The 1996 National
the Electrical Systems Comments Input Ratings of 75,000 BTU per hour or
Electrical Code (NEC) that HUD
heading. less—§ 3280.703; (4) ANSI Z21.15
proposes to adopt is outdated. The
manufactured home should meet the (R2003)—1997—Manually Operated Gas
Comment: HUD should review the Valves for Appliances, Appliance
requirements of more current electrical two additional sets of MHCC
code requirements, and thereby provide Connector Valves and Hose End
recommendations and update any Valves—§ 3280.703; (5) ANSI Z21.20—
protection to home occupants that reference standard contained in this
technology has made available since 2000—Automatic Gas Ignition Systems
Notice of Propose Rulemaking (NPRM) and Components—§ 3280.703; (6) ANSI
1996. One commenter stated that the to the latest available edition receiving
update to the 1996 NEC is not practical. Z21.21—2000—Automatic Valves for
MHCC approval. One commenter Gas Appliances—§ 3280.703; (7) ANSI
The commenter stated that to adopt a specifically cited, as an example, the
code that is nine years behind the code Z21.22 (R2003)—1999—Relief Valves—
Voluntary Standard for Utilization in § 3280.703; (8) ANSI Z21.24—2001
now being adopted by many localities is Manufactured Homes, and AAMA 1704,
‘‘ridiculous.’’ The NEC 1996 edition is Connectors for Gas Appliances—
Voluntary Standard: Egress Window § 3280.703; (9) ANSI Z21.40.1 (R2002)—
no longer in print and to require Systems for Utilization in Manufactured
manufacturers to try and find this book 1996—Gas Fired Heat Activated, Air
Homes. HUD should take advantage of Conditioning and Heat Pump—
so that they can determine what changes MHCC’s reference standards update
to the code affect them and what is the § 3280.703, § 3280.714(a)(2); (10) ANSI
process by reviewing all ballots on file Z21.47—2003— Gas Fired Central
required standard they must meet is not and suggesting the latest reference
logical. Another commenter wrote that Furnaces (Note—Incorporates
standard edition for proposed provisions of Z21.64 now discontinued,
hundreds or thousands of the 1996 rulemaking.
edition of the NEC will have to be that are related to direct vent)—
obtained if the code update goes into HUD Response: The final rule does § 3280.703; (11) ANSI Z21.75—2001—
effect, and that if HUD Code homes are include some later editions of reference Connectors for Outdoor Gas Appliances
three or four revisions behind the NEC, standards than were cited in the and Manufactured Homes—§ 3280.703;
it reinforces the perception that December 1, 2004, proposed rule. (12) ANSI/LC 1—1997—Gas Piping
manufactured housing is ‘‘inferior’’ to However, the final rule does not update Systems Using Corrugated Stainless
other housing. Also, any upgrade to a to the 2002 edition of the AAMA 1704 Steel Tubing—§ 3280.703; and (13)
more recent version of the NEC will standard for egress windows due to ANSI Z2223.1/NFPA 54—2002—
require many electrical drawings to be changes in the later editions that may National Fuel Gas Code—§ 3280.703.
revised. The commenter encouraged affect the ability of an occupant to HUD Response: Some of the
HUD to adopt the same ‘‘phase-in’’ egress during an emergency. HUD, in recommended updates to the reference
program HUD used when changing to coordination with MHCC, may also standards have been included in the
the new smoke alarm requirements. consider making further updates to the final rule, as discussed and listed in
Another commenter wrote that the reference standards in future section III.I. of this preamble.
electrical standard should be updated to rulemakings. Comment: One commenter stated that
the 2005 edition of the NEC. The Comment: One commenter wrote that the referenced standard for gas piping
commenter noted that arc-fault circuit- HUD should correct the title of ASTM systems using corrugated stainless steel
interrupter protection that has been 773 to read Standard Test Method for tubing, LC–1–1997, should be moved
adopted in more recent versions of the Accelerated Weathering of Sealed from the Appliances category under
NEC may have been the reason for Insulating Glass Units, and also correct § 3280.703 to Ferrous Pipe and Fittings,
proposing adoption of the 1996 version the title of ASTM 774 to read Standard which is a more appropriate category. In
of the NEC. The commenter also agreed Specification for the Classification of addition, this referenced standard
with MHCC’s reluctance to adopt the the Durability of Sealed Insulating Glass should also include its addenda, i.e.,
requirements for arc-fault due to a lack Units. LC–1a–1999, for completeness.

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HUD Response: The final rule does Comment: One commenter wrote that requirements for central heating and
not contain the reference standard for the final rule should contain a reference water heater appliances, in coordination
corrugated stainless steel tubing for use to Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF). with MHCC, in a future rulemaking.
in gas piping systems, as the publication MDF is a commonly used material for HUD and DOE have jointly formulated,
that was proposed to be included in the built-in cabinets and moldings in and are dedicated to, a housing energy
standards incorporated by reference was manufactured homes. MDF is a common efficiency policy that would serve the
not available. core material used in Hardwood goal of reducing national and family
Comment: Two commenters wrote Plywood, ANSI/HPVA HP–1, and energy needs.
that in § 3280.705—Gas Piping another standard referenced in 24 CFR Comment: One commenter wrote that
Systems—a new section (5), titled 3280. A reference to MDF for Interior § 3280.702 still has a definition for
Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing Applications, ANSI A208.2–2002, water heaters that has the term ‘‘other
(CSST) Systems, should be included. should be added to § 3280.304(b)(1). than space heating.’’ The commenter
CSST interior gas piping systems should HUD Response: HUD, in coordination explained that there are many types of
be designed and certified to the ANSI/ with MHCC, may consider including a combination water heater space heaters
LC–1, Gas Piping Systems Using reference standard for MDF materials in that are used in manufactured homes,
Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing, and a future rulemaking. and this verbiage needs to be deleted.
should be installed in accordance with Comment: One commenter indicated HUD Response: HUD will refer this
this code, the Z223.1/NFPA 54 National that the reference to subsection 221 of comment to MHCC and may consider
Fuel Gas Code, and the manufacturer’s the 1995 edition of the NFPA 58 is the definition of water heaters in a
installation instructions. The incorrect, and that the proper reference future rulemaking.
commenter explained that since the to relief valves in the 1995 edition is to
subsection 2–3.2. The commenter Comments of the Manufactured Housing
HUD proposal is including a reference Consensus Committee
to the ANSI/LC–1 CSST standard, the explained that at a minimum, the
proposed additional provision is needed agency should revise this reference; The following comments were
in the interior gas piping section of the however, HUD should ideally refer to submitted to HUD on behalf of the
standard. the 2001 edition of the NFPA 58. Manufactured Housing Consensus
HUD Response: HUD, in coordination HUD Response: The final rule updates Committee (MHCC):
with MHCC, may consider provisions the reference standard to the 2001 Comment: HUD should reconsider
governing the installation of corrugated edition of NFPA 58 as suggested by the MHCC’s recommendation to eliminate
stainless steel tubing and the inclusion comments. the requirement to post the
of an appropriate reference standard for Other Public Comments Formaldehyde Health Notice in each
CSST gas piping systems in a future manufactured home.
Comment: Generally, HUD should not HUD Response: Please refer to the
rulemaking. require or include metric equivalents. above discussion of public comments
Comment: One commenter wrote that The building community does not use under the Formaldehyde Health Notice
AFPA 1997, Manual for Engineered metric on plans and specifications for Comments heading of the preamble.
Wood Construction, is already an any type of residential building. Metric Comment: HUD should reconsider its
obsolete standard reference and should units are necessary only for federally decision to modify MHCC’s
be updated to the 2001 edition. By funded building projects. One recommendation on fireblocking in
updating it to the 2001 version, commenter wrote that most aspects of § 3280.206.
manufacturers could better take the construction industry have been, HUD Response: Please refer to the
advantage of utilizing and sharing and will continue to be, slow to convert above discussion of public comments on
designs with modular packages. to metric. A dual system would only fire blocking.
HUD Response: The final rule create confusion and take up additional Comment: Testing Protocol approvals
incorporates the 2001 edition of the space. However, there may be some under § 3280.303(g) should be delegated
Manual for Engineered Wood isolated cases where reference to metric to DAPIAs.
Construction. units may be helpful. One commenter HUD Response: Section 3280.303(g)
Comment: One commenter wrote that stated that requiring the use of metric no longer requires prior HUD approval
the ANSI/TPI 1 1990 has been removed units would be cumbersome and could of alternative testing procedures except
from the list of reference standards and be error-prone, and there appears to be for procedures used to evaluate one-
has not been replaced with an no one in the United States construction piece metal roof systems.
alternative design standard. All other industry who is using metric Comment: HUD should reconsider its
model building codes cite the ANSI/TPI dimensions. Other commenters said modification of MHCC’s
as the standard to use when designing simply that HUD should not require recommendation and permit DAPIAs to
metal plate connected roof trusses. metric equivalents. also approve testing protocols for one-
Accordingly, the ANSI/TPI 1–2002 HUD Response: HUD, in coordination piece metal roofing.
reference standard should be with MHCC, may address the use of HUD Response: Please refer to the
incorporated into the amendments to metric equivalents, on an as-needed above discussion of Body and Frame
ensure all designs are calculated to the basis, in future rulemakings. Requirement Comments, Part B–1.
same criteria. Comment: One commenter wrote that Comment: HUD should concentrate
HUD Response: The standard for § 3280.707(d) contains minimum on a single system of units and only
metal plate connected roof trusses efficiency requirements for central refer to metric units when helpful.
currently incorporated by reference in heating and water heating appliances HUD Response: Please refer to the
§ 3280.304 is TPI–85, not ANSI/TPI– that need to be updated to the above discussion of metric units under
1990. HUD is retaining its current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum the Other Public Comments heading of
requirement in the final rule and may, efficiency requirements. the preamble.
in coordination with MHCC, consider HUD Response: HUD anticipates Comment: Additional Testing is not
an update of this reference standard in addressing the adoption of the DOE needed for critical connections when
a future rulemaking. minimum energy efficiency engineering calculations are provided.

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HUD Response: Please refer to the available, except as required by D. Subpart E—Testing
above discussion in Body and Frame § 3280.305(c)(1)(iii) for one-piece metal The final rule amends § 3280.401 by
Requirement Comments, Part B–3. roofing systems. clarifying that design live load
Suitable load tests are now an Section 3280.305(c)(1) is also being deflection criteria do not apply when
alternative to engineering calculations amended by adding a new paragraph the structural assembly being evaluated
rather than a mandatory provision in the (iii) to permit the use of certain one- does not include structural framing
final rule. piece metal roofing without structural members.
Comment: HUD should permit some sheathing in the high wind areas,
minor exceptions to the requirements provided HUD has approved the testing E. Subpart F—Thermal Protection
for interior finish materials in hot- procedures to be used. The final rule The final rule amends § 3280.504(b)
humid climates. amends § 3280.305(c)(3)(i) by adding by adding new paragraphs (4) and (5) to
HUD Response: Section paragraphs (A), (B), and (C) and by permit the vapor retarder for exterior
3280.504(b)(4) of the final rule includes clarifying where middle and north zone walls to be installed on the exterior side,
minor exceptions to the 5.0 perm roof load requirements would be rather than the interior side, of the wall
requirement for interior finish materials applicable. The amended rule also now insulation, or to be constructed with an
used in hot-humid climates. designates counties in certain states external covering and sheathing having
Comment: HUD should return the within the South or Middle Roof Load a combined permeance of not greater
truss testing recommendations in Zones where higher Middle or North than 1.0 perms, provided that for either
§ 3280.402 to MHCC for further Roof Load Zones are required. alternative that the interior finish and
consideration. Section 3280.305(c)(3) is amended by interior wall panel materials have a
HUD Response: Please refer to the incorporating a new paragraph (iv) combined permeance of not less than
discussion of public comments on truss requiring that skylights must be capable 5.0 perms. However, based on the
testing. HUD is returning the truss- of withstanding the roof loads for which comments received, the final rule now
testing proposal to MHCC for further the home is designed. also provides for certain minor
consideration. The final rule amends § 3280.305(e) exceptions to the 5.0 perm interior
III. Section-by-Section Revisions by clarifying fastener performance finish or wall panel requirements.
requirements for joining the major The final rule amends § 3280.508(e)
The final rule amends the following
structural elements of manufactured by permitting window manufacturers
sections of the Construction and Safety
homes and by requiring that a the alternative to rate their window
Standards in a manner that is different
continuous load path be provided for energy performance by utilizing
from the proposed rule and revises the
transferring all forces between elements National Fenestration Rating Council
incorporation by reference of the
and for carrying all imposed forces to (NFRC) standard 100 or by using AAMA
indicated reference standards.
the home’s foundation/anchorage standard 1503 for this purpose.
A. Whole-House Ventilation system. Inclusion of the NFRC standard would
The final rule amends § 3280.103(b) The final rule amends § 3280.305(e)(2) alleviate the need for those
by simplifying the requirements for by reducing the minimum thickness manufacturers who previously have
sizing whole-house ventilation systems requirements for steel strapping been utilizing NFRC 100 from also
of manufactured homes. The final rule required in Wind Zones II and III from having to test the AAMA 1500 and vice-
establishes a minimum and maximum 26 gauge (0.0179 inch) to 0.016 inch. versa.
capacity for these systems while Other alternatives, such as a The final rule will also amend
continuing to require the systems to be combination of structural rated § 3280.510 by incorporating a map that
balanced, requires combination passive sheathing that overlaps the roof and/or will designate the applicable Humid
and mechanical systems to be floor and strapping, or engineered and Fringe zones by state and county. A
adequately sized and provided with connectors or structural rated sheathing reproduction of the map will now be
inlets and exhaust to release any only, must be substantiated by either required to be included on the Heating
unbalanced pressure, no longer accepts engineering analysis or suitable load Certificate and could also be combined
passive-only systems, requires operating tests. The final rule amends with the Uo map for those homes
instructions for the system to be § 3280.305(g)(3) to require wood panel constructed for those zones in addition
included in the consumer manual, and products used as floor or sub-floor to or in combination with the Uo value
requires the operating switch to be materials on the exterior of the home to map. A statement, ‘‘This home is
identified with a label. be rated for exterior exposure and be designed and constructed to be sited
protected from moisture by sealing or only in humid or fringe climate regions
B. Firestopping applying nonabsorbent overlay with as shown on the Humid and Fringe
The proposed rule amending water resistant adhesive. This will Climate Map,’’ will also be required in
§ 3280.206 changes the term provide protection against deterioration conjunction with the Humid and Fringe
‘‘Firestopping’’ to ‘‘Fireblocking’’ to be of exterior floor decking materials when zone map on the Heating Certificate.
consistent with current building code exposed to moisture.
The final rule amends F. Subpart G—Plumbing Systems
terminology and application. The final
rule also replaces and clarifies existing § 3280.306(b)(1) to require that each The final rule amends § 3280.607(a)
language to better define locations column support pier location required by requiring the use of restricted flow
where fireblocking is required. along the marriage line(s) of multi- faucets and showerheads and by adding
section manufactured homes, at a paragraph (b) to require the use of low
C. Body and Frame Requirements perimeter support locations, and at water consumption water closets. This
The final rule amends § 3280.303(g) shear wall locations be identified at will conserve water and help assure
by no longer requiring a manufacturer to each pier location by paint, label, or continued availability of adequate water
first submit alternative testing other acceptable methods. These supplies, as well as reduce wastewater
procedures to HUD for approval when location identifications are to be visible flows. The final rule will also include
recognized testing procedures are not after the home is installed. requirements for low consumption

