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EXTINCT BIRDS.

This copy

joo
sole,

copies

the

is

No.

'*-'^'

of the limited edition of

for the British Empire, of which 280 arc for

names of Subscribers being registered at our

Signed

Paternoster Row,

London.

office.

'^Z^^21l^tL-^:^ll^^

EXTINCT BIRDS.
An attempt
those

to

unite

in

one volume

a short

Birds which have become extinct

times

that

is,

hundred

account

of

in historical

within the last six or seven

To

years.

which

added a

few

which

exist,

but

are

the

verge

are

still

on

of

extinction.

BY

The

Hon.

WALTER ROTHSCHILD,
Ph. D.,

With 45 Coloured

Plates,

F.Z.S.

embracing 63 subjects, and

other illustrations.

LONDON.
HuTCHiNso.\

&

Co.,

Paternoster Row, E.C.


1907

LONDON
A.

CHRIS. FOWLER, PRINTER,

TENTER STREET,
MOORFIELDS,
E.C.

ii tJil^y

PREFACE.
"1 "1

THEN

decided

to

read

paper

Ornithological

the

before

Congress of 1905 on Extinct and Vanishing Birds,


necessary

to

These drawings roused

my

and

lecture,

publish the
far

hesitation
of the

lecture

and

drawings,

to

do

in

in

find,

the

following

itself

International

friends,

has

to

who have

otherwise,

been

and

thank

Fleming,

kindly

especially

Dr. von

my way

to

could

After some

the Congress.

greatly

owing to
of

the persuasion

a book required

my

totally

in

the

different

numerous
"

account

readers
that

to

The

additions.

Proceedings

of

the

IVth

Congress."

very

Dr. K. Lampert, Dr. O.

Mr.

pages,

published

Ornithological

wish

not see

if

as corrections and

the lecture, as well

lecture

to

the lecture, and therefore

considerably more research than


will

listened

The preparation

Leverkiihn.

drawings.

of

book form, as these plates were

in

this,

number

it

among those who

the proceedings of

for

Paul

Dr.

late

interest

special

determined

by

paper

was asked by many

numerous

too

my

illustrate

found

heartily

me

helped
Dr.

H.

Finsch,

O.

all

with

those

of

my

ornithological

the

loan

of

specimens or

Forbes,

Dr.

Professor Dr. A.

Scharff,

Professor

Koenig, Dr. Kerbert,

Lorenz, and others.

WALTER ROTHSCHILD.

INTRODUCTION.

THE

study of the forms of


scanty

the

preserved

remains

interest almost

a special attraction, as
state to

Although

to

us,

has

from the commencement of

small portion of this vast field

living

no longer existing on the earth, from

life

historical times.

some

our immediate forefathers and even to

distinct categories,

namely those known externally as well as

known from

two

into

and

internally,

descriptions or figures in
In the present

ancient books, as well as those of which specimens exist.

to

fall

ourselves.

Under the former

which we know bones and egg-shells only.

category might be included those merely

work

of

have here arranged the species systematically, they

those of

familiar in a

deals to a great extent with forms

it

The very

treating of in the following pages has

am

great

very

provolied

several plates have been reconstructed from such descriptions in order

some

give

difference

many

idea

opinion as to the approximate date

of

pleistocene and

variously determined as

considerable

is

the disappearance of

of

deposits which have been

known from bones dug from

of the species

There

probable appearance.

their

of

post-pleistocene.

It

seems

to

me

that this problem can never be entirely solved, but the significant fact remains,
that while
in the

many bones

of these species in one locality have

kitchen-middens of the former inhabitants,

bones occur

in

what seem

much

to be

present treatise,

eight-hundred
exterior

is

viz.,

more or

about some

less

we have

my

first

"

Blue

a very

knowledge.

many

"

of

Even

species,

now

Bourbon,
in

viz.,
is

many

the last seven- or

those species whose

literature,

in

scope;

such as the

Notornis, while of others, such as

West

and

in

species

range of the

very variable

and even redundant

full

extinct Parrots from the

Bird

category,

known, our knowledge

Great Auk, the Labrador Duck, and


of the

have mentioned

which have become extinct

birds

Taking

years.

probably consider outside the

will

same

other localities the

in

older formations.

In view of this and kindred facts,

which some ornithologists

been collected

so

Indies, the
forth,

"Giant"

we have

most

of Mauritius, the

the

very

scantiest

the times of Leguat and Labat there must have been

extinct,

of

which no mention has ever been made, for

INTRODUCTION

viii

species which impressed themselves

these old writers only mentioned such

on their memories either from their


or excellence and

size, peculiar

usefulness for food

fact

in

shape, beauty of plumage,


culinary property of the

the

One

various birds seems to have been their principal interest.

phenomena

interesting

connected

with

recently

birds

extinct

most

of the

the

is

resemblance of the fauna of the Mascarene Islands and that of the Chatham

number

the possession of a

Islands in

because

case of Notornis,

was necessary

it

believed to be quite
in

more than
Orn.

extinct,

known

little

parts of

already ceased to
alluded to at

191-207,

pp.

may

still

known

to

few species

individuals

the other

my

species referred to in

threatened

as

up certain

clear

to

with

hand

still
it

is

lecture (Proc.

have

destruction,

be the case with some

also

may

birds

not

all.

In several instances

have treated of extinct

genera including existing species capable of


that

inconsistent, seeing

flight.

species

flightless

This

under

may appear

to be

maintain Notornis separate from Porphyria, but,

considering flightlessness

while not

some

range, while on

their

1907)

This

live.

that

possible

is

it

likely that several of the

Congress

is

In the case of a

misconceptions and contradictory statements.

exist

number

be

to

there seems no doubt that they will vanish soon, and

firstly

secondly, as in the

known

confined to species actually

is

but a few are included of which a small

extinct,
exist,

the whole, this book

though the

Rails,

much exaggerated.

significance of this fact has been

On

large flightless

of

in

itself

generic

character, the great

development of the wing-coverts and the modification of the toes appear of


value

generic

sufficient

this

in

case.

know

that

several

eminent ornithologists of the day, among them Dr. Sharpe,

and are convinced that the


that

modification,

it

is

loss

the power of flight

of

imperative

that

we

should

treat

of

diff^er

is

the

most

from me,

so profound a
it

as

sufficient

for generic distinction.

While agreeing that many genera are founded on much


modifications,

power

of

flight

difficult

to

aborted

wings.

cannot concur
is

find

The cause

also

at

of

this

opinion, for,

unless

accompanied by other changes,

first

sight

recent

directly or indirectly to

in

even

specific

extinction

man, but

we

among

in

diff^erences

birds

is

in

less

striking

the loss of the

some cases
other

than

it

is

the

most cases due

also have instances of birds

becoming

extinct for no apparent reason whatever.

Man

has destroyed, and

is

continually destroying species directly, either for

INTRODUCTION
food or for sport, but also in

Some

many

ix

other ways he contributes to their destruction.

species have been exterminated by the introduction of animals of prey,

such as

mongoose,

rats, cats,

etc.,

other birds, such as the mynah,

Again we

find

the

that

and we know that also the acclimatisation of


has proved to be harmful to the native birds.

etc.,

introduction

of

domestic creatures or others kept

may prove

as pets has brought diseases which

fatal

to the indigenous fauna.

Another means by which man causes immense destruction,

By

natural habitat of various species.


prairies, or scrub,
off

down

cutting

and by bringing the land under

by destroying the

is

or burning the forests,

cultivation,

man

indirectly kills

a species through starvation, from extermination of certain insects or plants

on which

it

Many

depends for food.

greatly reduced in

species, such as the

Moas, were evidently

numbers by cataclysms of Nature, such as volcanic outbreaks,

earthquakes, floods, bush

and then died out from what appears only

fires, etc.,

The

explicable by the natural exhaustion of their vitality.

extermination of the

Moas was undoubtedly

chief cause of the

their slaughter by the

food, but in several inaccessible parts of the interior

Maoris for

numbers

large

of

Moa

remains have been found which undoubtedly had died for no apparent reason.
This cause also seems to be the only explanation of the dying out of such
birds as Aechmorhynchus, Chaetoptila,

The melancholy
rats,

fact

Camptolaimus and others.

however remains that man and

his satellites, cats,

dogs, and pigs are the worst and in fact the only important agents of

destruction of the native avifaunas wherever they go.


I

have not included

the body of this

in

work the

fossil species

pleistocene of Europe, Asia, Australia and America, as

believe

from the

that

these

belonged to an avifauna of an epoch considerably anterior to those attributed to


the pleistocene of

New

Zealand and the adjacent islands, as well as that of the

Mascarenes and Madagascar.

I,

however, give here the

described from the above mentioned regions which

our literature, to serve as a guide to those

work

included them in the

....

Vultur melitensis Lydekker

Phalacrocorax

sp.

De

Vis....

De

who may

think

Vis

Anas benedeni Sharpe


Alopochen pugil Winge

....

Malta.

....

....

Malta.

....

....

Queensland.

....

....

....

New

....

....

....

Queensland.

....

....

....

Queensland.

....

....

....

Lydekker

Aythya robusta De Vis


Alias elapsa

list

of the

species

have been able to find


I

itself.

Sfrix melifensis Lydekker

Pelecanus proaviis

Zealand.

Belgium.
Brazil.

in

ought to have

INTRODUCTION
Dendrocygna validipennis (De

Queensland.

Vis)

Branta hypsibata Cope

Oregon.

Branta propinqua Schufeldt

Oregon.

Anser scaldii Van Beneden

Belgium.

Anser

England.

Lydekker

sp.

Anser coudoni Schufeldt

Cygnus

Oregon.

....

Lydekker

sp.

Malta.

Cygniis falconeri Parker

Malta.

....

De

Palaeopelargus nob ills

Vis

Queensland.

Prociconia lydekkeri Ameghino


Platibis subienuis

De

Vis

Brazil.

Queensland.

....

New

Grus proavus Marsh


Grus melitensis Lydekker

Malta.

....

Grus turfa Portis

Italy.

Grus primigenia Milne Edwards


Fulica prior

De

Fulica pisana

Jersey.

Vis

France.

....

Queensland.

....

Port'is

Italy.

Porphyria mackintoshi

De

De

Gallinula strenuipes

Vis

Queensland.

Vis

Queensland.

GaUinula peralata DeVis....

Queensland.

Microtribonyx effluxus

De

Vis

Queensland.

Progura gallinacea De Vis

Queensland.

Coliimba melitensis Lydekker

Malta.

Lithophaps ulnaris

De

Vis

Queensland.

New

Gallus sp. Lydekker


Gallus sp. Lydekker

Central Germany.

Phasianus

sp.

Perdix

Issel

Italy.

Tetrao sp. Issel

Italy.

sp.

Lydekker

Metapteryx bifrons

De

Germany.

....

Vis

Queensland.

....

Dromaius queenslandiae (De


Dromaius

Zealand.

Queensland.

Vis)....

gracilipes (De Vis)

Dromaius patricius (De

Queensland.

East Australia.

Vis)

Genyornis newtoni Sterling

&

South Australia.

Zeitz

Casuarius lydekkeri nom. nov.

"The
pit

distal

extremity of the tibio-tarsus

is

narrow, without a semilunar

on the lateral surface of the ectocondyle, and with a very deep e.xtensor

groove

"

(Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus.,

p. 353).

INTRODUCTION
Type, a caste of the distal portion

Museum.

British

The

was obtained from


in

original

in

in

the

right

tibio-tarsus,

Museum

at

to be extinct

Doubtless this

entirely, but at present

Sydney and

is

Monarcha dimidiata, from Rara-

birds

known

is

a species which will one day vanish

it

to be

more or
in

less

on the verge of extinction which

omitted any species, be given here, but


only

know

and mostly almost

some

of

it

my

having

must be understood that of these

the fact that their numbers have been greatly reduced

to vanishing point.

have already mentioned before that

them may already have disappeared, but

investigations are wanting,

and

that they are threatened and

Myadestes sibilans

all,

therefore, that

may soon become

....

many

in

cases recent

can be said of them

extinct,

if

they

still

Martinique.

Cinclocerthia gutturalis

Martinique.

Rhamphocinclus brachyurus

Martinique.

Ixochicla olivacea

Mauritius.

Mascarene

Islands.

Trochocerciis borbonicus

Mascarene

Islands.

Oxynotns typicus

Mauritius.

Foudia newioni

Bourbon.

Drymoeca rodericana

Rodriguez.

Cyanorhaviphiis cooki

Norfolk Island.

Cyanorhamphus

Antipodes Island.

Phediiia borbonica

....

erythrotis

Cyanorhamphtis unicolor

Antipodes Island.

Ttirnagra fanagra

North

....

albifacies....

is

exist.

St. Vincent.

Myadestes genibarbis

Sceloglaux

the main part of this book might, for

convenience of reference and to avoid possible controversy as to

the

hardly comes within the scope of this work.

have not thought advisable to give

species

in

March, 1901, two specimens, male and female, were procured by

the Earl of Ranfurly.

The

preserved

the

the pleistocene cavern-deposits in the Wellington Valley

New South Wales.


A bird usually stated

Tonga, but

is

of

XI

Island,

Middle Island,

New
New
New
New
New
New

Miro albifrons

North

Miro australis

Middle Island,

Clitonyx albicilla

North

Island,

Pogonornis cincta

North

Island,

Hypotaeiiidia miilleri

Auckland Island.

Mergtis australis

Auckland Island.

Island,

Zealand.

Zealand.
Zealand.

Zealand.
Zealand.
Zealand.

INTRODUCTION

Xll

Nesonetta aucklandica

Auckland

Ocydromus

Lord Howe's

? sylvestris

Island.

Hawaiian Islands.

Puffinus newelli
Telespiza flaviceps

Hawaii.

....

Nesocfien sandvicensis

Hawaii.

Pareudiastes paciflcus

Samoa.

Nesomimus

Charles? and Gardener

trifasciatus

Galapagos Islands.

Island,

Phalacrocorax harrisi

Galapagos Islands.

Meleagris americana

United States.

Conurus carolinensis

Southern United States.

Pseudgryphus californianus

California.

Amazona

St. Vincent.

guildingi

Campephilus principalis

Southern United States.

Pyrrhula pyrrhnla muritia

Azores.

Stringops habroptilus

New

Islands.

Gallinago pusilla

Chatham

Islands.

Thinornis novaezealandiae

Chatham

Islands.

Amazona augusta

....

Dominica.

Amazona

....

St.

....

Dominica.

bouqueti

Amazona

versicolor

Hemignathus

Many

my

of

...

readers

will,

two or three bones.

doing this

when

Especially will

My

under the formula Pachyornis

the

gives

Emeus

species

authors

different

In the case of others,

species.

unless

and

so

in

more concise

the

both
to

using

they,

author

cases

name

all

are

fully

so in the

me for
who have

blame

described,

or Anomalopteryx

same

the

formula

and
and

quotes

page

only

are

have thought
these forms

it

foregoing

for

Casuarius

quoted,
easier

quite

B, the
other

form, but
species

confusion

for

in

but quoted

species

name a

to

reference

or

must
and

which have been described or

differentiated without a binomial or trinomial appellation.

refrained from doing

bestowed

of bones, single

fear,

where an author fears

characters

distinctive

sp.,

for having

reasons for doing so are very simple:

Parker's species which

such cases as Dr.

in

me

these forms have been described by other authors

refrained from giving names.

lies

with

fear, find fault

known only from fragments

of forms,

bones, or

danger

Lucia.

Lanai, Sandwich Islands.

lanaiensis

names on a number

also

Zealand.

Chatham

Anthornis melanocephala

arise,

Island.

list

of

have, however,

Pleistocene species in the

INTRODUCTION
following

eight

cases as

was not

with the material or literature at


Phalacrocorax

Anser

sp.

Cygnus
Gallus

sp.
sp.

sp.

Lydekker

Lydekker
Lydekker

Lydekker

Gallus sp. Lydekker

Phasianus
Perdix

sp.

Lydekker

my

able

to

xiu

decide

disposal, viz.
....

....

anything

about

New

Zealand.

England.
Malta.

New

Zealand.

Central Germany.

Germany.

sp.

Issel

Italy.

Tetrao sp.

Issel

Italy.

them

LITERATURE
REFERRING TO

EXTINCT BIRDS.
No

attempt

has

made

been

to

quote

all

books

mean

not only would that

which extinct birds

in

a tedious, long work,

have been mentioned

and a book

but, the repetitions being so

have been of very

itself,

in

use.

little

On

important literature referring

the other hand,


Extinct

to

in

would

it

have tried to quote the most

and

Birds,

anxious to cite and verify the principal ancient literature.

works on birds

numerous,

have specially been

Well known general

which extinct species have, of course, also been mentioned,

as a rule, not quoted

such as

The 27 volumes

are,

of the Catalogue of Birds

Brisson's Ornithology; Daubenton's, Buffon's and Montbeillard's works; Latham's

Ornithological Writings

Linnaeus' Systema Naturae

writings; popular natural histories and school books

various editions;

Finsch's Papageien

Synopsis Avium,

lists

of

specimens

in all its editions

Brehm's Thierleben

Gray's and Sharpe's Hand-lists

Museums, and many

in

Vieillot's

in its

Dubois'

others, in

which

extinct birds are as a matter of course mentioned.

Three
"

most

complete

detailed

bibliographies

Bibliography of the Didinae," forming Appendix

its

Kindred"

the

new

(1848), the Bibliography of

Edition of

referring to the

and XXVII

Most

in

my

vol.

Alcu

named:

be

B. of Strickland's "

iiiipettnis

The

Dodo and

by Wilhelm Blasius

in

XII, pp. 169-176 (1903), and the Bibliography

Moas by Hamilton,

in

the Trans.

New

Zealand Institute

XXVI

(1894, 1895).

of the books

the Zoological

and

Naumann,

must

Museum

and pamphlets quoted hereafter are

at Tring, in the ornithological part of

have been specially interested for


library are

marked with an

many

years.

in

my

library at

which Dr. Hartert

Those books that are not

asterisk, but several of these

have been able

to consult in other libraries.

The chronological order appeared


subject treated

of.

to be best suited to the particular

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

XVI

Avium

Collaert, Adrian.

1580 or 90.

vivae icones, in aes incisae

&

1625.

(On one

(On

of the plates

is

of the

figured the "Avis

This figure seems to have been the


original of the representations in Dubois' and
Leguat's works.)

1626.

Het tweede

Jacob Cornelisz Neck.

1635.

mention of Aphanapteryx bonasia.)

Joannis Evsebii

Niere.mberg.

etc., etc., etc.

maxime peregrinae,librisXVI

Nie-

Naturae,

Historia

(On picture No. 2, page 7, the Dodo is


" Desen
and described as follows
Voghel de is soo groot als een Swaen, gaven
hem de naem Watchvoghel, want doen wy
de lecUere DuyfUens ende ande cleyn ghevoghelte ghenoech vinghen, doen taelden wy
This appears
niet meer naer desen Voghel."
Dodo in
to be the first mention of the

figured

relation of

years' Travaile.

Boek, JoLirnael
inhoudende een warachtig verhael,
Middelburch, Anno 1601.
etc., etc.

Dagh-register,

Sir Tho.mas Herbert.

some

mention

first

Reunion Dodo.)

rembergii

oft

chapter XV.,

331, in

p.

(First

1601.

Pilgrimes.

his

In five books.

editae

ab Adriano Collardo.
Indica."

Purchas

Castleton.

distincta.

In quibus rarissima Naturae arcana,

Antverpiae

MDCXXXV.

account and figure of the Dodo


On p. 237 the
reproduced on pp. 231, 232.
Great Auk (" Goifugel ") mentioned).
(Clusius'

*1638 and 1651. Cauche.


et curieuses de

(Two

literature.)

Relations veritables

I'isle

de Madagascar.

editions.)

(See Aphanapteryx bonasia.)

1605.

Clusius.

Carol! Clusii Atrebatis

Exoticorum
Animalium,

libi-i

decern

Plantarum,

describuntur.

historiae

1640.

Pere Bouton.
des

Quibus

Aromatum
Ex Officina

Relation de

Fran9ais

Martinique,

dep.

des

I'vne

(Describes,

among other

and Parrots of the island


(On
p.

p. 100 van Neck's Dodo is reproduced,


103 the Great Auk, sub nomine " Mergus

1646.

Americanus.")

De

Bry.

de

the

Aras

Achter Theil der Oriental-

birds,

of Martinique.)

Journ. of te gedenckw.
BoNTEKOE.
Reyse.
beschr. van de Ost. Ind.

Haarlem
1606.

I'ile

antilles

I'Amerique.

Plantiniana Raphelengii, 1605.


on

I'etabl.

en

1635,

(On

p.

1646.

6 mention of the Reunion Dodo.)

ischen Indien, begreiffend erstiich ein


Histor. Beschr. d. Schiffahrt, so der

Adm. Jacob von Neck ausz

1655.

(On

Hollandt,

figure

Frankf. 1606.

etc., etc.

1658.

Cornelisz

Neck.

Historiale

Inhoudende
een
vande veyse
Schepen van
ghedaen met acht
Amsterdam, etc., etc.
Amsterdam,

7),

editions

described.
of i5oi.)

lib.

Ill,

Auk

and
Faroe

description

from

the

is the same as in the other


Neck's voyage, the Dodo is
There is also a French edition

Iles

Naturelle
Antilles

et

de

Morale

l'Amerique.

Raretez

qui

sont

les

plus

considerables

Avec un
Rotterdam 1658.

d'ecrites.

(The title-page has no author's name, but


P6re du Tertre the author is
Rochefort,
Ministre
de
de
Contains important notes on
Rotterdam."
former bird-life on the Antilles.)
according to
" Le
Sieur

which
of

Great

y
vocabulaire caralbe.

(Evidently another edition of Neck's voyage


On page 5 and on Picture No. 2
i6oi.

(page

des

verhael

1619.
of

of

Enrichie de pleusieurs belles figures

Beschryvinghe,

waerachtich

300, 301,

HisToiRE

DES

Jacob

pp.

Islands.)

(Figure and mention of the Dodo.)

1619.

Museum Wormianum.

WoR.vi.

1665.

The

same.

Rotterdam

1665.

Second

Edition.

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.


1658.

BoNTius.

Gulielmi

Medici

Pisonis

1696.

Amstelaedamensis de Indiae Utriusque


re naturali et medica libri quatuordecim.

Third

medici

civitatis

Bataviae

Novae

in

Java Ordinarii,

Historiae

Natur.

et

Part:

Jacobi

Medici Indiae Orientalis


(On
Caput

libri

point

Bontii,

(A very

Antilles
1

habitees

1,

par

1707.

Francois.

les

contenantl' Histoire Naturelle.

interesting

translated

collection

of

French.

into

is

I,

1708.

Beschreibung
DER
Antillen Inseln in America gelegen.
HisTORiscHE

In

begreiffend

sich

Gelegenheit, darinnen

Sachen,

Leguat,

Sitten

Londres 1707.

A New Voyage

Francis.

of

the

Containing their

two

islands.

(Valuable notes on the birds of

Rodriguez

in

1708.

and Mauritius.)

Von dem
1707.

die

in

edition

Natural

of

Hans.

Madera,

S. Christofers

Frankfurt 1668.
second

Sloane,
islands

Trees,

Voyage

Barbados,

(Page

12

the

" Solitaire."

four-footed

1707; vol.

Did us

Cf.

the

and Jamaica, with the


the Herbs and
Beasts,

Fishes,

Insects, Birds, Reptiles, etc.

Carre, Voyage des Indes Orientates.

to

Nieves,

History of

Rochefort's book.)

*1668.

Leguat

desert

London

natiirl.

Tag gegeben, nunmehr aber


(Translation

companions.

his

adventures

Einwohner

Herrn de Rochefort, zum zweiten


mahl in Franzosischer sprach an den
Teutsche ubersetzet.

and

deroselben

befindl.

sampt deren
und Gebraiichen.

Vol.

Leguat,
Francois.
Voyages
et
Avantures de Fran9ois Leguat, et de
ses Compagnos, en deux Isles desertes

to the East Indies by Francis


1668.

ancient
In

translation of

des Indes Orientales.

Paris 1667.
(On p. 246. Traite V. Des aniniaux de I'air.
Les Arras. II, Des Perroquets. 5 III,
Des Perriques.)

Nouvelle

1696.

II,

I,

Bontekoe's travels to
the " East Indies," with figures of the Dodo
and other interesting notes.)
II

XVII.

Tome

Relations

publie'es.

Vol.

voyages,

sex.

Histoire generale des

este'

Edition.

p.

Du Tertre.

Thevenot,M.Melchisedec.

de divers voyages curieux qui nont

70 an excellent figure of the Dodo.


Appendix: De Dronte, aliis
Dod-aers.)

1667.

xvii

II,

Vol.

I,

1725.

(Gives most valuable

solitariiis.)

including

the

notes on the birds,


Goatsucker, Aestrelaia and

Parrots.)

1668.

J.

Marshall.

Memorandums

con-

cerning India.
(In the article

on Mauritius occurs a mention

1722.

of Geese.)

1674.

Pere

contenant

Les Voyages faits


par le Sieur D.B. aux Isles Dauphine
ou Madagascar, and Bourbon, ou
Mascarenne, es annees 1669-70-71-72.
Dubois.

(Of this extremely rare work


together
Sanson belonging to it.)

beautiful

Jean
aux

Labat,

Voyage

copy,

with

the

pays.
In Vol.

I'Amerique

naturelle de ces

I'histoire

Paris 1722. 6 vols.


II,

chapter VIII, the different species

and

it is

stated that

each island had three kinds, viz., an " Aras,"


a " Perroquet " and a " Perrique," evidently
meaning a Macaw, an Amazona and a
Conurus.)

of

(On p. 168 we find " Description de quelques


Oyseaux de I'lsle de Bourbon," with figures of
the " G^ant " and " Solitaire.")

de

of Parrots are described,

possess a

map

Nouveau

Baptiste.
lies

1742.

Nouvelle Edition.

8 vols.

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

JCVllI

1752.

Avium Genera.

MoEHRiNG.

1789.

ominous work, which, through an


by Poche in Zool. Anz. 1904, has
recently caused so much quite unnecessary
cf.
nomenclatorists
among
disturbance
Hartert, Zool. Anz. 1904, p. 154, and Proc.
The
283.
IV. Int. Orn. Congress, pp. 276
Dodo is mentioned under the name "Raphus.")

Botany Bay,

this

(In

The Voyage of Governor Phillip

article

staiileyi

etc.

(Among other

1790.

is

London

interesting

to

1789.

birds

Notornis

figured on the plate opposite

p.

273.)

White.
Journal of a Voyage to
South
Wales with sixty-five
New
J.

Plates of Nondescript Animals, Birds,


1763.

L'Abbe de la Caille. Journal Historique du Voyage fait au Cap de

have a copy with black and white, and


(1
another with coloured plates. Notornis alba.)

(Some birds from Mauritius mentioned, but


no descriptions.)
1804.

Voyage a

de France, a I'isle de
Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne Esperance,
etc.
Avec des observations nouvelles
sur la nature and sur les hommes.
Par un officier du roi.
Neuchatel

London

etc.

MDCCXC.

Bonne esperance.

1773.

Serpents,

Lizards,

Hermann.

Observationes Zoolog.

(On page 125 the extinct Bourbon Palacornis

l'isle

is

1807.

1773.

described as Psittaciis seinirostris.)

M. F. Peron. Voyage de decouvertes


aux terres australes, ex^cut^ par
ordre de Sa Majeste I'Empereur et
1807 and 1816
Roi, etc., etc.
2 vols.
and Atlas.

1775.

voyage to the island of Mauritius,


etc.
By a French Officer. (Transla-

(On p. 467 is described the Little Emu from


Kangaroo Island, which have named Dromaius
peronii, in honour of its discoverer, Franjois
P^ron.
A memoir of this extraordinary and
admirable man's short and brilliant life will
be found in Vol. VI of the " Naturalist's
I

tion of the above).


(Lettre IX, page 67, treats of the
isle of France.")

"Animals

natural to the

Library," Edinburgh, 1843.)

1782.

Voyage aus

Sonnerat.

Two

et k la Chine.
(In

Volume

II,

iles

orientales
1810.

volumes, 1782.

Andre Pierre Ledru.


iles

on plate loi, opposite page 176,

de

Teneriffe,

Thomas, Sainte-Croi.x

the e-xtinct Alectroeiias tiituiissiina is figured,


under the name of " Pigeon hollandais.")

(?)

Voyage Botany Bay.

Callam.
(According

mentioned

to

under

Gray
the

Notoniis

name

of

alba
"

Sparrmann.
(On

1789.

pi.

is

White

Museum Carlsonianum

et Porto- Ricco,

Two

volumes, 1810.

II,

I.

23 Poiiiarea nigra Sparrm.)

G. Dixon.

*1826.

Voyage round the World.

(On

p. 357 is note and figure of the extinct


apical is, under the name of the "Yellowtufted Bee-eater.")

Voyage

Bloxam.

of the Blonde.

(See Phaeornis oahensis, Loxops coccinea


interesting
notes on other
Also
rufa.
Sandwich-Islands Birds.)

Moho

1789.

Browne,

Patrick.

The

Natural History of Jamaica.

Civil

Saint-

page 39, are mentioned various


birds as occurring on the Danish West-Indian
Islands, which are not found there at present.
" Un todier, nomm6 vulgairement perroquet
de terre " and seven species of HummingBirds !)
(In Vol.

Gallinule.")

1786.

Voyage aux
Trinite,

execute par ordre du Gouvern. fran^ais,


etc., etc.

*1783

la

and

1827.

Pallas.

Zoogr. Rosso

Asiat.

11

p.

305:

Phalacrocorax perspicillatus, the

now

e.xtinct

Island.

Cormorant from Bering

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.


1830.

QuoY
Zool.

ET Gaimard.

242

p.

pi.

Voy. Astrolabe,

1848.

24.

(Cotttrnix novaezealaiidiac described.)

Memoires

KiTTLiTZ.

1830.

Petersburg

Turdus

describes

(Kittlitz

Acad.

Sc.

terrestris

and

I.

XIX

Strickland and Melville. The Dodo


and its kindred; or the history,
affinities, and Osteology of the Dodo,
Solitaire, and other extinct birds of
the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and
Bourbon. London 1848.
and

(141 pages

15 plates.)

Fringilla papa.)

*1848.

New

PoLACK.

*1838.

Zealand.

p. 147,

work

Don de Navarette.

*1838.

Rel. Quat. voy.

not available, as only 3 or 4 copies


but see

is

exist of

it,

Cassin.

U.S.

Christ.

and Orn.
1838.

Abhandl. K. Akademie

LicHTENSTEiN.
d.

Wissenschaften
(Heiiu'giiatlins

obsciinis

p.

Is.

Exp.

Expl.

148

p. p.

pi.

XI

ossements

des

et

Madagascar

trouv^s

Mamm.

(1858).

Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire.

sur

nomine

sub

Hemignathus

and

1851.

448, plate V.

ellisiantis

U.S. Expl. Exp. Birds.


pi. XL, is described and figured

the extinct Chaetoptila aiigustipliima, under


This
the name of Eiitoiniza atigitstipliiina.

mention of Moas.)

(First

Peale.
(On

Notice

des

oeufs

dans

les

lucidus

alluvions modernes, et provenant d'un

described.)

oiseau gigantesque.

Dieffenbach's

1843.

Travels

Annales des Scienc. Naturelles, 13

In

New

in

tome
(This volume

Zoologie,

Zealand,
E.

J.

1843.

Appendix, Birds, by

On page

Gray.

197

s^rie,

40.

dated " 1850," but the above


have been read before the
Academy on January 27, 1851, therefore the
date of publication must be rather 1851 than

Ralltis

is

article is said to

dieffenbachii described.

