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LUZ AMPARO SÁNCHEZ NOY INTRODUCTION Monitors and Teachers as our task is to get our students to learn, however the result does not always meet our expectations and our efforts. And is that learning depends on several factors: ability, motivation, prior knowledge, or learning strategies. Learning strategies are the set of activities, techniques and methods are planned according to student needs, the objectives sought and the nature of knowledge, in order to realize the learning process. Define learning strategies involves having clear course objectives, conception of teaching, learning design, according to Weinstein and Mayer (1986), learning strategies are actions students and thoughts that occur during learning, that have great influence on the motivation and include aspects such as acquisition, retention and transfer. These authors consider the strategies and techniques that can be taught to be used during learning. Thus, the goal of any particular learning strategy will be to affect the motivational and emotional state and the manner in which the student selects, acquires, organizes and integrates new knowledge. In any case the decision facing the choice of a learning strategy will start with understanding it as a means of constructing knowledge, from the analysis, evaluation, critical thinking, reflection and debate. Going back to Newman and Wehlage (1993), the approach should be targeted to the authentic learning that is characterized by five characteristics: high-level thinking, depth of knowledge, real world connections, substantive dialogue and social support for student achievement. GRAFICO 1 A vital element in the development of learning strategies is provided by the learning environment according to Honebein (1996) should consider the elements embedded in the graph.
GRAFICO 2 1. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN THE FIELD ACADEMIC. We have identified five general types of strategies in education. The first three help students to develop and organize content for easier learning (process information), the fourth is aimed at controlling mental activity to direct student learning and, finally, the fifth support Learning for its occurrence in the best possible conditions. 1.1 Testing Strategies. Are those that actively involves the repetition of content (say, writing), or focus on key parts of it. Examples: • Repeat aloud words, mnemonics, copy the material object of learning, taking notes verbatim, emphasis. 1.2 Strategies developed. They involve making connections between new and familiar. For example: • Paraphrase, summarize, create analogies, take notes, not literal, answer questions (those listed in the text or the student can be formulated), describe how it relates new information to existing knowledge. 1.3 Organization strategies. Group information to make it easier to remember. They involve imposing structure on learning content, dividing it into parts and identifying relationships and hierarchies. They include examples like: • Summarize a text, outline, underline, overview, semantic network, concept map, ordered tree. 1.4 Control strategies for understanding These strategies are linked to Metacognition . Involved remain aware of what is is trying to achieve, keep track of the strategies used and the success with them and adjust behavior accordingly. If we used the metaphor to compare the mind with a computer, these strategies serve as a central processor computer. They are a supervisor of the action and students' thinking, and are characterized by a high level of awareness and voluntary control. Among the metacognitive strategies are: planning, regulation and evaluation
• Strategies for planning. Are those by which direct and control student behavior. They are, therefore, before students take some action. Activities are held as: • Establish the purpose and learning goal • Select the background that are necessary to carry out • Decompose the task into successive steps • Schedule an implementation Schedule • Provide the time needed to accomplish this task, resources needed, the effort required • Select the strategy to follow • Strategies for regulation, management and supervision. They are used during the execution of the task. Indicate the capacity that the student has to follow the plan laid out and test their effectiveness. Activities are performed as: • Ask questions • Follow the plan outlined • Adjust the time and effort required by the task • Update and seek alternative strategies in case the previously selected are not effective. • Evaluation strategies. They are responsible for verifying the learning process. Are conducted during and after the process. Activities are performed as: • Review the steps. • Assess whether or not to have achieved its objectives. • Evaluate the quality of deliverables. • Decide when to conclude the process undertaken when to pause, the length of breaks, etc.. 1.5 Strategies and emotional support. These strategies do not address directly the learning of content. The primary mission of these strategies is to improve the effectiveness of learning by improving the conditions under which it occurs. They include: • establish and maintain motivation, focus attention, stay focused, manage anxiety, manage time effectively, and so on. Finally note that some authors relate the learning strategy with a particular type of learning. For these authors each type of learning (association / restructuring) would be linked to a range of strategies that are specific. • Associative learning: STRATEGIES FOR TEST • learning by restructuring: STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT, OR ORGANIZATION. The following chart graphically represents the types of strategies. GRAFICO 3
2 THE TEACHER TO THE LEARNING STRATEGIES. The main difficulty in Teaching versus learning strategies is the refusal of an innovation: The teaching of learning strategies involves the use of some certain methods, in many cases other than those that teachers had been using. For some professionals, this is an inference with accepted practice, and reject it. Another difficulty lies in the ignorance of own learning process: Teaching these strategies depends largely on the ability of the teacher having to discuss learning with their students. It is therefore necessary to be capable of making conscious their own learning process. Finally the choice of a learning strategy also depends on the training methods developed for teaching a specific content. 3. STRATEGIES TO STUDENT LEARNING. The main problem is the resistance of students to be active in their learning, motivated by the traditional models of teaching and, above all because it does not appreciate the usefulness of learning to performance in examinations; because they will normally reward rote learning or rote. On the other hand learning strategies involve more time than traditional methods, an environmental provision in terms of furniture, materials and particularly a more autonomous self-regulation and therefore with the process, new task for the student who has a natural disposition to the lecture which involves working alone or traditional teacher education. Grafico 3 CLASSIFICATION OF STRATEGIES -Control and management of mental activity -information processing. -processing support -Planning -regulation -Evaluation -Test -Association -Preparation -Support or affective
GRAFICO 2 -Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process Encourage the use of forms of multiple representation Promote the use of the self process construction of knowledge. -Learning Environment -Opportunity to experience the construction of knowledge. Opportunity to experience and appreciate multiple Perspective Include learning real and relevant contexts. Include learning social experience.
GRAFICO 1 Learning -Social Support for use student -Substantive dialogue -Connections to the real world -Depth knowledge -Thought-high level