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water closets (1.6 gallons per flush), and H. Subpart I—Electrical Systems identify the type of change being made.
clarify that showerheads and faucets are The final rule amends A new reference standard being added
also to meet updated requirements § 3280.806(d)(9) by clarifying that a is indicated by the designation ‘‘N,’’ a
(maximum flow rate of 2.5 gallons per receptacle outlet would be provided on reference standard being updated is
minute) for water conservation as a wall adjacent to and within 36 inches indicated by the designation ‘‘U,’’ and a
required by the Energy Policy Act of of the outside edge of each bathroom reference standard being deleted is
1992. basin. This wall receptacle outlet would indicated by the designation
be in addition to any outlet that is part ‘‘DELETED.’’ In some cases, it was
G. Subpart H—Heating, Cooling and of a lighting fixture or appliance that is necessary to use a different or more
Fuel Burning Systems over a bathroom basin. This revision recent edition of a reference standard
The final rule amends § 3280.709 by will no longer permit a receptacle that than indicated in the proposed rule,
adding a paragraph (h) to require the is integral with the light fixture over a because either the date of the standard
installation of a corrosion-resistant bathroom basin to serve as the only was incorrectly cited or the reference
outlet for a bathroom basin location. standard was out of date and no longer
water drip collection and drain pan
This change also addresses safety available from the publishing
under each water heater. concerns related to the permissible organization. These changes in dates are
The final rule amends § 3280.715(c) to length of power cords for small identified in the list below by italics. In
require joints and seams of sheet metal appliances that may arise in areas in other cases, a proposed reference
and flexible metal ducts, including which flowing water and electrical standard was not available and, as a
risers, trunks, crossovers, branches, and outlets are in close proximity, such as result, HUD is retaining the existing
plenums to be mechanically secured light fixtures at bathroom basin reference standard. These changes are
and made substantially airtight. The locations. identified in the list below by a single
final rule also requires that the tapes The final rule also amends
asterisk. Two new proposed reference
and sealants used to seal the duct § 3280.808(o) to provide a tolerance for
standards, not presently contained in
systems be applied to dry clean surfaces the gap at the edge of a box in walls or
ceilings of noncombustible material the Construction and Safety Standards,
having no dirt, grease, or oil on them. could not be located, and have been
consistent with the National Electrical
Currently, the standards specify only eliminated from the final rule. These
that the joints and seams of ducts be reference standards are identified in the
securely fastened and made I. Revisions to Standards Incorporated list below by a double asterisk. The
substantially airtight. In addition, by Reference (Reference Standards) sections of the Construction and Safety
sealants and tapes will also be required The following is a list of the standards Standards being amended by each
to be listed in accordance with UL 181A incorporated by reference that is being modification are also shown on the right
for rigid ducts and UL 181B for flexible revised by this final rule. Each reference of each reference standard being added,
ducts. standard is preceded by an indicator to updated, or deleted.

AA ............................................... 1994 Aluminum Design Manual, Specifications and Guidelines for 3280.304(b).
Aluminum Structures, Part 1–A, Sixth Edition, October 1994,
and Part 1–B, First Edition, October 1994.
AAMA/WDMA 101/I.S.2–97 ........ 1997 Voluntary Specifications for Aluminum, Vinyl (PVC) and Wood 3280.304(b)(1);
Windows and Glass Doors. 3280.403(b)&(e); 3280.404
AAMA 1600/I.S. 7–00 ................. 2003 Voluntary Specification for Skylights ............................................ 3280.305.
AAMA 1701.2–95 ....................... 1995 Voluntary Standard Primary Window and Sliding Glass Door for 3280.403(b); 3280.403(e);
Utilization in Manufactured Housing. 3280.404(b).
AAMA 1702.2–95 ....................... 1995 Voluntary Standard Swinging Exterior Passage Door for Utiliza- 3280.405(b); 3280.405(e);
tion in Manufactured Housing. 3280.405(e)(2).
ANSI/AFPA NDS–2001 .............. 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, 2001 Edi- 3280.304(b)(1).
tion, with Supplement, Design Values for Wood Construction.
AFPA .......................................... 1992 Design Values for Joists and Rafters ........................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
AISI ............................................. 1996 Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural 3280.304(b)(1); 3280.305(j)(1).
ANSI C73.17 ............................... 1972 National Standard Dimensions of Caps, Plugs, and Recep- 3280.803(g).
tacles, Ground Type.
ANSI Z21.1 ................................. 2000 Household Cooking Gas Appliances ............................................ 3280.703.
ANSI Z21.5.1–1999; CSA 7.1– 1999 Gas Clothes Dryers Volume 1—Type 1 Clothes Dryers with Ad- 3280.703.
M99. dendum Z21.5.1a–1999.
ANSI Z21.10.1–1998; CSA 4.1– 1998 Gas Water Heaters—Volume 1, Storage Water Heaters with 3280.703.
M98. Input Ratings of 75,000 BTU Per Hour or Less with Adden-
dum Z21.10.1a–2000.

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ANSI Z21.15–1997; CGA 9.1– 1997 Manually Operated Gas Valves for Appliances, Appliance Con- 3280.703.
M97. nector Valves, and Hose End Valves.
ANSI Z21.20 ............................... 2000 Automatic Gas Ignition Systems and Components with Adden- 3280.703.
dum Z21.20a–2000.
ANSI Z21.21–2000; CSA 6.5– 2000 Automatic Valves for Gas Appliances .......................................... 3280.703.
ANSI Z21.22–1999; CSA 4.4– 1999 Relief Values for Hot Water Supply Systems .............................. 3280.703.
ANSI Z21.23 ............................... 1989 Gas Appliance Thermostats with Addendum Z21.23a–1991 ....... 3280.703.
ANSI Z21.24–1997; CGA 6.10– 1997 Connectors for Gas Appliances .................................................... 3280.703.
ANSI Z21.40.1–1996; CGA 1996 Gas Fired, Heat Activated Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Ap- 3280.703; 3280.714(a)(2).
2.91–M96. pliances.
ANSI Z21.47 ............................... 1990 Gas-Fired Central Furnaces (Except Direct Vent System Control 3280.703.
Furnaces) with Addendum Z21.47a–1990 and Z21.47b–1992.
ANSI Z21.64 ............................... 1990 Direct Vent Central Furnaces with Addendum Z21.64a–1992 3280.703.
(Discontinued—Now part of Z21.47).
ANSI Z34.1–1993 ....................... 1993 Third Party Certification Programs for Products, Processes, and 3280.403(e)(1); 3280.405(e)(1).
ANSI Z124.5–1997 ..................... 1997 Plastic Toilet (water closets) Seats .............................................. 3280.604(b).
ANSI Z124.7–1997 ..................... 1997 Prefabricated Plastic Spa Shells .................................................. 3280.604(b).
ANSI Z124.8 ............................... 1990 Bathtub Liners ............................................................................... 3280.604(b).
ANSI Z124.9–1994 ..................... 1994 Plastic Urinal Fixtures ................................................................... 3280.604(b).
ANSI/AHA A135.4–1995 ............ 1995 Basic Hardboard ........................................................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
ANSI/AHA A135.5–1995 ............ 1995 Prefinished Hardboard Paneling ................................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
ANSI/AHA A135.6–1998 ............ 1998 Hardboard Siding .......................................................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
ANSI A208.1–1999 ..................... 1999 Particleboard ................................................................................. 3280.304(b)(1).
ASME A112.4.1–1993 ................ 1993 Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes ....................................... 3280.604(b).
ASME A112.4.3–1999 ................ 1999 Plastic Fittings for Connecting Water Closets to the Sanitary 3280.604(b).
Drainage System.
ANSI/ASME A112.18.1M ............ 1989 Plumbing Fixture Fittings .............................................................. 3280.604(b).
ASME A112.18.3M–1996 ........... 1996 Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices 3280.604(b).
and Systems in Plumbing Fixture Fittings.
ASME A112.18.6–1999 .............. 1999 Flexible Water Connectors ........................................................... 3280.604(b).
ASME A112.18.7–1999 .............. 1999 Deck Mounted Bath/Shower Transfer Valves with Integral Back- 3280.604(a).
flow Protection.
ASME A112.19.6 ........................ 1995 Hydraulic Performance Requirements for Water Closets and 3280.604(b).
ASME A112.19.9M–1991 ........... 1991 Non-Vitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures .................................... 3280.604(b).
ASME A112.19.10–1994 ............ 1994 Dual Flush Devices for Water Closets ......................................... 3280.604(b).
ANSI/NEMA WD 6–1997 ............ 1997 Wiring Devices—Dimensional Specifications (Replaces C73.17 3280.803.
of the same title.).
ANSI/NSF 61–2001 .................... 2001 Drinking Water System Components—Health Effects ................. 3280.604(b)(2).
NWWDA IS 1–87 ........................ Wood Flush Doors ........................................................................ 3280.304(b)(1); 3280.405(c)(1).