1850.)

1843.

Owen. P.Z.S.

1843, p.

1.,

letter read

1854.

from Rev. \V. C. Cotton, mentioning


remains of gigantic birds in New
Zealand,

p.

8 the

novaezealandiae

name

given

to

den Dodo en zijne verwanten.


In

Dinornis
the

Ook een woordje over

H. Schlegel.
Verslagen

Mededeelingen

en

der

der Wetenschappen,
Afdeel. NaturUunde, Deel II, p. 254.
Koninglijke

first

Moa-bones exhibited.
1857.

Japetus

Akademie

Steenstrl'p.

Bidrag

til

Geirfuglens Naturhistorie, etc.


1846.

In

the

Terror,"

"Voyage of Erebus and


Birds, Gray describes and

In

(The first history and bibliography of


Great Auk.)

figures Nesolimnas dieffenbachii.

1847.

GossE.
(Cf.

Birds of Jamaica.

Ara

erythrocephala,

americanus and other Jamaican

1858.
Siphonorhis
birds.)

Naturh. Forening. Vidensk. Meddel. for

1855, Nos. 3-7.

Schlegel.

H.

Mascarenhas-eilanden.

hanger
1848.

Edm. DE Selys-Longchamps. Resume


les
Oiseaux brevipennes
mentionnes dans I'ouvrage de M.
Strickland sur le Dodo.
concern,

In Rev. Zool. 1848, pp. 292-295.

Over eenige

storvene reusachtige

tot

zijne

the

uitge-

Vogels van de

(Een tegender

geschiedenis

Dodo's.)
In

Verslagen

Koninglijke

en

Akademie

der
Mededeelingen
van Wetenschappen,

Afdeel. Naturkunde, Deel VII, pp. 116-128.

(Leguatia gigantea. Porphyria (Notornis ?)


cacrulescens.)

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

zx
1860.

A.

V.

1867.

Sitzungsberichte der Mathemat. NaturAkademie Wien Bd. XLl, No. 15,


(Mit

pp. 319-332.

In

376.

1867.

Researches

WoIIey's

represent

the

Island

Picture

Didine

the
of

Bourbon

Trans. Zool. Soc. London


Plate 62.

VI, pp. 373-

the

Bird

of Aepyoruis, the Colossal

of Madagascar.

Iceland

in

On

George Dawson Rowley.

Egg

Abstract of Mr.

Newton.

Alfred

to

Tafel.)

(Lengthy account qi Nestor iiorfolcensis,


from Bauer's Manuscript, Notoniis alba, etc.)

1681.

On

Newton.

(Reunion).

CI.

wiss.

Alfred
supposed
Bird of

Norfolk.

Insel
In

Zur Ornithologie der

Pelzeln.

London

In Proc. Zool. Soc.

respecting the Gare-fowl.

1867, pp. 892-

895.
In Ibis, 1861, pp. 374-399.

1868.

1862.

W.

Notice

Broderip.

J.

of

an

including a figure

Original Painting,
of the Dodo.
In Trans. Zool. Soc.

1862.

William

London

Dronte

und eines

gligen

V'ogels,

poule
IV, p.

zweiten

kurzfla-

des

wahrscheinlich

rouge au bee de becasse der

197.

Maskarenen, in der Privatbibliothek


S.M. des verstorbenen Kaisers Franz.
Wien 1868. Mit 4 Tafeln.

Ueber Plautus

Preyer.

Frauenfeld, George Ritter von.


aufgefundene Abbildung des

Neu

impennis.
In

Journ.

Orn.

f.

1862,

pp.

110-124,

337-

1868.

356.

Schlegel & Pollen.


Oiseaux,

et

in

Mammif^res

Pollen

Dam, Recherches sur


1865.

In

Natural

467-488)
Vol. Ill

id.

id.

Hist.
in

Review XII

Encylcl.

Madagascar
Leyde 1868.

The Gare-fowl

Alfred Newton.
and its Historians.

(1865),

la

von

et

faune

de

de ses dependances.

et

pp.

Britannica Ed. IX,

1868.

Diet. Birds, p. 220-221.

Owen, on Moas

in

Trans. Zool. Soc.

London, VI.
(Diiionu's inaximus established.)

1866.

Owen. Psittacus matiritianus named,


Ibis

in

p.

168;

also

Trans. Zool. Soc. VI,

mentioned

p. 53,

ontdekte afbeelding van den Dodo.

1866.

In

(See Lophopsittacus.)

Milne-Edwards.
Recherches sur la Faune Ornithologique
Eteinte des iles Mascareignes et de
Madagascar. Paris 1866-1873.
Alph.

1866-1873.

(With 37

plates.

This volume consists of

Verhandlingen der Koningl. Akad.

1869.

In
p.

of

the

1869.

Trans.

Zool.

Soc.

London VI,

1869,

70.

Elliot.

New

and heretofore

unfig.

N. American Birds.

added.)

figured.)

is

osteology

the

Dodo.

periodicals, though not a word of


mentioned.
To the plates originally
issued with the articles, several new ones are

French

On

Owen.

sp.

this

d.

Wetenschappen, Deel XI, Amsterdam 1868.

reprints of the author's articles on the suhject


in

Over eene nieuw

H. C. Millies.

1868.
in

(In Vol.

Carbo

II,

part 14, No.

perspicillatiis

3,

from

the

now

Bering

extinct

Island

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.


1872.

W. HuTTON. On

F.

the Microscopical

1875.

Rowley.

structure of the Egg-shell of the Moa.


Proceed. New Zealand Inst. IV,
pp. 166-167, with illustrations.

Porphyrio Stanleyi.

In Ornith. Miscell.

I,

pp. 37-48, plate.

&

In Trans.

1875.

HuTTON.

Swamp
1872.

XXI

F. W. HuTTON.
Notes on some Birds
from the Chatham Islands, collected
by H. H. Travers, Esq.

(Miro traversi and Sphenoeacus rufescens

(Cabalus

Moa

&

N. Zealand

Proc.

Inst.

VII,

V.

HuTTON & Coughtrey.


Description
some Moa Remains from the
Knobby Ranges.
Trans.

In

"Rallus

iiiodestns),

the

of

of

(Boii'dleria rufescens of this book) only found


First description of " Rallus
on Mangare.

modestus"

Trans.

In

p. 123, pi.

1875.

In Ibis 1872, pp. 243-250.

Description

at Hamilton.

p. 266, pi.

&

N. Zealand

Proc.

Inst.

VII,

XIX.

dieffenbachi" already extinct.)

1875.
1872.

On Recent Moa Remains

Hector.

J.

New

in

Zealand.

Trans, and

In

Proc. N. Zealand

Inst.

IV,

no.

p.

Alfred Newton. P.Z.S. 1875,p.350:


the name Lophopsittacus established.

1875.

On

HuTTON.

Dimensions

the

of

Dinornis bones.
1872.

Julius Haast.

Notes on Harpagornis

Moorei.
In Trans,

and Proc. N. Zealand

Inst.

&

1875.

A.

V.

Pelzeln.

On

the Birds in the

Researches and
and near the Moabone Point Cave, Sumner Road, in
In Trans,

from the Leverian Museum.


(Most important notes on some of Latham's
Cf. Drcpanis pacifica, Platycercus
tilietanus, Notornis alba.)
types.

Van

'1875.

pis.

Ozeanien.

1876.

Beneden.

of

A.

&

New Zealand.

Anas

Milne-Edwards.
la

faune

ancienne

1877.

Ann. Sciences naturelles

s6r.

V,

Tome

XIX, article 3 (Erythromachus, Strix miirivora,


Colittuba rodericaiia, etc.)

Zool.

IV,

finschi.)

On

the Psittaci of

Salvadori.

Fregilupus
:

Nota intorno

variiis.

Atti della Reale

Accademia

delle Scienze

Torino, Vol. XI, pp. 482-488.

iles

Mascareignes.
In

di

Recherches
des

E. Newton.

To.vimaso
al

In

sur

Journ.

In Ibis 1876, pp. 281-288, plate VI.

1876.

A.

Institute

the Mascarene Islands.

(On pages 138-144 a popular account and


wood cuts from Brehm's Thierleben of
Moas and other Gigantic Birds.)

1874.

New Zealand

II.

Oberlander.

Christmann und

The Birds

I,

p. 267.

(Description of

BuLLER.

in

and Proceed.

VII, pp. 54-85,

In Ibis 1873, pp. 14-54, I03"i24.

1873.

VII,

the year 1872.

Imperial Collection at Vienna obtained

1873.

Inst.

Julius von Haast.

Excavations on,

1873.

N. Zealand

Proc.

274.

IV,

192.

p.

Trans.

In
p.

G.

D.

Rowley.

On

the

Extinct

Birds of the Mascarene Islands.


In Orn. Miscell.

LIII.

II,

pp. 124-133, plates LII,

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

xxu

1878.

Remarks on the
Extinct Gigantic Birds of Madagascar
G.

Rowley.

D.

New

and

Miscell.

Supplementary note on the Great


in Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat.

Id.:

Auk

Zealand.

Ornith.

In

1897.

Soc. 1897, pp. 238-273.


Ill,

237-247,

pp.

pis.

CXII-CXV.

1886.

December.

1879.

Birds of the
Dole.
List
of
Hawaiian Islands.
Corrected from
the Hawaiian Almanack.
Reprint:

On

Julius von Haast.

Megalapteryx

hectori, a

new

Gigantic

Species of Apterygian Bird.


Trans.

In

Zool.

London

Soc.

Xll, p. 161,

XXX.

pi.

Ibis 1881, p. 241.

(Pcnniila

iitilhi,

1887.

Ciridops anna.)

Henry Seebohm.

The Geographical

Distribution of the family Charidriidae.


1879.

Owen,

Richard.

Memoirs

on

(Plates of Prosobonia leiicoptera and AechDwrhynchiis cancellata.)

the

Wingless Birds of New


with an Appendix on those
England,
Australia, Newfoundland,
of
Mauritius and Rodriguez.

1888.

(Memoirs on the Dinornithidae, their bones,


integument and plumage, Notornis,
eggs,
Aptornis, Cnemiornis, Alca inipennis, Didus
and Pezophaps.
With many woodcuts and

1889.

Extinct

Zealand

BuLLER.

New

Trans.

In

GUNTHER AND E. NeWTON, OH


Aphanapteryx leguati in Philosophical
Vol.

Presidential

Norwich

and

Norfolk

Natural.

Society IV, pp. 540-547.

1889.

pi.

Edward Newton.

Sir

1873.)

address.

(See also Owen's articles in Trans. Zool.


Soc. London III, IV, VI, X, XI.)

Transactions.

History of the Birds of

two volumes. Second Edition. (See

In

plates.)

1879.

Zealand.

Nouvelle Preuve

A. DE Quatrefages.

de I'Extinction recente des Moas.


In

Le Naturaliste

1889, p. 117.

168, pp. 431-432,

XLin.

1889.

C.

F.

Die Vei-anderung

Noll.

in

der Vogelwelt im Laufe der Zeit.


1879.

W.

On

Forbes.

A.

position

and

scientific

In

the systemat.

name

of

"

Bericht iiber die Senckenberg. Naturf.


Frankf.-a.-M. 1887-1888, pp. 77-

Gesellsch. in

Le

142.

Perroquet mascarin " of Brisson.


In Ibis 1879, p. 303.

1890.

Stejneger and Lucas.

Contributions

to the History of Pallas'

1884.

Wilhelm

Blasius.

Zur Geschichte

With

von Alca impennis.


In Journ.

f.

1-

In Proc. U.S. Nat.

list

till

A. B.
In

Hawaiienses

Meyer.

Notornis

Zeitschr. ges Orn.

Symington Grieve.
Garefowl.

pp. 83-94.

11, p.

Its

and Remains.

45, pi.

1.

The Great Auk or

History, Archaeology,

London

& Evans. Aves


The Birds of the SandWith numerous plates.

Itochstetteri.

1891.

Richard
the

1885.

Mus. Xll,

Scott B. Wilson

1890-99.

wich Islands.
1885.

Cormorant.

IV.

Orn. 1884, pp. 58-176.

(The most accurate and complete


of specimens of Alca impennis.)

1884

plates

1885.

Fossil

Museum.

Birds

London

in

the

British

1891.

(Pages I-XXVII, 1-368.


the text.)

Catalogue of

Lydekker.

With 75

figures in

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.


1891.

Frederic A. Lucas.

Animals recently

1892.

extinct or threatened with extermination, as

represented

of the U.S. National

in

the collection
1892.

Mus.) 1889 (1891

1),

Inst. (U.S.

pp. 609-649, pis.

stones,

XCV-CV.
1892.

Hartert. KatalogderVogelsammlung

(Alca impennis, Ttirdus terrestris, Chaunoproctus ferreorostris, Hemiphaga spadicea


mentioned.)

revised

in

list

1893.

Gizzard-

the genus Aptornis,

Vier seltene Rallen.

Abhandl.

d.

Vereins

Naturwiss.

zu.

XII.

H. O. Forbes.
inhabiting the

List of the Birds

Chatham

Islands.

In Ibis 1893, pp. 521-546.

(Notes on the living and extinct forms. The


Egg of
genus Palaeoliiiinas established.
Cabalus tiwdestus figured, etc.)

The Labrador Duck.


historical

1893.

notes.

W. W.

1891, pp. 301-316,

Notes

Smith.

species of

Auk

Moa

of the extant specimens

North America, with some


In

Zealand

XV-XVII.

172.

On

Hartlaub.
Bremen

Ges. Frankfurt-a-M.

Will. DuTCHER.

Zealand.

New

pp. 175-184.

In

im Museum der Senchenberg. Naturf.

New

pp. 93-172, pis.

Notes on

t.c. p.

Hamilton.
t.c.

1892.

1891.

XXIV,

Hamilton.

of

Proceed.

Nat.

(An account of some of the larger animals


which have become extinct within historic
times, or are threatened with extinction, with
reasons suggested for their disappearance.)

1891.

and

Trans,

Institute Vol.

Museum.

Smithson

In Report of the

The Moas

HuTTON.
In

XXUl

New

on

certain

Zealand Birds.

In Ibis 1893, pp. 509-520.

pi. 2.

(Methods of colonization and their disastrous

1894.

Will. DuTCHER.

With

results to the birds described.)

The Labrador Duck.

additional data respecting extant

1893.

specimens.
In

Auk

Milne-Edwards & Oustalet.

sur quelques especes d'oiseaux actuelle-

1894, PP- 4-12.

ment

eteintes qui se trouvent repre-

sentees dans les collections du


1892.

Forbes, H. O.

Preliminary Notice

New

de

Zealand (Abstract).

In Trans,
Vol.

XXIV,

and Proceed.

New

la

Inst.

Pp. 189-252,

Aphanapteryx and

other remains in the


In Nature, Vol.

XLVI,

Chatham
p.

Islands.

252.

(Short notes on avian remains which, unfortunately, were never properly studied afterwards.)

museum

d'histoire

commemoratif
professeurs du Museum.

pis. I-V.
:

Fregiliipus variiis,

Camptolaemus labradorius,

Droiiiaiiis " afer," but these beautifully figured

and masterly described and discussed.)


1893.

Newton and Gadow. On


additional Bones of the Dodo and
Sir

other

H. O. Forbes.

museum

Centenaire

Mascarinus mascarinus,
(Only 6 species
Alca
impennis,
nitidissima,
Alectroenas

Volume

public par les

pp. 185-189.

(The editors say that the paper is published


in abstract, as it had been
impossible to
prepare the drawings for its illustrations in
time.
It
is a most
pitiful
and unscientific
proceeding to publish such preliminary abstracts
containing insufficiently founded names and
complete " nomina nuda " without publishing
a fuller account such, as far as I know, has
never appeared.)

1892.

fondation du

naturelle.

Zealand

In

d'histoire naturelle.

of Additions to the Extinct Avifauna


of

Notice

E.

Extinct

Birds

of

Mauritius

obtained by Mr. Theodore Sauzier.


In Trans. Zool. Soc. London XIII, pp. 281Pis. XXXIII-XXXVII.
302.
(Strix sauzieri, Astiir alphotisi, Butorides
Sarcidiornis
nanus,
Plotus

mauritianus,
inaiiritianus.

Anas

theodori, etc.)

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

XXIV

The Moas and

A. DE QuATREFAGES.

1893.

and Proceed.

XXV,

New

Zealand

Inst.

history to date of the Birds of the

pp. 17-49.

French article which


appeared in the Nos. for June and July of the
"Journal des Savants" by Laura BuUer.)
(Translation

The

Rothschild.

Avifauna of Laysan and the Neighbouring Islands: with a complete

Moa-hunters.
In Trans,

Walter

1893-1900.

the

of

Hawaiian Possessions.
1900. With numerous

London 1893plates.

(Account and coloured plates of the extinct


birds of

Parker.
On the classification and
mutual relations of the Dinornithidae.

1893.

By

XXV,

Observations

and Proc.

Trans,

In

Hawaii.)

Milne-Edwards

1894.

T. J. Parker.

Oahu and

New

Zealand

Grandidier.

et

sur

Aepyornis

les

pp. 1-6, pis. I-IIl.

In

Comptes Rendus hebd. des Stances de


CXVIII, Part

I'Acad. d. Sciences, Paris, Vol.

New Species of

F.W. HuTTON.

1893.

In Trans,

XXV,

and Proc.

New Zealand

Moas.

Inst. Vol.

1894.

Parker.

J.

antiqua.

Skulls.

On Anomalopteryx

In Trans,

1894.

XXVI,

Inst.

On

Hamilton.

Remains

Avian

in

Southland.
T.c. p. 14, pi. IV.
In Trans,

R.

and Proc. N. Zealand

223.

p.

BuRCKHARDT,

Abhandl.

VI,

Heft

XXVI,

Inst.

Palaontolog.

in
2,

and Proc. N. Zealand

226.

p.

*1893.

Notes on Three Moa-

pp. 6-13.

W. HuTTON.

F.

I,

pp. 122-127.

(Diiioniis stremius, Anoiiialopteryx fortis,


Eiiryapteryx compacta, Pachyornis inUabilis,
P. valgus.)

1893.

de

Madagascar.

Inst.

pp.

127-145,

1894.

Hamilton.

Materials for a Biblio-

graphy of the Dinornithidae.

Taf. 1-4.

In Trans,

(Aepyornis.)

and Proc. N. Zealand

Inst.

XXVI,

pp. 229-257.

(A careful

1893.

The Moas

H. O. Forbes.

of

Zealand.

1895.

In Natural Science

II,

list

pp. 374-380.

C.

A. Hamilton.

On

Aepyornis

of

In

the Fissures and

Caves at the Castle Rocks, Southland


with a description of the remains of
the Existing and Extinct Birds found

1895.

and Proceed. New Zealand

p.

A.

my

readers.)

in

On some

remains

Hon.

Walter

the

Museum

at Tring.

Novitates Zoologicae

II,

pp. 23-25.

and Proc. N. Zealand

Inst.

XXVII,

228-232.

Inst.

pp. 88-106; with figures.)

1895.

1893.

In Trans,

(In Trans,

XXV,

refer

Hamilton.
Further contributions
towards a Bibliography of the Moas.

them.

in

which

W. Andrews.

Rothschild's
1893.

to

New

Newton.

" Extermination."

Jefferv

Parker.

Encyclopaedia Britannica.)

Phylo-

geny of the Dinornithidae.


In Trans. Zool. Soc.

in

the Cranial

Osteology, Classification, and


In

Dictionary of Birds.
(See also

On

373-431,

pis.

LVI-LXII.

London

Vol. XllI, pp.

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.


1895.

On

Hamilton.

Feathers of a

the

1897.

In Trans,

Forbes and

Two

small Moa.
and Proc. N. Zealand

Inst.

(On

See

norfolceiisis.

\V.

C.

bones,

On

Andrews.

Aepyornis

1900.

Magazine

Geological

in

etc.,

W. WoLTERSTORFF.

On

Kapua.
1900.
and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVIII,
Id. On the Moa-bones from Enfield,

627.

p.

Museum

Natur-

zu Magdeburg.

Mit 2 Abbildungen.
in

On

W. Andrews.

C.

Die Moas im

wissenschaftl.

645.

Extinct

the

Naturwiss. Vereins

Jahresbericht

Magdeburg
1896.

Verein

Verlag von E. Nagele.

Mertens.

A.

im
zu

gehalten

Mit zwei Abbildungen.

Stuttgart.

a deposit of Moa-bones

In Trans,

t.c.p.

Ausgestorbcnc

Naturwissenschaftlichen

HuTTON.
at

figured Nestor

is

Vortrag,

Magdeburg.

on

35.

t.c. p.

p. 5.)

Riesenvogel.

1895.

1896.

Note

Robinson.

Species of Pigeon,

(Hemiphaga spadicea.)
pi. I of the same vol.

XXVIl,

pp. 232-238.

*1895.

XXV

zu

1898- 1900. (Pp. 1-24 in separate

fiir

copy.)

Birds of the Chatham Islands


In Novit Zoolog. Ill, p. 73-84

W.

Key

A. Bryan.

to the Birds of

the Hawaiian group.

Palaeolimnas

hawkinsi,

( Diaphorapteryx

1901.

and 260-271.

chathciinensis, Nesoliinnas dieffeiibachii.)

1902.

Walter

Rothschild and
Ernst
Further notes on the
fauna of the Galapagos Islands.
Hartert.

En

Hartlaub.

G.

1896.

zur

Beitrag

Geschichte der ausgestorbenen Vogel

In Nov. Zool. 1902, pp. 381-418; cf. also


Nov. Zool. 1899, pp. 154, 163.
(Geospiza magnirostris and dentirostris.)

der Neuzeit, sowie derjenigen, deren

Fortbestehen bedroht erscheint.


In

Abhandl.

(Also

as

manuscript, with

gn.

1902.

Hawaian

of the same, printed


few alterations and

of

list

Birds of the

the

Possessions,

(The most useful, comprehensive pamphlet


on recently extinct birds.)

habits.

On some

Andrews.

Carinate

of

Birds

the

of

Birds

fossil

remains

from

Central

1903.

Madagascar.

with

and IX.

their

The Black Emu.

Zoologist 1903, pp. 8i-88.

Wilhelm
of

Hawaiian
on

Honolulu 1902.

Der Riesenalk,

Blasius.

Alca impennis L.

In Ibis 1897, pp. 343-359, pis. VIII

notes

Graham Renshaw.
In

complete

being a

Islands,

additions.)

1903.
1897.

W. Henshaw.

H.

Heft.

Second edition

Vereins

Naturwiss.

d.

Bremen XIV Band,

Naumann

In the

called "

New Edition

Naumann, Natur-

geschichte der Vogel Mitteleuropas


1897.

H. O. Forbes.

On

(sic),

an apparently

new, and supposed to be

now

species of Bird from the

vol.

XII,

pp.

169-208,

pis.

17,

17a-17d, 1903.

extinct,

(Among others the most complete


graphy and very detailed descriptions.)

Mascarene

biblio-

Islands, provisionally referred to the

genus Necropsar.
In

Sturn.

Bull.
I

Liverpool

With

Museums,

(Necropsar leguati).

1903.

plate.
I,

p.

34,

pi.

Fleming,
Pigeon.
In Auk

J.

H.

1903, p. 56.

On

the

Passenger

LITERATURE REFERRING TO EXTINCT BIRDS.

XXVI

1903.

M. GuiLLAUME Grandidier.
bution

I'etude

de

Contri-

I'Epiornis

1905-1906.

Sir

Walter Buller.

Supple-

New

Zealand."

to the " Birds of

ment

de

Madagascar.

Two

In
Comptes Rendus des Stances de I'Acad.
Sc, Paris 1903 (pp. 1-3 in separate copy.)

e.xtinct

volumes.

(Though containing very interesting notes on


and threatened birds, these two volumes

They contain very


new, and are mainly composed of
quotations from other people's writings or
letters.
Buller's former great book on the
Birds of New Zealand was a most important
and creditable work, though not without shortcomings.
Our knowledge of New Zealand
Birds might have been brought up to date in
his supplement, but we cannot say that this
has been done properly, and errors are
are rather disappointing.

little

1903.

Grandidier.

G.

Note au sujet du

squelette de VAepyoniis ingens.


In Bull.

Mus. Paris 1903, pp. 318-323, with

figures.

1903.

Paul

Observations

Carie.

quelques oiseaux de

I'ile

sur

Maurice.

that

is

frequent.)

In Ornis XII, p. 121-128.

(We
echo

are informed that neither Palaeornis

sub nomine eqiies -nor Nesoeiias mayeri

1906.

are extinct.)

Baldwin Spencer.

The King

Island

Emu.
1905.

A.

Clark.

H.

Extirpated

In

West

Indian Birds.
In

1905.

Auk

1905.

A.

The Lesser

Antillean

1905, pp. 266-273.

H.

Clark.

The

West

Indian

Parrots.
In

Auk

(1906),

(Dromaius miuor described.)

A. H. Clark.

Auk

Naturalist XXIII

1905, pp. 259-266.

Macaws.
In

The Victorian

pp. 139, 140.

1905, pp. 337-344-

1907.

Walter Rothschild. On Extinct


and Vanishing Birds. A short Essay
on the Birds which have presumably
become extinct within the last 500
years, and also of those birds which
are on the verge of extinction, including a few which, though not yet so
far gone, are threatened with extinc-

1905.

A. H. Clark.

The Greater

Macaws.
In

Auk

1905, pp. 345-348.

Antillean

tion in the near future.


In
Proceed, of the IV Intern.
Congress, London 1905, pp. I9:-2I7.

Ornith.

LIST OF PLATES.
1.

Fregilupus

Mus.
2.

3.

From

varius.
Hist.

the

plate

the

in

Volume

"

Centenaire,"

Naturelle, Paris.

From

1.

Fottdia bruante.

2.

Necropsar rodericanus.

3.

Necropsar leguati.

1.

Geospiza magnirosiris.

2.

Geospiza strenua.

3.

Nesoenas mayeri.

4.

Chaimoproctus

the figure in Daubenton's work.

Made up from

From

description.

the type specimen in Liverpool.

From

the type specimen

From specimen

Head.

From specimen
3

ferreorostris

London.

at Tring.

in the British

From

in

the

Museum.
pair

the

in

British

Museum.
4.

1.

After a drawing from the type in the Berlin

Hemigjiathus ellisianus.

Museum.
2.

3. Psittirostra

4a.

5.

From

Heterorhynchus lucidus.

From

psittacea deppei.

4.

Ciridops anna.

From

1.

Moho

From specimen

2.

Chaetoptila angusiipluma.

1.

Miro

2.

Traversia

apicalis.

traversi.

From

lyalli 3

in

From specimen

From

the

Museum.

Museum.

the Tring

skin in the Tring


J

Museum.

the type in the Tring

a specimen in the Tring

and

Museum.

a specimen in the Paris

in

the Tring

Museum.

Museum.
specimens

type

in

the

Tring

Museum.
3.

5a.
6.

Bowdleria rufescens.

From
From

Siphonorhis americanus.
1.

Nestor norfolcensis.

From

a skin in the Tring

Museum.

skin in the British

Museum.

the plate in the Bulletin of the

Liverpool

Museum.
2.

Head

From

of Nestor prodiicttis.

7.

Lophopsittacus mauritiantts.

8.

Necropsitiacus borbonicus.

9.

Mascarinus mascarinus.

From
From

From

a specimen in the Tring

ancient drawing and description.

a description.

the drawing

in

the

Volume commemoratif,

Centenaire Mus. Paris.


10.

Ara

tricolor.

From specimen

in

Museum.

the Liverpool

Museum.

LIST OF PLATES

xxviii

H.

Ara

gossei.

12.

Ara

erythrocephala.

13.

Anadorhynchus purpurascens.

14.

Ara

martinicus.

15.

Ara

erythrura.

16.

Conurus

17.

Amazona

violaceus.

18.

Amazona

tnartinicana.

19.

Palaeornis exsul.

20.

Palaeornis wardi.

21.

Hemiphaga

22.

Alectroenas nitidissima.

From Gosse's

From Gosse's

From

From
From

labati.

description.

From

description.

description.

description.

description.

From

description.

From

From

description.

the plate in the " Ibis."

From

the plate in the " Ibis."

From

spadicea.

description.

du Centenaire, Mus.

the specimen in the Tring

From

the plate in the

Made up from

Pezophaps

24.

Didus cucullatus.

From drawings.

24a.

Didus cucullatus.

See explanation, page

172.

24b.

Didus cucullatus.

See explanation, page

172.

24c.

Didus cucullatus.

See explanation, page

172.

25.

Didus

specimen
25a.

25b.

Didus
1,

2,

solitarius.

5,

7,

in

8.

descriptions and ancient drawings.

a picture supposed to be taken from a living

Amsterdam, but beak and wing restored.


After Dubois' description.

Pezophaps

3.

page
4,

From

solitarius.

Volume commemoratif

Paris.

23.

solitaria.

Museum.

solitarius.

Reproduction

of

ancient

figures,

see

solitarius.

Reproduction

of

ancient

figures,

see

177.

Didus

page 177.

OF PLATES

LIST

26.

I.

British
2.

From

Hypotaenidia pacifica.

Forster's

xxix

unpublished drawing

in

the

Museum.

From

Pennula sandwichensis.

unique specimen

the

in

the

Leyden

in

the

British

Museum.
3.

27.

Pennula

From

millsi.

Nesolimnas

skin in the Tring

From

dieffenbachi.

Museum.
specimen

unique

the

Museum.
28.

From

\.

Cabalus modestus.

2.

Coturnix novaezealandiae.

29.

Aphanapteryx bonasia.

30.

Erythromachus

skin in the Tring

From

From

Museum.

skin in the Tring

ancient drawing.

Made up from

leguati.

Museum.

ancient

outUne

figure

and

description.

Made up from

3L

Leguatia gigantea.

32.

Apierornls coerulescens.

33.

Notomis

34.

Notomis

alba.

From

From

description.

the plate

in

From

hodistetteri.

ancient figures and descriptions.

"Ibis," 1873.

the

plate

in

the

Zeitschr.

f.d.

ges.

Ornithologie.
35.

1.

Aedwiorhynchtis
"

2.

cancellatus.

From

the

plate

in

Seebohm's

Charadriidae."

After the unpublished drawings in the British

Prosobonia leucoptera.

Museum, but

the

artist

has

not

shown the white patch on the

shoulder.
36.

Camptolainms

labradoriits.

From

the

two

specimens

in

the

Tring

Museum.
37.

Aestrelata caribbaea.

38.

Alca impeiinis.

39.

Carbo perspicillatus.

40.

Droinaius peroni.

41.

Megalapteryx huttoni.

42.

Dinornis ingens.

From

From

the type specimen in the Dublin

the stuffed specimen in the Tring

From

From

a specimen

in

the British

Museum.

Museum.

Museum.

the type of the species in the Paris

Museum.

Restored from osteological remains and feathers.

Restoration from skeleton and some feathers.

PALAEOCORAX
THIS

genus

forbes.

founded on cranial ciiaracters

is

The vomer

of parasphenoid present but rudimentary.

three-pointed

the latter anchylosed to the expanded

The

ossified

of the

the

base

ossified

mesethmoid stretches backward and

upper surface of the vomer, so that

between

complete

of

the

lodged

is

flat,

and

nasal septum.

the

in

concavity

presents a form intermediate

it

such

forms,

aegithognathous

broad,

anchylosed to the premaxillaries,

Maxillaries

front.

in

Basipterygoid processes

as

compound aegithognathous forms, such as Gymnorhina,

in

Corviis,

and

the

which desmogna-

thism was superadded by "anchylosis of the inner edge of the maxillaries with
" (Parker).
a highly ossified alinasal wall and nasal septum

PALAEOCORAX MORIORUM
Corvus moriorum Forbes, Nature
Palaeocorax morionan Forbes,

FORBES says
DR. comix.
The

XLVI

Bull.

