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Causative neisseria meningitides, streptococcus aureus, H. zoster arbovirus herpes simplex
agent streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, H. simplex
haemophilus influenzae toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus
pathophysio 1. Inflammatory Response of 1. Microorganism 1. case of mumps arthropods such as mosquito organism causes local
meningeal vessels to causative causes Abscess 2. organism spreads and tick infect humans and necrotizing hemorrhage
agent formation to brain cause widespread nerve of the brain
2. Exudate formed by WBC 2. Which can either: 3. causes meningeal degeneration
3. Impaired CSF flow a. Spread irritation
4. increased ICP b. cause tissue
5. vessels engorge and rupture necrosis and edema
S/sx Meningeal lethargy intense h/a same with meningitis same with meningitis
Irritation S/sx** drowsiness Meningeal
decreased LOC n/v Irritation S/sx**
fever increased icp -h/a
expressive aphasia(for
frontal lobe abscess)
Dx Lumbar Tap*** Lumbar Tap*** Lumbar Tap*** Lumbar Tap*** Lumbar Tap***
Gram Staining of CSF CT scan Polymerase Chain PCRT
Reaction Test(PCRT)
Ix • Cephalosorins: • Anticonvulsants- symptomatic tx such • Acyclovir
a. rifampin phenytoin as anticonvulsants • Vidarabine
b. cefotaxime • Analgesics
c. vancomycin • Antiemetics
• Anticonvulsants: Phenytoin • Antibiotics- pen G,
• Corticosteroids: vancomycin,
Dexamethasone metronidazole
• Diuretics: Mannitol
• Others:
a. acetaminophen for fever
b. codeine for h/a
others repiratory iso until (–)CSF craniotomy and bed rest seasonal and geographic in complications include
culture is obtained drainage (surg ix) nature dementia and aphasia
**S/sx of meningeal irritation: 5. H/a • Immunosuppresion • Amphotericin B
1. nuchal rigidity(stiff neck) ***Normal Lumbar Tap Results • Diabetes • Fluconazole
2. + brudzinski’s sign- passive 1. glucose-6-50 mg/dl • Organ Transplant • Flucytosine
flexion of neck causes flexion of 2. normal CHON-15-45 b. Types • Mucormycosis
legs mg/dl • Cryptococcus  caused by a neurotoxin
3. + kernig’s sign- leg is fully  Caused by Cryptococcus  good prognosis if treated
bent in the hip and knee, and FUNGAL INFXNS neoformans earlier
subsequent extension of the a. Risk Factors:
 fatal  begins in the nasal
knee is painful • Leukemia
4. Photophobia  Meds: mucosal lining


causative Clostridium botulinum Clostridium tetani Corynebacterium diptheriae Treponema pallidum
pathophysio blocks AcH resulting to impaired agent inhibits transmission after direct contact or indirect contact after onset of syphilis, disease
autonomic and voluntary of reflex arc and at the with fomites, organism is transmitted may be exacerbated, spread to
neuromuscular treansmission/also presynaptic site causing the and affects the throat and skin, the meninges and the rest of the
called food poisoning diff. s/sx causing the diff. s/sx CNS
and cause the diff. s/sx
s/sx ptosis, diplopia, dysarthria Trismus thick, patchy, greenish mucus Argyll-robertson pupil-pin prick
Incontinence membrane pupils
Risus Sardonicus fever severe h/a
Dypsnea and Dysphagia sore throat Nuchal Rigidity
Rigidity of Muscles Mental confusion
Opisthotonus-high arch back abnormal reflexes
rigidity abnormal gait
dx culture and sensi blood and csf culture schick test, skin test, nose and throat Venereal Disease Research
culture Laboratory Test
Lumbar Tap
med ix • Botulinum antitoxin • Tetanus immunoglobulin • Penicillin • Penicillin
• Tetanus Antitoxin • Erythromycin
• Valium
• Penicillin
• Vecuronium
other info or avoid damaged ends of canned quiet and dim env’t strict iso TYPES
ix goods wound dressing elevate head a. asymptomatic-abnormal CSF
discard suspected foods tracheo and mech vent oral hygiene b. meningovascular- cranial
immunization-DPT nerve palsies, damage to blood
liquid and soft diet vessels
tracheo set at bedside c. tabes dorsalis-loss of position
sense in feet and legs
General Paresis
• Personality changes
• Affect irritability
• Reflexes are hyper
• Eye changes-argyll
• Sensorium-delusions
• Intellect
• Speech