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ANSI/NWWDA I.S.2–87 .............. 1987 Wood Windows (This standard is replaced by AAMA/WDMA 3280.304(b)(1).
101/I.S.2–97 NWWDA [National Wood Window and Door As-
sociation] is now the WDMA [Window and Door Manufactur-
ers Association]).
ANSI/NWWDA I.S.3–88 .............. 1988 Wood Sliding Patio Doors (This standard is replaced by AAMA/ 3280.304(b)(1).
WDMA 101/I.S.2–97).
NWWDA IS 4–88 ........................ Water Repellent Preservative Non Pressure Treatment for Mill- 3280.304(b)(1).
APA PRP E108, E445N ............. 1989 Performance Standards and Policies ........................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
APA E30P ................................... 1996 Design/Construction Guide Residential and Commercial Struc- 3280.304(b)(1).
PS 1–95 ...................................... 1995 Construction and Industrial Plywood (with Typical APA Trade- 3280.304(b)(1).
PS 2–92 (also known as NIST 1992 Voluntary Product Standard Performance Standard for Wood- 3280.304(b)(1).
Standard PS 2–96). Based Structural Use Panels.
APA S 811M ............................... 1990 Design and Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panels, PDS Suppl. 3280.304(b)(1).
APA S 812Q ............................... 1992 Design and Fabrication of Glued Plywood Lumber Beams PDS 3280.304(b)(1).
Suppl. 2.
APA U 813L ................................ 1990 Design and Fabrication of Plywood Stressed Skin Panels PDS 3280.304(b)(1).
Suppl. 3.
APA H815E ................................ 1995 Design and Fabrication of All Plywood Beams (PDS Suppl. 5.) 3280.304(b)(1).
APA D410A ................................ 2004 Panel Design Specification ........................................................... 3280.304(b)(1).
APA U814 H ............................... 1990 Design and Fabrication of Plywood Sandwich Panels, Suppl. 4 3280.304(b)(1).
SEI/ASCE–8–02 ......................... 2002 Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel 3280.304(b)(1); 3280.305(j).
Structural Members.
ASCE–19–96 .............................. 1996 Structural Applications of Steel Cables for Buildings ................... 3280.304(b)(1).
ASHRAE ..................................... 1997 1997 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, Inch-Pound Edition ... 3280.508.
ASSE #1051 Revised: 1996; 1990 Performance Requirements for Air Admittance Valves for 3280.604(b).
ANSI: 1998. Plumbing Drainage Systems—Fixture and Branch Devices.
ASTM A 539–99 ......................... 1999 Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Coiled 3280.703; 3280.705(b)(4).
Steel Tubing for Gas and Fuel Oil Lines.
ASTM B 280–95 ......................... 1995 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Con- 3280.703; 3280.705(b)(3);
ditioning and Refrigeration Field Service. 3280.706(b)(3).
ASTM C 36/C36M–99 ................ 1999 Standard Specification for Gypsum Wallboard ............................ 3280.304(b)(1).
ASTMD 4442–92 (Reapproved 1997 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measure- 3280.304(b)(1).
1997). ment of Wood and Wood-Base Materials.
ASTM E 84–01 ........................... 2001 Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of 3280.203(a).
Building Materials.
ASTM E 96–95 ........................... 1995 Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Mate- 3280.504(a).
ASTM E 162–94 ......................... 1994 Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials 3280.203(a).
Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source.
ASTM E 773–97 ......................... 1997 Standard Test Method for Accelerated Weathering of Sealed In- 3280.403(d)(2).
sulating Glass Units.
ASTM E 774–97 ......................... 1997 Standard Specification for the Classification of the Durability of 3280.403(d)(2).
Sealed Insulating Glass Units.
ASTM E 1333–96 ....................... 1996 Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Con- 3280.406(b).
centrations in Air and Emission Rates from Wood Products
Using a Large Chamber.

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HPVA Design Guide HP–SG–96 1996 Structural Design Guide for Hardwood Plywood Wall Panels ..... 3280.304(b)(1).
ANSI/HPVA HP–1–1994 (Ap- 1994 American National Standard for Hardwood and Decorative Ply- 3280.304(b)(1).
proved 1995). wood.
HUD–FHA UM–25d–73 .............. 1973 Application and Fastening Schedule: Power-Driven, Driven Fas- 3280.304(b)(1).
teners, Use of Materials Bulletin UM–25d.
IAPMO TSC 9–97 ....................... 1997 Standard for Gas Supply Connectors for Manufactured Homes 3280.703.
* *
ANSI/IAS LC 1 ............................ 1997 Gas Piping Using Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing with Ad- 3280.703.
dendum LC–1A–1999.
IITRI Fire and Safety Research 1979 Development of Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Judge the 3280.207(a).
Project J6461. Fire-Safe Performance of Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity
Insulation (Note: this is an editorial revision to correct the title
and insert the date of publication only.).
NER–272 .................................... 1997 National Evaluation Report, Power Driven Staples and Nails for 3280.304(b).
Use in All Types of Buildings Construction. (This is published
by the National Evaluation Service.).
NFPA 31 ..................................... 1997 Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment ................ 3280.703; 3280.707(f).
NFPA 54–2002/ANSI Z223.1– 2002 National Fuel Gas Code ............................................................... 3280.703.
NFPA 58 ..................................... 2001 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code .................................................... 3280.703; 3280.704(b)(5)(i).
NFPA 70 ..................................... 2005 National Electrical Code ............................................................... 3280.801(a); 3280.801(b);
3280.803(k)(1); (k)(3);
3280.804(a); 3280.805(a)(3);
3280.806(a)(2); 3280.807(c);
NFPA 220 ................................... 1995 Standard on Types of Building Construction, Chapter 2, Defini- 3280.202.
tions of ‘‘limited combustible’’ and ‘‘noncombustible material’’.
NFPA 255 ................................... 1996 Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of 3280.203(a).
Building Materials.
NFRC 100 ................................... 1997 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors ......... 3280.508(e).
SJI ............................................... 1994 Fortieth Edition Standard Specifications Load Tables and 3280.304(b)(1).
Weight Tables for Steel Joist and Joist Girders.
UL 94 .......................................... 1996 Test for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices 3280.715(e)(1).
and Appliances, Fifth Edition, with 2001 revisions.
UL 103 ........................................ 1995 Factory-Built Chimneys for Residential Type and Building Heat- 3280.703.
ing Appliances, Ninth Edition, with 1999 revisions.
UL 109 ........................................ 1997 Tube Fittings for Flammable and Combustible Fluids, Refrigera- 3280.703.
tion Service, and Marine Use, Sixth Edition, with 2001 revi-
UL 127 ........................................ 1996 Factory-Built Fireplaces, Seventh Edition, with 1999 revisions ... 3280.703.
UL 174 ........................................ 1996 Household Electric Storage Tank Water Heaters, Tenth Edition, 3280.703.
with 1997 revisions.
UL 181 ........................................ 1996 Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors, Ninth Edition, with 3280.703; 3280.715(e).
1998 revisions.
UL 181A ...................................... 1994 Closure Systems for Use with Rigid Air Ducts and Air Connec- 3280.703; 3280.715(c).
tors, Second Edition, with 1998 revisions.
UL 181B ...................................... 1995 Closure Systems for Use with Flexible Air Ducts and Air Con- 3280.703; 3280.715(c).
nectors, First Edition, with 1998 revisions.
UL 307A ...................................... 1995 Liquid Fuel-Burning Heating Appliances for Manufactured 3280.703; 3280.707(f).
Homes and Recreational Vehicles, Seventh Edition, with
1997 revisions.

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UL 307B ...................................... 1995 Gas-Burning Heating Appliances for Manufactured Homes and 3280.703.
Recreational Vehicles, Fourth Edition, with 1998 revisions.
UL 311 ........................................ 1994 Roof Jacks for Manufactured Homes and Recreational Vehicles, 3280.703.
Eighth Edition, with 1998 revisions.
UL 441 ........................................ 1996 Gas Vents, Ninth Edition, with 1999 revisions ............................. 3280.703.
UL 465 ........................................ 1987 Central Cooling Air Conditioners (This standard is discontinued 3280.703.
and replaced by UL 1995.).
UL 569 ........................................ 1995 Pigtails and Flexible Hose Connectors for LP-Gas, Seventh Edi- 3280.703; 3280.705.
tion, with 2001 revisions.
UL 737 ........................................ 1996 Fireplace Stoves, Eighth Edition, with 2000 revisions ................. 3280.703.
UL 1025 ...................................... 1991 Electric Air Heaters (This standard is discontinued and replaced 3280.703.
by UL 2021.).
UL 1042 ...................................... 1994 Electric Baseboard Heating Equipment, Fourth Edition, with 3280.703.
1998 revisions.
UL 1482 ...................................... 1996 Solid-Fuel Type Room Heaters, Fifth Edition, with 2000 revi- 3280.703.
UL 1995 ...................................... 1995 Heating and Cooling Equipment, Second Edition, with 1999 re- 3280.703.
visions (Replaces UL 465, UL 559 and UL 1096).
UL 2021 ...................................... 1997 Fixed and Location-Dedicated Electric Room Heaters, Second 3280.703.
Edition, with 1998 revisions (Replaces UL 1025).

IV. Findings and Certifications Unfunded Mandates Reform Act Impact on Small Entities
Regulatory Planning and Review Title II of the Unfunded Mandates The Secretary, in accordance with the
Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C.
Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1531–
The Office of Management and Budget 605(b)), has reviewed and approved this
1538) establishes requirements for
(OMB) reviewed this rule under final rule and in so doing certifies that
Federal agencies to assess the effects of the rule would not have a significant
Executive Order 12866 (entitled
their regulatory actions on State, local, economic impact on a substantial
‘‘Regulatory Planning and Review’’).
and tribal governments and the private number of small entities. The rule
OMB determined that this rule is a
sector. This rule will not impose any would regulate establishments primarily
‘‘significant regulatory action’’ as
Federal mandates on any State, local, or engaged in making manufactured homes
defined in section 3(f) of the Order
tribal government or the private sector (NAICS 32991). The Small Business
(although not an economically
within the meaning of the Unfunded Administration’s size standards define
significant regulatory action, as
Mandates Reform Act of 1995. an establishment primarily engaged in
provided under section 3(f)(1) of the
making manufactured homes as small if
Order). Any changes made to the rule Environmental Review
it does not exceed 500 employees. Of
subsequent to its submission to OMB the 222 firms included under this
are identified in the docket file, which A Finding of No Significant Impact
with respect to the environment has NAICS definition, 198 are small
is available for public inspection in the manufacturers that fall below the small
Regulations Division, Office of General been made in accordance with HUD
regulations at 24 CFR part 50, which business threshold of 500 employees.
Counsel, Department of Housing and The final rule will apply to all of the
Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, implement section 102(2)(C) of the
National Environmental Policy Act of manufacturers. The rule would, thus,
SW., Room 10276, Washington, DC affect a substantial number of small
1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)). Although
20410–0500. entities. However, based on an analysis
the Finding of No Significant Regulatory
of the costs and the fact that a small
Paperwork Reduction Act Impact for the proposed rule remains
manufacturer would just as likely
applicable to the final rule, a produce homes at the higher end of the
The information collection Supplemental Finding of No Significant
requirements contained in this rule are cost spectrum as would a major
Regulatory Impact has been added to producer, evaluating the effect of the
currently approved by OMB under discuss changes made in the final rule.
section 3504(h) of the Paperwork increase is not discernible based on the
Both the Finding of No Significant size of the manufacturing operation. For
Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501– Impact and the Supplemental Finding
3520) and assigned OMB Control the reasons stated below, HUD knows of
are available for public inspection no instance in which a manufacturer
Number 2502–0253. An agency may not between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. with fewer than 500 employees would
conduct or sponsor, and a person is not weekdays in the Regulations Division, be significantly affected by this rule.
required to respond to a collection of Office of General Counsel, Department HUD, in cooperation with MHCC,
information unless the collection of Housing and Urban Development, previously conducted an economic cost
displays a currently valid control 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room 10276, impact analysis for this rule. A copy of
number. Washington, DC 20410–0500. the economic analysis is available for