252 (1892).

p.

B.O.C.

this bird is of

(forbes).

p.

XXI

(1892).

about half the size again of a Corvus

principal characters are cranial,

and the same as those

of the genus.

Habitat

Chatham

Many

Islands,

and possibly the Middle

and bones

skulls

in

the Tring

Island,

New

Museum.

PALAEOCORAX ANTIPODUM
Palaeocorax aiitipodum Forbes,

HIS

is

said

to

smaller size.

forbes.

Ibis 1893, p. 544.

be distinguished

Habitat

Zealand.

North

from P. moriorum by

Island,

New

Zealand.

its

considerably

FREGILUPUS

UGE

crest,

One

long and curved.

bill

LESSON.
species, extinct.

FREGILUPUS VARIA
(Plate
"

(bodd.)

1.)

Huppes oil Callcndrcs," Voyages du Sieur D.B. (Dubois) aux lies Dauphine on Madagascar,
and Bourbon ou Mascarenne, etc., p. 172 (1674 Bourbon).

Hiippe du Cap de Bonne Espirance Daubenton,


Hiippe noire

PI. Enl. 697.

blanche du Cap de Bonne Espirance MontbeiUard, Hist. Nat. Ois. VI,

et

463 (1779).

p.

Madagascar Hoopoe Latham, Gen. Syn.

Upupa varia Boddaert,

Tabl. PI. Enl.

Upiipa capensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

La Huppc

I,

B.

II

pt.

43 (1783

p.

466

grise Audebert et Vieillot, Ois. Dor., "

Le Mirops huppi

690 (1783).

p.

Promerops

" p.

Levaillant, Hist. Nat. Promerops, etc., p. 43,

Upupa madagascariensis Shaw, Gen.


Coracia cristata

I,

ex Daubenton).
(1788 ex MontbeiUard).

p.

Vieillot,

Zool. VIII,

pt.

Pastor upupa Wagler, Syst. Avium, Pastor,

sp.

pi.

iii (1802).

18 (i8o6).

140 (1812).

p.

I,

Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. VIII,

15

pi.

3 (1817).

p.

13 (1827).

Fregiliipus borboniciis Vinson, Bull. Soc. d'Acclimat 1868,

p.

627.

p. 203 (1877); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XIII


Oustalet, Centenaire Mus. Hist. Nat., p. 205, pi. II

Fregiliipus varius Hartlaub, Vog. Madagasc.

194 (i8go)

p.

Milne-Edwards

&

(1893).

AS

long ago as 1674 a note about the "


Dubois.

i.e.,

"

of

He

Hoopoes or

says,

when

{i.e.,

to eat)

This

by

exists,

"

Le Sieur D.B.,"

describing the birds of Reunion (translated)

Callendres,' having a white tuft on the head, the rest

'

the plumage white and grey, the

they are a

Huppe"

little

larger than the

when

it is

bill

and the feet

young pigeons

another good

this is

a bird of prey

like

game

fat."

description

has

generally

been

accepted

as

referring

to

the

Fregilupiis, though that of the

bill

and feet

author, for Fregiliipus has

bill

and feet of a member of the Sturnidae

the

is

then due to an error of the

or family of Starlings.

Good
in

many

females

in

least,

the

"Huppe" have been

given

places (see literature), but whether they were taUen from males or
is

the female

At

descriptions and representations of the

generally not known.


is

this

museum

smaller, and has


is

The sexes seem

a shorter and straighter

the conclusion of Dr.

at Troyes.

As

to be alike in colour, but

Hartert,

who saw

bill

than the male.

the four examples

far as he could see through the glass

all

four

seemed
bills,

but two were larger with longer and more curved

to be adult birds,

two smaller and with shorter and straighter beaks, so that they are

evidently

two

pairs.

This bird seems to have become extirpated about the middle of the

The

century.

last

late

Monsieur Pollen wrote

become so rare that one

species has

dozen years.

has been destroyed

It

still

me

old Creoles told

"

the

bird

inhabitant

Reunion,

seen a dozen
search for

it

We

in

kill

therefore,

is,

Mr. A.

Legras,

them with

The

wrote

They

sticks.

about

common, and

still

wrong what

not

this

call this

distinguished

with

bird

in vain in

the

belonging to the late

grieved to

our museum."

are certain that Fregilupus existed

me

we were even

our wanderings to discover birds;

Monsieur Desjardins,

Two

these birds were

that, in their youth,

It

in

words: "The Hoopoe has become so rare that we have hardly

following

has sent

and even

exist in the forests of the interior, near St. Joseph.

Hoopoe."

of

mentioned for a

in all the littoral districts,

were so stupid that one could

that they

not hear them

did

"This

Trustworthy persons, however, have assured us

the mountains near the coast.


that they must

1868 (translated)

in

on Mauritius, wrote

living

Professor Milne-Edwards:

four alive from Bourbon in May,

on

still

in

"My

in

1835, as

manuscript

formerly

friend, Marcelin Sauzier,

They

1835.

have escaped some months afterwards, and

Reunion

it

eat everything.

might well happen that

they will stock our forests."


It

seems, indeed, that specimens were

where they
in

did not originally exist.

killed

in

1837 on

Verreaux shot an example

Mauritius,
in

Reunion

1832.

The names "La Huppe du Cap" and

"

Upupa madagascariensis"

arose

out of the mistaken notions that this bird lived in South Africa or Madagascar,
but

we know now

that

its real

WE ARE AWARE

home was Reunion

or Bourbon.

OF THE FOLLOWING SPECIMENS PRESERVED

IN

COLLECTIONS.
2 stuffed ones, one in good, one

bad condition, and two

in

in

spirits, in

4 stuffed in Troyes.

from the Riocour

stuffed,

in

in Turin.

in

1,

the Florence

Museum.

Pisa.

rather poor and old, in Leyden.

in

Stockholm.

in

the

in the collection of

collection, in the British

Museum.

in

Museum

Genoa.

at Port Louis,

on the island

of Mauritius.

the late Baron de Selys Longchamps.

the Paris

Museum.

NECROPSAR

HE

GiJNTHER & NEWTON.

authors state that this genus was very closely allied to Fregilupus,

and,

some minor

besides

differences, give

the shorter and less curved

as the principal difference

bill.

NECROPSAR RODERICANUS
(Plate

2,

& Newton,

Necropsar rodericanus Giinther

Fig.

2.)

Phil.

Trans,

gunth.&newt.

vol. i58, p. 427, pi.

XLII,

figs.

A-G

(1879).

TH E

anonymous author

original description given by the

Rodrigue

de rile

" is

as

follows:

"These

birds

of the " Relation

are a

little

larger

than a blackbird, and have white plumage, part of the wings and the
tail

beak and the legs yellow, and make a wonderful warbling."

black, the

Our author

also says they inhabited the

eggs and dead

The
lingered

Islet

au Mat, and fed on seabirds'

turtle.

evidently

bird
little

longer

became extinct on

on the

outlying

Rodriguez

islets.

before

1730,

and

Only known from bones,

mostly collected by the Rev. H. H. Slater, and the above description.


Habitat

There

The
of the bird

is

Rodriguez and neighbouring

one

figure
is

is

tibia in

the Tring

islets.

Museum.

coloured according to the description, while

evident from

its

bones and

relation.

the shape

NECROPSAR LEGUATI
(Plate
Necropsar

Fig. 3.)

2,

Forbes, Bull. Liverp. Rlus,

legitati

forbes

Stuniidac

p. 34, pi.

I,

FORBES' description
as follows
DR. where,
except on the outer webs
is

"

(1897-1898).

General colour white everythe primaries and

of distal half of

secondaries and the outer webs of the newly moulted and both webs
of

the

unmoulted

rectrices,

which

marked with

are

darker

or

lighter

ferruginous."
Dr.

which

Forbes then gives an exhaustive description of the structure, to

refer

my

measurements :

readers, and the following

32

mm.

109

Tail

98

Tarsus

31-5,,

Culmen

....

....

....

....

....

....

Wing

of

should have been inclined to consider this bird an albinistic specimen

the bird described in " Relation de

the tibia of Necropsar rodericanus

46

mm.

in

length,

36-41

mm.

Islet

au Mat

is

in

bird,

too close to

52-59

Rodrigue," but for the fact that

mm.

length, while this

in

while the metatarsus measures 31 "5

rodericanus.

A'^.

is

I'lle

mm.

is

as opposed to

cannot accept the theory that this

and therefore different from

Rodriguez to have

had

A'^.

starling.

the

is

the

rodericanus, as

different

only

islet

therefore

believe this bird to have been an albinistic specimen of the Mauritius species

of

Necropsar, for

ferruginous colour

conclude that
black
A'^.

like

the

the

there
is

can

little

doubt

that

it

is

much stronger on one wing than on

colour

Rodriguez

rodericanus, from which

Habitat

be

doubtful.

in

the wings and

bird,
it

The

and that

tail

A'^.

leguati

differed principally in its

type specimen

bears

the other

was

much

Lord

the

and

specimens was

normal

in

as

albinistic,

close

ally

of

smaller size.

Derby's

Museum

number, 1792, and a label of Verreaux giving Madagascar as the habitat,

which

is

certainly erroneous.

FOUDIA BRUANTE
(Plate
Bruant de

I'isle

L)

Fig.

2,

(p.ls. mull.)

de Bourbon Daubenton, PI. Enl. 321.

Le Mordori, Montbeillard,

Hist. Nat. Ois.,

Fringilla bruante

Miill.,

P.L.S.

Quarto Edition

Natursyst.,

Suppl.

IV., p.

No. 51 (1776

164,

p.

366 (1778

Bourbon).

ex

Daubenton

PI. enl).

Emberiza fuscofulva Boddaert, Table


Montbeillard's " Morder6 ").
Emberiza borbonica Gmelin,

Bnl. p. 20

PI.

Syst. Nat.

p.

(1783

ex

based

WE

know

Brit.

Mus. XIII

Enl. 321

and

IV., pp.

p.

543 and 548 (1889).

484 (1890).

absolutely nothing about this bird, except Daubenton's figure

and the description by Montbeillard.


including the

back,

species of Foudia, while the

brown borders.

PI.

Daubenton and Montbeillard).

886 (1788

Foudia bruante Newton, Trans. Norf. and Norw. Nat. Soc.


NesacaiUhis fusco-fulvus Sharpe, Cat. B.

on

is

In

uniform red, about the same red as

wings and

In the description the

tail

are dark

body plumage

("mordere") and the wings, wing-coverts and


rufous ("d'un mordore plus ou moins clair
that of a Bunting, but the

tail

tail

The

").

in

other

brown with yellowishis

described as rufous

as more or less bright


size is

said to be about

shorter and the wings longer.

According to Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. XIII,


considered identical with

the plate the whole body,

p.

484) "it has generally been

Foudia madagascariensis," but the

latter has the

back marked with longitudinal black spots, while both the figure and description
of F. bruante represent a uniform red upperside
latter is expressly stated,

moreover the

and as we know other forms of Foudia from the

Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Aldabra and Madagascar,


to doubt the statement.

We

doubtless extinct bird, though

Museum

we have no

reason

are not aware of any specimen existing of this


it

would be worth while

for this treasure.

Habitat

locality of the

Reunion or Bourbon.

to search the

Paris

CHAUNOPROCTUS
Chaunoproctus Bonaparte, Consp. Av.

THE

genus Chaunoproctus contains only one species, which

by

its

enormous

nearly straight, and there

is

The

maxilla.

has red

in

total length

is

mandible being greater than

the

of

The cutting-edge

which

it

115)

p.

I,

the posterior half of the

in

The

adult male

opinion

of

is

that

bird

this

and not with the Greenfinches and

allies,

placed

is

of the

brown, above and below.

is

Fauna

pal.

connected with Carpodactis and

Hawfinches, among

no tooth

is

characterized

is

about seven to eight inches.

the plumage, the female

Dr. Hartert (Vogel


is

the depth

bill,

between the nasal apertures.

the distance
maxilla

526 (1850).

p.

Bp.

in

Birds in the

Catalogue of

the

Museum.

British

CHAUNOPROCTUS FERREOROSTRIS (vio


(Plate
Coccothraiisfes ferreorostris

Voy. Blossom,
Fringilla

papa

Vigors, Zool. Journ. IV

Kittlitz,
p.

32

M6in. Acad.

Imp. Sc.

description,

original

Dark brown;

p.

pi.

239,

15 (1830);

id.

Bp. and Schlegel, Monogr. Loxiens

Mus. XII

Brit.

"Catalogue

of

31 (iS

p.

the

Latin,

Length of body 8 J,

Birds,"

XII,

quill

p.

4j

bill

tail 3,

both

31,

is

abdomen

head, breast and upper part of

wings from the carpus to the third


the

In

translated from

very strong, feet plumbeous.


;

Petersbourg

526 (1850)

p.

Chaunoproctus ferreirostris Sharpe, Cat. B.

height I

Beechey's

38 (1850).

pis. 37,

VIGORS'

in

id.

24, pi. 32, 2 {1832).

Chaunoproctus papa Bonaparte, Consp.


p.

354 (1828)

p.

22, pi. 8 (1839).

p.

Kupfertaf. Vog.

(sic)

Fig. 4.)

3,

as follows:

scarlet.

gape

at

J,

Bill

If^,

tarsus J inches."

sexes

are

carefully

described.
It

obtained

appears
during

that

Captain

suggested that the

one

Beechey's

brilliantly

now

pair,

Kittlitz,

who

visited

obtained a number of
in

Frankfurt-a.-M.,

Museum, was

British

enough.

Curiously

Vigors

coloured adult male might be the young, the

Pine-Grosbeak

the largest of the

specimens,

one

the

in

voyage.

the adult bird, " as is the case in the

female

two

only

of

or two

which
in

" {Sic !).

Bonin Islands

some

Leyden,

are
and,

in
I

May, 1828,

in

St.

Petersburg,

believe,

in

Paris.

10

These

seem

to

be

all

the

known

specimens

Mr. Seebohm's collector, the late Hoist,

Owston's men, who several


who were promised good

is

still

obtain

to

failed

it,

for

specimens, did not get one.

some unknown reason

this bird

on the main island of the group, which alone was visited by

That

numerous.
that one

is

it

obliged

he found

it

keeps concealed,
to

became

mostly on the ground.

is

in

Its

very phlegmatic, and

Kittlitz

fruit

The

am

extinct,

Kittlitz.

is

so

saw

it

little
if

shy

one

but seldom on high trees,


is

a very fine piping sound.

and buds of one kind of tree were

found.

Habitat:

and

the woods along the coast, but not

frequently heard note

crop and stomach small

it,

not collect

go back for some distance, before shooting,

wishes to preserve the specimen.

In the

and Mr. Alan

the possibility that the recent collectors did

Kittlitz tells us that

museums.

European

times went to the Bonin group to obtain


prices

therefore convinced that for

though there

in

largest of the Bonin Islands, south of Japan.

11

GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS
(Plate

Fig.

3,

1.)

Geospiza magnirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837,


Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 154, 1902 p. 388
XII, pp.

AS

6,

7 (Fig.

explained in

p.
;

Nov. Zool. 1899,

p.

154,

I,

495 (1901).

p.

where Darwin

uncertain

is

it

(Galapagos Islands)

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus.

Ridgway, B. North and Middle America

gould.

obtained the type specimens of Gould's G. magnirostris, as "Unfortunately,

most

Darwin

the specimens of the finch-tribe were mingled together," as

of

us in his "Journal of Researches"

(New

only " strong reasons to suspect that

some

tells

and he had

Geospiza are confined to

sub-group

separate

Edition 1890,

420),

p.

of the species of the

We

islands."

however,

are,

convinced that the types of G. magnirostris can only have come from Charles

where

Island,

is,

it

probably, the

seems, however, that

have

collectors

U.

the

in

S.

magnirostris

failed

Nat.

(cf.

are

wing

as
91,

26-5 and a

95;

wing

tarsus
of 91

of

huge examples

(No.

It

subsequent

all

immature specimen

an

unless

Island

115,905),

is

young

p. 388).

Museum

base

23-5-24;

26-5,

25

mm.

27,

it

is

height

27;

These

mm. combined do

of strenua, and therefore

no longer, for

the three black specimens in the British

Culmen

follows:
91,

Charles

Nov. Zool. 1902,


of

exists

specimens,

obtain

to

Mus., from

The dimensions

representative of G. strenua strenua.

G. magnirostris

of

bill

measurements
not occur

at

culmen of over

among our

hardly possible that G. magnirostris

large series
is

composed

of strenua only.

As Charles Island has been inhabited


unlikely that a bird

became extinct on that

for

many

place.

On

magnirostris and a head of G. strenua for comparison.

years

it

plate 3

is

not at

is

figured G.

all

12

GEOSPIZA DENTIROSTRIS
Geospiza dentirostris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837,
Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 163, 1902 p. 396.

THIS

curious form

bill,

which

slightly

British

is

differs

bowed

" toothed "

Museum

certainly

in

on

from G.

fortis fortis

think that

Museum

it

cutting edge.

came from Charles

(Charles Island!)

The one specimen

Island,

fortis.

is

dentirostris.

is

in

its

in

the

certainly no reason

skins in

some reason

Otherwise

extinct, as, in spite of special attention being paid to

met with G.

Hartert,

and we may, therefore,

As the

Island.

from each other, there

they are both aberrations of G. fortis

collectors

&

towards the end of the upper mandible, and


its

came from Chatham

slightly differ

6; Rothschild

p.

conclude that the other also came from there, and there
to

gould.

it

it,

the

British

to suspect that

must have become


none of the recent

13

POMAREA NIGRA
Miiscicapa nigra Sparrmann, Mus. Carlson.

Pomarea nigra Sharpe,


" Society Islands,

the

list

IN Intern.
E.

of
bird

of birds

Marquesas group

now

Orn. Congress,
Layard's

L.

I,

Cat. B. Brit. Mus. IV,

fully
I

Islands).
etc.,

").

Proceedings of the Fourth

the

extinct, in

enumerated Po7narea nigra, on the strength

statement,

has undoubtedly become

Society

Full
synonymy,
description,
434 (1879
23 and text (1786

pi.

p.

(sparrm)

P.Z.S.

1876,

Large

extinct.

p.

501,

who

"This

says:

sums have been

offered

by

Messrs. Godeffroy's collectors for the acquisition of a single specimen, but


in vain

I,

The

very old natives say they

remember the

however, overlooked the fact

that

this

bird

and

call it "

Moho."

note of Layard's referred

to the Friendly Islands only, and that this bird has afterwards been obtained
in

numbers on

interesting to

the

Marquesas

group.

It

would,

compare specimens from the various

group, Marquesas and Tongatabu, to see

if

nevertheless,

islands, viz.

be

very

the Society

they are perfectly similar.

15

MIRO TRAVERSI
(Plate
Miro traversi

New

Buller, B.

Petroeca traversi Hutton,

Zealand, Ed.

late

Sir

Mus. IV

Brit.

Buller, Suppl. B. N.

p.

The whole

Chatham

i8g.

II

125

p.

Miro traversi as follows:

1873,

in

blackish brown,

brown

Irides dark

tail-feathers

tail 2-6;

0-5,

bill

tarsus

black

bill

the

black, very

and toes

tarsi

Total length 6 inches;

the soles of the feet dull yellow.

wing, from flexure, 3-4;

the base of

black,

brown, the former greyish on their inner surface;


brown.

XII (October, 1906).

pi.

wing-feathers and their coverts tinged with

feathers dark plumbeous;

slightly tinged with

Islands).

236 (1879).

plumage

the

of

p.

Zealand

Walter Buller described,

"Adult male.

123 (1873

p.

Journ.-f.-Orn. 1874,

Miro traversi Sharpe, Cat. B.

THE

1.)

Ibis 1872, p. 245.

Myiomoira traversi Finsch,

Miro traversi (partim)

Fig.

5,

duller.

middle toe and claw

O'l,

hind toe and claw 0-8 inch."


"

Female.

tinge on the wings and

may

It

smaller

Slightly

Miro traversi

without the brown

and

male,

tail."

be added

somewhat brownish

than the

that

Miro

traversi

is

pure

not

slaty black.
is

only

known from

Chatham

the

where

Islands,

formerly very common, but, according to a letter from the late


the cats,

which have been

seems

introduced

it.

island of the

Chatham group, long

and Henry Palmer found

Mangare and
The

Little

bird

it,

to

in

from the Snares

traversi

black, that

Walter

is

quite
first

diff'erent,

primary.

named

Buller

(Suppl.

Chatham

B.N.Z.

II,

it

do not doubt

it

it

p.

524)

islets of

from the Snares were

all

M. dannefaerdi.

as has, apparently,

Islands.
p.

has

125)

his

confounded

plate

looks so

represents rather the latter than the former.

Of course M. dannefaerdi alone occurs on the Snares, and

p.

have

being deep glossy black

and dannefaerdi, and the figure he gave on


I

rabbits,

Mangare.

be feared that a similar fate will one day befall

Sir

and

ago, for H. O. Forbes (Ibis 1893,

already befallen its congener from the

M.

rats

was

W. Hawkins,

1890 and 1892, only on the outlying

and having a shorter and narrower


It is to

destroy

to

it

have disapppeared from Warekauri, the main

exterminated

It

of a

but

black,

dannefaerdi.

Buller's traversi

Dr. Finsch's statement (Ibis

1888,

308) that Reischek's specimen from the Snares "agreed in every respect

with specimens from the Chatham

Islands "

is

entirely wrong, for, even

if

16

one prefers unscientifically to lump

from

Chathams agrees

the

allied

every

in

forms, one cannot say that a Miro

respect

one

with

from the Snares.

BuUer's doubts about the distinctness of the latter might easily have been

removed,

if

he had taken the trouble to compare them, for

any genius to see the differences.


geographical forms

them M.
would

admit that with

would regard the

traversi traversi

still
I

two

my

it

does not require

present views on

Miro as sub-species, and

call

and M. traversi dannefaerdi but most ornithologists


,

consider them to be "good species."

may add

correctly, for

in

that
his

Buller,

I.e.,

p.

has not

125,

quoted

my

description

rendering are several disturbing misprints, and

in

the

fourth line from the bottom occurs a " not " which ought not to be there, and

which makes the sentence incomprehensible.

Also the

name

itself

is

spelt

incorrectly.
I

Palmer

have a series from Mangare and


in

1890.

Habitat

The egg seems

Chatham

Islands.

to be

Little

unknown.

Mangare, taken by Henry

17

TURDUS TERRESTRIS
Turdus

terrestris Kittlitz,

M6m. Acad.

Sc. Petersburg

Geocichla terrestris Bonaparte, Consp. Av.


p.

(i88i)

183

Turdidae,

p.

Kat.

Hartert,

107,

I,

following

Museum

pi.

245,

17 (1830

Boninsima).

Senckenb,

33 (1902).

pi.

Sharpe's

Dr.

is

p.

268 (1850); Seebohm, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. V,


Sharpe, Monograph
p. 6 (1891)

p.

Vogels.

Cichlopasser terrestris Bonaparte, C.R. XXXVIII,

THELeyden

kittl

p.

from

description

"General colour of

6 (1854).

specimen

upper parts

the

olive-brown,

shading into chestnut-brown on the rump, upper tail-coverts, and


the inside

web

lores dark

brown

of each feather

on the inside web

tail;

darker, approaching black on the back;

much

eye-stripe very obscure

the

in

lesser wing-coverts brown, darkest

median coverts dark brown, with large olive-brown

tips

greater coverts nearly black, broadly tipped, and narrowly margined towards

the base with olive-brown

primary coverts black, with a broad olive-brown

patch on the outer webs; tertials dark brown on the inner web, and olive-

brown on the outer web


the outer webs

a spot where

brown

primaries brown, with the basal half of the outer webs, and

the

emargination

ear-coverts

secondaries brown, margined with olive-brown on

brown

begins,

tail-feathers

white tips

under tail-coverts dark brown, with

brown

axillaries

under wing-coverts

Geocichline markings on inner webs of quills dirty white.

brown.

culmen 085, tarsus

inches, tail 2-6,

The only person who ever

was

Kittlitz,

one

in

who

chestnut-

underparts olive-brown, shading into white on

the chin, throat, and centre of belly


irregular diamond-shaped

olive-brown

1-07,

Wing

3'8

bastard primary 08."

collected

this

short-tailed

obtained four specimens, one of which

Frankfurt, one in Vienna, and one in

Leyden.

is

in

Ground-Thrush
St. Petersburg,

Neither

Hoist, nor

Alan Owston's Japanese collectors obtained specimens, though their special


attention

was

called

to

it.

Therefore,

unvisited the most important island

became

of

unless these

the group,

extinct.

Habitat

Bonin Islands, south-east of Japan.

recent collectors

we must

left

suppose that

it

19

PHAEORNIS OAHENSIS

wilson & evans.

Phaeomis oahensis Wilson & Evans, Aves Hawaiienses,


"

Turdus woahensis

NOTHING

"

this

(1899

Based

on

and

250 (1826-Oahu)

evidently extinct bird, which

on the island of Oahu, except


is

p.

Bloxam M.S.)

known about

is

existed

which

Introd. p. XIII

sandwichensis var. Bloxam, Voy. " Blonde " App.

Turdus

as follows

extremities of the feathers

"

Bloxam's

Length 7J inches

much

lighter colour

short

formerly

description,

upper parts olive-brown,

tail

and wings brown

bill

bristled at the base."

The corresponding
notes

is

brown

Length

bill

It

is

description of

8 inches

Phaeomis obscura

belly light ash

slender, f-in. long, bristled at the base.

thus evident that

Bloxam's M.S.

and wings an ash-

beautiful songster."

justified in

to

be

distinct,

naming the extinct

form.

We

are not aware of any specimens being preserved in any

though Bloxam obtained a

labelled,

were placed

by a copy of the
sent, as

skin.

Messrs. Wilson and

Evans

(I.e.)

Museum,
write

specimens obtained by Mr. Andrew Bloxam, properly prepared and

" All the

this

tail

Bloxam considered both forms

and Messrs. Wilson and Evans were perfectly

Oahu

back,

in

some

at the disposal of the

letter

Phaeomis

he wrote to their Secretary, and probably

certainly were, to the

unique specimen of
oahensis,

is

Lords of the Admiralty, as shewn

a vanished

now

British
species,

forthcoming."

Museum

all

were

but no other trace of

which may be properly called

21

BOWDLERIA RUFESCENS
(Plate
Sphenoeacus rufescens

original description

p.

I,

is

206.

No. 2913.

(1869.)

"Upper

as follows:

sides,

parts,

dark rufous brown, brightest on the crown and hind-neck

tail

feathers

and

shoulders

the

of

dusky black, margined with rufous

abdomen

breast and

marked with
Buller's

Fig. 3.)

5,

Buller, Ibis 1869, p. 38.

Megaluriis rufescens Gray Hand-l. B.

BULLER'S

(buller).

black.

fawn colour;

pale

Bill light

is

Streak

sides of

preserved

in

over the

very different to his description.

throat,

eye,

ear-coverts

black, feet dark

spirit,

the

Quills

black.

the head and

brown with the ridge

type probably had been

fresh specimens

brown.

with

centred

sides

and

brown."

as the colouration of

The general colour above

and on the flanks chestnut rufous, most feathers with darker or black centres;
breast and

chin, throat,

abdomen pure white

whity buff or buffy brown.


Habitat:

rats

Cats,

now

quite

Chatham

Wing

crissum and under tail-coverts

2-6 inches, tail 3-9 inches,

Islands.

and weasels have exterminated

extinct.

culmen 0-65 inch."

Messrs.

Travers

and

this fine species,

Dannefaerd

have

which

supplied

is

the

specimens

in

most colonial museums, while Henry Palmer collected the 14

at Tring.

few

in

Liverpool and two

Europe,

in

addition to those at Tring.

to

me

in

in

the British

Museum

are

all

known

23

TRAVERSIA

rothsch.

Only one species known.

See description below.

TRAVERSIA LYALLI
(Plate

Fig. 3.)

5,

Traversia lyalU Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. IV

p.

(December

29th, 1894); Nov. Zool. 1895,

81.

p.

Xenicus insularis

Buller, Ibis 1895, p. 236,

Traversia insularis Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z.

1894

described this remarkable

IN nov.

Xenicidarum.

Differs

Xenicus and Acanthidositta.


shorter,

rothsch.

if

at

in

pi.

II

p.

little

109,

(1906).

bird as follows

important

several

Bill

pi.

much

" Traversia,

from

both

points

larger and stouter,

gen.

very

little

than the tarsus; the latter about as long as middle toe

all,

without claw, or the hind toe and claw, while

about twice as long as the hind

in

The

toe.

Xenicus and Acanthidositta

principal difference, however,

it

is

is

the weakness of the wing, which suggests flightlessness, as does also the

very soft and loose character of the entire plumage, and the very Ralline

There are only ten

aspect of the bird.


the tarsus
in

is

the Xenicidae at once


"

The type

"

Male.

is

Above

dark

brownish-black border.

and

Sclater, Cat. B.

(cf.

Traversia

lyalli, sp.

brownish

narrow

XIV,

its

position

p. 450).

nov.
olive-yellow,

distinct

each

and breast chrome-yellow, each feather

slightly

with

feather

yellow superciliary

umber-brown, the inner webs darker; wing-coverts

tail

throat,

and the scutellation of

These two points determine

Xenicus.

like that of

tail-feathers,

Wings

line.

like back.

Chin,

edged with greyish

Flanks, abdomen, and vent pale brown, centre of feathers paler.

brown.
"

Upper surface umber-brown, each

Female.

very dark brown

wings and

feathers edged with pale brown.

wing 18

to

19,

tail

0-8,

hind toe without claw 05.

but

similar.

tail

feather bordered with

Under surface huffy

grey,

the

Total length about 4 inches, culmen 06,

much

concealed, tarens 075, middle toe 0-65,

24
Habitat

New Zealand. Discovered by


me by Mr. Henry H. Travers."

Stephens Island,

lighthouse-keeper, and sent to

new

received nine specimens of this

any others had been taken at that time.

December

meeting,

the

of

1894,

bird,

As

Ornithologists

British

my

Dr. Hartert to exhibit the birds in

and was not aware that

was unable

When

name.

Mr. Dr. Lyall,

attend the

to

Club,

asked

he had done so and

had read the description, the Chairman, Dr. P. L. Sclater, said that the bird
had also been received for

Walter

Duller,

and he

asked

Hartert

Dr.

Hartert said that

Dr.

description.

my

authority to withdraw

the proceedings of

nine, of both

new

My

bird.

me
in

is

study by any competent


it

suppose

now

it

is

in

new

whom

to

collection "

was

same page

Ill

published

his supplement.
in

sell

December,

in

any

it

afterwards.

to

which DuUer's

sold for a thousand pounds, as Duller


p.

167,

under the heading of Glaucopis

but he makes a mistake about the price, as

sold to me,

mentioned these unimportant

of

was

Sir Walter Duller also tells us that his " second

and severely complained about


p.

this

was not

Buller's type

he would

certainly did not pay a thousand pounds for


I

my

only one specimen,

the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh,

II,

the

No doubt

He had

bird.

ornithologist, while

was

On

from Sir

withdraw

as everybody knows, available for

and,

Tring,

himself tells us in his Supplement


!

Ibis,

would have been equally hard luck for

it

" third collection," 625 specimens,

wilsoni

not

had paid a high price for them, as types of

was uncertain

museum, and

the

the same bird.

to

with the

sexes, and

type

in

would

meeting should be printed without consideration of

the

he had forestalled

had

and he and Dr. Sharpe thought that

description,

hard luck on Sir Walter Duller, but


if

if

was unfortunate, but he had no

this

any manuscripts which might refer

me

and description

illustration

my

may

1894,

it.

details,

because

Duller rather bitterly

Wren, on

describing the Stephens' Island

only add that of course

has

the

priority

over

his,

my

name, being

which

was not

published before April, 1895.

The

history of

any bird known.

All the

lyalli

specimens

is

perhaps the most extraordinary of

am aware

"Xenicus insularis"

in

the late Canon Tristram's collection, one

in

collection, the type of


in

Traversia

of, viz.,

the eight

now

in

my

Duller's former collection, one

the Dritish

Museum

(ex Tring),

and two or more offered some years ago by Mr. Travers, were brought
by the lighthouse-keeper's

cat.

Evidently this feline discoverer has at the

same time been the exterminator


been digested by that unique

in

of

cat, as

Traversia
in

lyalli,

letters received

and many may have


from Mr. Travers

25

have been told that no more specimens could be obtained, and Buller
says: "Very diligent search has been

made on Stephen

specimens of the Island Wren, but without success, and there

is

reason to fear that this species has almost immediately after

its

become

(I.e.)

Island for further

too

much

discovery

extinct."

Habitat

mile in extent,

Stephen

Cook

Island,

a small, partly wooded

islet,

about a square

almost impossible that this bird has

Strait.

It

is

only existed on Stephen Island.

It

must have been overlooked on d'Urville

Island or

and

cats,

the

in

" mainland,"

where

it

and similar pests long ago.

probably became extinct

through

rats

27

MOHO

APICALIS
(Plate

" Yellow-tufted Bee-eater" (non

Moho
Moho

THIS

&

London

rarest species of the

p.

pt.

in

(?

text

p.

357,plate (1789).

Hawaii).

and plate

(1894).

223 and plate (1900).

Mohos formerly

where specimens were obtained


localities

i860, p. 381

Evans, Av. Hawaii,

apicalis Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc.,

The

1.)

Latham !), Dixon, Voyage round the World,

apicalis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc.

Acrulocercus apicalis Wilson

4a,

gould.

inhabited the island of Oahu,

1837, near Enero, by

Herr Deppe.

Dixon and that of the type

of the specimens figured by

of Gould are uncertain, but they must have been obtained on Oahu.

1837

we have no

further traces of

Moho

apicalis.

The only specimens known are those


two

in

which

the British
I

obtained

home from

the

in

Museum, and one

in

in

Berlin, collected

my Museum

at Tring.

exchange from the British Museum,

Sandwich

specimen of Moho apicalis


Habitat: Oahu.

Islands
in

by

the Vienna

Since

Capt.

Lord

Museum.

is

Byron.

by Deppe,

The

latter,

the one brought

There

is

no

29

CHAETOPTILA
Chaetoptila Sclater, Ibis 1871

DR. orSCLATER
Molto

358.

new

justly proposed a

"

"

p.

scl.

angustipluma

generic term for the " Entomyza."

former

of

This

authors.

bird

belongs

doubtless to the family of Meliphagidae or Honey-eaters, and the genus


distinct

is sufficiently

The

from

There are no fleshy wattles anywhere.

others.

all

long and strongly graduated

tail is

The plumage

at their tips.

and chest almost

fluffy

of the

the rectrices are obliquely pointed

all

body

very

is

the head, throat

soft, that of

the feathers of the chin, throat and forehead end in

hair-like bristles.

We

know

only one species.

CHAETOPTILA ANGUSTIPLUMA
(Plate

Fig.

4a,

2.)

aiigusfipliima Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds

Entomiza

Mohoa angustipluma
Moho angustipluma

Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1855


Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp.,

(peale).

p.

147

p.

440.

Mamm. &

pi.

XL

Orn.

p.

fig.

148

(1848 Hawaii).

pi.

XI

fig

(1S3S

Hawaii).

Wilson

&

Evans, Aves. Hawai.

Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc.,

THIS

remarkable

bird,

pt. II
p.

and

plate

(1891 Hawaii).

215 and plate (1900).

belonging to the family Meliphagidae, used to inhabit

the island of Hawaii in the Sandwich Archipelago.

Mr. Dole to inhabit Molokai, but

is

unknown the name

Mr. Dole being that of Numenius


not

know

the reason

why

it

tahitiensis.

has been said by

evidently an error.

this is

nobody on the island of Hawaii has any recollection of


former native name

It

Kiowea

"

The

its

" erroneously

bird

is

At present

presence, and

extinct,

its

quoted by

though we do

disappeared.

THE ONLY SPECIMENS WE KNOW OF ARE THE FOLLOWING:


1.

The type

2.

One

3.

One

in
in

in

the

Museum

at

Washington, U.S.A.

the Bernice Pauahi Bishop


the

Museum

Museum

in

Honolulu.

of the University at Cambridge, obtained in

exchange from Honolulu

by Mr. Scott Wilson.


4.

One

in

my Museum

at Tring, obtained in

The type was obtained by


the island of Hawaii.

exchange from the Honolulu Museum.

Peale, the three others by the late Mr. Mills on

30

STRIGICEPS LEUCOPOGON

less.

Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 266 Suppl. aux (ruvres


Strigiceps Icucopogon Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant 1840 (?)
compl. de BuPfon, Descr. de Mammif. & Ois, r^cemm. d*icouverts, p. 277 {1847 Nouvelle HoIIande)
Hartlaub, Beitrag Gesch ausgest Vogel, in Abhandl. Natunv. Ver. Bremen, 2te Ausgabe, als M.S. gedr.,
;

p. 40 (1896).

Nobody has

hitherto identified the curious bird described by Lesson,

generic characters he gives

it

is

evident that

head and throat, and long, strongly graduated

it

was

c, under

the above name.

bill,

From

the

lanceolate feathers on the

doubtless belonging to the McUphagidac.

tail,

the colouration is as follows


" Back, wings and tail bright greenisholive

a bird with a long, curved

The

description of

quills

brown

inside

rectrices canarj-yellow

shafts of the

from below, glossy brown-red from above top of head and neck chestnut, each feather being narrow and streaked
with white, then with fawn-colour on the top the feathers of the throat arc elongated and fringed out on their
cheeks, sides of neck and chest ferruginous,
edges, very narrow and lanceolate, grey at base, white at the tips
some white streaks on the feathers of the chest and in the middle of the throat flanks and belly clear rufous,
;

passing into canary-yellow on the under tail-coverts.

above brownish, below yellowish with brown

tip.

Tail from

below greenish-yellow

tarsi

Length about eight french inches and a half

horn-colour,

bill

(0.23 centim6tres)."

{Translated.)

have made enquiries, but the type seems to have


I
This bird was said to have come from Australia.
Unless the
There is something in the description reminding us of ChactoptHa angustipluma.

disappeared.
description

is faulty,

this bird

not been observed since, and

came probably not from


is

possibly extinct.

Australia, but from one of the

Pacific

Islands.

It

has

31

DREPANIS

TEMM.

Drepanis Temminck, Man. d'Orn. Ed. II, I p. LXXXVl (1820 " Espfeces: Certhia pacifica
obscura
vestiaria et probablement falcata, que je n'ai pas vu."
Type by

elimination

THE

Drepanis pacifica.

name Drepanis

now

is

Sandwich

of the natives of the

and yellow

black

striking

Drepanis pacifica has a very

Islands.

colouration

somewhat loose-webbed

the

under tail-coverts cover about three-quarters of the

Nostrils

mentary, hidden by

The

of feathers.

tail

covered by an operculum.

large,

its

There

covert.
is

The

tail.

bill

long,

is

upper mandible a few millimetres longer than the

curved, non-serrated, the

lower jaw.

"Mamo"

restricted to the practically extinct

is

and

silky, soft

primary rudi-

fluffy axillary

The metatarsus

rounded.

slightly

First

is

patch

covered with

large, partly fused scutes.

Only one species known.

DREPANIS PACIFICA
Great Hook-billed Creeper Latham, Gen. Synops.
Certhia pacifica Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

BOTH

this bird in

former times

Leverian collection, which


half a century

fine

Latham).

is

the

of the

"Mamo"

male, which

woods

Of the

we know

of

Latham's description) from a pair

now

W. Henshaw saw

near the same place.

year 1898 or 1899.

1892,

was caught before

in

Museum.

presei'ved in the Vienna

until, in

Kaumana, and

actual status of

Latham described

nothing.

ago several specimens were collected by the

July, 1898, Mr. H.

call

ex

on the island of Hawaii, the only island where

was heard

in

470 (1788

Hawaiian Avifauna.

(Gmelin named this species after

703 (1782).

Mr. Scott Wilson and myself have at length discussed this beautiful

bird in our books on the

Hilo,

p.

p.

(gm)

my

it

existed.

collector

his eyes

"at least a

late

W.

it

in

first

the

About

Mills near

Nothing certain

Henry Palmer obtained

by a native birdcatcher.
pair, possibly

In

a whole family,"

1899 a native heard the, to him, well-known

This brings the existence of the

Mamo down

In view of the futile efforts of Messrs.

to the

Henry Palmer,

32

Henshaw and

Perkins,

others to observe this rare bird again,

suppose that this species


are

is

either extinct, or will very

we may

soon vanish

if

well

any

left.

In

former times the

Mamo was

probably more or less common.

Its

golden yellow feathers were of great value, and, though the majority of the

famous war-cloaks are composed of the feathers of Moho


cloaks are

known

to consist of

Mamo

feathers.

It

is

nobilis,

a few such

supposed that

it

took

generations to complete such a cape.


I

only

know

of specimens of this bird in Vienna, Leyden, Paris, Honolulu,

Cambridge and Tring.

The two examples


the sale of the Leverian
portion of the

bill

in

wanting.

Museum were obtained by


One is perfect, the other has

the Vienna

collection.

Fichtel at

the upper

33

HEMIGNATHUS OBSCURUS ELLISIANUS


(Plate

Fig.

4,

1.)

Hemignathus obscurus Lichtenstein (non Gmelin!), Abh. Akad. Wiss.


pi.

fig.

(Hcniigiiathiis) ellisiaiia Gray, Cat. B. Trop.

Drepanis

Lichtenstein's

Is.

Pac. Oc.

p.

g (1859

based

on

H. obscurus from Oahu.

lichtensteini Scott Wilson, Ann.

Hemignathus

Berlin, 1838, p. 440

(Oahu).

&

Mag. N. H.

ser. 6, vol. IV, p.

401 (1889

Oahu, based on the Berlin specimen).

Hemignathus

WE

know

lichtensteini, figured

the

name

Herr

they are

and described by Lichtenstein,

Hemignathus obscurus.

of

names

Lichtenstein

Deppe procured several specimens, but there

in

still

it

and Palmer to
in

only one

is

was discovered by Deppe.


this day,

have

is

from Wilson

All recent collectors,

failed to find a trace of

the dense forests and rugged mountains of

Oahu

Although collecting

it.

is

extinct on

most

we may

difficult,

suppose that at least one of these collectors would have come across
it

The

following

is

made by

the description

Dr. Hartert of the type in

olive-brown,

more greenish on the back and rump,

and somewhat more greyish on the head and hind-neck


feathers on

the

the dark bases of

head showing through, lores deep brown.

yellow superciliary stripe.

Chin, throat, and middle of

white (apparently somewhat

Upper breast

faded).

abdomen

distinct

brownish

dull

tail

white.

deep brown, bordered with yellowish green.


Bill

Wings

Under-wing coverts

brown, somewhat horn-brown, but not blackish, as

in

of

sides

olive-greenish,

breast and flanks dull olive-greenish, more olive-brown on the flanks.

and

if

"Above greenish
the

it,

existed.

still

Berlin

be,

existence.

There can hardly be any doubt that H. obscurus ellisianus


Oahu, where

under

in 1838,

true that

is

It

ellisianus

Museum, and we have no knowledge where the others may

in the Berlin
if

only of one single specimen, the type of the

and

that

says,

ellisianus Rothschild, Avif. of Laysan, etc., p. 87 (1893) p. 310 (1900).

dull

the other

forms of Hemignathus.
It

is

not probable that the

Heterorhynchus lucidus collected and


side with H.

Wing

0.

ellisianus, the

83-5, tail

53,

bill

culmen

and

bill

stuff^ed at

and feet are


56,

lower mandible from mental apex to

feet are faded, as in

bill

tip

the

still

same time and kept

side

by

blackish and not brown.

from gape to

40 mm."

specimens of

tip in

a straight line 475,

35

HETERORHYNCHUS LUCIDUS
(Plate
Hemignathus
figs.

liicidus Lichtenstein,

4,

Abh.

d.

Fig.

(licht)

2.)

Kon. AUad. Wissensch. Berlin 1838

p.

451,

pi.

2^ 3? (1839 Oahu).

Heterorhynchus olivacens Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool. 1839

THE Oahu form


we
as far as

of Heterorhynchus

know, preserved

in

is

now

the

pi.

extinct,

Museums

X. and text (Oct. 1839).

and specimens are only,


of

Berlin (types of

H.

Boston (type of H. olivaceus), Francfort, Paris, Leyden, London,

lucidtis),

Cambridge, Liverpool.
In 1838

Deppe saw

of the banana

plantations.

this bird in great

As the

bird

numbers

flying

round the flowers

was apparently common,

it

possible that specimens are preserved in several other collections, and

be most welcome
in

if

the

officials of

continental

Museums would

Oahu.

it

quite

would

give information

case they should find specimens of this interesting extinct bird.

Habitat

is

37

PSITTIROSTRA PSITTACEA DEPPEI


(P..Te

ROTHSCH.
4,

F.G. 3.)

Psittirostra olivacea Rothschild, Avifauna of Laysan

nomen nudum &

p.

193

(1900 Oahu, ex Lichtenstein

M.S.)

Psittirostra psittacea deppei Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. XV. p. 45


above, the name olivacea being preoccupied by Ranzani).

PSITTIROSTRA PSITTACEA PSITTACEA


birds

on

most

of

Hawaiian

the

slightly smaller dimensions,

more olivaceous upperside.

in

the

museums

Oahu, and

this species in

recent collectors did not


of

Hemignathus

exist in a

few

all

pairs, or

in

the male, and

somewhat

Specimens have been collected on Oahu by Prof.

of
in

pair in

my

spite of great efforts

come across

it.

collection,

There

Berlin and Vienna.

is

only

no trace

Mr. Palmer and

know

of

left

of

all

other

This form has thus shared the fate

ellisianus, Heterorhynchiis lucidus,

oahensis, which have

was

it

P. p. deppei, distinguishable by

more whitish abdomen

Behn and Herr Deppe, and besides a


examples

for the

one of the commoner

except Oahu, where

Islands,

formerly replaced by a closely allied form,

is still

(1905 new name

Moho

apicalis and Phaeornis

disappeared from Oahu, while Loxops

has possibly followed suit already.

ritfa

may

still

39

LOXOPS COCCINEA RUFA


Fringilla rufa Bloxam, Voy. " Blonde "

p.

Loxops wolstenUolmei Rothschild,

Brit.

Bull.

bloxam.

250 (:826).

Orn. Club

Loxops rufa Wilson, Aves Hawaiienses part VI,

plate

I,

p,

LVI (i893-Oahu).

and text (1896)

Rothschild, Avif.

of Laysan, etc., p. 177 (1900).

THIS

form of Loxops

rare now,

if

not already extinct.

on April 20th, 1893,

and

is

my

in

only found on Oahu,

is

collection.

of recent collectors, and,

in

last

it

is

doubtless very

known specimen was shot

the mountains of the Wailua district, on Oahu,

This
if

The

where

is

the only specimen obtained by the efforts

any should

still

exist,

we may suppose

that their

fate is sealed.

L.
size

c.

rufa differs from L. coccinea coccinea of

Hawaii by

its

smaller

and more brownish, somberer coloration.

We

know

of specimens in the

Bloxam's Fringilla rufa,

Vienna and Tring.

in

British

Museum,

including the type of

Liverpool, Philadelphia, Berlin, Berlepsch Castle,

41

CIRIDOPS
Ciridops Wilson, Nature 1892,

THOUGH

WILSON

469.

p.

Fnngillidae,

formerly supposed to belong to the

now

is

it

generally acknowledged to belong to the family Drepanidae, a peculiar

Islands.

The genus Ciridops seems

however,

it

easily

is

distinguished

and scanty, while

crown and throat are

We

only

is

it

soft

by the form of the

and

its

(Plate
Dole, Hawaiian

anna

Ciridops

anna Wilson & Evans, Aves

Avifauna of Laysan,

THEknown,Ulaaihawane

" of

collector,
still

in

of

the

1879,

p.

(dole).

4.)

49 (Hawaii); reprint

Hawaienses, Part

1880.

Ibis

in

and plate

IV, text

Rothschild,

being on

Museum

in

is

one of the rarest birds

record one, the

Honolulu, and two in

type, in

my

Honolulu, the other

No

was shot by a

native

other examples have been obtained.

many hawane palms

in

my

for

it

still

exist there

and purposes Ciridops antui may be looked upon as

extinct.

from

former

As there are

elevated districts of Hawaii, there

course, a possibility that a few examples

the

collection.

was brought home by Mr. Scott Wilson, who obtained

Mr. Palmer.

a good

Fig.

the natives of Hawaii

Bernice Pauahi Bishop

Bishop

The feathers

183.

p.

only three specimens

Mr.

4,

Almanac

Fringilla

of these

somewhat

is

species belonging to this genus.

CIRIDOPS ANNA

One

the pattern of

plumage, which

Loxops.

rich in

bill,

pointed.

know one

"

from which,

to stand nearest to Loxops,

colouration, stronger feet, and the structure of


stiff

the Hawaiian

in its distribution to

forms restricted

family of different

but to

all

is,

of

intents

43

SIPHONORHIS
Siphonorhis Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861,

" '
I

"HE

decurved

J.

and

Wing

developed.

strongly

the

base,

at

tubular

nostrils

Type: Caprimulgus ainericanus L.

p. 77.

broad

extremely

is

bill

scL.

prominent

very

longest

The sexes

Tarsi long and naked.

rounded, almost graduated.

tail

differ slightly

SIPHONORHIS AMERICANUS
(Plate
"Small Wood-Owle" Sloane, Voy. Jamaica

(l.)

5a.)
296, pi. 255,

11, p.

(1725).

fig. i

Ex Sloane.

Capriiinilgiis ainericanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 193 (1758

America calidiore

p.

Linnaeus

of

63 (1850).

77;

P.Z.S. i866,

id.

Mus. XVI,

Indies, p. 139 (18S9); Hartert, Cat. B. Brit.

diagnosis

p.

I,

Siphonorhis americanus Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861,

whole

"Habitat

").

Chordeiles americanus Bonaparte, Consp. Av.

THE

(Hartert.)

in coloration."

in

heavily
bristles

rictal

primary

third

pointed,

and

strong

tip

is

"

p.

p.

144; Cory, B.

W.

592 (1892).

Caprimulgus

narium

tubulis

eminentibus," but the prominent tubular nostrils are just the character

which distinguishes S. americanus most strikingly from


goatsuckers, and

indicate this bird.


"

the other

think that Sloane's figure and description are sufficient to

Sloane says as follows

This was seven Inches from the end of the

and ten from the end of Wing


long crooked black

all

bill,

to

Wing expanded,

it

Bill to

that of the Tail,

had a quarter of an Inch

with two Tubuli about one eight Part of an Inch

long for the Nostrills, along the upper Mandible were several bristly Hairs in

a Line,

like

those of

a Cat's Mustachoes of a black Colour, the Aperture of

Chaps or Swallow was extraordinary

large.

The Feathers on the Head and

under the Chaps were many, the Tail was four Inches long, the Head and

Back were cover'd with Feathers


and

black, the

Wings and

Tail

the Chaps, Breast and Belly

were

was

of

mixt Colour of Feuille Morte, grey

of the

same Colour only Lighter under

also of the same, the

Legs and Feet were an

Inch and half cover'd with brown Scales, the Toes four, three before, that
the middle three-quarters of an Inch long, and one behind.

in

44

" Its

The

Stomach was not very muscular,

it

was

fill'd

with Scarabei, &c.

rest of the Bowells agreed in everything with those of the greater Sort,

concerning which see the description above.


"

They feed on Scarabei and other Insects

"

They are found with the former."

Specimens of

this

of that Kind.

Goatsucker are very rare

in

only aware of the existence of examples in American


pair obtained

the British

by Osburn

Museum.

in

Jamaica about

Recent collectors have

failed to

by the introduced mongoose and other animals.


:

Jamaica.

it

procure

am

of

the

and

museums and

half a century ago,

therefore to be feared that, like Aestrelata caribbaea,

Habitat

collections,

and now
it,

and

it

in
is

has been exterminated

45

NESTOR PRODUCTUS
(Plate

head.)

6,

Wilsou's Parrakeet Latham, Gen. Hist. B.

II,

Plyctolophus productus Gould, P.Z.S. 1836,

p.

Nestor productus Gould, Syn. Austr. B. and

Naumannia

Ceiitrnrus productus Bp.,

LATHAM'S

original

(gould.)

170 (1822).

p.

19.

adj.

Isl.

pt.

I,

pi.

flg.

(183

?).

1856, Consp. Psitt. No. 265.

description

is

as follows

"

Length thirteen inches.

very long and hooked, and upper mandible measuring almost two

Bill

under three-quarters, colour dusky

the

inches,

plumage

general

in

greenish ash, inclining to brown, and clouded here and there with orange as
the

in

edges of the feathers of the back dun

Crossbill,' but the

'

the under parts of the body mixed yellow and dull orange

under wing coverts

end of the
tail

dull yellow

which

tail,

bars

whitish

met with a

fine

brown

is

marked on

specimen of

it

in

webs

all

red

dull

both quills and

with

New

Inhabits

the collection of

the quills reach almost to the

the inner

dusky, toes very long.

legs

rump

somewhat, but not greatly, cuneiform

former

brown, the

are

thighs

colour

or

five

South Wales.

six
I

Thomas Wilson, Esqre."

has long been a question whether Nestor productus of Gould and

It

Nestor norfolcensis of Pelzeln were really distinct or only individual varieties


of

one species.

had

individual varieties, for


Island,

Philip

for

time

long

considered them

could not persuade myself that a small island like

almost contiguous to Norfolk Island, could have

however,

write this book,

Nestor,

was

in

given for N. productus by the earlier

the case of

come from N.

said to

is

S.

Wales.

Notomis

and

was intercourse by regular

there

colonies and Lord

This fact

Howe's

Island.

Now we

vessels

is

know

there

is

the

easily explained,
in the early

between

plying

these

find in the case of several other birds

that distinct local forms occur on Norfolk and Lord


far as

alba, which, like

Wales and Norfolk Island were both penal settlements

as N. S.
days,

same way as

different

have come to somewhat different conclusions.

In the first place no special locality

the

Since commencing to

species of Nestor to that found on the larger island.

authors, in

be merely

to

Howe's

Islands, while as

no other record of a distinct bird from Philip Island.

therefore believe that Nestor productus inhabited both Norfolk and Philip

Islands,

and that

all

specimens extant are from Philip Island, where

some years longer than on the main

island, while the

it

lingered

specimens of Ferdinand

Bauer and Governor Hunter, and possibly the supposed

A'^.

norfolcensis

of

46

Canon Tristram's
Howe's

now

collection,

Liverpool, had been brought from Lord

in

were kept as pets

Island in cages and

Norfolk Island; and then, as

in

our science was unknown,

the value of exact data in those early days of


the references were

One

brought.
is

made

whence the specimens were seen or

to the place

thing however

is

certain, the

bill

Ferdinand Bauer's sketch

in

Latham expressly

evidently a monstrous growth produced by captivity, for

describes the

The

of Governor Hunter's bird as ending in a long thin point.

bill

differences of N.

and throat
the

with the

bill

and

herewith

plate given

is

a reproduction of the

Ferdinand Bauer's sketch added, as

of

corner a head of the specimen of

in the

the Tring

sides of face, chin,

green head and hind neck, and the total absence of bars on

dull

The

tail.

bird,

the dull crimson

norfolcensis are

Museum, when the

late

A'',

Mr. Wallace's

Liverpool bird,

wanting

this is

in

that

productus, purchased for

Museum

Distington,

at

Cumberland, was dispersed.


I

have carefully examined the three

Museum, and the conclusion

in the British

described

by Gould

specimen, and was


called "superbus"

British

as
in

quarters shorter than those

One
in Prague,

in

bill,

in

Philip Island

in

One from Ward,

A^.

A'',

in

productus what the aberrations

The

it

at

is

of the

least

half-an-inch

to

Bell

three-

the Tring and Florence specimens.

in

chin.

Island.

two

Florence,

in

Vienna, one

Amsterdam, are known to me.

the Vienna
bill,

in

Museum were

brown chest and

The other from Baron von

and very red cheeks and

bills

The one from the

different.

London, one

with a short

yellow breast-band.

but

that the bird

is

was an abnormal

productus

and probably Norfolk

Leyden, one

The two specimens

very

are

Tring, three in

two

his

have come to

and "esslingi" are to N. meridionalis.

has the long, thin

Habitat

of

normal

relation to

Museum specimens

collection

bill

adult

the

specimens of Nestor productus

fine

both bought

throat,

Hilgel,

in

1839.

and a very wide

which has a long

47

NESTOR NORFOLCENSIS
(Plate

6,

figure.)

full

Long-billed Parrakeet Latham, Gen. Hist.

pelzeln

II,

171 (1822).

p.

(i860 detailed
AUad. Wiss. XLI, pp. 322-325, pi.
description from the manuscript of the late botanist, Ferdinand Lucas Bauer, and
The specimen was from
figure of head with an evidently abnormally developed bill.

Nestor norfolcensis Pelzeln, Sitzb.

Norfolk Island

LATHAM'S
Bill

it

k.

had disappeared before Pelzeln's time).

original description

is

"Length above

as follows:

12 inches.

very long and curved, thick halfway from the base, but tapering

quite to a point at the

tip,

and under mandible truncated at the end,

colour of both, dusky; head and neck dull green;

and throat pale crimson

sides under the eyes, chin

upper parts of the body, wings and

breast yellowish; belly, thighs and vent more or less crimson;

tail

tail

dusky

cuneiform;

legs brown."

"One

from Norfolk
the

tail is

was

of these
Island;

cuneiform

The only

in

bird of

in

from

possession of Governor Hunter,

the

much

this

bill

it

seems

related

to

who brought
the

other,

greater degree, without any bars across

species

extant

is

the one in

Liverpool,

it

but
it."

from

the Tristram collection.

Governor Hunter's specimen and Bauer's bird were both brought from
Norfolk
A'^.

Island,

prodticttis,

I,

but as they were cage-birds, and differed so markedly from


for reasons given under

from Lord Howe's


Habitat:

Island.

Lord Howe's Island

(?).

A^.

product us, believe this bird came

49

LOPHOPSITTACUS

HE

huge
if

i.e.,

and peculiar shaped

bill

the figure

this genus.

is

correct

(P.Z.S. 1875,

n EWTON.
with the

crest, together

very

apparently,

short wings are characteristic

350.)

p.

LOPHOPSITTACUS MAURITIANUS
(Plate

Owen,

Ibis,

(owen).

7.)

Broad-billed Parrot Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI,


Psittaciis mauritiaiius

of

p.

53 (1866).

168 (1866).

p.

Psittacus (Lophopsittacus) mauritiaiius A. Newton, P.Z.S. (1875), pp. 349, 35-

Lophopsittacus mauritiaiius Newton, Enc. Brit.

THIS

extraordinary parrot

by Professor

Owen

in

was

first

1866.

He

(ed. 9)

described

nothing more of importance


Schlegel discovered

in

the

the

was found

relating

in

and the statement that

the fact that this bird


in

of

is

it

was wholly

first

of

understood when

would

like all big

44, 46 (1875).

made known

to science

from 2 lower mandibles,

Except

Mare aux Songes.

Edward

by Sir
to

this

is

bird

Newton,
Professor

till

the

Mascarene birds to

we

consider that the bird

From

of a grey-blue colour.

it

in

a sketch of Lophopsittacus

not mentioned by the voyagers

the 2nd and 3rd decades of the 18th century,


the

ff.

A.D. 1601-1602 of Wolphart Harmanszoon,

which among other items of natural history there


life,

732,

Library of Utrecht the manuscript journal kept

during the voyage to Mauritius

from

it

remains, mostly collected

few further osseous

p.

described and

much damaged, which were dug up from


a

III,

is

become

who

visited Mauritius

probable that
extinct.

was one

it

This

was apparently unable

is

to

easily

fly,

and

parrots prove excellent eating.

Only known

from

osseous

remains

and

the

above-quoted

drawing

and notes.
35 tarsi and

tibiae,

and 60 complete and incomplete lower mandibles

and fragments of palatine bones


Habitat

Mauritius.

in

the Tring

Museum.

51

ARA TRICOLOR
(Plate
Le

petit

L'Ara

Ara D'Aubenton,

10.)

Enl. 641.

PI.

tricolor Levaill., Perr.

p.

5 (1801)

pi.

17,

Psittacus tricolor Bechst., Kurze Ueb.

p.

Sittace ? lichtensteini Wagl., fide Bp.,

Naumannia

BECHSTEIN'S
" This Aras,

bechst.

description, taken

64, pi.

(181

from Levaillant,

the red-fronted species, or

ft.

The

18 lines.

bill

is

(translated) as follows:

which others have held to be only a variety of Macao,

according to Vaillant a distinct species.

and the

1).

1856, Consp. Psitt.

10

in.

latter

is

long, of

It

is

is

one third smaller than

which the

tail

takes 11 inches

colour and has the upper

of a black

mandible less curved, and the sides of the lower mandible more swollen than
is

Ara

the case in the other

back of the neck pale yellow

back, shoulders and

wing coverts brownish red bordered with yellow or green

undertail coverts

Two

coverts red, the larger yellow, and brownish green.


all

red with blue

centre

the outer ones blue on outer webs and

tips,

smaller

flanks yellowish,

with green and brown-red borders

blue

pale

Crissum

azure blue, below coppery red.

primaries above dark

white, with

Head, front and sides of the neck, breast, belly

three lines of red feathers.

and thighs red

The cheeks are naked and

species.

violet

blue,

under-wing

feathers

tail

red on

tips,

the rest of the feather."

Paris,

Of

this

one

in

bears the

bird

know

Leyden, one

inscription "

Menagerie 1842."

in

only

of

two

Liverpool.

Macrocercus

in

the

British

The specimen

tricolor (Bechst.)

Probably, however, there

are

in

Museum, one
the Paris

Museum

M. E. Rosseau.

more specimens

in

in

Cuba.
other

museums.
Apparently the last specimen was shot
Americ. Nat.
Like

XXXIX,

p.

became extinct through


Habitat

1864 at

La Vega (Bangs,

200).

the extinct

all

in

its

West

Indian

Macaws, Amazons and Conures,

persecution by the inhabitants for food.

Formerly Cuba and

Isle of Pines.

it

52

ARA GOSSEI
(Plate
Yellow-headed

Macaw

gossei Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C.. XVI,

Ara

tricolor (non Bechstein) Clark,

black

description

apical

ash coloured
of face,

around

scarlet

fine

half,
;

eyes,

is

ash

the

tail,

is

as follows

and

anterior

201 (1907).

p.

348.

"

Basal half of upper mandible

lower

mandible,

black, tip

parts

lateral

breast

The

deep

red

feet are

said

sides

and back, a

the neck,

sanguine

and

legs

of

only

and

winglet

have been

to

red and yellow intermixed (Rob.)"