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public inspection and copying between Register for incorporation by reference Faraday Drive, Reston, VA 22090, (703)
8 a.m. and 5 p.m. weekdays at the in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 435–2900, fax (703) 435–2537,
Regulations Division, Office of General 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards
Counsel, Department of Housing and may be obtained from the following HUD—Department of Housing and
Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, organizations: Urban Development, Office of
SW., Room 10276, Washington, DC AA—The Aluminum Association, Manufactured Housing Programs, 451
20410–0500. The economic analysis 1525 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 600, Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC
previously concluded the potential cost Arlington, VA 22209, (703) 358–2960, 20410, (202) 708–6423, fax (202) 708–
impact, based on a per home cost, to be 4213.
approximately $77.28 to retailers and AFPA—American Forest and Paper IAPMO—International Association of
$96.60 to purchasers or an estimated Association, 1111 19th Street, NW., Plumbing and Mechanical Officials,
annual cost impact of $13,137,600 to Washington, DC 20036, (202) 463–2700, 20001 Walnut Drive South, Walnut, CA
retailers and $16,422,000 to purchasers. fax (202) 463–5180, 91789, (909) 595–8449, fax (909) 594–
This is based on an estimated annual AHA—American Hardboard 1537,
production rate of 170,000 Association, 1210 West Northwest IIT—IIT Research Institute, 10 West
manufactured homes per year. HUD Highway, Palatine, IL 60067, (847) 934– 35th Street, Chicago, IL 60616, (312)
now estimates that the annual projected 8800, fax (847) 934–8803, 567–3000, fax (312) 567–4167,
cost impacts indicated in the proposed
rule have been reduced by more than 40 AISI—American Iron and Steel NEMA—National Electrical
percent in the final rule, as a result of Institute, 1101 17th Street, NW., Manufacturers Association, 1300 North
the removal of the revisions to the truss Washington, DC 20036, (202) 452–7100, 17th Street, Suite 1847, Rosslyn, VA
testing procedures from the final rule. fax (202) 463–6573, 22209, (703) 841–3200, fax (703) 841–
Further, the final cost estimates would ANSI—American National Standards 5900,
be even lower today based on present Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, New NER—International Code Council
annual production rates, which range York, NY 10036, (212) 642–4900, fax Evaluation Service [Previously known
between 130,000 and 140,000 homes per (212) 398–0023, as National Evaluation Service], 5360
year. In addition, the cost of the APA—The Engineered Wood Workman Mill Road, Whittier, CA
paperwork burden associated with this Association, 7011 South 19th Street, 90601–0543.
rule is estimated to be approximately Tacoma, WA 98411, (253) 565–6600, fax NFPA—National Fire Protection
$112,000 for the entire industry, which (253) 565–7265, Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy,
is less than an additional $1.00 per unit. ASCE—American Society of Civil MA 02269, (617) 770–3000, fax (617)
Additional information about the Engineers, 1015 15th Street, NW., 770–0700,
paperwork burden can be found in the Washington, DC 20005, (202) 789–2200, NFRC—National Fenestration Rating
Paperwork Reduction Act section of the fax (202) 289–6797, Council, Incorporated, 1300 Spring
preamble. This does not represent a ASHRAE—American Society for Street, Suite 120, Silver Spring, MD
significant economic effect on either an Heating, Refrigeration and Air 20910, (301) 589–6372, fax (301) 588–
industry-wide or on a per-unit basis. Conditioning Engineers, 1791 Tuillie 0854,
These relatively small increases in Circle, NE., Atlanta, GA 30329, (404) NSF—NSF International, P.O. Box
cost associated with this final rule 636–8400, fax (404) 321–5478, 130140, Ann Arbor, MI 48113, (313)
would not impose a significant burden 769–8010, fax (313) 769–0109,
for a small business for homes that can ASME—American Society of
cost the purchaser between $40,000 and Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, PS—National Institute of Standards
$100,000. Therefore, although this rule P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007, 1– and Technology, Voluntary Product
would affect a substantial number of 800 843–2763, fax 1–973–882–8113, Standards, Gaithersburg, MD 20810,
small entities, it would not have a (301) 975–2000, fax (301) 926–1559,
significant economic impact on them. ASSE—American Society of Sanitary
Engineering, P.O. Box 40362, Bay SJI—Steel Joist Institute, 1205 48th
Executive Order 13132, Federalism Village, OH 44140, (216) 835–3040, fax Avenue North, Suite A, Myrtle Beach,
Executive Order 13132 (entitled (216) 835–3488, www.asse- SC 29577, (803) 626–1995, fax (803)
‘‘Federalism’’) prohibits, to the extent 449–1343,
practicable and permitted by law, an ASTM—American Society for Testing TPI—Truss Plate Institute, 583
agency from promulgating a regulation and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200, Madison, WI
that has federalism implications and West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (610) 53719, (608) 833–5900, fax (608) 833–
either imposes substantial direct 832–9500, fax (610) 832–9555, 4360,
compliance costs on State and local UL—Underwriters Laboratories, 333
governments and is not required by CSA (IAS)—CSA International Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062,
statute, or preempts State law, unless (formerly International Approval (847) 272–8800, fax (847) 509–6257,
the relevant requirements of section 6 of Services), 8501 East Pleasant Valley
the Executive Order are met. This rule Road, Cleveland, OH 44131, (216) 524– WDMA (NWWDA)—Window and
does not have federalism implications 4990, fax (216) 642–3463, www.csa- Door Manufacturers Association
and does not impose substantial direct (formerly the National Wood Window
compliance costs on State and local CPA—Composite Panel Association and Door Association), 1400 East Touhy
governments or preempt State law (formerly the National Particle-board Avenue, Des Plaines, IL 60018, (847)
within the meaning of the Executive Association) 18928 Premier Court, 299–5200, fax (847) 299–1286,
Order. Gaithersburg, MD 20879–1574, (301)
670–0604, fax (301) 840–1252,
V. Incorporation by Reference Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
These reference standards are HPVA—Hardwood Plywood and The Catalog of Federal Domestic
approved by the Director of the Federal Veneer Association, 1825 Michael Assistance number for Manufactured

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Housing Construction and Safety Standards Zone 2 and Zone 3 or a negative (2) 5⁄16-inch or thicker gypsum board.
is 14.171. pressure condition in Uo Value Zone 1. Noncombustible material: A material
List of Subjects in 24 CFR Part 3280 Mechanical systems must be balanced. meeting the definition contained in
Combination passive and mechanical Chapter 2 of NFPA 220–1995, Standard
Housing standards, Incorporation by systems must have adequately sized on Types of Building Construction.
reference, Manufactured homes. inlets or exhaust to release any * * * * *
■ Accordingly, for the reasons stated in unbalanced pressure. Temporary ■ 5. In § 3280.203, revise paragraph (a)
the preamble, HUD is amending 24 CFR pressure imbalances due to gusting or introductory text to read as follows:
part 3280 as follows: high winds are permitted.
(2) The ventilation system or § 3280.203 Flame spread limitations and
PART 3280—MANUFACTURED HOME provisions for ventilation must fire protection requirements.
CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY exchange air directly with the exterior (a) Establishment of flame spread
STANDARDS of the home, except the ventilation rating. The surface flame spread rating
■ 1. The authority citation for part 3280 system, or provisions for ventilation of interior-finish material must not
continues to read as follows: must not draw or expel air with the exceed the value shown in § 3280.203(b)
space underneath the home. The when tested by Standard Test Method
Authority: 42 U.S.C. 3535(d), 5403, and
ventilation system or provisions for for Surface Burning Characteristics of
ventilation must not draw or expel air Building Materials, ASTM E84–01,
■ 2. In § 3280.4(b), revise the address for into the floor, wall, or ceiling/roof 2001, or Standard Method of Test of
HUD User and add the following systems, even if those systems are Surface Burning Characteristics of
organizations to the list in alphabetical vented. The ventilation system must be Building Materials NFPA 255, 1996,
order to read as follows: designed to ensure that outside air is except that the surface flame spread
distributed to all bedrooms and main rating of interior-finish materials
§ 3280.4 Incorporation by reference. living areas. The combined use of required by § 3280.203(b)(5) and (6) may
* * * * * undercut doors or transom grills be determined by using the Standard
(b) * * * connecting those areas to the room Test Method for Surface Flammability of
HUD User, 11491 Sunset Hills Road, where the mechanical system is located
Reston, VA 20190–5254
Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy
is deemed to meet this requirement. Source, ASTM E 162–94. However, the
* * *
(3) The ventilation system or a portion following materials need not be tested to
NEMA—National Electrical Manufacturers
Association, 1300 North 17th Street, Suite of the system is permitted to be integral establish their flame spread rating
1847, Rosslyn, VA 22209 with the home’s heating or cooling unless a lower rating is required by the
NER—International Code Council system. The system must be capable of standards in this part:
Evaluation Service [Previously known as operating independently of the heating
* * * * *
National Evaluation Service], 5360 Workman or cooling modes. A ventilation system
Mill Road, Whittier, CA 90601–0543 ■ 6. Revise § 3280.206 to read as
that is integral with the heating or
* * * cooling system is to be listed as part of follows:
NFRC—National Fenestration Rating the heating and cooling system or listed § 3280.206 Fireblocking.
Council, 8984 Georgia Avenue, Suite 320, as suitable for use with that system.
Silver Spring, MD 20910 (a) General. Fireblocking must comply
(4) A mechanical ventilation system, with the requirements of this section.
* * *
WDMA—Window and Door Manufacturers or mechanical portion thereof, must be The integrity of all fireblocking
Association [Previously known as the provided with a manual control, and materials must be maintained.
National Wood Window and Door must be permitted to be provided with (b) Fireblocking materials.
Association, NWWDA], 1400 East Touhy automatic timers or humidistats. Fireblocking must consist of the
Avenue, Des Plaines, IL 60018 (5) A whole-house ventilation label following materials:
must be attached to the whole-house (1) Minimum one inch nominal
* * * * * ventilation control, must be permanent, lumber, 5⁄16 inch thick gypsum board, or
■ 3. In § 3280.103, revise paragraph (b) and must state: ‘‘WHOLE-HOUSE equivalent fire resistive materials; or
to read as follows: VENTILATION’’. (2) Other Listed or Approved
(6) Instructions for correctly operating Materials;
§ 3280.103 Light and ventilation. and maintaining whole-house (c) Fireblocking locations. (1)
* * * * * ventilation systems must be included Fireblocking must be installed in
(b) Whole-house ventilation. Each with the homeowner’s manual. The concealed spaces of stud walls,
manufactured home must be provided instructions must encourage occupants partitions, and furred spaces at the floor
with whole-house ventilation having a to operate these systems whenever the and ceiling levels. Concealed spaces
minimum capacity of 0.035 ft3/min/ft2 home is occupied, and must refer to the must not communicate between floor
of interior floor space or its hourly labeled whole-house ventilation control. levels. Concealed spaces must not
average equivalent. This ventilation * * * * * communicate between a ceiling level
capacity must be in addition to any ■ 4. In § 3280.202, revise the definition and a concealed roof area, or an attic
openable window area. In no case shall of ‘‘Limited combustible’’ and the space.
the installed ventilation capacity of the definition of ‘‘Noncombustible (2) Fireblocking must be installed at
system be less than 50 cfm nor more material’’ to read as follows: the interconnection of a concealed
than 90 cfm. The following criteria must vertical space and a concealed
be adhered to: § 3280.202 Definitions. horizontal space that occurs:
(1) The ventilation capacity must be * * * * * (i) Between a concealed wall cavity
provided by a mechanical system or a Limited combustible: A material and the ceiling joists above; and
combination passive and mechanical meeting: (ii) At soffits, drop ceilings, cover
system. The ventilation system or (1) The definition contained in ceilings, and similar locations.
provisions for ventilation must not Chapter 2 of NFPA 220–1995, Standard (3) Fireblocking must be installed
create a positive pressure in Uo Value on Types of Building Construction; or around the openings for pipes, vents,

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and other penetrations in walls, floors, (b)(1) Standards for some of the Design and Fabrication of Plywood
and ceilings of furnace and water heater generally used materials and methods of Stressed-Skin Panels—APA–U 813L, Suppl.
spaces. Pipes, vents, and other construction are listed in the following 3, 1990.
penetrations that cannot be moved National Design Specifications for Wood
Construction, 2001 Edition, with
freely within their opening are Aluminum Supplement, Design Values for Wood
considered to be fireblocked. Materials Construction, NDS–2001, ANSI/AFPA.
used to fireblock heat producing vent Aluminum Design Manual, Specifications
and Guidelines for Aluminum Structures, Wood Structural Design Data, 1989,
penetrations must be noncombustible or Part 1-A, Sixth Edition, October 1994, and Revised 1992, AFPA.
limited combustible types. Part 1-B, First Edition, October 1994. Span Tables for Joists and Rafters—PS–20–
■ 7. In § 3280.207, revise paragraph 70, 1993, AFPA.
(a)(4) introductory text to read as Steel Design Values for Joists and Rafters 1992,
follows: Specification for Structural Steel AFPA.
Buildings—Allowable Stress Design and Particleboard—ANSI A208.1–1999.
§ 3280.207 Requirements for foam plastic Plastic Design—AISC–S335, 1989. The Voluntary Specifications for Aluminum,
thermal insulating materials. following parts of this reference standard are Vinyl (PVC) and Wood Windows and Glass
(a) * * * not applicable: 1.3.3, 1.3.4, 1.3.5, 1.3.6, 1.4.6, Doors—ANSI/AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2–97.
(4) The foam plastic insulating, 1.5.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10.4 through Standard Test Methods for Puncture and
1.10.7, 1.10.9, 1.11, 1.13, 1.14.5, 1.17.7 Stiffness of Paperboard, and Corrugated and
material has been tested as required for Solid Fiberboard—ASTM D781, 1973.
through 1.17.9, 1.19.1, 1.19.3, 1.20, 1.21,
its location in wall and/or ceiling 1.23.7, 1.24, 1.25.1 through 1.25.5, 1.26.4, Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture
cavities in accordance with testing 2.3, 2.4, 2.8 through 2.10. Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-
procedures described in the Illinois Specification for the Design of Cold- Base Materials—ASTM D 4442–92 (Re-
Institute of Technology Research Formed Steel Structural Members—AISI– approved 1997), 1997.
Institute (IIT) Report, ‘‘Development of 1996. Standard Test Methods for Use and
Mobile Home Fire Test Methods to Specification for the Design of Cold- Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters—
Judge the Fire-Safe Performance of Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members— ASTM D4444, 1992.
Foam Plastic Sheathing and Cavity SEI/ASCE 8–02, 2002.
Standard Specifications Load Tables and
Insulation, IITRI Fire and Safety Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Standard Specification for Gypsum
Research Project J–6461, 1979’’ or other Girders, SJI, Fortieth Edition, 1994. Wallboard—ASTM C 36/C 36M–99, 1999.
full-scale fire tests accepted by HUD, Structural Applications of Steel Cables for
and it is installed in a manner Fasteners
Buildings—ASCE19, 1996.
consistent with the way the material Standard Specification for Strapping, Flat National Evaluation Report, Power Driven
was installed in the foam plastic test Steel and Seals—ASTM D3953, 1991. Staples, Nails, and Allied Fasteners for Use
module. The materials must be capable in All Types of Building Construction—NER–
Wood and Wood Products 272, 1997.
of meeting the following acceptance
Basic Hardboard—ANSI/AHA A135.4–
criteria required for their location: Unclassified
* * * * * Prefinished Hardboard Paneling—ANSI/ Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
■ 8. In § 3280.303, paragraph (g) is AHA A135.5–1995. Other Structures—ASCE 7–1988.
revised to read as follows: Hardboard Siding—ANSI/AHA A135.6– Safety Performance Specifications and
1998. Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Materials
§ 3280.303 General requirements. American National Standard for Hardwood Used in Building—ANSI Z97.1–1984.
* * * * * and Decorative Plywood—ANSI/HPVA HP–
1–1994 (Approved 1995). * * * * *
(g) Alternative test procedures. In the
Structural Design Guide for Hardwood ■ 10. In § 3280.305:
absence of recognized testing ■ A. Add paragraph (c)(1)(iii);
Plywood Wall Panels—HPVA Design Guide
procedures either in the Standards in HP–SG–96, 1996. ■ B. Add paragraphs (c)(3)(i)(A) through
this part or in the applicable provisions For wood products—Structural Glued (C) following the table in paragraph
of those standards incorporated in this Laminated Timber—ANSI/AITC A190.1– (c)(3)(i);
part by reference, the manufacturer 1992. ■ C. Add paragraph (c)(3)(iv);
electing this option must develop or Construction and Industrial Plywood (With ■ D. Revise paragraph (e);
cause to be developed testing Typical APA Trademarks)—PS 1–95. ■ E. Redesignate paragraphs (g)(3)
procedures to demonstrate the structural APA Design/Construction Guide, through (g)(5) as paragraphs (g)(4)
properties and significant characteristics Residential and Commercial—APA E30-P– through (g)(6);
1996. ■ F. Add new paragraph (g)(3);
of the material, assembly, subassembly
Design Specifications for Metal Plate and
component, or member, except for ■ G. Redesignate paragraph (i)(l) as
Wood Connected Trusses—TPI–85.
testing methods involving one-piece Design and Fabrication of All-Plywood follows:
metal roofing as would be required in Beams—APA H–815E (PDS Supplement #5),
§ 3280.305(c)(1)(iii). Such testing 1995. Old paragraph New paragraph
procedures become part of the Panel Design Specification—APA D410A,
2004. (i)(1)(i) ....................... (j)(1)
manufacturer’s approved design. Such (i)(1)(ii) ....................... (j)(2)
tests must be witnessed by an Design and Fabrication of Glued Plywood-
Lumber Beams—APA–S 812Q, Suppl. 2– (i)(1)(ii)(A) .................. (j)(2)(i)
independent licensed professional (i)(1)(ii)(B) .................. (j)(2)(ii)
engineer or architect or by a recognized (i)(1)(ii)(C) .................. (j)(2)(iii)
Design and Fabrication of Plywood Curved
testing organization. Copies of the test Panels—APA–S 811M, Suppl. 1, 1990.
results must be kept on file by the Design and Fabrication of Plywood ■ H. Reserve vacated paragraph (i); and
manufactured home manufacturer. Sandwich Panels—APA–U 814H, Suppl. 4, ■ I. Revise newly redesignated
9. In § 3280.304, revise paragraph 1990. paragraph (j)(1) to read as follows:
(b)(1) to read as follows: Voluntary Product Standard, Performance
Standard for Wood-based Structural Use § 3280.305 Structural design requirements.
§ 3280.304 Materials. Panels—PS 2–92, 1992 (also known as NIST * * * * *
* * * * * Standard PS 2–96). (c) * * *