" If

Mr. Gosse also remarks,

which

1905, p.

Proc. IV, Orn. Congr.,

forehead, crown, and back of neck, bright yellow

primaries an elegant light blue.


black

Auk

260 (1847).

p.

14 (1905)

p.

coloured

wing coverts and

11.)

Gosse, Birds of Jamaica,

Ara

MR. GOSSE'S

ROTHSCH.

the only

Macaw

not

this is

am aware

of

the

tricolor

Le

of

marked with a yellow

Vaillant,

nape,

it

is

probably new."
In spite of the

Ara has always been

evident

differences

united with the

in

Cuban

October, 1905, by Mr. Austin H. Clark (Auk,


it

A.

Gosse, was shot about 1765,

by

Mr. Odell,

even as

1905, p. 348),

lately

as

though he queries

Robinson, here quoted by


the

in

the Jamaican

description,
tricolor,

The specimen described by Dr.

a footnote.

in

the

mountains

of

Hanover

parish, about ten miles east of Lucea.

Habitat

Jamaica.

The specimen described no longer


collection

exists,

and there are none

tricolor

group

of

Macaws found

on the large island of Haiti, which Mr. Clark has also united under A.
I

any

known.

There was a third member of the

but

in

believe

it

must have been

different, just as the

Jamaica

bird.

tricolor,

53

ARA ERYTHROCEPHALA
(Plate
Ara

Birds of Jamaica,

militaris Gosse,

Ara erythroccphala

Rothsch.,

12.)

261

p.

(1847).

B.O.C., XVI,

Bull.

GOSSE

says the description given to him

Mr.

Hill,

was

follows

as

"

and the

blue;

IV Orn. Congr.,

letter, just

received from

under plumage, both of wings and

The specimen here

Trelawny and

St.

neck,

and

shoulders,

and

the greater wing coverts

a mass of intense orange yellow."

tail,

was

described

Anne's by Mr.

red

and blue on the upper surface, with the

scarlet

tail

in

Head

underparts of a light and lively green

"

Proc.

14 (1905)

p.

201 (1907).

p.

quills,

rothsch.

White,

procured

mountains

the

in

proprietor of

of

the Oxford estate."

No specimen now known.


Habitat

large
St.

Jamaica.

Mr. Gosse also

relates

Macaws

near

flying

that the

the

Rev. Mr. Coward,

in

1842,

mountains

in

the

of

foot

the

been blue and yellow

home

precise island

if

probably they were

so,

(Plate
Aras

P6re

my Ara

erythrura,

of

to have

whose

unknown.

is

ARA MARTINICUS
Les

parish

These birds were said

near the centre of the island.

James,

saw two

Bouton,

Rel.

de

I'^tab.

(rothsch.)

14.)

d.

Fran9ais

dep.

en

1635,

I'ile

Martinique

pp. 71.72 (1640)

Anadorhynchus martinicus Rothsch.


p.

PERE

Bull.

B.O.C. XVI,

p.

14 (1905); Proc.

IV Orn. Congr.,

202 (1907.)

bouton

says,

"

les

Perroquets et ont

que

j'ai

No specimen
Habitat

vus avaient
preserved.
:

Martinique.

les

Les Aras sont deux ou

trois

un plumage bien different

fois

en

plumes leleucs et orangees."

gros

couleur.

comme
Ceux

54

ARA GUADALOUPENSIS
Les Arras Du Tertre,

Hist. gen. des Antilles Vol.

Ara Rouge D'Aubenton,


Ara

fire

while the

tail is

Macaws

Arras

is

proved because those of

is

while this Arras

entirely red

larger than these

is

and a foot-and-a-half long."

Du

of this colouration are mentioned by

and others of the older authors as being found on

De

Tertre,

of

is

wrong, and

Red Macaw,
Habitat

so

This

feel

name

to the

Guadaloupe form.

Guadaloupe.

No specimen

existing.

ARA ERYTHRURA
(Plate
De

Dominica

believe each of the three islands had a distinct species

confine this

Rochefort,

Guadaloupe,

and Martinique, and Mr. Clark has united them under one name.
sure

a sort of

wings are a mixture of yellow azure, and crimson feathers

its

" The

has the head, the neck, the belly and the back of the

It

colour of

the other Parrots, both those from the

all

Islands as well as from the Mainland


third.

This

the others.

all

Guadaloupe are larger than

by one

272 (1905).

p.

gives the following description

Parrot bigger than

248 (1667).

p.

Enl. 12 (1779).

PI.

gtcadaloupensis Clark, Auk, XXII,

DU TERTRE

II

clark.

Rochefort, Histoire

Nat.

&

Mor. des

nom. nov.

15.)
lies Antilles,

&c. (1658),

p.

154, Art.

IX (Des

Arras).

Anadorhynchus coeruleus (non Gmelin) Rothsch.,

IN

the Bull. B.O.C. XVI,

15 (1905),

XVI,

p.

15 (1905).

unfortunately described this bird

under the name of Anadorhynchus coeruleus (Gm.), having


description,

in

p.

Bull. B.O.C.,

the

Ibis

attention

to

really meant.
"

and also said


Series

(1906)

my

double

The

8,

error,

it

came from Jamaica.


VI,

Vol.

but

original description

Among them

are some which

neck, and the back of a satiny

Parrots,"

entirely

realise

to

calls

bird

have the head, the upper side of the


;

the

underside of

belly, and undersurface of the wings, yellow, and the

p 451,

what

(translated) as follows

is

sky blue

No specimen existing.
Habitat
One of the West

Professor Salvadori,

"Notes on

failed

misread his

Indian

Islands.

tail

the

neck,

entirely red."

the

55

ANODORHYNCHUS PURPURASCENS
(Plate
Le gros Perroquet de
pi.

II

la

Guadaloupe Don de Navarette,

Rel. Quat. voy. Christ, p. 425

(1838).

Anadorhynchns purpurascens Rothsch.


Congr.,

THE

ROTHSCH.

13.)

p.

original

Bull.

B.O.C. XVI,

p.

13

(1905)

description

Native name

Ond

of this

couli.

bird

says

No specimen

it

was

extant.

entirely
I

species in the genus Anodorhynchiis on account of


colour.

Habitat

Proc. IV Orn.

202 (1907).

Guadaloupe.

deep

violet.

have placed
its

this

uniform bluish

57

AMAZONA VIOLACEUS
(Plate

Du

Perroquet de la Guadeloupe
Perroquets Labat, Voy. aux

LABAT'S

translated

Guadaloupe are a

de TAmSr.,

iles

I,

vol.

II

is

: Ps.

viridi,

Tertre's description

All the

is

as

No specimens
Habitat

in

nigris, reliquis

Those of

"

ex

luteo, viridi,

He

is

about as big as a fowl,

mixed with black and green, shot


is

green, strongly

neck

like

the

washed

and red."

black, rest yellow, green

collections.

Guadaloupe.

(Plate
"Perroquets" Labat's Voy. aux

iles

clark.

18.)

de I'Am^r.

II

p.

214 (1742).

luartitiicana Clark, Auk. XXII, p. 343 (1905).

LABAT'S

description

reads thus

"

Those of Dominica have some red

feathers on the wings, under the throat, and in the


is

"

All the feathers of the head,

AMAZONA MARTINICANA
Atnazona

et orbitae incarnata."

upper part of the back

Outer primaries

with brown.

violaceus viridi et nigro admisto

follows

belly are of a violet colour, a little

throat of a pigeon.

246 (1667).

few green and black feathers,

Rostrum

has the beak and eyes bordered with red.

and

follows

as

is

remigibus majoribus

et rubro variis, tectricum macula rosea.

Du

p.

smaller than the Aras; they have the head, the

Gmelin's description reads thus

ex fusco

fig.

and the wings are yellow and red."

entirely green,

varius, dorso

p. 250,

214 (1742).

p.

neck, and the belly slate colour with a

the back

11,

337 (1788).

p.

description

original
little

17.)

Tertre, Hist. Nat. Antill.

Psittacus violaceus Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

(gm.)

green

(Amazona bouqueti,

same plumage as the

last

No specimen now known.


:

Martinique.

Those of

all

Martinique

mentioned, but the top of the head

with a small amount of red."

Habitat

w.r.).

tail

is

the rest

have

the

slate colour

59

CONURUS LABATI
(Plate
Perriques Labat, Voy. aux

Conunis labati Rothsch.

iles

Bull.

de I'Am^r.

rothsch.

16.)

II

B.O.C. XVI,

p.
p.

218 (1742).
13 (1905)

Proc. IV Orn. Congr.,

p.

202

(1907).

LABAT'S

translated description

Guadaloupe are about the

of this bird

size of

is

They are very

gentle, loving,

No specimens known.
Habitat

Island of Guadaloupe.

follows

" Those

of

a blackbird, entirely green, except a

few small red feathers, which they have on


white.

as

their head.

and learn to speak

easily."

Their

bill

is

61

NECROPSITTACUS
Necropsittacus Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sc. Nat.

MILNE-EDWARDS

considered

(5)

milne-edw.

XIX,

Art.

18 (1874).

3, p.

Necropsittacus

closely

genus Palaeornis, and at the same time to show

show

his opinion, to

that this bird belonged to a

with the

affinities

same time the two mandibles were

At the

Loriidae.

the

to

allied

sufficient,

in

generic group standing

little

near Palaeornis.

NECROPSITTACUS RODRICANUS
(MILNE-EDW.)
Psittacus Rodricaniis A. Milne-Edw., Ann. Sc. Nat.

Necropsittacus rodericanus A. Newt., P.Z.S.

THIS

was described from a

parrot

Milne- Edwards,

Professor

Giinther

Dr.

and

and

^-

pi. ?

2 (1867).

i.

41 (1875).

portion

then

Edward

Sir

p.

(5) VIII, pp. 151-155,

of

the upper mandible by

was more

fully

Newton, who

described

examined

by

nearly

complete skull and other bones.

manuscript discovered in the Archives of the Ministry of Marine


proves

Paris

in

distant

about

date,

it

that

having

year 1731.

the

been
In

only

bird

this

became

extinct

the

was

said

this

manuscript the

bird

that

handsomer
It

smaller
;

was undoubtedly

to the

green

we can

so

though much

and

safely

blue

parrot

assume that our

{Palaeornis
bird

was

of

closely allied to the genus Palaeornis.

manuscript
to

have a

and a very large

exsid)

was

much

sombre colouration.

The two

following,

brighter coloured and but scantily described, apparently belong

same genus.
Habitat

very

Unfortunately the writer does not mention the colour, but adds

bill.

the

tail

not

seen alive by the writer of

body considerably larger than a pigeon, with a very long


head and

at

Rodriguez.

62

NECROPSITTACUS
(P.ATB

THIS

parrot

terms

"

is

described

Body the

BORBONICUS

(?)

NOM. NOV.
8.)

by the Sieur D.B.


a

of

size

large

upper part of wings the colour of


the other parrots which are true

(Dubois)

pigeon,

the following

in
;

head,

it

is

evident

and

tail

As he compares

fire."

Palaeornis,

green

it

with

that this

bird

must have been a Necropsittacus.


This

description

the

is

sole

evidence

we have

of

the

existence

of

this bird.

Habitat

Bourbon or Reunion.

NECROPSITTACUS (?) FRANCICUS


ROTHSCH.
Necropsittacus franciciis Rothsch., Proceedings

ORIGINAL

description:

wings green."
various

Habitat

We

"Voyages"

Mauritius.

"Head

only

know

and

Int.

tail

Ornith. Congress 1905,

fiery

this bird

to Mauritius in the 17th

red,

rest

of

p.

197 (1907).

body and

from the descriptions

in

and early 18th centuries.

the

63

MASCARINUS
Mascariiius Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn.

name Mascariiius has been

THE

generic

Newton

E.

Finsch included
erithacus),

in

1879,

separate

united

mixture of forms.

By

elimination the

this

have

bird

been

discussed

by

various

it

with the Vaza Parrots

Psittacus.

and Salvadori

W.

Mascariiius.
A.

in

the genus Coracopsis,

together with the Vazas and the Grey Parrot {Psittacus

it,

the genus

genus,

agree with

of

restricted to the Mascarine Parrot).

Wagler, Gray, Pelzehi, Hartlaub (1877) and Messrs. A. and

authors.

Forbes

affinities

i88 (1831

p.

lesson.

Recent authors
B.

(Cat.

This

is

XX,

p.

421,

evidently

Forbes, Oustalet and

Oustalet

1893,

W.

A.

1891) have admitted a

the

proper course,

Salvadori that

its

and

nearest affinities

appear to be the genus Taiiygnathus rather than Coracopsis, and that the
place of Mascariiius

The

large red

is

among

bill,

the Palaeornithinae of Salvadori.

with distinctly ridged gonys, concealed nostrils and

moderately long, strongly rounded


tion

is

unique.

Only one species

tail,

is

are peculiar characters.

known.

The

coloura-

64

MASCARINUS MASCARINUS

(l.)

MASCARINE PARROT.
(Plate
" Perroqueis iin

9.)

pen plus gros que pigeons, ayant

le

pliiinage dc coiileur de petit gris,

chaperon noir siir la teste, le becq fort gros, & couleitr de feu" Le Sieur D.B,
(Dubois), Voyages aux lies Dauphine ou Madagascar, and Bourbon ou Mascarenne.
"Bourbon ou Mascarenne").
p. 172 (1674
Psittacus Mascarinus Brisson, Orn. IV., p. 315 (1760); Hahn, Orn. Atlas, Papageien p. 54,
lilt

pi. 39 (1835).
Psittacus iiiascarin. Linnaeus, Mantissa Plantarum, regni animalis appendix p. 524 (1771
" Habitat in Mascarina."
Ex Brisson).
Perroquet Mascarin Levaillant, Perroquets II, p. 171, pi. 189 (1805 "Madagascar,"

errore).

Mascarinus tnadagascariensis Lesson, Trait6

d'Orn,

(1831

189

p.

"Madagascar,"

ex

Levaillant).

Pelzeln, Verb. Zool. Bot.


Coracopsis mascarina Wagler, Mon. Psittac. p. 679 (1832)
Ges. Wien 1863, p. 934.
Mascarinus obscurus (non Psittacus obscurus L.) Bonaparte, Rev. & Mag. de Zool. 1854
Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 97, 1758, ex Hasselquist
p. 154 (Linnaeus, Psittacus obscurus
M.S. though identified by himself with the Marcarine Parrot in 1766 Syst. Nat.
Ed. XII, I, p. 140 cannot be the same as P. mascarinus ; the description disagrees
entirely, and the bird was described from a specimen probably seen alive by Hasselquist,
What Linnaeus' P. obscurus was, is difficult to say if it
with uncertain locality.
was not for the long tail, one might consider it a variety of the Grey Parrot).
Finsch was not
Psittacus madagascarensis Finsch, Papageien II pp. 306, 955 (1868
acquainted with the history of this Parrot, as he still considered Madagascar to be
its home, and wondered why it had not been found there by recent collectors).
Psittacus tnadagascariensis Pelzeln, Ibis 1873, p. 32.
Mascarinus duboisi W. A. Forbes, Ibis 1879, pp. 304, 305 (figures), 306; Milne-Edwards
& Oustalet, Centenaire Mus. d'Hist. Nat. pp. 191-205, pi. I (1893 excellent lengthy
;

(1891 Reunion).

account).

Mascarinus mascarinus Salvadori, Cat. B.

Brit.

Mus. XX,

p.

421

has been mentioned above that " Le Sieur D. B."

IT this

Parrot clearly

Madagascar.
scientific

1674, and that

in

Linnaeus

name on

1771

(see

above)

(Dubois)

described

Reunion, and

was the

first

not on

bestow a

to

though Brisson had already again described

it,

Linnaeus' diagnosis

in

on

lived

it

it

in

1760.

as usual, rather poor, and not quite correct*, but his

is,

reference to Brisson leaves no doubt as to what he meant.

This parrot

is

one of the rarest of extinct

One normally

specimens being known.


the

Museum

been

of Natural History in

figured

Museum

by

Daubenton

and

in

Vienna

some white feathers on the


however, lived formerly
depicted by

Hahn

and

is

and

is

tail.

preserved in

evidently this which has


in

my

the

"

Centenaire

du

figure has been taken.

unfortunately semi-albinistic,

there

Another normal

being

individual,

Menagerie of the King of Bavaria, where

it

was

Unfortunately this specimen has not been preserved.

" Psi/facMS brachyurus fuscus, facie nigra, Cauda albente.

Caput caerulescens."

it

the latter plate

back, wings and

in the

in 1835.

is

only two stuffed

coloured specimen

Levaillant,

From

d'Historie Naturelle."

The example

Paris,

birds,

Habitat

in

.Mascarina.

Rostrum incarnatum.

65

PALAEORNIS EXSUL
(Plate
Palaconiis exsu! A. Newton,

LEGUAT

was the
and

bleus,"

et

Ibis

newton.

19.)

1872, p. 33.

first

to mention

that

they were

these parrots as

wonderfully

"

Perroquets verds

and

also

Of moderate

size.

good to

eat

delightful pets.

Professor Newton's description

as follows

is

"

Female

From

General appearance greyish-glaucous, darker above than beneath.


corner of

becomes

mouth proceeds an

the

broader

as

backward

passes

it

ill-defined

and rectrices above

when seen

is

which

somewhat

Head, nape and shoulders, upper

seen against the

light,

blue

tinge

in

and the green

Rump

the contrary aspect; the outer rectrices paler.

in

stripe,

ceasing

greyish-glaucous, the

dull

which predominates when the bird

black chin

upward,

and

abruptly on reaching the level of the ears.


wing-coverts,

dull

the

verditer

Primaries with their outer, and most part of their inner, webs deep

blue.

greenish blue, the former with narrow, lighter edges, and the latter broadly

bordered

with

pitch

black;

shafts

and

lower

surfaces

Secondaries much the same as the primaries, but of a

still

greyish

black.

deeper shade.

Breast dull greyish-glaucous, but lighter than the upper parts and passing

on the

which becomes lighter and greener on the vent.

belly into verditer,

Rectrices

beneath yellowish

feathers.

Bill black."

grey,

The specimen was sent

to

spirits

in

toward

darker

Sir

the

tips

of

Edward Newton

the

in

longer

1871 by

Mr. Jenner, the Magistrate of Rodriguez.

The male

differs

fading into horn at the

tip.

Top

having the upper mandible crimson,

in

of head

more glaucous.

Black stripe from

Black chin stripe prolonged almost to meet on nape of neck.

nostril to eye.

Most

from the female

of primaries with dull black patch on inner webs.

Middle secondaries

dusky black.

The male was sent

to Sir

Edward Newton

Total length

Tail
if

not quite extinct.

status are very desirable.

Habitat

1875 by Mr.
16

Wing
Probably almost

in

Rodriguez Island.

J.

Caldwell.

inches.

7-5

8-5

Recent investigations about

its

66

PALAEORNIS WARDI
(Plate
Palaeornis wardi E. Newton, P.Z.S. 1867,

THE
"

translation

Similar

to

P.

20.)

346 (Seychelles).

p.

Edward Newton's

Sir

of

alexandri,

but

newton.

e.

with

diagnosis
stouter

is

as

follows

red

purple

bill,

shoulder patches, and the hind neck without a red band.

Crown

"Adult Male.

of

head and throat

chin and line round base of

bluish,

cheeks ochraceous green,

mandible black, continued

in

a stripe from the

gape to the hind neck; back and wings grass green; rump brighter; a single

wide band

(or patch)

on the shoulders purplish red;

remiges and rectrices

deep green washed with blue, the latter yellowish, the former dusky below;
belly

length

yellowish green

bill

16 inches, wings 775,

Female

scarlet with

vivid
tail

male but

similar to the

without the black mandibular

paler tip

duller,

and with the

Mahe, but now confined to the

become

extinct.

little

islet

in

bill all

black,

and

the Seychelles, especially

of Silhouette,

According to E. Newton

vert."

Habitat

Total

stripe.

Formerly abundant on most of the islands

probability

feet dusky.

9."

Seychelles Islands.

its

where

it

name was

will in all

"

Cateau

67

PALAEORNIS EQUES
Psittaca borbonica torquata Briss., Orn. IV
PsittacHS alexandri var. y Linnaeus, S.N.

Perruche d

de

collier

Perniche a double

I'Isle

p.

328,

(bodd).

XXVII

pi.

f.

142 (1766).

p.

de Bourbon Daubenton, PI. enl. 215.

collier Buff.,

Hist. Nat. Ois. VI, p. 143 (1779).

Alexandrine Parrakeet var. C. Double Ringed Parrakeet Latham, Syn.


Psittacus eqiies Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl.

p. 13

Psittacus semirostris Hermann, Obs. Zool.


Psittacus bitorqiiatus Kuhl, Consp. Psitt.

Rose Ringed Parrakeet

var. B.

p.

p.

II

p.

Palaeornis bitorquatus Vigors, Zool. Journ.

II

p.

51

(1825).

Palaeornis borbonicus Bp., Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1854,

was

It

first

Pal. echo.

asserted

that

p.

No. 140.

152.

confusion with regard


it

occurred

on

XX,

and

Mauritius birds, while quite

parrot.

Bourbon

both

Salvadori, however, in Cat. Birds. Brit. Mus.

Bourbon

this

to

Then Professor Newton separated the Mauritius

Mauritius.

the

161 (1822).

1385 (1823).

considerable

326 (1781).

92 (1820).

p.

been

p.

125 (1804).

Ill

has

(1783).

Latham, Gen. Hist.

Psittacus bicollaris Vieillot, Enc. Meth.

THERE

(Bourbon.)

(1760).

p.

and

bird

as

442, reunited

unaccountably stating

only

Mauritius as the habitat.

The Abbe Dubois describes

this bird

as follows

"

Green Parrots as

large as pigeons having a black collar."

Now

the species of Palaeornis from Rodriguez, the Seychelles, and the

mainland of Africa are

all

distinct,

and the other land birds of Mauritius are

and were different from those of Bourbon.


that

Professor

from P.
forms

Newton

is

right,

and that

though, unfortunately,

eqties,

we do

his

not

therefore feel quite certain

Palaeornis

know

in

echo

is

distinct

which way the two

differed.

Habitat

Bourbon or Reunion, but now

extinct.

No specimens known.

68

PALAEORNIS ECHO
Palaeoniis echo Newton, Ibis 1876,

p.

284.

Palaeornis eques Salvador!, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XX,

DESCRIPTION
narrow

Male

of

black

p.

442 (1891).

Green, the occiput

from

stripe

new TON.

the

nostrils

to

with

tinged

the

bluish

broad

eyes;

black

mandibular stripes passing down and across the sides of the neck

where they meet a pink


wing-coverts
bluish

tail

yellowish

which

collar,

green

interrupted on the hind neck;

is

central

below dark yellowish grey

tail

Wing

7'5

inches,

female differs by the absence of the


bill

with

upper mandible red, under mandible

almost black with only a brownish tinge

round eyes orange.

tinged

scarcely

feathers

under

in places.

Iris yellow.

8'75

bill

tail

inches,

no bluish

collar,

tint

Naked

9 inches.

skin

The

on occiput, and the

entirely blackish.
It

from

differs

colour and broader


the island, but

Habitat

is
:

tail

P. torquatus
feathers.

in

the incomplete

This bird

is

still

collar,

found

in

darker green
the interior of

rare and apparently on the verge of extinction.

Mauritius.

Three specimens at Tring, four

in

the

British

Museum.

69

CYANORHAMPHUS ZEALANDICUS
(LATHAM.)
Red Rumped Parrakeet Latham, Syn.

No. 50 (1781).

p. 249,

I,

Psittacus novae seelandiae Gmelin (nee. Sparrm.), S.N.


PsittacHS zealandictts Latham, Ind. Orn.
Psittacus novae-zcalandiae Kuhl, Consp.

I,

Platycercus pacificus, part. Vigors, Zool. Journ.

I,

Platycercus phaeton Des Murs, Icon. Orn.

pi.

Cyanorhamphus pacificus Bonaparte,

et.

Rev.

p.

529 (1825).

p.

Mag.

Cyanorhamphus

270

THIS

p.

129, No. 9 (1826).

449.

II, p.

II,

p.

i5 (1845).

Cyaiiorhaniphus erythronotus Gray, Hand-list


forstcri Finsch, Papag.

(1820).

1387 (1823).

p.

Platycercus erythronotus Stephens, Gen. Zool. ^XIV.,


Coiiurus phaeton Des Murs, Rev. Zool. 1845,

1854, p. 153, No. 184.


140, No.

8029 (1870).

(18

names owing

bird has received a variety of

No. 83 (1788).

No. 67 (1820).

p. 45,

Enc. M6th.,

3, Vieillot,

p. 328,

102, No. 58 (1790).

p.

Psitt. p. 44, var.

Psittacus erythronotus Kuhl, Consp. Psitt.


Psittacus pacificus var. No.

I,

to the adult bird being

very different to the younger and quite young birds.


black
scarlet

rump

scarlet

under-tail coverts
outer,

from lores

stripe

brown on

passing

back and breast

through

dull

green

webs

bend of wing blue

hind-neck

cheeks, head, neck, belly,

and wing coverts, bright green.


inner,

almost to

eye
;

Adult, forehead

Flight-feathers blue on
tail

feathers blue, edged

with green.

Young

differs

having a dull bluish-black forehead, brownish head,

in

back mixed brown and green, rump and eye

stripe

chestnut red, and the

underside greyish green.

This

species

was confined

the

to

Society

Islands,

where

it

was

obtained during Cook's Voyage by Ellis and by Forster, and lastly by Lieutenant

de Marolles

in

1844.

We

only

existence of two specimens, one

whose

origin

Marolles.

is

doubtful,

What became

and of Forster's and


Habitat

and

one

specimens,

Society Islands.

for certain at the present

the British

of the other

Ellis'

Evidently extinct.

know
in

in

Museum, ex Massena

Paris,

collected

two specimens of the


I

day of the

cannot say.

by

collection,

Lieutenant de

latter's collecting,

70

CYANORHAMPHUS ULIETANUS
Society Parrot Latham, Syn.

250 (1781).

p.

Psittacus uliefanus Gmelln, S.N.

p. 328,

Platycercits iiUetaniis Vig., Zool.

p.

n.

Platycerciis fannaeiisis Finsch, Papag.

Psittacus fiiscatus Pelz., Ibis 1873,

" Olive

85 (1788).

533, Suppl.

Cyanorhamphiis ulictanus Bonaparte, Rev.

A DULT

et

pi.

3 (1825).

Mag. de Zool. 1854,

153, n. 188.

p.

272 (i858).

II, p.

p. 30.

brown, the head brown-black

rump and

basal upper

coverts brown-red, the longest upper tail-coverts olive

back

and

underparts olive-yellow

tail-feathers grey

XX

(Salvadori, Cat. B.
inches,

tail

p.

Wing

579).

tail-

like

the

primary-coverts, under wing coverts

base of upper mandible grey

black,

bill

quills,

brown

5-3 inches,

bill

08

feet brown."

inches, tarsus

08

5 inches.

Habitat

Ulietea, Society Islands (fide Latham).

The type from


Bullock's

(gm)

collection

the Leverian
is

in

specimens known, and as

The specimen

in

British

is

now more

olive,

tail

Vienna, and a specimen from

These are the

only two

than a hundred years since anyone

we may suppose

Vienna, which

the head, back, wings, and

upper tail-coverts

is in

Museum.

the
it

has procured a specimen,

Museum

that this

is

an

e.xtinct

species.

have recently been able to examine, has

deep umber-brown, the rump dark-crimson,

underside brownish yellow.

CYANORHAMPHUS SUBFLAVESCENS
SALVADORI.
Parrot from Lord Hou-e Island

Cyaitorhamphus

VERY
This

stibfiavesceiis Salvadori,

and C.

similar to C. cooki

more

yellowish

than

in either of

species

is

Phillips, Bot.

than

C.

Bay,

225 (1789).

& Mag.

Ann.

saisseti

saisseti,

p.

(6)

VII, p. 68 (1891).

and intermediate

in size.

below more greenish,

tail

Above
shorter

the latter.

believed

to

be

extinct.

specimens of a Cyanorhamphiis from

Last year

received

some

an inhabitant of Lord Howe's Island,

but from subsequent letters these appear to have been collected on Norfolk
or Philip Island, and they certainly are
Habitat:

Lord Howe's

pair in the British

cooki.

Island.

Museum appear

to be the only

known specimens.

71

BUBO(?) LEGUATI
Stn'x sp. Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat.

MILNE-EDWARDS
described this

had

bone,

though he stated

more

getting

it

(5)

XIX

but refrained

13 (art. 3.) 1874.

p.

only a single

it

from giving

Asio

this

form and

a specific name,

it

was probably a small Bubo,

in

the hopes of

material.

we have no further specimens,


think
am justified in
Leguat, who first mentions Owls on Rodriguez.
Milne-

after

Edwards' description of
in

of

tibio-tarsus

As, however,

naming

nom. nov.

accipitrinus,

this tibio-tarsus is that

but

was

distinguished

inward curvature and the great development

it

equals in length that bone

from the
in

by the strong

latter

width of

its distal

Tibio-iarsiis.

77

mm.

....

25

,,

....

lOS

,,

....

,,

37

Total length

Length from the pro.Kimal extremity to the


top of the peronial ridge

....

Width

at distal extremity

Width

at proximal extremity

Width

of shaft

Habitat

Rodriguez.

....

....

extremity.

73

SCOPS COMMERSONI
Scops commersoni Oustatet, Ann.

THIS

owl,

leave

it

Sci. Nat. (8)

III,

35

p.

believe, is not a true Scops, being

first

common

says that owls were

the year 1606,

in

"The

and even the

digits

nearly to

a point

being armed with hooked

The beak
which

is

The

stiff,

is

very stout,

is

The

arched

nostrils pierce the

which

eyes, of

The

centre.

Matlief

in

1837,

here reproduce

stiff

feathers running

are very strong, they

digits

from

base;

its

the other and covering


bill

it,

the upper mandible,

is

as

if

cut square at

pretty high up in the horny portion.

could not see the colour, are round, and placed, like

They are surrounded by a

the entire family, in front.

in

when Admiral

nails.

much longer than

the point.

the

appearance.

its

are not feathered, only on

tarsi

the front portion of these latter one sees some short,


to

we must

Monsieur Desjardins,

the Island.

in

us as to

accurate description of the bird, of which

first

the translation.

down

too big, but

that genus for the present, as there are no specimens or bones

in

mention of owls on Mauritius was

gave the

3 (1896).

much

extant, and only Jossigny's drawing to guide

The

fig

oust.

thread-like feathers, which

is

Two

perceptible on the throat.

tufts, similar to

or disc of

circle

interrupted at the sides.

sort of collar

those of the Eagle

Owls

and Eared Owls, and very apparent, are behind the eyes and towards the
top of the occiput.

The wings are a

little

longer

than

the

tail,

the fourth

and

fifth

primaries being the longest, the third and sixth are shorter, and the second
still

tail

shorter, being equal to the eighth,

reaches

lengthened

to
all

end

the

of

the

and the

digits;

it

first is
is

the retrices are equal in length.

shortest

rounded

The

and

oif

all.

much

not

ear-tufts are

The

brown,

with some slight buff shading, the discal plumes being white marked with
All the

buff.

upper side

is

of a dark

brown

colour, the feathers of the head,

the neck and the back are edged with rufous, but not very distinctly so;
this rufous colour is

more apparent on the

scapulars,

and some of these even

have on the outer web one or two whitish patches surrounded with brown.

The

large

tail

feathers are less

lighter rufous marbling

The
centre,

tertials

brown and more rufous

in colour,

with

mixed with brown.

and secondaries have a darker brown bar towards the

and their outer web

is

pleasantly

marked with somewhat square

or irregular bands of white, pale buff, and brown.

The

ocelli

large primaries or

74

present the same ornamentation, but more strongly developed,

flight feathers

and the blotches are buffy white on the inner web, which produces a regular
spotting on a brown ground colour

brown on a

stippled with

white on the wings

the tip of these large feathers

ground

fairly pale

and there

is

finely

is

patch of

large

in addition.

The throat and abdomen are

nicely adorned with

dark buff feathers,

which have a black brown centre and two to four large round white

The large feathers on the


marked with

flanks

are whitish, with a brown

All the well feathered parts,

buff.

spots.

shaft line

and

underneath the feathers are

covered by a very thick black down."

The colour
= 365 mm.

Creek."
killed

at

and

feet

is

reddish brown.

1836,

in

the

forest

1837 several were

Curepipe by Dr.

believed to have
to

bill

Desjardins says the specimen

end of October,
In

of

been one

still

Dobson
of,

if

Total length, 13J inches

he described was

crowning the

hills

killed

close to

"

Bamboo

seen near " La Savane," and one


of

the 99th

Regiment.

the

at

was

This latter

not the last of this species, so

is

we have

thank that excellent naturalist, Desjardins, and Monsieur Jossigny, the

companion of Commerson, that we know what


Habitat

Mauritius.

this extinct species

was

like.

75

ATHENE MURIVORA

milneedwards

Strix (Athene) miirivora Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat.

PROFESSOR MILNE-EDWARDS
and a tarso-metatarsus collected
and says that he considers

it

(5)

XIX

p.

13 (Art. 3.)

(1874).

described this bird from a tibio-tarsus


in

Rodriguez by Sir Edward Newton,

to belong to the

genus Athene, because

the proportions of the tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus agree with those of

The most remarkable

that genus.

ridge to which the fibula

is

the outer edge of the bone.


distal

extremity

is

specific characters

articulated

is

stout,

The diaphysis

furnished

with

two

is

appear to be that the

and extends very far along

large and nearly straight; the

equal

condyles

deep channel.
Tibio-tarsus.
71

Total length

Length from proximal extremity to end of


peronial ridge

Width

of distal extremity

Width

of proximal extremity

Width

of shaft

....

Tarso-metatarsus.
Total length

Width

at proximal extremity

Width

at distal extremity

Width

of shaft

Habitat

Rodriguez.

....

separated

by

77

SCELOGLAUX RUFIFACIES
Sceloglaux nififacies Buller,

Ibis 1904, p.

639;

New

Suppl. B.

id.

duller.

Zealand

II, p.

65, pi.

VII

(1906).

ORIGINAL

"Adult female: Similar

description:

but appreciably smaller

face dull rufous brown, instead of being white

crown and nape blackish brown


with rufous
of rufous

pale

brown
"

bill

entire upper surface strongly suffused

marked with regular transverse bars and a terminal edging

quills

brown

to Sceloglaux albifacies,

tail-feathers uniform yellowish brown, obscurely barred with

lemon-yellow

Wairarapa

feet dull yellow."

near

district,

North

Wellington,

Island,

summer

the

in

1868-9."

This supposed " species "


in

the Tring

that

Museum

did not feel

is

of the type (which

justified

in

buying

forms, types and varieties) by Messrs.

beyond doubt to

showed signs
"

all

three of

of immaturity.

was

fond as

it,

for such a high price

am

of possessing extinct

Hellmayr and myself proved

Hartert,

was not

fully adult, but

Walter Buller that

said to Sir

close examination

me

offered

us that the specimen


If

a very doubtful one.

was an

it

extremely young, hardly fledged Sceloglaux" this was certainly incorrect,

and was perhaps just an exclamation after a hasty preliminary examination,


for the bird

of course fully fledged

is

On

one moult of the feathers.

and has passed,

It

Gadow

at once by Dr.

"
to be an adult bird

be

necessarily to

" character of the

in

(cf.

Newton's

letter

also

is

less

among
tail,

if

easily

it

is

p. 66, I.e.),

though

by Hartert, Hellmayr

Buller says he " pronounced

he continues that he thinks the

markings continues to be juvenile."


of

this

owl,

question

the

from S. albifacies from the South

different

done.

is

on

plumage," and

adult

Buller described

the distinctive characters

however,

fully adult are

is

admits that the bird " had moulted, though not

Having thus discussed the age


considered

question

shows unmistakable signs of immaturity, as noticed

Moreover Professor Newton

and myself.
it

certainly

through

the other hand, both Professor Newton's and

Dr. Sharpe's reputed statements that the owl in

not correct.

at least partially,

" skillfully "

complimentary adverb) stuck

(as
in,

(see

it

as a

"new

species,"

above) the colour of

Buller calls

it,

though

must

Island.

being

abraded,

Certainly, however, the

its

This

and mentions

the

tail.

The

should use a less

and does not belong to a Sceloglaux, but to

an Australian Ninox, and also some feathers on the neck are foreign.

wings

be

slightly

colouration

smaller
in

length

general

is

is

not

slightly

very

The

significant.

more rufous than

78

in S. albifacies,

and the face

Walter
like

As
too

though some of

more

is

my

specimens approach
Professor

rufescent.

aluco,

for myself,

many

and

this

almost completely,

phase,"

North Island specimen represented the

latter.

do not think that S. albifacies has two phases, as

collection eight specimens

from the South

not seen juvenile examples; but

warned Sir

might possibly have a red

specimens, and found them to vary but

Island specimen

it

cautiously

"

Buller, suggesting that S. albifacies

Symium

Newton

it

is

Island.

little.

On

have seen

have now

the other hand,

in
I

my

have

very likely that the rufous face of the North

a character peculiar to the North Island form, which would

is

then be a sub-species of S. albifacies from the South Island, and should be


called S. albifacies rufifacies.
killed in the

has come

summer

forth,

extinct by this time.

The type from Wairapara

is

said to have been

of 1868-9, and, since no further evidence of its existence

presume that the North Island race

of this owl

must be

79

NEWTON

STRIX
Strix sp.

Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc.

XIII,

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW

nom. nov.

p.

287 (1893).

give the

describe a pair of metatarsi procured witii


Strix satizieri, and state that they do not

as they are fully adult bones,

it is

assume, what
species of

unlikely, that the

is

we have

Strix,

to

tiie

in

of which this

is

with that species.

the

they wrote

this, did

For,

smaller size

part: "Unless

two

we

different

short pair of metatarsals

Evidently Messrs.

."

belonged to a small individual of Strix sauzieri,

Gadow and Newton, when

first

much

Island of Mauritius possessed

conclude that the

and

of,

remains described as

impossible to attribute their

They then add a sentence

to youth.

fit

measurements

not remember the fact that

throughout a very large portion of the range of Strix flammea,

its

various

geographical races are found side by side with another species of the group
of Strix, namely, S. Candida and S. capensis, popularly called " Grass owls "

these

in

nearly every case have the legs considerably longer than in the true

"Barn Owls"

{Strix

Therefore
Strix

representative

flammea and

consider

Mauritius,

inhabited
of

the

"

it

not

and

Grass

its

Sir

in

naming

this

races).

the least unlikely that two species of

in

that

Strix

sauzieri

while

these

Owls,"

belonged to the representative of the


pleasure

form after

"

Barn Owls."

the collector

Edward Newton.
Length of tarso-metatarsi, 56 mm.
Habitat

Mauritius.

was

two
I

Mauritian

the

short

metatarsals

therefore have

of these

bones,

much

the late

80

STRIX SAUZIERI
Strix sauzieri

Newton & Gadow, Trans.

MESSRS. NEWTON

Zool. Soc. XIII,

AND GADOW

metatarsi, three tibiae, and

p.

286,

describe

two humeri.

length of the tibia to the metatarsus


of the

newt. & gad.

is

pi.

XXXIII,

this

They

Hgs. Ii-i8 (1893).

species from

four

state that the relative

very constant and characteristic

various families and genera of owls.

In

the present instance this

comparison indicates a species of Strix.

The longer and higher cnemial process


of the

humerus serve amply

of the tibia

and the shortness

to justify the specific separation of this Mauritian

owl.

The

following are the measurements

Humerus, length

71

Tibia-tarsus, length

Tarso-metatarsus, length

Habitat

Mauritius.

....

....

mm.

9093

66

63

81

''CIRCUS HAMILTONI"
Circus hamiltoni Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

VERY

large harrier,

much

Inst.

XXIV,

p.

i85 (1892

forbes.
-no proper description).

larger than Circus gouldi, but not so big as

Harpagornis.
Habitat

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

''CIRCUS TEAUTEENSIS"
Circus teauteeiisis Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

NOTHER

Inst.

XXIV,

186 (1892

no

proper description).

very large harrier from Teaute, which has never yet been

properly described.

Habitat

p.

forbes.

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

83

ASTUR ALPHONSI
Astur

sp.

Milne-Edwards, Ann.

Sci.

Nat

(5)

XIX,

newt &

Art.

pp. 25, 26,

II,

Astur alphonsi Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII

pi.

2S5,

p.

gad.
15 flg

2.

(1874).

XXXIII,

pi.

figs g,

10

(1893).

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW


on a pair of
side

left

proportions
description

as
of

of

A.
this

a pair of metatarsals, and the metacarpals of the

tibiae,

bestowed the name Astur alphonsi

goshawk apparently

melanoleucus

goshawk as a

of

South

distinct

that most of the Mascarene extinct species

the same size and

of

They

Africa.

species,

were

first

distinct

of

relative

justified
all

by the

their

fact

and then because the

bony ridge for the M. flexor digitorum communis was more strongly developed,
the fibula reached further

down

the

tibia,

the peroneal crest

and longer, and the cnemial crest slanted more gradually


inner edge of the shaft of the

which he had

for examination as follows

Width

at proximal extremity

Width

at distal

Width

at smallest part of shaft

solitary tarso-metatarsus

extremity

Gadow and Newton

....

....

80

mm.

11

13

,,

give the length of their tarso-metatarsi as

81 mm., of their tibiae as 117 mm., and of the metacarpals as 55

Habitat

Seven

Mauritius.

tarsi in the

the anterior

Total length

Messrs.

into

straighter

tibia.

Milne-Edwards gives the measurements of the


of this bird

was

Tring Museum.

mm.

85

HARPAGORNIS

LLIED

to

Aquila, from which

by the ulna being

distinguished

is

it

haast.

relatively shorter and the tarso-metatarsus stouter.

HARPAGORNIS MOOREI
Harpagoniis inoorei Haast, Trans. N.Z.

DESCRIPTION
forward,

Inst. IV, p. 192 (1872).

femur (from

of

and above the

extremity

the

of

The

Haast):

distal

The hollow on the top

haast

head

is

it

shaft

cylindrical

curved back.

slightly

is

very

bent

and measures

large

42 inch across.

The trochanteric

ridge

is

developed and the outer side

well

is

very

rough, showing that muscles of great strength and thickness must have been

attached to

it.

The inter-muscular

linear

ridges are

well

raised

above the

shaft,

of

which the one extending from the fore and outer angle of the epitrochanteric
articular surface to the outer condyle

the attachment of

marked.

the

The femur

shaped, resembling

in

ligaments

is

in

is

the most prominent.


inter-condyloid

the

pneumatic, the

proximal

orifice

The

fossa are
is

large

for

pits

strongly

and

ear-

form most closely that of the Australian Sea Eagle.


6-66

Total length

Circumference at proximal end


Circumference at

distal

end

Circumference at thinnest part of shaft

Ungual phalanx (probably of

left

....

hallux)

Length
Circumference at articular end

Ungual phalanx (probably of right second

toe)

Length
Circumference

Type

Habitat

New

Type bones:

....

Glenmark Swamp.

locality:

Zealand.
left

femur, 2 ungual phalanges, and

For a more detailed description


actions of the

New

my

rib.

readers must refer to the Trans-

Zealand Institute VI, pp. 64-75 (1874).

87

CARBO PERSPICILLATUS
(Plate

39.)

Phalacrocorax perspicillattis Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso. -Asiat.


Gould, Zool. Voy. Sulphur,

p.

No.

Proc.

29,

p.

iSo (1885)

id.

XXXII

49, pi.

and

text

New and

Elliot,

the

gives

the

of

bill

Amer. B.

II,

bare,

red,

III, p.

spectacles.

Weight

(From

description

as follows

"

the former

of

of

this

Of the

blue and

12 to

which,

bird,

of a very

size

Cormorants), which

(sc.

The body

doubly crested.

tuft,

white, mixed,

is

entirely

Female

pounds.

14

in

round the base

Skin

Round the

a turkey.

as in

a pair of

like

smaller, without

and

crest

"

Steller.)

who was shipwrecked on Bering

Steller,

3,

144 (1899).

eyes a thick, bare white patch of skin, about six lines wide,
spectacles.

part 14, No.

narrow pendant plumes round the neck, as

white,

long,

Occiput with a huge

Herons.

(1889

II-IV

pis.

357 (1898).

patches on the flanks.

also resembles in the white

A few

p.

heret. unfig. sp. N.

is

Of the shape

large goose.

black.

XXVI,

recognizable

first

as translated from the Latin,

it

305 (1827 Berings Island);


Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus.,

II, p.
;

plate (i85g).

Pallasicarbo perspicillattis Coues, Osprey

PALLAS

(1844)

U.S. Nat. Mus. XII, pp. 83-94,

Osteology); Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus.

Graculus perspicillatus

(pall.)

discoverer of C. perspicillatus, and

Island

in

1741,

was the

Pallas took his diagnosis from Steller's

notes.

The Spectacled
It

Two

existence:

London.

in

Cormorant

is

one of the rarest of

generally said that four specimens are known,

is

five

or Pallas's

One

in

the St.

of these latter

Petersburg Museum, one

birds.

but five are really in

Leyden, and two

in

no

perfect, while the other has

is

all

Probably

tail.

in
all

have been obtained by Kuprianoff, the Russian Governor at Sitka, who,

1839, gave

The

one to Captain Belcher, and sent some others to

careful

researches

shown

clearly

that this

of

and

Stejneger

Cormorant

others

their

principal

diet

when other meat was

would not so soon have become extinct

if

difficult
it

Bering Island

on

Formerly

exists no longer.

have been numerous, but the natives were fond of

St. Petersburg.

is

said to

flesh,

which formed

obtain.

Probably

its

to

it

have

it

had not been that their rather

short wings resulted in a certain slowness of locomotion on land and in the


air.

more

detailed

good description

is

given

the Catalogue of

one by Stejneger (Proc.

Brandt's manuscript.
Habitat:

in

Bering Island.

U.S.

Nat. Mus.

Birds,

and

1899, p.

86)

still

from

88

CARBO MAJOR
"

PhaJacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major


(1892

"

(forbes).

Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

that
FORBES only informed
DR. dimensions
than Ph. novaezealandiae

us

Ph. carbo).
especially,

if

Inst.

XXIV,

p.

1S9

no proper description).

It

this extinct

would be interesting

New

(a

to

form was incapable of

Galapagos Islands.
Habitat

this

Zealand.

shag

was

very closely

of

greater

allied

form of

know more about


flight,

like

Pli.

it,

and,

harrisi of the

89

PLOTUS NANUS

newt. & gad.

Plotus nanus Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII

p.

288,

pi.

XXXIV

figs

1-5.

(1893).

THE

humerus, the pelvis with sacrum, and the

tibia

on which our authors founded this new species.

were the materials

They

state that

all

the strongly developed characters in these bones leave no possible doubt


as

to

its

distinguishes

being

of

species

Plotus,

and

from the three known species

it

its

diminutive

size

at

P. anhinga, P. melanogaster,

and P. novaehollandiae.

The measurements are

as follows

Left humerus, length


Left

tibia,

length

89

mm.

61

Distance from acetabular axis to anterior end of sacrum 30

mm.

Distance between ventral inner margins of the acetabula 145


Habitat

Mauritius.

once

(Also recorded from Madagascar.)

mm.

91

''CHENOPIS SUMNERENSIS"
Chenopis sumnereiisis Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

Inst.

XXIV,

p.

i88 (1892)

forbes.
(Nomen nudum).

appears to have been a very large species, with not very great

powers of
Habitat

flight,
:

New

if

not flightless.

Zealand and Chatham Islands.

Bones from Chatham Islands

in

my

collection.

93

CHENALOPEX SIRABENSIS
Chenalopex

THIS

sirabeitsis

Andrews,

Andrews.

Ibis 1897, p. 355, pi. IX, figs 1-3.

species of which skull, sternum, pelvis, the bones of fore and hind

limbs,

&c.,

are preserved, appears to be closely allied to Chenalopex

Mr. Andrews

is,

such

has

but

aegyptiacus,

think, quite

number

small

of

justified in separating

agree with him when he suggests that perhaps

it

is

it

that

differences
I

do

however,

not,

Newton

the same as

and Gadow's Sarcidiornis mauritianus, although many of the bones agree.

Of

course, his line

of comparison

was strengthened by the

bones of Plotus nanus occurring both

does

follow

not

occurred

in

that

because

in

in

one

Mauritius
family

two places the others must do

of

fact

of subfossil

and Madagascar
birds

same

the

likewise, and, therefore,

but

it

species

one must

not necessarily regard a certain similarity of osteological characters as proof


of

identity.

must here again refer

my

readers to Mr. Andrews' very

full

description.

Habitat

Sirabe in C. Madagascar.

The measurements are

67

Coracoid

mm.

Humerus

132147

Radius

126134

Ulna

129142

Metacarpus

The smaller
male

75

individuals.

....

....

....

....

76

85

,,

bones, undoubtedly, belonged to female, and the larger to

95

CENTRORNIS
ALLIED
form

to

Andrews.

Chenalopex and Chenopis, but

and proportion of

its

from Chenalopex

differs

metatarsus, and

from

all

in

other Anserine

forms by the extreme length and slenderness of the shaft of the


tarsus and the
differs in

relative

several

From

shortness of the fibular crest.

respects,

and the very long

the

tibio-

Clienopis

it

crest of the latter at

fibular

once separates them.

CENTRORNIS MAJORI
Cenironiis majori Andrews,

THIS

species

Robert
in

in

was
the

1896-1897.

and Chenalopex but


legs.

Indeed,

and the

Andrews.

Ibis 1897, p. 344, pi. VIII.

by

discovered

bed

of

It

was

differed

Forsyth

Dr.

an old lake at Sirabe,


similar

in

in

many

large size

its

slight degree of inflection of the


ill

my

to

Sarcidiornis

and the great length of

its

femur

metatarsus and

lower end of the long

seems

tibia, it

adapted for swimming, though a good runner.

The wings were long and powerful and armed with a long
refer

Monsieur

Madagascar,

Central

respects

judging from the slenderness of the

probable that this bird was

Major and

spur.

must

readers for a fuller description to Mr. Andrews, as quoted above.

The measurements are

Tibia.

Length (exclusive of cnemial

crest)

Width

of upper articular surface

Width

of middle of shaft

Thickness of shaft

Width

....

of distal extremity

....

Femur.
Length

Width

of proximal extremity

Width

of distal extremity

Width

of shaft

....

....

213-

96

Metatarsus.

Length

130

Width

of shaft

Width

of middle trochlea

Coracoid.

Length

Width

of glenoidal surface

Scapula.

Width

at proximal extremity

Radius.

Length
Ulna.

Width

at middle of shaft

Metacarpus.

Greatest width at proximal extremity

Length of spur

Width
Habitat

of second metacarpal

Madagascar.

97

CNEMIORNIS
SKULL

short and

sternum aborted.

rounded and

beak

massive, with

OWEN.

Limb-bones short and

stout.

Carina

of

very stout, the ulna being

shorter than the humerus, and having very prominent tubercles for the

secondaries

cnemial crest of

and fourth trochleae of tarso-metatarsus.

third

The power

of flight

presence

the

of

was

extra

absent.

No foramen between

greatly developed.

tibia

The

pre-sacral

chief differences

vertebrae,

three ribs articulate with the sacrum

Spines of dorsal vertebrae

so

tall.

from Cereopsis were

two only instead

that

of

and an elevated pent-roof arrangement

of the ossa innominata, which indicate more decided cursorial habits.

CNEMIORNIS CALCITRANS
Cnemiontis

"

''

calcitraiis Osven, Trans. Zool. Soc. V, p. 396 (1865).

"'HE type

J.

owen.

species.

Very considerably larger than the existing Cereopsis

novaehollandiae, with the limbs relatively

much

stouter and shorter

"

(Lydekker).

Height of back from ground

....

....

26 inches.

Length from beak

....

....

34

Habitat

For
(1874).

full

Middle Island,

to

tail....

New

,,

Zealand.

description see Trans.

N. Z. Inst. VI,

pp.

76-84,

pis.

X-XII

98

''CNEMIORNIS GRACILIS"
Cnemioniis gracilis Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

MOST

XXIV,

Inst.

p.

187 (1892)

forbes.
(Nomcn nudum).

elegantly moulded goose from the North Island."

this is all that

Habitat

Unfortunately

has been published about this form!

North

Island,

New

Zealand.

CNEMIORNIS MINOR
Cnemioniis minor Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

XXIV,

p.

forbes.

187 (1892); vide also Trans. N.Z.

Inst. VI, pp. 76-84 (Hector).

HIS
its

species appears to be distinguished from Cnemiornis calcitrans by

very small
Habitat

size,

being hardly bigger than Cereopsis novaehollandiae.

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

99

CEREOPSIS NOVAEZEALANDIAE
Cereopsis novaezealaiidiae Forbes, Trans. N. Zealand

THIS

species

was founded on an incomplete

C. novaehollandiae by

Habitat

Inst.

New

its

Zealand.

slightly larger size.

XXIV,

skull,

p.

forbes.

i88 (1892).

and differed from

101

SARCIDIORNIS MAURITIANUS
Sarcidioniis maiiritiaitus Newton

Trans. Zool. Soc. XllI,

p.

290, pi.

XXXIV,

9-10.

figs.

THEand

& Gadow,

newt. & gad.

evidence on which this species

an incomplete

left half

is

founded

of the pelvis.

is

a single

left

metacarpal

character

Its specific

the

is

very large size as compared to the two existing species.


Habitat

Mauritius.

In
J.

an

old

Marshall (1668)

passage

this

"

work
in

"Memorandums concerning

entitled

the article on the

They are many Geese

bill

Plenty of Ducks."

here or

that these

in

As there

Mauritius, there occurs

Island of

the halfe of their wings towards the

end are black and the other halfe white;


good.

by

India"

is

they are not large, but fat and

no mention of the caruncle on the

Other authors alluding to geese

geese were this Sarcidiornis, but

in Mauritius,

believe

Oustalet doubted

this

merely to have

been an oversight of Marshall's and that his description goes far to prove
the distinctness of

The

Newton and Gadow's

species.

allusion to the small size also points to the geese of Marshall being

the Sarcidioniis.
the fact that

on

L'Abbe Dubois

in

"

Les Voyages du Sieur D. B." records

Bourbon were some wild geese

geese of Europe but having the same plumage.


It

is

also

probable that

wild

slightly smaller

Their

geese were found on

bill

than the

and feet were

Rodriguez.

red.

There

is

nothing to show what these Bourbon geese were, and as no osseous remains
of

such birds

have been

found as yet

it

is

impossible

mention the fact of such birds having been recorded.

to

do more than

103

ANAS FINSCHI
Alias fiiischi
123

p.

THIS

Van Beneden,

Journ. Zool. IV,

p.

van beneden.
267(1875); Ann. de

la

Soc. Geol. Belg.

II,

(1876).

duck

most

is

peculiar, as

and Dendrocygna

it

stands intermediate between Querquedtda

and

structure,

in

its

nearest

known

ally

seems to

be the extinct A. blanchardi of Europe, and of living forms apparently

Clangula clangula.
nearest to that of Clangula clangula but wider, nostrils more

Skull

elongated, eye-sockets smaller, and the whole skull

Sternum

from that of C. clangula by having the notch lower, more

differs

and

behind

FuUgula

more regularly rounded

shorter

in

Humerus

marila.

C. clangula, as are the

and

Clavicle

front.

and

larger

coracoid

than

stronger

resemble

faint

those

marila

F.

in

off.

of

and

femur, tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus, which are

almost double as long and thick.

Judging from the shape of

its

leg-bones this bird must have been a

strong runner, and probably at the same time was a poor

Middle Island,

Habitat:

New

Zealand.

ANAS THEODORI
Anas

Newton & Gadow, Trans.

theodori

(1893

flyer.

Mauritius).

Zool.

MESSRS. NEWTON AND GADOW

newt. & gad.

Soc. XIII,

founded

p.

291,

pi.

XXXIV,

this species

figs

11-17

on a fragment

of a sternum, a pair of coracoids, eight humeri, and a pair of tarso-

These are referable to a duck of larger

metatarsi.

bemieri, and

somewhat intermediate between N. punctata and Anas

The sternum

differs

keel and by the shape

coracoid
in

is

in length

melleri.

from that of A. melleri by the lesser height of the

and direction of the anterior margin of the

longer and larger than in

A^.

bemieri, but

is

A. melleri, though agreeing with that of the latter

plain almost

size than Nettion

in

The

shorter than

shape, and

by the

The seven humeri vary

ridgeless ventral surface of the shaft.

from 70-78 mm., and agree

in

much

latter.

size with those of

A'^.

punctata, thus

proving our species to be smaller than A. melleri.

The two tarso-metatarsi are


42 mm.

in length,

poor condition

the right one measuring

thus indicating that A. theodori was a bird with a shorter

foot than A. melleri.

Habitat

in

Mauritius.

105

CAMPTOLAIMUS LABRADORIA
(Plate
Anas

labradoria Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

36.)

2,

I,

(gm)

(1788

537

p.

"Habitat

gregaria in America,

Ex Pennant and Latham.)

boreali."

Anas labradora Latham,

Ind. Orn.

Rhynchaspis labradora Stephens,

II, p.

in

859 (1790).

Shaw's Gen. Zool. XII,

Fnligula labradora Bonaparte, Ann. Lyceum N.Y.

Somateria labradora Boie,

II,

2,

121 (1824).

p.

391 (1826).

p.

1828, p. 329.

Isis

Kamptorhynchiis labradorus Eyton, Mon. Anat.

p. 151

Fuligiila grisea Leib, Journ. Acad. Sc. Philad. VIII,

(1838).

young

170 (1840

p.

bird).

Dutcher, Auk. 1891,


95 (1841)
p. 201, pi. II; 1894, pp. 4-12; Hartl. Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen XVI, p. 23 (1895).
Campfolaemus labradorius Baird, B.N. Amer. p. 803 (1858) Baird, Brewer and Ridgway,
Water B. N. Amer. II, p. 63 (1884); Milne-Edw. and Oustalet, Centen. Mus. d'Hist.

Camptolaimus labradorus Gray,

Gen. B. ed.

List.

p.

2,

Nat., Notice

THE

IV (1893)

Ois. 6teint. p. 51, pi.

Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit.

Mus. XXVII,

416 (1895).

p.

adult male and a

young male, both

my museum,

in

are represented

on plate 36, but the young bird became too rufous, through the colour

Though

type reproduction, and should be somewhat more mouse-gray.


first

named by Gmelin

technically

in

1785 by Pennant, in the Arctic Zoology


"

on the summit of the head


the head and neck, white
coverts

wings

of

cuneiform,

and

II,

With the lower part

Pied Duck.

white

dusky

this

1788,

duck was

559, as follows:

p.

of the

bill

an oblong black spot

is

black, the upper yellow,

forehead, cheeks, rest of

the lower part encircled with black

back,

black.

legs

breast,

belly,

The

described in

first

and

bill

black

primaries,

the

of

scapulars and

tail

female

supposed

resembles that of the male, head and neck mottled with cinereous brown and
dirty white; primaries dusky; speculum white; back, breast,

with different shades of ash-colour


Size of a

and

dusky and cuneiform

tail

legs

black.

common Wild Duck.

"Sent from Connecticut,

Possibly the great flocks

to Mrs. Blackburn.

of pretty Pied

Ducks, which whistled as they flew, or as they

Mr. Lawson

the western branch of Cape Fear

in

The Labrador-Duck
is

belly clouded

not easily explained.

the cause of

its

is

one of those

As Mr. Dutcher

disappearance, but

inlet,

birds, the

truly said,

we have no

were

fed,

seen by

of this kind."

disappearance of which

"we

facts to

can speculate as to

warrant a conclusion."

Formerly Camptolaimus was of regular occurrence along the northern Atlantic


shores of North America, in winter south to

has often been sold on the markets of


anticipated even

fifty

New

New York

Jersey and

New

York.

It

and Baltimore, and nobody

years ago that they might become extinct, but they

106

we have no

appear never to have been very numerous, at least

islets,

breeding haunts, and, not content

to shoot the birds."

that

know

has

to be

where the breeding haunts

for certain

anyone

ever

them.

visited

who

nests, mercilessly

its

mere conjecture, as we do

of this

Duck have

been, and

known about the

says that his son

was shown

This information

is

certainly too

draw any conclusions from, but the breeding places might

uncertain to

much

as well have been

The number

Town Museum:

(J

ad. (Auk.

48.

is

1897, p. 87),

bought from Salmin (Hartl.

1,

just

further to the north, and probably were.

of specimens extant

Museum:

Paris:

yearly to

which a clerk of the fishing establishment

of bushes,

him were those of the Labrador Duck.

Berlin

man began

information

All

that of Audubon,

is

empty nests on the top

Amiens,

since "

plundering

in

seems

This, however,

breeding of this bird

told

us that this duck used to breed on rocky

tells

" its fate is easily understood,"

and that

visit its

not

Newton

true that Professor

It is

proof of this.

London, British Museum

2,

and a ?

ad.

,J

p. 23).

M. Hyde de Neuville.

adult, presented 1810 by

ad.,

neither of

them with exact

locality or

date.

Liverpool

2 3 ad.,

Cambridge
Dublin

Tring

Brussels
St.

l^jun.

Petersburg

Vienna

purchased from Salmin.

ad.,

Germany

in

Leiden

1 <?

poor specimen.

the

and two doubtful eggs


ad.,

,?

Museum

Hamburg

7,

State Museum, Albany

collection

,J

U.S. National

ad.

ad.

J ad.

J ad.

Vermont

University of Vermont, Burlington,

Philadelphia

2 3 jun.,

in

1846, for 4

in

Duke

of Leuchtenberg.

should say.
Locality

1830.

Gulden

New York

three of which formerly belonged to George N. Lawrence.

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. York

Cory

wrong

from the Prince of Wied.

Island Historical Society, Brooklyn

New York

collection of the

latter doubtless

exchanged from Baron von Lederer

American Museum, New York:

Long

J ad., bought from Brandt in

in litt.)

(See below.)

The Museum possesses a male from the

Dresden

jun.

ad.

Heine Museum

Munich

1 <7

mounted J (Dr. Scharff

ad.,

1 3"

fine

ad.

Museum, Washington

Collection of Mr. William Brewster

Boston Society of Natural History

^
3

jun.,

J jun.

jun.

<?

Collection of Dalhousie College, Halifax

This makes a total of 48 known specimens.

107

The

Manan

specimens

last

date of

the

Island,

bought from a Mr.


is

were those shot

killed

which

and

As the specimen

perfectly certain.

Grand

at

the specimen

G. Bell in 1879, for the Smithsonian Institution, which

J.

seems not quite certain

That several other specimens were shot

p. 9).

Mr. Lawrence's

May, 1871,

absolutely certain,

is

said to have been shot in 1875, but this date

Auk, 1894,

in

about

question

later than 1852

of 1875, or thereabouts,

the

birds

old

is

(Cf.

a young male,

is

certainly

As,

justified.

however, no Labrador Duck has been recorded later than 1871 or 1875

may suppose

My

that

it

now

is

young male was bought

bird-stuffer,

is

in the finest possible condition.