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(1) * * * meet all requirements of §§ 3280.303(c) Maine—Aroostook, Piscataquis,

(iii) One-piece metal roofing capable and (g) and 3280.401. Somerset, Penobscot, Waldo, Knox,
of resisting the design wind pressures * * * * * Hancock, and Washington.
for ‘‘Components and Cladding:
(3) * * * Alaska—All Counties
(Exterior roof coverings)’’ in the Table
for Design Wind Pressures in this (i) * * *
(B) Middle Roof Load Zone. The
section is allowed to be used without (A) North Roof Load Zone. The
following counties in each of the
structural sheathing, provided the metal following counties in each of the
following states are deemed to be within
roofing is tested using procedures that following states are deemed to be within
have been approved by HUD and that the North Roof Load Zone: the Middle Roof Load Zone:

States Counties

South Dakota ..................... Grant Brookings Hanson Lincoln

Codington Miner Minnehaha Yankton
Deuel Lake Hutchinson Union
Hamlin Moody Turner Clay
Kingsbury McCook
Minnesota .......................... Koochiching Stearns Renville Sibley
Itasca Swift McLeod Nicollet
Hubbard Kandiyohi Carver Blue Earth
Cass Meeker Dakota Martin
Crow Wing Wright Goodhue Watonwan
Aitkin Lac qui Parle Wabasha Brown
St. Louis Chippewa Winona Redwood
Lake Yellow Medicine Fillmore Lyon
Cook Mille Lacs Mower Lincoln
Carlton Kanabec Olmsted Pipestone
Pine Benton Dodge Murray
Wadena Isanti Rice Cottonwood
Todd Sherburne Steele Jackson
Morrison Anoka Freeborn Nobles
Douglas Chisapo Faribault Rock
Grant Washington Waseca St. Croix
Stevens Hennepin Le Sueur
Pope Ramsey Scott
Iowa ................................... Hanock Mitchell Hamilton Buena Vista
Lyon Howard Webster Cherokee
Osceola Chickasaw Calhoun Plymouth
Dickinson Butler Sac Sioux
Emmet Floyd Ida O’Brien
Kossuth Cerro Gordo Humboldt Clay
Winnebago Franklin Pocahontas Wright
Worth Hardin Palo Alto Crawford
Wisconsin .......................... Douglas Oconto Pepin Lincoln
Bayfied Menominee Pierce Oneida
Ashland Langlade Dunn Polk
Iron Marathon Eau Claire Burnett
Vilas Clark Chippewa Washburn
Forest Jackson Rusk Sawyer
Florence Trempealeau Barron Price
Marinette Buffalo Taylor Doon
Michigan ............................ Houghton Iron Presque Isle Wexford
Baraga Dickinson Charlevoix Benzie
Marquette Menominee Montmorency Grand Traverse
Alger Delta Alpena Kalkaska
Luce Schoolcraft Alcona Oscoda
Chippewa Mackinaw Ogemaw Otsego
Keweenaw Cheyboygan Roscommon Leelanau
Ontonagon Emmet Missaukee Antrim
New York ........................... St. Lawrence Herkimer Onondage Genesee
Franklin Lewis Madison Orleans
Clinton Oswego Cayuga Niagara
Essex Jefferson Seneca Erie
Hamilton Oneida Wayne Wyoming
Warren Fulton Ontario Monroe
Saratoga Montgomery Yates
Washington Schenectady Livingston
Massachusetts ................... Essex
Maine ................................. Franklin Kennebec Lincoln Cumberland
Oxford Androscoggin Sagadahoc York
Montana ............................. All Counties
Idaho .................................. All Counties
Colorado ............................ All Counties

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Wyoming ............................ All Counties

Utah ................................... All Counties
Vermont ............................. Franklin Orleans Caledonia Addison
Grand Isle Essex Washington Rutland
Lamoille Chittendon Orange Windsor
New Hampshire ................. Coos Belknap Sullivan Hillsborough
Grafton Strafford Rockingham Cheshire
Carroll Merrimack

(C) South Roof Load Zone. The states structural rated sheathing that overlaps wind loads from the manufactured
and counties that are not listed for the the roof and wall and/or wall and floor home to an anchoring or foundation
North Roof Load Zone in paragraph is capable of resisting the applicable system.
(c)(3)(i)(A) of this section, or the Middle design wind loads. * * * * *
Roof Load Zone in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(B) * * * * * ■ 12. In § 3280.401, revise paragraphs
of this section, are deemed to be within (g) * * * (a) and (b) to read as follows:
the South Roof Load Zone. (3) Wood panel products used as floor
* * * * * or subfloor materials on the exterior of § 3280.401 Structural load tests.
(iv) Skylights must be capable of the home, such as in recessed * * * * *
withstanding roof loads as specified in entryways, must be rated for exterior (a) Proof load tests. Every structural
paragraphs (c)(3)(i) or (c)(3)(ii) of this exposure and protected from moisture assembly tested must be capable of
section. Skylights must be listed and by sealing or applying nonabsorbent sustaining its dead load plus
tested in accordance with AAMA 1600/ overlay with water resistant adhesive. superimposed live loads equal to 1.75
I.S.7–00, 2003, Voluntary Specification * * * * * times the required live loads for a
for Skylights. (j) Welded connections. (1) All welds period of 12 hours without failure. Tests
* * * * * must be made in accordance with the must be conducted with loads applied
(e) Fastening of structural systems. (1) applicable provisions of the and deflections recorded in 1⁄4 design
Roof framing must be securely fastened Specification for Structural Steel live load increments at 10-minute
to wall framing, walls to floor structure, Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and intervals until 1.25 times design live
and floor structure to chassis, to secure Plastic Design, AISC–S335, 1989; the load plus dead load has been reached.
and maintain continuity between the Specification for the Design of Cold- Additional load shall then be applied
floor and chassis in order to resist wind Formed Steel Structural Members, AISI, continuously until 1.75 times design
overturning, uplift, and sliding, and to 1996; and the Specification for the live load plus dead load has been
provide continuous load paths for these Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel reached. Assembly failure shall be
forces to the foundation or anchorage Structural Members, SEI/ASCE 8–02, considered as design live load
system. The number and type of 2002. deflection (or residual deflection
fasteners used must be capable of * * * * * measured 12 hours after live load
transferring all forces between elements ■ 11. In § 3280.306, revise paragraph
removal) that is greater than the limits
being joined. (b)(1) to read as follows: set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or
(2) For Wind Zone II and Wind Zone excessive yielding. Design live load
III, roof framing members must be § 3280.306 Windstorm protection. deflection criteria do not apply when
securely fastened at the vertical bearing * * * * * the structural assembly being evaluated
points to resist design overturning, (b) Contents of instructions. (1) The does not include structural framing
uplift, and sliding forces. When manufacturer must provide printed members. An assembly to be tested shall
engineered connectors are not installed, instructions with each manufactured be of the minimum quality of materials
roof framing members must be secured home that specify the location and and workmanship of the production.
at the vertical bearing points to wall required capacity of stabilizing devices Each test assembly, component, or
framing members (studs), and wall on which the home’s design is based. subassembly shall be identified as to
framing members (studs) must be The manufacturer must identify by type and quality or grade of material.
secured to floor framing members, with paint, label, decal stencil, or other All assemblies, components, or
0.016 inch base metal, minimum steel means: the location of each column subassemblies qualifying under this test
strapping or engineered connectors, or support pier location required along the shall be subject to a continuing
by a combination of 0.016 inch base marriage line(s) of multi-section qualification testing program acceptable
metal, minimum steel strapping or manufactured homes; each pier location to HUD.
engineered connectors, and structural- required along the perimeter of the (b) Ultimate load tests. Ultimate load
rated wall sheathing that overlaps the home; each required shear wall pier tests must be performed on a minimum
roof and floor system if substantiated by support; and any other special pier of three assemblies or components to
structural analysis or by suitable load support locations specified in the generally evaluate the structural design.
tests. Steel strapping or engineered manufacturer’s printed instructions. Every structural assembly or component
connectors are to be installed at a Such identifications must be visible tested must be capable of sustaining its
maximum spacing of 24 inches on after the home is installed. The total dead load plus the design live load
center in Wind Zone II, and 16 inches manufacturer must provide drawings increased by a factor of safety of at least
on center in Wind Zone III. Exception: and specifications, certified by a 2.5. A factor of safety greater than 2.5
Where substantiated by structural registered professional engineer or shall be used when required by an
analysis or suitable load tests, the 0.016 architect, that indicate at least one applicable reference standard in
inch base metal minimum steel acceptable system of anchoring, § 3280.304(b)(1). Tests shall be
strapping or engineered connectors may including the details or required straps conducted with loads applied and
be omitted at the roof to wall and/or or cables, their end connections, and all deflections recorded in 1/4 design live
wall to floor connections, when other devices needed to transfer the load increments at 10-minute intervals