Plummer, shortly before


November,

My
p.

176.

It

1893.

Island.

It

York, about

was mounted by John

bought this bird from the

He

his death.

Auk, 1891,

(Cf.

adult male
is

New

Fulton Market,

the

in

died at his

home

p. 206.)

the one of which the history

is

this

city,

given in Auk, 1894,

is

described there in detail and then added

who has

Mr. William Dutcher of


of the

kindly placed

New York

Mr. Thompson, mentioned

and

Bay

of Laprairie "

purchased

it

"

Shot

simply a

Lawrence, just south of

maps

of Quebec.

it

at

my

disposal

for

in

the bay

Thompson

examination."

City bought this specimen from the


in

name

widow

the above note as the original owner,

from Mr. William Dutcher, who informs


is

Gordon

late

in Brookline, Mass.,

of Laprairie this spring (1862) by a habitant, and purchased by Mr.


of

Bell,

through whose hands several Labrador Ducks have gone, and

in

we

extinct.

and probably came from Long

1860,

is

me

that " the

given to a wide part of the River St.

Montreal, Quebec.

The name

is

found on good

109

''BIZIURA LAUTOURI"
Biziura lautouri Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

DR.

FORBES,
It

XXIV,

p.

i88 (1892

nomen

many

nudum).

unfortunately, gives no description whatever of this bird.

would be interesting to know something about

its

in so

Inst.

forbes.

powers of

flight

extinct birds.

were impaired, as

it

seems

it,

and especially

to have been

if

the case

Ill

ARDEA MEGACEPHALA

milneedwards.

"Biitors" Leguat, Relation du Voyage (1708).

Ardea megacephala Milne-Edwards, Ann.

LEGUAT'S

XIX, 1874,

Sci. Nat. (5)

description, here translated, is as follows

than the

He

gelinotes.' "

for the birds, especially for the

We

"

They are tamer and more

as big and as fat as capons.


'

''

P-

The

also says, "

shook them down from

the branches with a pole, these birds ran up and gobbled them
of us, in spite of
to do so they

all

came

we

could do to prevent them

in the

and even

head

its

is

so large and

understand that Leguat should have called

The bony structure


and thick proportions

of the head

the skull itself

if

we

down

in front

only pretended

same manner and always followed us about."

Milne-Edwards remarks, among other notes, that


true Bittern, but

caught

easily

lizards often serve as prey

When we

Bitterns.

had Bitterns

is
is

it

" This bird is not

feet so short that

its

is

easy to

its

massive

it

so.

remarkable on account of

strongly enlarged posteriorly, and the

temporal fossae are bordered by very pronounced ridges, especially those on

The upper

the occipital region.


interorbital region

The

The

beneath.

nostrils are large

very far towards the


It is

is

hardly convex, and the

large, but only slightly depressed along

is

stout, almost straight, a

bill is

side of the skull

good deal enlarged

middle

its

at its base

and rounded

and preceded by a large groove, which extends

tip.

impossible to confound this skull with that of any Bittern, the latter

having the beak relatively slender and only barely exceeding the skull

These
skull

also

have the skull much constricted at the temporal region.

from Rodriguez

therefore presents

Heron, but differs from

all

Grey, Purple and Goliath

known

now

is

is

much

less

it

is

its

conical

inhabiting Madagascar, the

extinct species, but

area

species in

bill

in length.

The

characters essentially those

Herons, as well as

narrower, more elongated, the


atricollis,

line.

massive appearance.
in

fossil

of

In the

the Egrettes, the head

and

less

strong.

In

is

Ardea

beak much resembles that of our

longer and less enlarged at the base.

The

interorbital

wider, while on the other hand the hinder portion of the skull

narrower and more elongated, which gives to the

skull a totally different

aspect.

The

feet

conclude that
of Rodriguez.

relatively to the

we know no

head are e.xtremely short, and from

species of

Heron which can be compared

Nevertheless, the tarso-metatarsus presents

all

this

to that

the characters

112

of Ardea, and

short
in

the

it

surpasses

Herons

quite as large as in the

creature

was

tibia is

length the tarso-metatarsus by about a third, as

in

but the femur on the contrary

The

removed from that of Botaurus.

far

is

is

and

big
is

usual

strongly developed, being

Ardea cinerea ; which shows us that the body of

this

of large size, and that the reduction in size of the feet had only

taken place at their extremities.

The sternum
It

is

is

clearly that of

much

hardly as big as
shorter than

in

in

The wings
in

the

Bittern, but the coracoidal

also

were short and

Butorides atricapilla.

the Bittern.

It

The main body

is

feeble, the

is

is

size.

even

bones are very

humerus being

conspicuously slenderer and

of the bone

and the lower articular condyle

outside,

powerful wings, and

a bird not furnished with

less elongated than

long and slender.

on the

puny and small as compared with the creature's

is

slightly

large and flattened.

curved
I

have

not been able to examine any bone of the " manus," but the metacarpal bone

shows exactly the same proportions

for the

wing as does the humerus, as

also barely reaches the size of that of Butorides atricapilla.

are as follows

The measurements

Skull.

154

Total length

Length of upper mandible

....

....

....

94

Width

of upper mandible at base

....

....

22

Width

of interorbital region

....

....

22

....

....

40

....

Space between the mastoid apophyses

Width of skull at level of postorbital apophyses


Length of lower mandible

....

....

....

mm.

40
147

Tarso-metatarsus.
Total length

95162 mm.

Width

at proximal extremity

....

Width

at distal extremity....

Width

of shaft

14

013514

00627

Tibio-tarsus.

Total length

it

140210 mm.

Width

at distal extremity

12-13

Width

at proximal extremity

1314

Width

of shaft

60065

113

Femur.

9092 mm.
1516

Total length

Width

of distal extremity

Width

of proximal extremity

Width

of shaft

14-16

00627

Sternum.

6488 mm.
3548

Total length

Width

in

front

Width behind
Width

costal facets

at posterior border

2636

27-35

Comcoidals.

67

Total length

59

Width

17-18

at lower extremity

mm.

Humerus.

118180 mm.

Total length

Width

of proximal extremity

Width

of distal extremity

Width

of shaft

2027

016524

711

Metacarpals.

6298 mm.

Total length

Width

of proximal extremity

Width

of distal extremity

The anonymous author


(see Ann. Sci. Nat. (6)
this bird as

only

fly

follows

a very

little,

11

p.

....

17

711

12

....

of the manuscript " Relation de

I'ile

"

Rodrigue "

133 et seq. 1875) about the year 1830 mentions

" There

are not a few Bitterns which are birds which

and run uncommonly well when they are chased.

are of the size of an Egret and something like them."

Habitat

Rodriguez Island.

2 Humeri, 2

Femora, 2 Tibiae, and 2 Metatarsi

in

the Tring

Museum.

They

114

ARDEA DUBOISI
Butors ou Grands Gauziers Dubois, Les Voyages

'ABBE DUBOIS

*-^

is

the only author

told us that the Island of

nom. nov.
par

faits

who

most other birds of

The

this island,

was

distinct

fat

is

and good.

each feather spotted with white, the neck and beak

lives

on

like

the feet of

it

Reunion or Bourbon.

flightless
it,

after him.

as follows

" Bitterns

or

They have grey plumage,


like

a Heron, and the feet

PouUets d'Inde (Porphyria,

fish."

Habitat

can ascertain,

and so feeling sure that

name

translation of his original description

made

p. 169.

Reunion also had a large almost

Great Egrets, large as capons, but very

green,

Sieur D.B. (1674)

has, as far as

Heron as well as Mauritius and Rodriguez


like

le

w.r.).

This bird

115

ARDEA MAURITIANA
Butorides mauritianus Newton

THE

& Gadow,

bones on which this species

Trans. Zool. Soc.

is

in

question are

all

vol.

XIII,

p.

289 (1893).

founded are a pair of ulnae, one radius,

The

four metatarsi, and one coracoid.

bones

(newt. & gad.)

description

as follows

is

" The

considerably shorter than the corresponding

bones of A. {Nycticorax) megacephala.

The metatarsi agree otherwise

detail with those of the latter species

every

in

this relative stoutness indicates that

a Night-Heron or Bittern

they belonged to

like

The two

A. megacephala.

ulnae cannot, unfortunately, be compared with those of A. megacephala; their


length, 110 mm.,

compared with the length

humerus

of the

of A. megacephala,

119 mm., shows, however, likewise that they were those of a considerably
smaller bird.

The

single left coracoid agrees in all the features of its dorsal

or scapular half with A. megacephala, but


considerably,

first

by the much more

its

ventral or sternal half differs

marked

strongly

the

ridge of

linea

intenituscularis on its ventral surface, secondly by the almost straight instead


of

inwardly curved margin

distal

between the processus

lateralis

and the

lateral

corner of the sternal articulation, thirdly by a very low but very distinct

which arises from the median margin of the coracoid, a

and sharp

ridge,

above

median articulating corner.

its

entirely

absent

in

A. megacephala and

in

all

other

Nycticorax and Botaurus.

bone belonged, however, to an Ardeine bird


configuration,

is

is

Herons which we have

been able to examine, but at least a slight indication of


individually varying degree in

little

This roughness or prominent ridge

it

That

clearly indicated

occurs
this

by

in

an

coracoid
its

whole

notably by the shape and position of the precoracoid process,

the various articulating facets at the dorsal end, and the prominent
visceral or internal surface of the

lip

on the

median portion of the sternal articulating

facet."

The following are the measurements


Length of ulna

Habitat

....

....

Length of metatarsus

....

Length of coracoid

....

....

112
81 87

Ill

....

48

mm.

Mauritius.

Although megacephala and mauritiana have been placed


Butorides respectively, from the short, stout
inclined to think that

all

legs

and general

in

Ardea and
build,

am

three of these Herons belong to the genus Nycticorax.

117

PROSOBONIA
THIS

genus

long

containing

the

singular

bird

placed

it

in

and

has even

and

afterwards),

(see

however,

is,

latter

by

not

Birds,

placed

being

longer

Prosobonia

to

from the former

long hind toe,

it

tarsus,

addition

in

Aechmorhynchus

Catalogue of

the

in

is,

somewhat

it

its

quite

The

certain.

It

but

doubtless wrongly

creditable that

been

Forster and

is

position

of

its

this

Henry Seebohm

late

Ellis,

not

We

know

it

belonged to

only one species.

from an Eimeo-specimen, but

in

all

advisable

now

to

it

hardly

is

Latham appears

Ellis,

have

to

Both

three different from each other.

drawings

their unpublished

well as Latham, evidently considered


it

by

latter

suggested that

belongs to a different species.

it

had three specimens, which were

and

and

Sharpe bestowed a new name on the figure of

Dr.

said to have been taken

is

the

the genus Phegornis, though the latter has no hind toe whatever,

true that

is

culmen,

Tringites,

the

The

tail.

with

section

than

from

differs

square

in

genera

the

the RalUdae, rather than to the Charadriidae.

which

BR

all

the

in

British

same

three to belong to the

over-rule

their

verdict,

Museum, as

given

species,

with

the

specimens before them, merely on account of the different plumages, since

we

all

know

that most waders,

considerably in
that "P.

ellisi"

plumage, according to age and seasons.

has been a younger

the different habitat, but this


is,

at the nearest point, not

and

it

is

quite against

plausibility that

of a

and especially brightly-coloured ones,

all

two such

is

bird.

no argument

closely

are convinced

Sharpe attaches importance to


in this instance,

more than seven and a

precedents

We

differ

because Eimeo

half miles

from Tahiti,*

among Charadriidae and beyond

situated islands

have closely

Wader.
"See Findlay's South Pacific Ocean Directory,

p. 642.

allied

all

forms

118

PROSOBONIA LEUCOPTERA
(Plate

(gm.)

35.)

White-winged Sandpiper Latham, Gen. Syn.

LXXXII

Ill, pt. i, p. 172, pi.

(1785

Otaheite

and Eimeo).
Tringa leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat.
Dierk.

\,

p. 51, pi.

Totanus leucoptenis

15 (1854

Vieillot,

678 (1788

p.

I,

Figure

ex

Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. (Ed.

Calidris leucoptenis Cuvier, R^gne Anim.

I,

p.

p.

DR.

Ill,

Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. XVI,

SHARPE'S
is

as

brown

follows
;

description,
:

" Adult.

p.

the middle pair

562 (1850)

p.

85

452

p.

banded

pi.

18 (1888).

spot

Museum,

the type in the Leyden

upper surface blackish

General colour of

rump ferruginous

centre tail-feathers

on the two next

with black, less distinctly

wing-coverts blackish, with a white spot near the carpal

mixed with black

blackish, the hind-neck browner,

and

Sharpe, Cat. B.

(1906 "Eimeo").

bend of the wing, formed by some of the lesser coverts

lores

46 (1871).

made from

the lower back and

blackish, the rest rufous,

p.

Otaheiti).

525 (1896).

Tringoides leucopterus Gray, Handl. B.

ellisi

174 (1844

p.

Phegornis leucoptenis Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charad.

Prosobonia

VI, p. 396 (1817).

II)

Rend. XXXI,

Prosobonia leucoptera Bonaparte, Compt.


Mus. XXIV,

Bijdr.

526 (1829).

Tringa pyrrhetraea Lichtenstein, Forster's descr. anim.

Brit.

Latham!); Westermann,

of the type).

ear-coverts

slightly

more

reddish,

crown

head

of

sides of face brown, the

behind the eye a

little

white

cheeks and under surface of body ferruginous red, the throat buffy

Length 67 inches, culmen 09, wing 445,

white.

tail 2- 15,

tarsus

IS (Mus.

Lugd.)"

We

know nothing

Museum, which

is

of this

bird,

Leyden

but the one specimen in the

the type, or at least one

of

the

types.

As no other

specimens have been obtained for nearly a century and a quarter, there
every reason to fear that this bird

is

extinct.

My

by Mr. Lodge from the unpublished drawings of


British

plate has been


Ellis

Museum.
Habitat

Tahiti,

and the adjacent

islet of

Eimeo.

is

made up

and Forster

in

the

119

AECHMORHYNCHUS
THIS

genus appears to be closely

shorter hind toe.

allied to Prosobonia, but

colouration

Its

coues.
has a

much

very different, and quite that of

is

a Sandpiper, while the pattern of Prosobonia

most

is

Seebohm

singular.

placed Aechmorhynchus, together with Prosobonia, in the genus Phegornis.

We

know

only one species.

AECHMORHYNCHUS CANCELLATA
(Plate
Barred Phalaropc Latham, Gen. Syn.

(gm.)

35.)

III.

pt.

i,

Christmas

274 (1785

p.

Island in the

Pacific Ocean).

Tringa cancellata Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

I,

p.

675 (1788

Tringa parvirostris Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds


Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp.

p.

321,

38, 2 (1858

pi.

ex

p.

Latham).
pi.

235,

LXVI,

2 (1848

Paumotu).

Totanus (Tryngites?) cancellaius Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Islands Pac. Ocean,


Phegornis cancellatus Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr.

Aechmorhynchus cancellatus Sharpe, Cat.

"

I
1

3 ILL short, straight,


J quills very nearly
secondaries

former robust
stripe over

tail

tibia

and slender; wings


equal

p.

rather long, wide, rounded

more than

and behind the eye ashy-white.

pi.

51 (1859).

p.

17 (1888J.

525 (1896).

p.

and third

long, first, second,

but very

tertiaries

feathered for

451,

Mus. XXIV,

B. Brit.

Paumotu)

little

and toes

legs

half

its

longer than the


long, the

length.

distinct

Entire upper parts umber-brown,

unspotted on the top of the head, but on the other upper parts edged and
Tail-feathers umber-brown, with

tipped with ashy-white and reddish fulvous.


irregular and

imperfect transverse

white,

and

ashy

throat and

tipped

under coverts
brown,
coverts.
Bill

the

of

latter

with

the

middle
the

tail

most

of

narrow bands
Underparts

same.
the

spotted,

apparent

abdomen

on

the

Under wing-coverts ashy-white,

(Cassin.)

breast,

tinge
sides,

irregular transverse

sides,

flanks,

irregularly

greenish, darker at the tip; legs dark green.

female slightly paler."

with

white,

unspotted

and with

and pale reddish-

of ashy

and

spotted

and

bars of

under
with

of

tail-

brown.

Sexes very nearly

alike,

120

have here given the synonymy of

this

bird,

An

generally accepted by Seebohm, Sharpe, and others.


of

not

the types would,

however,

know where the type

Island

lies

much

to

have been obtained

of

be very desirable,

Latham

the north of
since

the

is,

the

U.S.

and

if

but,
it

as

has

now been

unfortunately,

still

Paumotu group

Exploring

it

actual comparison

exists.

we do

Christmas

As no specimens

Expedition,

we may

safely

suppose that the species has ceased to exist for some reason.
Habitat
Islands."

"

Christmas

Island

in

the

Pacific

Ocean and

Paumotu

121

GALLINAGO CHATHAMICA
Gallinago chathamica Forbes,

EVIDENTLY
Bill

Chatham

Several skulls and


little

1893,

P-

to

allied

545-

G.

ptistlla,

but

very

much

larger.

three inches long.

Habitat

only a

species

Ibis

forbes.

Islands.

few bones

in

the

Tring

Museum.

larger than the existing Gallinago aiicklandica.

This

is

a snipe

123

HYPOTAENIDIA(?) PACIFICUS
(Plate
Pacific rail Latham, Gen. Syn.

Ill,

Rallus pacificus Gmelin, Syst. Nat.

FORSTER'S

description

white spots or bars


ferruginous

i,

p.

I,

as

is

26.)

255 (1785).

p.

717 (1788).

follows,

translation

in

"

Black

abdomen, throat, and eyebrow white


grey

breast

pt.

(gm)

blood-red

bill

red.

iris

hind neck

straight,

Bill

compressed, narrowed at the top, thicker at the base, and blood-red.


mandibles subequal, pointed
fuscous

gape medium.

upper

the

for

running,

The

the tip pale

Eyes

linear.

bill,

Feet four-toed,

blood-red.

Iris

Femora

coloured.

flesh

curved, with

almost at the base of

Nostrils

placed above the gape of the mouth.


built

slightlv

semi-bare,

with

slender,

split,

medium

of

length.

"Tibiae slightly compressed, shorter than the femora.


of

which three point forward (are front

long as the Tibia, the side ones

'of

raised from

short,

the ground.

light

coloured.

from

bill

to occiput

very short.
Breast

Head

Nails

small,

slightly

pointed, and

incurved,

depressed, fuscous.

superciliary line

Hindneck ferruginous.

Neck

sparsely dotted with minute white dots.

black,

Abdomen, crissum, and

grey.

bluish

The middle one almost as

toes).

Throat white.

whitish.

Back and rump

toes, slender,

equal length shorter, the back one short,

slightly

oval,

Four

loins

wholly black, variegated with broken white bands.

Wings

white.

Remiges

short.

short,

Rectrices

extremely short, black spotted with white, hardly to be distinguished from


the coverts.
Total length from

bill

to tail

....

....

Total length to middle toe

....

....

....

....

inches.

12|

Bill

Tibiae

....

....

\^

,,

1^

Middle toe

Mr. Keulemans' plate was done from Forster's unpublished drawing


the

British

Museum, and no specimen

is

in

existence.

The

legs

in

should,

however, be less bright red, more flesh-colour.


Habitat

Tahiti, but evidently long extinct.

This bird, according to Forster,

on Otaheite, and the neighbouring

was

islands.

called "

Oomnaa

"

or " Eboonaa,"

125

NESOLIMNAS
DIFFERS

from Cabalus by the


culmen

whole

convex with

Andrews.
shorter

relatively

the

bill

by having the

sharply decurved, by having a

tip

close instead of a loose plumage, and a much less reduced sternum,

with

well-developed

instead

almost

of

obsolete

Type

keel.

genus

of

Nesolimnas diejfenbachi (Gray).

NESOLIMNAS DIEFFENBACHII
(Plate

27.)

Rallus Dieffenbachii Gray, Dieffenb., Trav. N.Z.

Ocydromus diejfenbachi Gray, Voy. Ereb. and

II

App.

p.

197 (1843).

Terr., Birds p.

Hypotaenidia dieffenbachi Bonaparte, C.R. XLIII,

p.

15 (1846).

14, pi.

599 (1856).

Cabalus dieffenbachi Sharpe, Voy. Ereb. and


B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 47 (1894).

Terr., Birds p. 29,

Nesolimnas dieffenbachi Andrews, Novit. Zool.

III.

ADULT:

gray.

p.

266,

pl.

X,

pl.

flgs

15 (1875),

id..

Cat.

3-15 (1896).

"General colour above, brown, banded on the mantle and scapulars,

and spotted on the upper back with ochreous

buff,

these buff markings

being margined with black, which takes the form of broad bars on
the mantle

lower back and rump uniform brown

barred across with light rufous and black

lesser

upper

wing

tail

coverts brown,

coveiiis like the

median and greater coverts, as well as the primary coverts and


chestnut, barred with

ochre and black,


the base

like

crown

of the head

tail

feathers brown, mottled with chestnut near

and nape uniform brown, followed by an

patch of chestnut on the hindneck


line of bluish grey,

quills, light

inner secondaries spotted and barred with

black, the

the back

back

lores dull rufous,

indistinct

surmounted by a broad

extending from the base of the nostrils to the sides of the

nape; rest of the sides of the face bluish grey, extending on to the lower
throat

broad band
along

lower

grey area of

this

the

upper part

throat

ochreous

the face

separated from the grey eyebrow by a

of dark chestnut, which extends from

buff,

black,

of

the

barred

ear-coverts

across

with

the lores through the eye

and upper throat white

chin

white

banded rather narrowly with black,

fore

neck

and

chest

this pattern of colouration

126

extending up the sides of the neck to the chestnut on the ear coverts
breast and

abdomen

black,

banded with white, the

and vent feathers being tinged with ochreous


banded with

black

barred with white

Wing

and ochre

under-wing

quills chestnut,

culmen

27"

Chatham

1-35, tail

under-tail

coverts and

under surface of

4-8 inches,

Habitat

light bars

lower

on the flanks

coverts

axillaries

broadly
blackish,

with broad black bars.

(Sharpe).

Islands.

The type and only known specimen

is

that in the British

Museum.

127

CABALUS
Cabalus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.
Cabahis modestus).

CAPTAIN HUTTON
a

VI

Inst. Vol.

HUTTON.

p. io8, pi.

characterized his

XX

(1874

new genus

Type

as follows: "Bill longer

than the head, moderately slender and slightly curved, compressed

in

the middle and slightly expanding towards the tip

in

membranous groove which extends beyond the middle

exposed, oval, near the middle of the groove.


quills
first

and unique species

soft,

the outer

webs as

the thumb.

and

Tail very short

of the

Wings very

soft as the inner, fourth

nearly as long as the second

nostrils placed

and

openings

bill,

rounded

short,

the longest,

fifth

a short, compressed claw at the end of

soft,

hidden by the coverts.

Tarsi moderate,

shorter than the middle toe, flattened in front, and covered with transverse
scales

toes long and

slender, inner

nearly as long as the outer, hind toe

and placed on the inner side of the tarsus

short, very slender,

claws short,

compressed, blunt.

"The

bird

incapable of

is

and the stomach of the specimen,

flight,

dissected by Dr. Knox, contained only the legs and elytra of beetles."

Captain Hutton also adds,

One

I.e.,

a valuable description of the skeleton.

species known.

CABALUS MODESTUS
(Plate
Rallus modestus Hutton,

Cabalus modestus

(Mangare, Chatham Islands.)

Ibis 1872, p. 247.

New

Hutton, Trans.

(hutton).

28.)

Zeal.

Inst.

VI

p.

(The genus Cabahis

108.

established.)

"Rallus dieffcnbachii

luw." BuUer, B.

Cabalus dieffenbachii
p.

(part., juv.

New

Zealand, Ed.

pp. 179, 180; Ed. II p. 121 (1888).

Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII

p.

47 (1894)

corr.

331.

Cabalus modestus Forbes,


op.

I)

cit.

Sharpe,

Bull. Brit.

Orn. Club. No. IV.

p.

XX

(Dec. 1892)

Salvador!,

XXIII

(Jan., 1893); Forbes, Ibis 1893, PP- 532. 544, pi. XIV, fig. 4, egg;
Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 331 (1893); Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z. I p.
45, pi. Ill
p.

(lyos)-

Ocydromus pygmaeus Forbes, Nature XLVI,


P-

p.

252 (1892

nomen

nudum

cf.

Ibis

1893,

544)-

CAPTAIN hutton
species

follows

as

plumbeous

(Ibis
:

"

1872,

p.

Olivaceous

feathers of the

247)

described

brown,

bases

this

of

breast slightly tipped with

interesting

the
pale

feathers
fulvous,

those of the abdomen and flanks with two narrow bars of the same colour;

128

Quills soft brown,

throat dark grey, each feather slightly tipped with brown.

the

three

first

middle toe and claw

single specimen

The author knew


this excellent species.

rides light brown,

from gape

bill

bill

1-4,

the

fifth

and legs
tarsus

1,

black.

and young from Mangare

also a specimen in spirits."

what he was doing when he described

perfectly well

BuUer afterwards

Sir Walter

declared "after carefully comparing

pp. 179, 180)

and

fourth

fulvous,

1'4.

Uniform brownish

Young.

it

New

(B.

Zealand, Ed.

I,

with the type of Rallus

and submitting the matter to the judgment of other competent

dieffenbachii,

ornithologists,

immature

reddish

Length 875 inches, wing 315,

brown.

with

short, brown.

and

Tail very soft

longest.
light

barred

faintly

have no hesitation

state

plumage."

of

considering

in

{Sic

!)

the same species,

it

Sharpe,

Unfortunately, Dr.

in

an
the

in

Catalogue of Birds XXIII, repeated BuUer's error, and, on Plate VI, figured

Cabalus modestus under the name of Cabalus die^enbachii, though the


is

latter

not congeneric with C. modestus, and must be called Nesolimnas dieffenbachii,

while the third form included

Howe's

must

Island,

Formerly

in

Cabalus by Dr. Sharpe,

modestus

Great

inhabited

Chatham

it

this island being

Unfortunately even there

overrun with cats and

is

it

rats, besides

as

the species

existed there no more, though being plentiful on the

outlying island of Mangare.

now,

Island,

when

Dr. Forbes proved by bones found by himself at Warekauri, but

was discovered

Lord

from Cabalus.

also be separated generically

Cabalus

viz. sylvestris of

little

evidently extinct

which, according to

BuUer, the original vegetation has been ruthlessly burnt down for the purpose
of sowing grass-seed, as even this bleak

enterprising

secured by the late

W. Hawkins.

specimens

British

the

Henry Palmer
I

It

island has been claimed by an

Fortunately a good

sheep-farmer.

in

little

failed to get

have

Museum,

in

Liverpool,

and

is

in

in

Cambridge.

the Ibis by Dr. Forbes.

creamy white, with

spots.

Chatham

one

and there are

specimens when he visited Mangare.

measures 40 by 21-4 mm., and

Habitat

my museum,

fifteen in

have also the egg described and figured

and purplish roundish

many specimens have been

Islands, east of

New

Zealand.

faint

pale reddish

129

OCYDROMUS MINOR
Ocydromits

sp.

Hamilton, Trans. N.Z.

Ocydromus minor Hamilton

THIS

species

is

been placed
to
I

Inst.

(nee. Forbes)

XXV,

p.

Hamilton.

103 (1893).

I.e.

nearest allied to sylvestris Scl., which has quite erroneously


in

the genus Cabalus by Dr. Sharpe

form the type of a new genus, but

sylvestris will

until the skull of

minor

is

have

known

prefer to leave the latter temporarily in Ocydromus.

The present
tibiae,

and

five

measurements
sylvestris,

but

species

is

known from two

metatarsi, as well as the front


all

show

owing

been a much stumpier

to

that

minor

was

having a much

bird.

pelves,

seven

femora,

six

portion of a sternum.

The

form

than

slightly

shorter

larger

tibio-tarsus

it

must have

131

APHANAPTERYX
BILL

frauenfeld.
The

produced, not cut short, rather curved.

and situated

at the base of the

legs of moderate length.

nostrils are

exposed

Halluces of the naked fowl-like

bill.

Wings

Front of legs apparently scutellated.

abortive, no rectrices apparent.

APHANAPTERYX BONASIA
(Plate

A Hen

Sir

Thomas

Herbert,

Veli-lweiiders Reyer Cornelisr,

29.)

relation of

some

years' Travaile (1626).

Van der Hagen's voyage

Ponies rottgcs an bee de Becasse

selys.

Cauche, Relations

(1646).

curieuses de

vfiritables et

I'lsle

de

Madagascar (165 1).


Apterornis bonasia Edm. de S6Iys-Longchamps, Revue Zoologique,

Didus herberti Schlegel, Vers. Med. Ak. Wetensch.,


Didiis broecki Schlegel,

II,

p.

I.e.

Aphaiiapteryx imperialis Frauenfeld, Neu aufgef. Abbild. Dronte,

Aphanapteryx

broeckii

292 (1848).

p.

256 (1854).

Milne-Edwards,

Ann.

Nat.

Sci.

(5),

X,

p.

6 (1868).

pp.

325-346,

15-18

pis.

(1868).

Pezophaps broeckii Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Struthiones,

HERE
I

give

size of

Frauenfeld's

brown red

uniform

a fowl, of a

4 (1873).

original
all

decomposed, as

Feathers

yellowish.

Iris

of

translation

p.

over.
in

the

diagnosis:

"Of

the

and legs dark,

Bill

Apteryx,

somewhat

lengthened on the nape."


This
G.

description

Hoefnagels,

in

the

was

made

Imperial

by

Herbert,

Menagerie
and

at

Cauche's

Ebersdorf.

drawing
have

to

drawings are somewhat startlingly different

sacrum and fragments, and


Habitat

Mauritius.

drawing

in

by

about the year

Dodo, apparently drawn from


This

descriptions

four drawings and osseous remains.

from

executed

Vienna,

Library,

1610, and, together with that of the

Imperial

Frauenfeld

life

in

the

proves Van den Broecke,

been

shape.

correct,

though

their

Only known from these

18 fragments of beaks, 5 pelves, 35 tibiae,

vertebra

in

the Tring

Museum.

133

DIAPHORAPTERYX
THIS genus
whole,

is

Aphanapteryx and Erythromachus,

closely allied to

nearer to Aplianapteryx.

is

and Ocydromus

in

forbes.
but,

on the

from both these genera

differs

It

the large protuberances on the basi-temporal region

of the skull, and the tarso-metatarsus

For complete diagnosis of

this

was much shorter than

genus see Andrews

in

Aphanapteryx.

in

Novitates Zoologicae,

Vol. Ill, pp. 73-76 (1896).

DIAPHORAPTERYX HAWKINSI
Aphanapteryx hawkinsi Forbes, Nature XLVI,
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Forbes,

THE

the late

New

W. Hawkins, from

Zealand.

Wharekauri.

Dr.

In

Diapliorapteryx.

Mr.

appears

first

XXI, 1893.

sent to Dr. H. O. Forbes in 1892 by

the

Chatham

to

have been

Forbes subsequently went to

number

collected a large

agency of

It

252.

p.

Bull. B.O.C.I. p.

remains of this bird were

Islands, 500 miles

E.S.E. of

the

Island of

confined to

the Chathams himself and

of bones of various extinct birds, including those of

1895

bones through the

received a consignment of

Dannefaerd, from

the Chathams, such

as has never

equalled from any deposit elsewhere, for literally there were


of

thousands

From

of

bones of

this collection

(forbes).