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until 1.25 times design live load plus the product in accordance with ANSI in accordance with ANSI Z34.1–1993,
dead load has been reached. Additional Z34.1–1993, Third-Party Certification Third Party Certification Programs for
loading shall then be applied Programs for Products, Processes, and Products, Processes, and Services.
continuously until failure occurs, or the Services. (2) In determining certifiability of the
total of the factor of safety times the (2) In determining certifiability of the products, an independent quality
design live load plus the dead load is products, an independent quality assurance agency must conduct a pre-
reached. Assembly failure shall be assurance agency shall conduct pre- production specimen test in accordance
considered as design live load production specimen tests in with AAMA 1702.2–95, Voluntary
deflection greater than the limits set in accordance with AAMA 1701.2–95. Standard Swinging Exterior Passage
§ 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or Further, such agency must inspect the Door for Utilization in Manufactured
excessive yielding. Design live load product manufacturer’s facility at least Housing.
deflection criteria do not apply when twice per year. * * * * *
the structural assembly being evaluated * * * * * ■ 16. In § 3280.406, revise the
does not include structural framing
■ 14. In § 3280.404, revise paragraph (b) introductory text in paragraph (b) to
members. Assemblies to be tested shall
to read as follows: read as follows:
be representative of average quality or
materials and workmanship of the § 3280.404 Standard for egress windows § 3280.406 Air chamber test method for
production. Each test assembly, and devices for use in manufactured certification and qualification of
component, or subassembly shall be homes. formaldehyde emission levels.
identified as to type and quality or grade * * * * * * * * * *
of material. All assemblies, components, (b) Performance. Egress windows (b) Testing. Testing must be
or subassemblies qualifying under this including auxiliary frame and seals, if conducted in accordance with the
test shall be subject to a periodic any, shall meet all requirements of Standard Test Method for Determining
qualification testing program acceptable AAMA 1701.2–95, Voluntary Standard Formaldehyde Levels from Wood
to HUD. Primary Window and Sliding Glass Products Under Defined Test Conditions
■ 13. In § 3280.403, revise paragraph (b), Door for Utilization in Manufactured Using a Large Chamber, ASTM E 1333–
paragraph (d)(2), and paragraph (e) to Housing and AAMA Standard 1704– 96, with the following exceptions:
read as follows: 1985, Voluntary Standard Egress * * * * *
§ 3280.403 Standard for windows and
Window Systems for Utilization in ■ 17. In § 3280.504, revise paragraph
sliding glass doors used in manufactured Manufactured Housing, except the (a)(1) and paragraph (b) to read as
homes. exterior and interior pressure tests for follows:
* * * * * components and cladding must be
(b) Standard. All primary windows conducted at the design wind loads § 3280.504 Condensation control and
required by § 3280.305(c)(1). installation of vapor retarders.
and sliding glass doors shall comply
with AAMA 1701.2–95, Voluntary * * * * * (a) Ceiling vapor retarders. (1) In Uo
Standard Primary Window and Sliding ■ 15. In § 3280.405, revise paragraphs
Value Zones 2 and 3, ceilings must have
Glass Door for Utilization in (b), (c) and (e) to read as follows: a vapor retarder with a permeance of not
Manufactured Housing, except the greater than 1 perm (as measured by
exterior and interior pressure tests must § 3280.405 Standard for swinging exterior ASTM E 96–95 Standard Test Methods
passage doors for use in manufactured for Water Vapor Transmission of
be conducted at the design wind loads
homes. Materials) installed on the living space
required for components and cladding
specified in § 3280.305(c)(1). * * * * * side of the roof cavity.
(b) Performance requirements. The * * * * *
* * * * *
(d) * * * design and construction of exterior door (b) Exterior walls. (1) Exterior walls
(2) Sealed insulating glass, where units must meet all requirements of must have a vapor retarder with a
used, must meet all performance AAMA 1702.2–95, Voluntary Standard permeance no greater than 1 perm (dry
requirements for Class C in accordance Swinging Exterior Passage Door for cup method) installed on the living
with ASTM E 774–97, Standard Utilization in Manufactured Housing. space side of the wall; or
Specification for the Classification of (c) Materials and methods. Any (2) Unventilated wall cavities must
the Durability of Sealed Insulating Glass material or method of construction shall have an external covering and/or
Units. The sealing system must be conform to the performance sheathing that forms the pressure
qualified in accordance with ASTM E requirements as outlined in paragraph envelope. The covering and/or
773–97, Standard Test Methods for (b) of this section. Plywood shall be sheathing must have a combined
Accelerated Weathering of Sealed exterior type and preservative treated in permeance of not less than 5.0 perms. In
Insulating Glass Units. Each glass unit accordance with NWWDA I.S.4–81, the absence of test data, combined
must be permanently identified with the Water Repellent Preservative Non- permeance is permitted to be computed
name of the insulating glass Pressure Treatment for Millwork. using the following formula: P total =
manufacturer. * * * * * (1/[(1/P1) + (1/P2)]), where P1 and P2 are
(e) Certification. All primary windows (e) Certification. All swinging exterior the permeance values of the exterior
and sliding glass doors to be installed in doors to be installed in manufactured covering and sheathing in perms.
manufactured homes must be certified homes must be certified as complying Formed exterior siding applied in
as complying with AAMA 1701.2–95. with AAMA 1702.2–95, Voluntary sections with joints not caulked or
This certification must be based on tests Standard Swinging Exterior Passage sealed, are not considered to restrict
conducted at the design wind loads Door for Utilization in Manufactured water vapor transmission; or
specified in § 3280.305(c)(1). Housing. (3) Wall cavities must be constructed
(1) All such windows and doors must (1) All such doors must show so that ventilation is provided to
show evidence of certification by evidence of certification by affixing a dissipate any condensation occurring in
affixing a quality certification label to quality certification label to the product these cavities; or

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(4) Homes manufactured to be sited in greater than 1.0 perms, provided the (i) Kitchen back splash materials, less
‘‘humid climates’’ or ‘‘fringe climates’’ interior finish and interior wall panel than 50 square feet in area installed
as shown on the Humid and Fringe materials have a combined permeance around countertops, sinks, and ranges;
Climate Map in this paragraph are of not less than 5.0 perms. The (ii) Bathroom tub areas, shower
permitted to have a vapor retarder following need not meet the minimum compartments;
specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this combined permeance rating of not less (iii) Cabinetry and built-in furniture;
section installed on the exterior side of than 5.0 perms for interior finish or wall (iv) Trim materials;
the wall insulation or be constructed panel materials: (v) Hardboard wall paneling of less
with an external covering and sheathing than 50 square feet in area under chair
with a combined permeance of not rails.

(5) The following areas of local Lee, Liberty, Long, Lowndes, McIntosh, Texas
governments (counties or similar areas, Miller, Mitchell, Pierce, Quitman, Anderson, Angelina, Aransas,
unless otherwise specified), listed by Randolph, Seminole, Tattnall, Terrell, Atascosa, Austin, Bastrop, Bee, Bexar,
state are deemed to be within the humid Thomas, Tift, Turner, Ware, Worth. Brazoria, Brazos, Brooks, Burleson,
and fringe climate areas shown on the Caldwell, Calhoun, Cameron, Camp,
Humid and Fringe Climate Map in Cass, Chambers, Cherokee, Colorado,
paragraph (b)(4) of this section, and the All counties and locations within the Comal, De Witt, Dimmit, Duval, Falls,
vapor retarder or construction methods State of Hawaii. Fayette, Fort Bend, Franklin, Freestone,
specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this Frio, Galveston, Goliad, Gonzales,
section may be applied to homes built Louisiana
Gregg, Grimes, Guadalupe, Hardin,
to be sited within these jurisdictions: All counties and locations within the Harris, Harrison, Hays, Henderson,
Alabama State of Louisiana. Hidalgo, Hopkins, Houston, Jackson,
Mississippi Jasper, Jefferson, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells,
Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, Butler,
Karnes, Kaufman, Kennedy, Kinney,
Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh,
Adams, Amite, Claiborne, Clarke, Kleberg, La Salle, Lavaca, Lee, Leon,
Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia,
Copiah, Covington, Forrest, Franklin, Liberty, Limestone, Live Oak, Madison,
Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lowndes,
George, Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Marion, Matagorda, Maverick,
Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery,
Hinds, Issaquena, Jackson, Jasper, McMullen, Medina, Milam,
Pike, Washington, Wilcox.
Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Jones, Lamar, Montgomery, Morris, Nacogdoches,
Florida Lawrence, Lincoln, Pearl River, Perry, Navarro, Newton, Nueces, Orange,
Pike, Rankin, Simpson, Smith, Stone, Panola, Polk, Rains, Refugio, Robertson,
All counties and locations within the
Walthall, Warren, Wayne, Wilkinson. Rusk, Sabine, San Augustine, San
State of Florida.
Jacinto, San Patricio, Shelby, Smith,
Georgia North Carolina Starr, Titus, Travis, Trinity, Tyler,
Appling, Atkinson, Bacon, Baker, Ben Brunswick, Carteret, Columbus, New Upshur, Uvalde, Val Verde, Van Zandt,
Hill, Berrien, Brantley, Brooks, Bryan, Hanover, Onslow, Pender. Victoria, Walker, Waller, Washington,
Calhoun, Camden, Charlton, Chatham, Webb, Wharton, Willacy, Williamson,
South Carolina Wilson, Wood, Zapata, Zavala.
Clay, Clinch, Coffee, Colquitt, Cook,
Crisp, Decatur, Dougherty, Early, Jasper, Beaufort, Colleton, Dorchester, * * * * *
Echols, Effingham, Evans, Glynn, Charleston, Berkeley, Georgetown, ■ 18. In § 3280.508, revise paragraphs

Wayne, Grady, Irwin, Jeff Davis, Lanier, Horry. (a), (b), and (e) to read as follows:

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§ 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain, and § 3280.510 Heat loss certificate. Cast Copper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure
cooling load calculations. * * * * * Fittings—ANSI B16.18–1984.
(a) Information, values and data (d) The following additional Cast Copper Alloy Solder-Joint Drainage
statement must be provided on the Fittings-DWV—ASME B16.23–1992.
necessary for heat loss and heat gain
Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared
determinations must be taken from the heating certificate and data plate Copper Tubes—ASME/ANSI B16.26–1988.
1997 ASHRAE Handbook of required by § 3280.5 when the home is Standard Specification for Seamless Red
Fundamentals, Inch-Pound Edition, built with a vapor retarder of not greater Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes—ASTM B43–91.
chapters 22 through 27. The following than one perm (dry cup method) on the Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125
portions of those chapters are not exterior side of the insulation: ‘‘This and 250—ANSI/ASME B16.15–1985.
applicable: home is designed and constructed to be Plastic Pipe and Fittings
23.1 Steel Frame Construction sited only in humid or fringe climate
regions as shown on the Humid and Standard Specification Acrylonitrile-
23.2 Masonry Construction Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic
23.3 Foundations and Floor Systems Fringe Climate Map.’’ A reproduction of Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings—
23.15 Pipes the Humid and Fringe Climate Map in ASTM D2661–91.
23.17 Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment § 3280.504 is to be provided on the Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl
23.18 Refrigerated Rooms and heating certificate and data plate. The Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and
Buildings map must be not less than 31⁄2 inch x Vent Pipe and Fittings—ASTM D2665–91b.
21⁄4 inch in size and may be combined Standard Specification for Drain, Waste,
24.18 Mechanical and Industrial and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns—
Systems with the Uo Value Zone Map for
Manufactured Housing in § 3280.506. ASTM D3311–92.
25.19 Commercial Building Envelope ■ 20. In § 3280.604, revise paragraph Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-
Leakage (b)(2) and the table following paragraph Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40,
27.9 Calculation of Heat Loss from Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe With a
(b)(2) to read as follows: Cellular Core—ASTM F628–91.
Crawl Spaces
§ 3280.604 Materials. Standard Specification for Chlorinated
(b) The calculation of the Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot-
manufactured home’s transmission heat * * * * * and Cold-Water Distribution Systems—
loss coefficient (Uo) must be in (b) * * * ASTM D2846–92.
accordance with the fundamental (2) When a plastic material or Standard Specification for Polybutylene
principles of the 1997 ASHRAE component is not covered by the (PB) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution
Handbook of Fundamentals, Inch-Pound Standards in the following table, it must Systems—ASTM D3309–92a.
Edition, and, at a minimum, must be certified as non-toxic in accordance Plastic Piping Components and Related
address all the heat loss or heat gain with ANSI/NSF 61–2001, Drinking Materials—ANSI/NSF 14–1990.
considerations in a manner consistent water system components—Health Miscellaneous
with the calculation procedures effects.
Standard Specification for Rubber Gaskets
provided in the document, Overall U- for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings—ASTM
Ferrous Pipe and Fittings
values and Heating/Cooling Loads— C564–88.
Manufactured Homes—February 1992– Gray Iron Threaded Fittings—ANSI/ASME Backflow Valves—ANSI A112.14.1–1975.
PNL 8006, HUD User No. 0005945. B16.4–1992. Plumbing Fixture Setting Compound—TTP
Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings—ANSI/ 1536A–1975.
* * * * * ASME B16.3–1992. Material and Property Standard for Cast
(e) U values for any glazing (e.g., Material and Property Standard for Special Brass and Tubing P-Traps—IAPMO PS 2–89.
windows, skylights, and the glazed Cast Iron Fittings—IAPMO PS 5–84. Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff
portions of any door) must be based on Welding and Seamless Wrought Steel Devices for Hot Water Supply Systems—
tests using AAMA 1503.1–1988, Pipe—ANSI/ASME B36.10–1979. ANSI Z21.22–1986, With Addendum
Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel,
Voluntary Test Method for Thermal Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded
Transmittance and Condensation Standard Specification for Solvent Cement
and Seamless—ASTM A53–93.
Resistance of Windows, Doors, and for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)—
Glazed Wall Sections, or the National Plastic Pipe and Fittings—ASTM D2235–88.
ANSI/ASME B1.20.1–1983.
Standard Specification for Solvent
Fenestration Rating Council 100, 1997 Standard Specification for Cast Iron Soil
Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
Edition, Procedure for Determining Pipe and Fittings—ASTM A74–92.
Standard Specification for Hubless Cast Plastic Piping Systems—ASTM D2564–91a.
Fenestration Product U-factors. In the Specification for Neoprene Rubber Gaskets
Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and
absence of tests, manufacturers are to for HUB and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe and
Storm Drain, Waste, and Vent Piping
use the residential window U values Applications—CISPI–301–90. Fittings—CISPI–HSN–85.
contained in Chapter 29, Table 5 of the Plumbing System Components for
1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Nonferrous Pipe and Fittings Manufactured Homes and Recreational
Fundamentals, Inch-Pound Edition. In Standard Specification for Seamless Vehicles—ANSI/NSF 24–1988.
the event that the classification of the Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes—ASTM B42– Material and Property Standard for
93. Diversion Tees and Twin Waste Elbow—
window type is indeterminate, the IAPMO PS 9–84.
Standard Specification for General
manufacturer must use the classification Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper Material and Property Standard for
that gives the higher U value. Where a and Copper-Alloy Tube—ASTM B251–93. Flexible Metallic Water Connectors—IAPMO
composite of materials from two Standard Specification for Seamless PS 14–89.
different product types is used, the Copper Water Tube—ASTM B88–93. Material and Property Standard for
product is to be assigned the higher U Standard Specification for Copper Drainage Dishwasher Drain Airgaps—IAPMO PS 23–
value. For the purpose of calculating Uo Tube (DWV)—ASTM B306–92. 89.
values, storm windows are treated as an Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder- Material and Property Standards for
additional pane. Joint Pressure Fitting—ASME/ANSI B16.22– Backflow Prevention Assemblies—IAPMO PS
1989. 31–91.
* * * * * Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Performance Requirements for Air
■ 19. In § 3280.510, add paragraph (d) to Alloy Solder-Joint Drainage Fittings-DWV— Admittance Valves for Plumbing Drainage
read as follows: ASME/ANSI B16.29–1986. Systems, Fixture and Branch Devices—ASSE

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Standard #1051, 1990 Revised: 1996/ANSI Plumbing Fixtures—ASSE 1037–1990 § 3280.703 Minimum standards.
1998. (ANSI–1990). * * * * *
Drinking Water System Components– Performance Requirements for Water
Health Effects—ANSI/NSF 61–2001. Closet Flush Tank Fill Valves (Ballcocks)— Appliances
ASSE 1002 Revision 5–1986 (ANSI/ASSE– Heating and Cooling Equipment, Second
Plumbing Fixtures
1979). Edition, with 1999 revisions—UL 1995, 1995.
Plumbing Fixtures (General Performance Requirements for Hand-held Liquid Fuel-Burning Heating Appliances
Specifications)—FS WW–P–541E/GEN–1980. Showers—ASSE 1014–1989 (ANSI–1990). for Manufactured Homes and Recreational
Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures—ANSI/ Hydrants for Utility and Maintenance Vehicles, Seventh Edition, with 1997
ASME A112.19.2(M)–1990. Use—ANSI/ASME A112.21.3M–1985. revisions—UL 307A–1995.
Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures— Performance Requirements for Home Fixed and Location-Dedicated Electric
ANSI/ASME A112.19.1M–1987. Laundry Equipment—ASSE 1007–1986. Room Heaters, Second Edition, with 1998
Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Performance Requirements for Hot Water revisions—UL 2021–1997.
Plumbing Fixtures—ANSI/ASME Dispensers, Household Storage Type Electric Baseboard Heating Equipment,
A112.19.4(M)–1984. Electrical—ASSE 1023, (ANSI/ASSE–1979). Fourth Edition, with 1998 revisions—UL
Plastic Bathtub Units with Addenda Plumbing Requirements for Residential 1042–1994.
Z124.1a–1990 and Z124.16–1991—ANSI Use (Household) Dishwashers—ASSE 1006, Electric Central Air Heating Equipment—
Z124.1–1987. (ASSE/ANSI–1986). UL 1096-Fourth Edition-1986 with revisions
Standard for Porcelain Enameled Formed Performance Requirements for Household July 16, 1986, and January 30, 1988.
Steel Plumbing Fixtures—IAPMO TSC 22– Food Waste Disposer Units—ASSE 1008– Gas Burning Heating Appliances for
85. 1986. Manufactured Homes and Recreational
Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower Performance Requirements for Vehicles, Fourth Edition, with 1998
Stalls with Addendum Z124.2a–1990—ANSI Temperature Activated Mixing Valves for revisions—UL 307B–1995.
Z124.2–1987. Primary Domestic Use—ASSE 1017–1986. Gas Clothes Dryers Volume 1, Type 1
Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures Water Hammer Arresters—ANSI Clothes Dryers—ANSI Z21.5.1–/CSA 7.1–
(Designed for Residential Use)—ANSI/ASME A112.26.1–1969 (R 1975). M99—1999 with Addendum Z21.5.1a–1999.
A112.19.3M–1987. Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Gas Fired Absorption Summer Air
Material and Property Standard for Drains Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Conditioning Appliances—ANSI Z21.40.1/
for Prefabricated and Precast Showers— Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances—ASME/ANSI CGA 2.91–M961996.
IAPMO PS 4–90. A112.19.8M–1989. Gas-Fired Central Furnaces (Except Direct
Plastic Lavatories with Addendum Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems—ASME Vent System Central Furnaces)—ANSI
Z124.3a–1990—ANSI Z124.3–1986. A112.1.2–1991. Z21.47–1990 with Addendum Z21.47a–1990
Safety Performance Specifications and Performance Requirements for Diverters for and Z21.47b–1992.
Methods of Test for Safety Glazing Materials Plumbing Faucets with Hose Spray, Anti- Household Cooking Gas Appliances—ANSI
Used in Building—ANSI Z97.1–1984. Siphon Type, Residential Applications— Z21.1–2000.
Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes— ASSE 1025 (ANSI/ASSE–1978). Refrigerators Using Gas Fuel—ANSI
ASME A112.4.1–1993. Performance Requirements for Pipe Z21.19–1990, with Addendum ANSI
Flexible Water Connectors—ASME Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Z21.19a–1992 and Z21.19b–1995.
A112.18.6–1999. Breakers—ASSE 1001 (ASSE/ANSI–1990). Gas Water Heaters—Volume 1, Storage
Performance Requirements for Backflow Performance Requirements for Hose Water Heaters with Input Ratings of 75,000
Protection Devices and Systems in Plumbing Connection Vacuum Breakers—ASSE 1011– BTU per hour or Less—ANSI Z21.10.1–1998
Fixture Fittings—ASME A112.18.3M–1996. 1981 (ANSI–1982). with Addendum Z21.10.1a–2000.
Non-Vitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures— Performance Requirements for Wall Household Electric Storage Tank Water
ASME A112.19.9M–1991. Hydrants, Frost Proof Automatic Draining, Heaters, Tenth Edition—UL 174–1996, with
Dual Flush Devices for Water Closets— Anti-Backflow Types—ANSI/ASSE 1019– 1997 revisions.
ASME A119.19.10–1994. 1978.
Deck Mounted Bath/Shower Transfer Ferrous Pipe and Fittings
Valves with Integral Backflow Protection—
■ 21. In § 3280.607, add new paragraph
Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel,
ASME A112.18.7–1999. (a)(6), redesignate paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded
Plastic Fittings for Connecting Water through (v) as paragraphs (b)(2)(iv) and Seamless—ASTM A53–93.
Closets to the Sanitary Drainage System— through (vi), respectively, add new Standard Specification for Electric-
ASME A112.4.3–1999. paragraph (b)(2)(iii), and revise Resistance-Welded Coiled Steel Tubing for
Hydraulic Performance Requirements for paragraph (c)(6)(iv) to read as follows: Gas and Fuel Oil Lines—ASTM A539–1999.
Water Closets and Urinals, ASME A112.19.6– Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)—
1995. § 3280.607 Plumbing fixtures. ANSI/ASME B1.20.1–1983.
Plumbing Fixture Fittings—ASME/ANSI (a) * * * Welding and Seamless Wrought Steel
A112.18.1M–1989. (6) Water conservation. All lavatory Pipe—ANSI/ASME B36.10–1979.
Trim for Water Closet, Bowls, Tanks, and faucets, showerheads, and sink faucets
Urinals—ANSI A112.19.5–1979. Nonferrous Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
must not exceed a flow of 2.5 gallons
Plastic Water Closets, Bowls, and Tanks Standard Specification for Seamless
with Addenda Z124.4a-1990—ANSI Z124.4–
per minute (gpm). Copper Water Tube—ASTM B88–93.
1986. (b) * * * Standard Specification for Seamless
ANSI Z124.5, Plastic Toilet (Water Closets) (2) * * * Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and
Seats, 1997. (iii) All water closets must be low Refrigeration Field Service—ASTM B280, A–
ANSI Z124.7, Prefabricated Plastic Spa consumption (1.6 gallons per flush 95.
Shells, 1997. (gpf)) closets. Connectors for Gas Appliances—ANSI
Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances—ASME/ * * * * * Z21.24/CGA 6.10–M97–1997.
ANSI A112.19.7M–1987. (c) * * * Manually Operated Gas Valves for
ANSI Z–124.9, Plastic Urinal Fixtures, (6) * * * Appliances, Appliance Connector Valves and
1994. Hose End Valves—ANSI Z21.15/CGA 9.1–
(iv) Electrical. Wiring must comply
Performance Requirements for Individual M97–1997.
Thermostatic Pressure Balancing and with the National Electrical Code NFPA Standard for Gas Supply Connectors for
Combination Control for Bathing Facilities— 70–1996, Section 680G. Manufactured Homes—IAPMO TSC 9–1997.
ASSE 1016–1988 (ANSI 1990). ■ 22. In § 3280.703, revise the table Standard Specification for General
Performance Requirements for Pressurized following the introductory text to read Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper
Flushing Devices (Flushometers) for as follows: and Copper-Alloy Tubes—ASTM B251–93.

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Standard Specification for Seamless Transportation. ASME containers must must be provided as part of the original
Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes—ASTM B42– be provided with relief valves in installation.
93. accordance with subsection 2.3.2 of * * * * *
Miscellaneous NFPA 58–2001, Standard for the Storage (3) Valves. A shutoff valve must be
Factory-Made Air Ducts and Connectors, and Handling Liquefied Petroleum installed in the fuel piping at each
Ninth Edition—UL 181, 1996 with 1998 Gases. Safety relief valves must have appliance inside the manufactured
revisions. direct communication with the vapor home structure, upstream of the union
Standard for Safety Closure Systems for space of the vessel. or connector in addition to any valve on
use with Rigid Air Ducts and Air Connectors, * * * * * the appliance and so arranged to be
UL 181A, 1994, with 1998 revisions. accessible to permit servicing of the
Standard for Safety Closure Systems for ■ 24. In § 3280.705, revise paragraphs
(b)(3), (b)(4), (c)(2), (l)(1), (l)(2)(ii), and appliance and removal of its
use with Flexible Air Ducts and Air
Connectors, First Edition—UL 181B, 1995, (l)(3) to read as follows: components. The shutoff valve must be
with 1998 revisions. located within 6 feet of any cooking
Tube Fittings for Flammable and § 3280.705 Gas piping systems. appliance and within 3 feet of any other
Combustible Fluids, Refrigeration Service, * * * * * appliance. A shutoff valve may serve
and Marine Use, Sixth Edition—UL 109– (b) * * * more than one appliance if located as
1997, with 2001 revisions. (3) Copper tubing must be annealed required by this paragraph (3). The
Pigtails and Flexible Hose Connectors for shutoff valve must be of the non-
type, Grade K or L, conforming to the
LP-Gas, Seventh Edition—UL 569, 1995 with displaceable rotor type and conform to
2001 revisions. Standard Specification for Seamless
Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88–93, or ANSI Z21.15–1997, Manually Operated
Roof Jacks for Manufactured Homes and
Recreational Vehicles, Eighth Edition—UL must comply with the Standard Gas Valves.
311, 1994, with 1998 revisions. Specification for Seamless Copper Tube * * * * *
Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shutoff for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration ■ 25. In § 3280.706, revise paragraph
Devices for Hot Water Supply Systems— Service, ASTM B280–1995. Copper (b)(3) to read as follows:
ANSI Z21.22/CSA 4.4–M99, 1999. tubing must be internally tinned.
Automatic Gas Ignition Systems and (4) Steel tubing must have a minimum § 3280.706 Oil piping systems.
Components—ANSI Z21.20 with Addendum * * * * *
Z21.20a–2000. wall thickness of 0.032 inch for tubing
of 1⁄2 inch diameter and smaller and (b) * * *
Automatic Valves for Gas Appliances—
0.049 inch for diameters 1⁄2 inch and (3) Copper tubing must be annealed
ANSI Z21.21/CSA 6.5–2000.
Gas Appliance Thermostats—ANSI larger. Steel tubing must be in type, Grade K or L conforming to the
Z21.23–1989, with Addendum Z21.23a– accordance with ASTM Standard Standard Specification for Seamless
1991. Specification for Electric-Resistance- Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88–93, or
Gas Vents, Ninth Edition—UL 441, 1996 Welded Coiled Steel Tubing for Gas and shall comply with ASTM B280–1995,
with 1999 revisions. Fuel Oil Lines, ASTM A539–1999, and Standard Specification for Seamless
Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and
Equipment, NFPA 31, 1997 Edition.
must be externally corrosion protected.
(c) * * * Refrigeration Field Service.
National Fuel Gas Code—NFPA 54–2002/
ANSI Z223.1–2002. (2) The connection(s) between units * * * * *
Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning must be made with a connector(s) listed ■ 26. In § 3280.707, revise paragraph (f)
Systems, NFPA 90B, 1996 Edition. for exterior use or direct plumbing sized to read as follows:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, NFPA 58– in accordance with § 3280.705(d). A
2001 Edition. § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances.
shutoff valve of the non-displaceable
Flares for Tubing—SAE–J533b–1992. rotor type conforming to ANSI Z21.15– * * * * *
Factory-Built Chimneys for Residential 1997, Manually Operated Gas Valves for (f) Oil-fired heating equipment. All
Type and Building Heating Appliances,
Appliances, Appliances Connector oil-fired heating equipment must
Ninth Edition—UL 103, 1995, with 1999 conform to Liquid Fuel-burning Heating
revisions. Valves, and Hose End Valves, suitable
for outdoor use must be installed at each Appliances for Manufactured Homes
Factory-Built Fireplaces, Seventh Edition— and Recreational Vehicles, UL 307A—
UL 127–1996, with 1999 revisions. crossover point upstream of the
connection. 1995, with 1997 revisions, and be
Solid-Fuel Type Room Heaters, Fifth
Edition—UL 1482, 1995, with 2000 revisions. installed in accordance with Standard
* * * * * for the Installation of Oil Burning
Fireplace Stoves, Eight Edition, with 2000 (l) * * *
revisions—UL 737, 1996. Equipment, NFPA 31–1997. Regardless
(1) A listed LP-Gas flexible of the requirements of the above-
Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source
Heat Pump Equipment—ANSI/ARI 210/240–
connection conforming to UL 569–1995, referenced standards, or any other
89. Pigtails and Flexible Hose Connectors standards referenced in this part, the
AGA Requirements for Gas Connectors for for LP Gas, or equal must be supplied following are not required:
Connection of Fixed Appliances for Outdoor when LP-Gas cylinders(s) and (1) External switches or remote
Installation, Park Trailers, and Manufactured regulator(s) are supplied. controls which shut off the burner or the
(Mobile) Homes to the Gas Supply—No. 3– (2) * * * flow of oil to the burner, or
87. (ii) The outlet must be provided with (2) An emergency disconnect switch
■ 23. In § 3280.704, revise paragraph an approved quick-disconnect device, to interrupt electric power to the
(b)(5)(i) to read as follows: which must be designed to provide a equipment under conditions of
positive seal on the supply side of the excessive temperature.
§ 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. gas system when the appliance is ■ 27. In § 3280.709, add paragraph (h) to
* * * * * disconnected. A shutoff valve of the read as follows:
(b) * * * non-displaceable rotor type conforming
(5) LP-gas safety devices. (i) DOT to ANSI Z21.15–1997, Manually § 3280.709 Installation of appliances.
containers must be provided with safety Operated Gas Valves, must be installed * * * * *
relief devices as required by the immediately upstream of the quick- (h) A corrosion resistant water drip
regulation of the U.S. Department of disconnect device. The complete device collection and drain pan must be

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installed under each water heater that Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices (3) Service equipment installed on the
will allow water leaking from the water and Appliances, Fifth Edition; and manufactured home in accordance with
heater to drain to the exterior of the * * * * * Article 230 of the National Electrical
manufactured home, or to a drain. ■ 30. In § 3280.801, revise paragraphs Code, NFPA No. 70–2005, and the
(a) and (b) to read as follows: following requirements:
■ 28. In § 3280.714, revise paragraph
(a)(2) to read as follows: * * * * *
§ 3280.801 Scope. (ii) Exterior equipment, or the
§ 3280.714 Appliance cooling. (a) Subpart I of these Standards and enclosure in which it is installed must
part B of Article 550 of the National be weatherproof and installed in
(a) * * * Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70–2005) accordance with Article 312.2(A) of the
(2) Gas fired absorption air cover the electrical conductors and National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70–
conditioners must be listed or certified equipment installed within or on 2005, and conductors must be suitable
in accordance with ANSI Z21.40.1– manufactured homes and the for use in wet locations;
1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air conductors that connect manufactured (iii) Each neutral conductor must be
Conditioning and Heat Pump homes to a supply of electricity. connected to the system grounding
Appliances, and certified by a (b) In addition to the requirements of conductor on the supply side of the
nationally recognized testing agency this Standard and Article 550 of the
main disconnect in accordance with
capable of providing follow-up service. National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70–
Articles 250.24, 250.26, and 250.28 of
* * * * * 2005, the applicable portions of other
the National Electrical Code, NFPA No.
Articles of the National Electrical Code
■ 29. In § 3280.715, revise paragraph (c), 70–2005.
must be followed for electrical
the introductory text of paragraph (e), installations in manufactured homes. * * * * *
and paragraph (e)(1) to read as follows: The use of arc-fault breakers under ■ 32. In § 3280.804, revise paragraph (a)
§ 3280.715 Circulating air systems. Articles 210.12(A) and (B), 440.65, and and the first sentence of paragraph (k)
550.25(A) and (B) of the National to read as follows:
* * * * *
Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70–2005 is
(c) Joints and seams. Joints and seams § 3280.804 Disconnecting means and
not required. However, if arc-fault
of sheet metal and factory-made flexible branch-circuit protective equipment.
breakers are provided, such use must be
ducts, including trunks, branches, in accordance with the National (a) The branch-circuit equipment is
risers, crossover ducts, and crossover Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70–2005. permitted to be combined with the
duct plenums, shall be mechanically Wherever the requirements of this disconnecting means as a single
secured and made substantially airtight. standard differ from the National assembly. Such a combination is
Slip joints in sheet metal ducts shall Electrical Code, these standards apply. permitted to be designated as a
have a lap of at least one inch and shall * * * * * distribution panelboard. If a fused
be mechanically fastened. Tapes or distribution panelboard is used, the
■ 31. In § 3280.803, redesignate the
caulking compounds shall be permitted maximum fuse size of the mains must
receptacle/cap illustration and caption be plainly marked with lettering at least
to be used for sealing mechanically
that follows paragraph (g) to the end of 1⁄4-inch high and that is visible when
secure joints. Sealants and tapes shall be
paragraph (f), and revise the
applied only to surfaces that are dry and fuses are changed. (See Article 110.22 of
redesignated caption following the
dust-, dirt-, oil-, and grease-free. Tapes NFPA 70–2005, National Electrical
redesignated illustration, paragraph
and mastic closure systems for use with Code, concerning identification of each
(k)(1), the introductory text of paragraph
factory-made rigid fiberglass air ducts disconnecting means and each service,
(k)(3), and paragraphs (k)(3)(ii) and
and air connectors shall be listed in feeder, or branch circuit at the point
(k)(3)(iii) to read as follows:
accordance with UL Standard 181A– where it originated and the type
1994, with 1998 revisions. Tapes and § 3280.803 Power supply. marking needed.)
mastic closure systems used with * * * * * * * * * *
factory-made flexible air ducts and air (f) * * * (k) When a home is provided with
connectors shall be listed in accordance installed service equipment, a single
50-ampere 125/250 volt receptacle and
with UL Standard 181B–1995, with disconnecting means for disconnecting
attachment-plug-cap configurations, 3
1998 revisions. the branch circuit conductors from the
pole, 4-wire grounding types used for
* * * * * manufactured home supply cords and service entrance conductors must be
(e) Registers and grilles. Fittings manufactured home parks. Complete provided in accordance with Article
connecting the registers and grilles to details of the 50-ampere cap and 230, Part VI of the National Electrical
the duct system must be constructed of receptacle can be found in the American Code, NFPA No. 70–2005. * * *
metal or material that complies with the National Standard Dimensions of Caps, * * * * *
requirements of Class 1 or 2 ducts under Plugs, and Receptacles, Grounding Type ■ 33. In § 3280.805, revise paragraph
UL 181–1996 with 1998 revisions, (ANSI/NEMA—WD–6–1997–Wiring (a)(3)(iv) to read as follows:
Factory Made Air Ducts and Connectors. Devices–Dimensional Specifications).
Air supply terminal devices (registers) § 3280.805 Branch circuits required.
* * * * *
when installed in kitchen, bedrooms, (k) * * * (a) * * *
and bathrooms must be equipped with (1) One mast weatherhead installation (3) * * *
adjustable closeable dampers. Registers installed in accordance with Article 230 (iv) The rating of the range branch
or grilles must be constructed of metal of the National Electrical Code, NFPA circuit is based on the range demand as
or conform with the following: No. 70–2005, containing four specified for ranges in § 3280.811(a)(5).
(1) Be made of a material classified continuous insulated, color-coded, For central air conditioning, see Article
94V–0 or 94V–1, when tested as feeder conductors, one of which shall be 440 of the National Electrical Code,
described in UL 94–1996, with 2001 an equipment grounding conductor; or NFPA No. 70–2005.
revisions, Test for Flammability of * * * * * * * * * *

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■ 34. In § 3280.806, revise paragraph (r), and re-designate paragraph (s) as of 50 lbs. applied to the brace at the
(a)(2) and paragraph (d)(9) to read as paragraph (r), to read as follows: intended point(s) of attachment for the
follows: box in a direction perpendicular to the
§ 3280.808 Wiring methods and materials.
surface on which the box is installed.
§ 3280.806 Receptacle outlets. (a) Except as specifically permitted by
* * * * *
(a) * * * this part, the wiring methods and
materials specified in the National ■ 37. In § 3280.811, revise the
(2) Installed according to Article 406.3
Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70–2005, introductory text of paragraph (b) to
of the National Electrical Code, NFPA
must be used in manufactured homes. read as follows:
No. 70–2005.
* * * * * * * * * * § 3280.811 Calculations.
(d) * * * (m) Outlet boxes of dimensions less
* * * * *
(9) At least one wall receptacle outlet than those required in Table 314.16(A)
(b) The following is an optional
shall be installed in bathrooms within of the National Electrical Code, NFPA
method of calculation for lighting and
36 inches (914 mm) of the outside edge No. 70–2005, are permitted provided the
appliance loads for manufactured
of each basin. The receptacle outlet box has been tested and approved for
homes served by single 3-wire 120/240
must be located on a wall that is that purpose.
volt set of feeder conductors with an
adjacent to the basin location. This * * * * * ampacity of 100 or greater. The total
receptacle is in addition to any (o) Outlet boxes must fit closely to load for determining the feeder
receptacle that is part of a lighting openings in combustible walls and ampacity may be computed in
fixture or appliance. The receptacle ceilings and must be flush with the accordance with the following table
must not be enclosed within a bathroom finish surface or project therefrom. In instead of the method previously
cabinet or vanity. walls and ceilings of noncombustible specified. Feeder conductors whose
material, outlet boxes and fittings must demand load is determined by this
* * * * *
be installed so that the front edge of the optional calculation are permitted to
■ 35. In § 3280.807, revise paragraph (c) box or fitting will not be set back from
to read as follows: have the neutral load determined by
the finished surface more than 1⁄4 inch. Article 220.61 of the National Electrical
§ 3280.807 Fixtures and appliances.
Plaster, drywall, or plasterboard Code, NFPA No. 70–2005. The loads
surfaces that are broken or incomplete identified in the table as ‘‘other load’’
* * * * * must be repaired so that there will be no
(c) If a lighting fixture is provided and as ‘‘Remainder of other load’’ must
gaps or open spaces greater than 1⁄8 inch include the following:
over a bathtub or in a shower stall, it at the edge of the box or fitting.
must be of the enclosed and gasketed * * * * *
* * * * *
type, and be listed for use in wet (q) A substantial brace for securing a Dated: November 22, 2005.
locations. See also Article 410.4(D) of box, fitting, or cabinet must be as Brian D. Montgomery,
the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. described in the National Electrical Assistant Secretary for Housing-Federal
70–2005. Code, NFPA 70–2005, Article 314.23(B), Housing Commissioner.
* * * * * or the brace, including the fastening [FR Doc. 05–23387 Filed 11–23–05; 12:30
■ 36. In § 3280.808, revise paragraphs mechanism to attach the brace to the pm]
(a), (m), (o), and (q), remove paragraph home structure, must withstand a force BILLING CODE 4210–27–P

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