Mr. C.

considerable

W. Andrews was

number
able to

many hundreds

species

of

been

of

birds.

draw up a most minute

description of the skeleton of Diaplwrapteryx, founded on several practically

complete skeletons, some thirty or more

bones of various

portions

the

of

skulls,

skeleton.

"Novitates Zoologicae," Vol. Ill, pp. 73-84,

and so

must refer my readers

This

to

bird, as well as the

is

and several thousand individual


This

published

description,

in

too long for reproduction here,

it.

Palaeolimnas, shows an apparent relationship

between the Chatham Islands and the Mascarene Islands

but

believe that

134

this is not a real

connection,

but

relationship,

merely

as has been asserted, due to a

case

of

parallel

development

former land-

owing

to

similar

conditions of existence.

Habitat
In

the

Wharekauri
Tring

Museum

thousand bones, and about

One

Island,

are

Chatham
two

Islands.

complete

more than a

fifteen skulls.

almost complete skeleton, and the type,

the British Museum.

skeletons,

skull,

and bones, are

in

135

ERYTHROMACHUS
"

EGS

T
I

made

stout,

and from a quarter to

for running,

Body

very small.

massive than

less

more developed, but not serviceable


and about 60 mm.

straight, pointed,

the eye

one-fifth shorter than

Ocydromtis, the three anterior digits well developed and the hallux

in

slightly

milneedwards.

= 24

in

Ocydromus, with the wings

for flight.

inches.

Head

small

bill

red,

red naked patch round

plumage pale grey."

ERYTHROMACHUS LEGUATI
MILNE-EDWARDS.
Gelinote Leguat,

II

t.

p.

71

(1708).

Erythromachus leguati Milne-Edwards, Ann.


Aphanopteryx leguati Giinther

&

Sci. Nat. (5)

XIX,

pp. 6, 7, pis. XI,

XII (1874).

E. Newton, Phil. Trans. Vol. i58, pp. 431-432,

pi.

XLIII

(1879).

OF

the older writers only Leguat appears to have described the Rodriguez

There are several references to "Hens,"

flightless rail.

&c., but all

Our

'

Their colour

as follows

is

gelinotes
is

Veld Hoenders,"

appear to refer to the Mauritius bird Aphanapteryx bonasia.

Leguat's description
"

"

are fat

'

all

the year round and of a most delicate taste.

always of a bright grey, and there

plumage between the two sexes.

They hide

is

very

little

difference in

their nests so well that

not find them out, and consequently did not taste their eggs.

we

could

They have a

red naked area round their eyes, their beaks are straight and pointed, near

two and

two-fifths inches long,

them too heavy


will

fly at

we had an

If

it.

you to catch

it

you

off^er

also.

They cannot

them anything

out of your hand, and

fly,

their fat

red, they are so


in

makes

angry they

the heat of the combat

opportunity to take them with ease."

Quite

One

for

and red

extinct.

Only known from descriptions and osseous remains.

tibia in the

Tring Museum.

Habitat

Rodriguez Island.

137

PENNULA
Penniila Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879

BELIEVE
I

they have

54 (Reprint in Ibis 1880

p.

p.

241).

that the genus Pennula should be placed near Porzanula, but


softer, the rectrices are next to invisible, but

wings are

its

DOLE.

stiff

mm.

shafts and are about 13

The

hidden by the soft tail-coverts.

long,

can be

as

felt,

though being entirely

bare for about 7 mm., the meta-

tibia is

tarsus covered in front with nearly a dozen transverse, very distinct scales, and

The

distinctly reticulated behind.

Two

species can be recognized

surface, and

much

bill

as in Poliolitnnas and Porzanula.

Pennula

millsi,

with a uniform upper

distinctly spotted

Pennula sandwichensis, with a

upper

Both

side.

forms are now extinct.

PENNULA MILLSI
MOHO OF THE
(Plate
Pennula
p.

millet (misprint for millsi)

241.

"Uplands

extinct")

ALL we know

whom

in

All recent

extinct.
I

"

apud Wilson

in

Almanac 1879

honour of Mr.

etc., p.

241

pi.

p.

54 (reprint

in Ibis

grass,

Honolulu.

LXXVI.

Evans, Aves. Hawaii., part V, text and plate.

Two

for the late Mr. Mills of Hawaii.

There

in

Cambridge, and two

in

futile.

disappearance
to

bush

is

"

between Hilo and the volcano Kilauea,

was a dainty on the

is

now

Mr. Palmer,

Vaccinium and Dianella, forms the thickest cover

Moho

of

the Bishop-

can be no doubt that this bird

attempts to find specimens have been

In former times the "

mongoose and

1880

Mills, spec, in Mills's Coll., nearly

sent a specially trained dog, also failed to find even traces of

where thick

its

&

in

my Museum, one

lived formerly in the counti-y

but

Dole, Hawaiian

named

named Hawelu

now

Museum

3.)

of this bird are the five specimens caught by an old native

bird-catcher

Pauahi

Hawaii

Rothsch., Avif. Laysan,

"Pennula ecaudata

these are

ofj

NATIVES.

Fig.

26,

dole.

in

it.

It

places

possible.

tables of the Hawaiian kings,

probably due to the introduction of the obnoxious

fires.

138

PENNULA SANDWICHENSIS
(Plate 26, Fig.
Rallus Sandwichensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat.
insulis

Sandwich

p.

(gm.)

2.)

717 (1788

ex

Latham

" Habitat exilis in

").

Pennula Wilsoni Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus. XX


specimen in the Leyden Museum is not the type
name and therefore renames it).

p.

77 (1898

of

Latham

Finsch

explains that the

and therefore

of Gmelin's

For

full

synonymy and explanations

also plate

of

name,

etc., cf.

Avifauna of Laysan,

p.

239, 240

and

243,

LXXVI.

LATHAM'S description from which

Gmelin's diagnosis was taken

distinctly

says that the feathers were "darkest in the middle," and in the Index
Ornith. " supra maculis obscuris."
Ellis,

well reproduced in Mr.

Moreover, the unpublished drawing of

Scott Wilson's book, shows beyond doubt the

identity of the bird of the old authors with the

The Leyden specimen


this bird
"

is all

we

specimen

Islands."

the Leyden

Museum.

are acquainted with, and of the history of

we know nothing but Latham's statement

Sandwich

in

that

it

came from the

139

TRIBONYX ROBERTI
Tribonyx roberti Andrews, Ibis iSgy,

THIS

bird

The

the pectineal process.

in

that of

It

fossal,

the

in

ilia

left tibio-tarsus

not having

in

front of the acetabulum and above

in

also differs in having a rather wider pelvic escutcheon

and the supra-acetabular ridges of the

The beautifully-preserved

the Australian bird.


T.

IX, figs 4-7.

pi.

from that of T. mortieri

pelvis differs

the deep depression

and wider renal

356,

described from an imperfect pelvis, a perfect

is

and a femur.

than

p.

Andrews.

mortieri in having the

ilia

left tibia

are smaller
differs

from

intercondylar groove wider and shallower,

the inner condyle less massive, thus making the difference between the inner

and outer condyle more marked


above

the

e.xtensor

bridge

wider,

T. roberti also

the

bridge

has the shaft immediately

itself

less

oblique,

fibular crest is longer.

The measurements are

Pelvis.

Length of Ilium

82

Least width of acetabular region of Pelvis

Width

at Antitrochanter

Width

at anterior angle of Pelvic

Width

at Posterior angle of Pelvic Escutcheon.

Length of Sacrum

....

....

Tibia.

Length

Width
Width

at distal extremity....

at middle of shaft

....

Femur.

Length

Width

at distal extremity....

Width

at middle of shaft

Habitat

Sirabe

in

....

C. Madagascar.

Escutcheon

mm.

and the

141

NOTORNIS
DIFFERS

from Porphyria by the secondaries being nearly as long as

more or

the primaries, and the wing-coverts


nearly hiding the

Type

OWEN.
sometimes

less elongated,

quills.

Notornis mantelli.

NOTORNIS MANTELLI
Notornis mantelli Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

THIS

Ill, p.

377,

was founded on a nearly

species

entire

Mantell at Waingongoro, North

Island,

more

that

than

twice

the

of

size

basisphenoidal surface, however,

the base of the presphenoid, and there

is

skull,

New

of

owen.
7-11 (1848).

figs.

collected

Zealand.

Porphyria

by Walter

This skull

melanotus.

is

The

the anterior angle projects below

flatter,

is

LVl,

pi.

a slender ridge continued from each

paroccipital to the lateral angles of the platform, the posterior angles being

hemispheric tubercles as in Palapteryx.

The
more

The

region

occipital

vertical

The

Porphyria.

in

forwards as

inclines

post-frontal

is

from that of Porphyria

chief distinction

The breadth

four-sided figure of the skull.

is,

it

rises,

broader than

The

back part.

in

is

Porphyria.

however, the almost regular

of the anterior part

that of the occipital region, and the extent of the sides

that of the front and

while the same

is

is

almost exactly

much more than

not

parieto-frontal region of the skull

is

very unlike that of Porphyria, being convex and oblong, and Notornis also lacks

Owen

cerebral or hemispheric convexities.


differences, but
I,

my

XXIV,

Owen compared
Aptornis defossar
is

176,

p.

him

Trans. Zool. Soc.

Owen

he compared

skull

it

North

Island,

New

Dr. H. O. Forbes, Trans.


of

tibiae

the Otago

and

femora

Museum

of

till

we

pi.

52, figs.

is

1-7),

really that of

and, therefore,

found a great likeness to Dinornis

in

with was really that of the Ralline


all.

Zealand.

N.Z.

Notornis,

Inst.,

discusses at length measurements

provisionally

Natarnis parkeri, as a

wait for confirmation

D. casuarinus

to

Ill,

Aptornis, and not the Struthious Dinornis at

Habitat

which Professor

1892, that the Dinornis skull, with

quite natural that Professor

Notornis, as the

already mentioned by Mr. Hamilton, Trans.

is

Notornis, referred by
(v/cfe

of other

readers to the original article as above, pp. 366-371.

however, must state here, as

N.Z. Inst.

it

refer

number

gives a large

new

naming

species, but

the

skeleton

consider

get an associated skeleton of N. mantelli.

in

we must

142

NOTORNIS HOCHSTETTERI
(Plate

34.)

&

Notornis Hochstetteri A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett, Lief. IV

XXXVII (1883 South


(1885

figures
IV,

Zealand,

pi.

THE

Zealand)

Zeitschr.

ges.

V,

28,

p.

Orn.

II,

pi.

p.

XXXIVpi.

45,

of the bird).

Owen

Notornis maiitelli (non

London

New

Island,

a.b.m.

pi.

1848

1)

Gould, P.Z.S. London, 1850,

(1850); Gould,

25

B.

Austr.

Suppl.,

(1873); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII,

name Notornis

p.

pi.

21

Trans. Zool. Soc.

76 (1869); BuUer,

pi.

New

B.

208 (1894).

based on a cranium and some

mantelli having been

leg-bones from the North Island, and the bones of a specimen from the

South
justified
A^.

showing marked differences. Dr. A. B. Meyer was

Island,

describing

in

the

form

latter

as

under

different,

fully

name

the

of

hochstetteri.

According to the describer there are considerable differences

the

but the comparison of the leg-bones shows such differences in

cranial bones,

size that these alone

would be

The femur

forms.

in

of

A'',

sufficient to separate the

hochstetteri

measures

North and South Island

109, that of A^.

mantelli 122,

the tibia of the former 165, the tarso-metatarsus 109, the tibia of the latter
200,

the tarso-metatarsus

129

Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett

The upper surface


quills are

with

olive-green

is

tail-coverts white,

tip of

Although

both mandibles.

this

bird

captured as late as 1898,

is
it

see A.

B.

30.

webs

some

slaty-blue

shading,

the

rectrices blackish, green on

Head, neck, and under surface purplish

Under

towards the

New

p.

For further measurements

black with purplish blue outer

the outer webs.


blackish.

I,

mm.

frontal plate

and

blue,

thighs

more

bright red, yellow

bill

Feet red.
a specimen having been

evidently not extinct,

seems that not many examples

live at

present in

Zealand, as they have been sought after a good deal, and yet only four

have been

taken so

far,

i.e.,

the

two

in

the

British

Museum, one

in

the

Dresden Museum, and the last-mentioned one.


Full accounts of the capture of this last specimen have been given in

the Trans.
Buller's

the

New

Zealand

Institute,

Supplement to the Birds of

year of

the capture

is

XXXI,

New

extinct.

146-150,
I,

articles

and

in

Sir

Walter

pp. 66-74, where, however,

not mentioned, though

must have taken place shortly before the


Habitat

pp.

Zealand,

on

one can guess


it

that

it

appeared.

Middle Island, usually called South Island, apparently nearly

143

NOTORNIS STANLEYI
White

gallinule, Voy. of Gov. Phillip to N.S.W.,

Porphyria stanleyi Rowley, Orn. Misc.


Porphyria melanotiis

p.

I,

to

first

Museum and

Liverpool

The

Rowley.

Voyage

is

is

205 (1894).

anonymous author

the

in

Dawson

was Mr.

Vienna

in

now

bird

of Phillip's

resembles the purple Gallinule

of

irides red

that of the claws

to

bill

shape

feet three inches.

whole of the top of the

the

it,

two

is

the sides of the head round the eyes are reddish,

very thinly sprinkled with white

The

without exception, white.

feathers

whole

the

legs the colour of the

common on Lord Howe

a very tame species.

in

superior in size, being as large as a dunghill fowl.

very stout, and the colour of

head and the

is

specimen

the

p.

between the

differences

greatly

bird

much

is

The length from end

pretty

(1875).

Ibis 1862, p. 214.

original description of the

beautiful

and make, but

bill

tab. (1789).

as follows :

" This

The

out the

point

IX

36, pi.

cum

273,

Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XXIII,

(part.)

Porphyria alba G. R. Gray, List Birds N.Z., &c.,

THE

p.

(rowley)

Island, Norfolk

The other

Island,

of

the

plumage

This species

bill.

is

and other places, and

supposed to be the male,

sex,

is,

said to

is

have some blue on the wings."

Gray

states under Porphyria alba, in Ibis

that a similar kind


flight.

The wings

was found on Lord Howe


were

of the male

Island which

2,

pp.

Notornis, and that

in

a Notornis

A^.

difference

should

and

find

is

Norfolk

flightless

A'^.

of

Museums,

Vol. Ill,

alba, puts

but

it

in

not a Porphyria but a

is

also probably a specimen of

of

the

feel

this

wings

sure

Island

was a

stanleyi of

Habitat

Lord

if

Notornis alba.

That

it

think the length of the wing-coverts

out of the question that the

we had

two birds could

still

Island.

kept the

Nesonetta aucklatidica of

that of

New

further

Howe

have therefore

other specimens with exact data

chlarotis of

Lord

Howe

very well.

case to

parallel

Auckland Islands and Anas


of

was incapable

Moreover, the two original pictures of Phillip and White show

be the same.

separate,

it

equally believe

the type of

this

stated

62-68 (1901), gives an exhaustive account of Rowley's type,

which he comes to the conclusion that the bird

is

is

beautifully mottled with blue."

Dr. H. O. Forbes, in the Bulletin of the Liverpool

No.

"It

1862, p. 214:

we
the

Zealand, and that Notornis alba

degenerate

Island.

two

Wing

form

to

nine inches.

the

already

144

NOTORNIS ALBA
(Plate
White

(white)

33.)

Callam, Voy. Botany Bay (1783?) (teste Gray).

galliniilc

Fulica alba White, Journ. Voy. N.S.W.,


Gallinula alba Latham, Ind. Orn.

I,

p.

238 and plate (1790).

p.

768 (1790).

Porphyria albiis Temminck, Man. d'Orn. II, p. 701 (1820).


Porphyria melanotus var. alba Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Birds,
Porphyria melanotus Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Ed. II (1846), p.

Notoniis? alba Pelzeln,

Akad. Wiss. Wien. XLI,

Sitz. k.

Notoriiis alba Salvin, Ibis 1873,

THERE

has been

Gallinula alba, and which

specimen

now

is

328 (i860).

p.

connection with

in

the

to

fact

White not having

of

Latham founded his


the Vienna Museum. That the Vienna

in

proved because

is

it

was bought

Leverian Museum, and White expressly states that

of the

deposited
It

quite

impossible to say with

Notomis alba or

the sale

were

of

which of the two forms,

certainty

came from Norfolk

stanleyi,

the origin

of

indication

A'^.

at

his birds

all

Museum.

the Leverian

in
is

bird

this

specimen on which

the

White's bird

really

is

owing

species,

locality for

14.

X.

considerable confusion

and the following


given any

p. 295, pi.

19 (1144).

p.

the

as

Island,

we have no

But seeing that

specimen.

Liverpool

in

anonymous work, "The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay,"


the first mentioned habitat is Lord Howe Island, and the figure shows a
the

bird with the shorter wing-coverts

of

bird with longer wing-coverts

taking the

from Norfolk Island.


White's description
red, shoulders

spined,

is

legs

as follows

and

feet

stanleyi,

A'^.

102,

and

giving as

mention of

place

of

origin

Gray,

albino.

that

From

in

some Norfolk
to

be

Island,

"A

many

black,

New

from

of Birds

List

then

become

fixed white species.

He

bluish

Wing

Vienna Museum).
:

it

and front

Von

Pelzeln

bearing the number

White makes no

but

Zealand,

Island specimens had blue between

Norfolk Island.
Ibis 1862, p. 214.

&c.,"* remarked

the shoulders, and

also states that the

grey,

a case of albinism, but a bird which was

Habitat

bill

ornithologists to consider N. alba

these and other authors' similar remarks

becoming a

Fulica, with

a label on

Norfolk

the back spotted with the same colour.


said

in

alba, to be the bird

the genus Notornis.


is

justified

There are traces of a bluish shade, and two or three dark

this.

spots on the plumage, which has led

an

am

White's figure clearly shows

yellow."

account of this bird that there

in his

think

Notomis

" White

the long wing coverts characteristic of


says

viz.,

in

young are

and afterwards pure white.


I

believe

we have

not here

a stage of evolution towards

inches (measured by myself

in

the

145

APTERORNIS
DIFFERED

widely from Didus and Pezophaps

resembles a

pigeons

like

that of a woodcock, but

little

were high on the

birds

selys.

much

is

stronger.

These

ran swiftly, and were far removed from

leg,

Dodo and the

the

long beak, which

its

in

Solitaire,

but to which they had a certain

resemblance, owing to their rudimentary wings, apology for a

and the

tail,

disposition of their digits."

The above

a translation of de Selys- Longchamps' diagnosis of the

is

genus, but owing to his inclusion therein of Didus


bonasia,

D.B.

and

does not

it

It

feet,

fit

when

restricted

might be described as

to the "

and Aphanapteryx

solitariiis

Oyseau bleu

Resembling Aptornis, but with shorter

bill

thus more approaching Notornis.

One

species.

APTERORNIS COERULESCENS
(Plate
bleus"

"Oyseaiix

pp. 170, 171

Le

Les

D.B.,

Sieur

original

(translated)

selys.

32.)

Voyages

aux

Dauphine and Bourbon,

Isles

(1674).

Aptercrnis coenilescens Selys-Longchamps, Rev. Zool. 1848,

THE

Le Sieur

" of

of

description

: " Oyseaux

bleus

the plumage entirely blue,

those of fowls; they do not

fly

D.B.

Sieur

the

As

big

p.

294.

(Dubois)

as the

as

is

Solitaires

follows

they have

the beak and the feet red and made


at

all,

like

but run extremely quickly, so that a

dog can hardly catch them; they are very good."


Habitat

Bourbon or Reunion.

Dubois gives
goose

the size

and the feet as being

of

these

like

birds as

those of a fowl:

reconstructing the plate of this bird, had

between the
nearest

allies.

New

Zealand Notornis

the same as that of a big

it

have,

made intermediate

therefore, in
in

structure

and Aptornis, which were evidently

its

147

APTORNIS
DIFFERS

OWEN.

from Dinornis, Palapteryx and Notomis

having an articular

in

surface for a very strong hind toe, and the tarso-metatarsus

more

conformation
shorter and
process,

thicker than

nearly resembling that found in the


in

the latter.

In

Dodo, but
calcaneal

strong

addition, the

of

perforated by a complete bony canal for the tendon at the back

part of the proximal end of the tarso-metatarsus

the perforation above the

interspace between the condyles for the middle and outer toes; and the
posterior position for the condyle for the inner toe

all

more

prove the distinctness

of this genus.

Type: Aptornis otidiformis.

APTORNIS OTIDIFORMIS
Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

Diiioniis otidiformis

Aptornis otidiformis Owen, ibidem

THIS

Owen's
Inst.
all

North

the

is

description,

XXIV,

p.

Island

p.

Ill, p.

247, pis.

XXV

(OWEN).
and XXVI,

fig.

5 (1844).

347 (1848).

form,

and

only remarking

must

that

Mr.

179, says the vertebrae assigned

refer

my

readers

Hamilton, Trans.

by

Owen

to

N.Z.

to Cnemiornis

belong to Aptornis.
Locality

of

collected by Rev.

type tibia

Wm.

Williams

Poverty
in

1842.

Bay,

North

Island,

New

Zealand

148

APTORNIS DEFOSSOR
Aptornis dcfossor Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

THE

skull differs

the

descending part of

occipital

alisphenoid

from that

is

foramen

more

follows

chief

the occiput

being less

The hind

deeply

other

in

concave, the

part of the base of the

produced and tuberous outside the

end of

the

hyoid

A. defossor.

differences

in

Skull.

Length

pp. 353 to 366, pis. 40-44 (1871).

A. otidifonnis by the vertical surface of

of

relatively smaller.

process of the paroccipital

The

V'll,

OWEN.

size,

according

to

Owen, are as

149

PALAEOLIMNAS
IFFERS

forbes.

from Fiilica by the much more curved shape of the


impressions over the

deeply marked glandular

eyes,

the

skull,

and the great

pneumaticity of the frontal bones.

PALAEOLIMNAS CHATHAMENSIS
FuUca chathamensis H.
Fulica

iiexctoni

O. Forbes, Nature, vol.

H. O. Forbes,

I.e.

XLVI

p.

252 (1892).

(non Milne-Eclwards).

Palacoliiiinas newtoni H. O. Forbes, Ibis 1893,

p.

544.

Palaeolimiias chathaiiicnsis Milne Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (VIII)

in

certain

FuUca

This variation

them as belonging

is

w.r.)

to different species, or at

the

Ibis,

The head

of the type

is,

the pelvic
first

knob

sacral

The

Fulica.
is

to

consider

races.

have

and

limb-bones

am

pelvis

not able to separate

however, unknown."
however, points out numerous

iliac

is

bigger,

sciatic

differences.

and particularly wider

grooves are larger than

more extended, and the

in

foramen

Fulica newtoni,

The

larger.

is

in

the

observes a very stout one, occupying the four

first

vertebrae are

Mauritius species one

inclined

different

" Tlie

says,

humerus the sub-trochanterial groove

in typical

some

size,

in

of

to the larger species.

Forbes

Dr.

Professor Milne-Edwards,

than

bones

the

much

Fulica

of

like

am

least

correspond so closely to those of F. newtoni that

In the

bones

of

they vary

so great that

name Fulica chathamensis"

Later, in

them.

p. 130.

while others were considerably larger than similar bones of

to,

newtoni.

given the

number

Fulica newtoni

resemble those of

Aphanapteryx (should be Diaphorapteryx,


being equal

1896

2,

Nature "I procured from the same beds which

FORBES says
DR. contained
Aphanapteryx
which much

(forbes).

vertebrae of the pelvis.

stunted

The

feet

below the

were

median

also larger

sinus,

while

and stronger than

in

the

latter.

Habitat:

Chatham

An almost

Islands.

complete

skeleton

Museum, and an almost complete

and

numerous

bones

skeleton in the British

in

Museum.

the

Tring

150

PALAEOLIMNAS NEWTON

(milne.edwards).

Ponies d'eau Sieur D.B., Voyages 1674.


Fiilica iiewtoni Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Kat. (5) VIII pp. 194-220, pis. 10-13 ('^'^y).

THE

translation

follows

Sieur

the

of

" Waterhens

which are as large as fowls.

must refer my readers

Habitat

think

and,

Fulica,
it

is

They are always


For the anatomical

Bourbon.

with Palaeolimnas chathamensis that


true

as

is

to Professor Milne-Edwards.

Milne-Edwards gives so many

(Abbe Dubois) description

D.B.'s

and have a large white crest on the head."

black,

description

best

we know

until

to

include

details in

skull

its

and

genus

the

in

it

convinced that the former

feel

which Fulica newtoni agrees

can

decide for

Palaeolimnas.

not

is

certain,

16

tibiae,

30 metatarsi, 8 humeri, 2 sternums, 4 fragments and an entire pelvis and


sacrum, and 3 cervical vertebrae

the Tring

in

Museum.

PALAEOLIMNAS PRISCA
Fulica prisca Hamilton, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

bird

was nearly

and with
not

the latter.

as

p.

98 (1893).

as large as Notornis,

a frontal

flightless,

XXV,

Inst.

shield.

Fulica

It

was

chathamensis

Measurements, according

to

Tibio-tarsus

was.

Hamilton

....

144

Length

8198

....

88

New

Zealand.

flier,

though

was smaller than


chathamensis.

newtoni.

93 mm

143162

Middle Island,

It

poor

....

Length

Tarso-metatarsus
Habitat:

78

but with a very small head

probably a

prisca.

Femur: Length

(Hamilton).

....

mm

....

85

mm.

152163

96

151

LEGUATIA
BODY

SCHLEGEL.

not larger than that of a goose


for

fitted

flight

toes

Bill

LEGUAT'S

description

is

171,

31.)

English edition.

as follows

"

and many

mounted, and have very long necks.

They are

which

is

reddish.

all

are very long and divided."

bill,

142 (1858).

those birds

of

Their bodies are not bigger than

white, except a

They have a goose's

p.

They are extremely high

called giants, because they are six feet high.

that of a goose.

schlegel.

Med. AUad. Wetensch. Amst. Vll,

Leguatia gigantea Schlegel, Versl.

middle

feet.

(Plate
(170S), p.

the

with a naked shield reaching

LEGUATIA GIGANTEA
Le Giant Leguat, Voyages

still

to

long and completely free,

toe almost as long as tarso-metatarsus.

Height about 6

short but

down almost

feathers of the legs reaching

top of the tarso-metatarsus

back beyond the eye.

wings rather

little

only a

place under their wings,

little

sharper; their claws

This bird was apparently confined to the island

of Mauritius.

Professor Newton
principally

asserts

that

Leguat's "Geants " were

because bones of Flamingos have been found

not a single bone has ever been got of the "geant."


opinion, insufficient,

a gigantic
think,

like

and no evidence at

existed on

rail

Professor

all.

We

in

Flamingos,

Mauritius and

This argument

know

is,

in

that a Didine bird and

Reunion, but no bones are yet known of these.

Schlegel,

that

my
I

Leguat's figure and description cannot

be meant for a Flamingo and that they prove the former existence of a
gigantic ralline bird in Mauritius.

The

figure is

made up from Leguat's

like that of a gigantic

Habitat

description.

moorhen, and so are the

Mauritius.

feet.

The

bill

is

drawn

153

ALCA IMPENNIS

THE GREAT AUK.


(Plate
"Penguin" Hore,

in

Anser Magelanicus
301 (1655

Hakluyfs
s.

Northern Penguin

Voyages

III

p.

129 (Ed. 1600

ex

Pinguinus Worm, Museum Wormianum, Lib.


from a specimen from the Faroe Islands).

Hore).

Ill,

Cap.

19, p. 300,

Figured

"Penguin" Willoughby, Orn.


"

Coll.

38.)

"

Lib. Ill p. 242

65 (1676).

pi.

Uncommon

Edwards, Nat. Hist.

B.

etc..

Ill

147 (1750

pi.

147

p.

First good coloured plate, from a specimen from Newfoundland).

Fauna Suecica

" Geyervogel" Linnaeus,

Worm.

Willoughby

I.e.,

(1766);

Naumann,

VllI

563,

p.

43 no. 119 (1746).

p.

Alca impennis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed.

p.

and Edwards

I.e.,

130 (1758 Ex fauna Sueciva no. iig, Mus.


I.e.)

Nat. Voy. Deutschl. XII

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII,

630

p.

620 (1880); Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. HI

pi.

Alca borealis Forster, Syn. Cat.


II

p.

467 (1884)

p.

210

371 (1885).

p.

(1817 nomen nudum).

Brit. B. p. 29

Plautus impennis Briinnich, Zool. Fundamenta

Water Birds N. Amer.,

I,

337 (1844); Dresser, B. Europe

pi.

78 (1772); Baird, Brewer and Ridgway,

p.

Grant. Cat.

B.

XXVI

Mus.

Brit.

p.

563

(1898).

FOR FULL DESCRIPTIONS, LITERATURE, HISTORY, LIST OF REMAINS, SEE :


Japetus Sleenstrup : Bidrag til Geirfuglens Naturhistorie etc., Kjobenhavn (Copenhagen)
1857 (In Naturh-Forening. VidensU. Meddel. 1855, nos. 3-7).
Alfred Newton
fowl.

(In

Newton

The Gare-fowl and

1865 pp. 467-488);


Wilhelin

Bltisiiis

"Naumann,

in

Historians.

f.

Orn. 1862 pp.

(In

or Garefowl.

Its

Supplem. note on the Great Auk

10-124, 337-356.

Natural History Review XII,

Encycl. Britannica Ed. IX vol. Ill;

The Great AuU,

Journ.

f.

id.

Diet. B. p. 220-221.

Orn. 1884 pp. 58-176.

History, Archaeology,
in

and Remains.

Trans. Edinburgh

Field

Nat.

238-273.

p.

Wilhelm Blasius

id.

its

Zur Geschichte von Alca impennis.

Symington Grieve
London 1885
Soc. (1897)

(In Journal

Ueber Plautus impennis.

the Gare-

respecting

Iceland

in

1861, pp. 374-399)-

Ibis,

William Preyer
Alfred

Abstract of Mr. Wolley's Researches

Der Riesenalk, Alca impennis

Naturg.

Vogel Mitteleuropas

d.

Naumann

In the

New

XII

169-208, plates 17, I7a-I7d

L.

") Vol.

p.

Edition

of

(1903).

PROBABLY

the

first

book

"

1558,

where a large

mention of Great Auks

Les singularitez de
bird

Auk.
R.

Hakluyfs

is

at

least

In fact

,"

Anvers

of " Aponars,"

this

name covered

several other

was

solely

doubtful

if

it

applied to the

Great

applies to the remarks by Jacques Cartier, as translated in

collection

III,

was mentioned under the name

of

voyages.

On

the other hand there

"Penguin" mentioned by Robert Hore

Voyages

Auk.

it

The same

that the
of

and

that in Andre Thevet's

France antarctique

But evidently

"Apponatz" or "Aponath."
sea-birds,

la

is

p.

in

is

no doubt

1536 (Hakluyt, Collection

1291600, and other Editions) was actually the Great

"Penguin" has been the name

usually applied to the Great

Auk

154

and

is

even now used for

by the French, while

it

in

most other languages

it

has been transferred, from an early date, to the Antarctic flightless birds,
the SpJteniscidae.

from Newfoundland and thereabout, and even

All the first reports are

103

1605),

poor but perfectly recognizable figure, describes

first

Clusius (Exoticorum

name

of America, under the


in the

"Auctarium," on

Hojerus,

found

as

decern,

libri

p.

it

in

etc.,

Faroe

under

Islands,

from the Faroe Islands.

103) as a native

Later on, however,

name

the

" Goirfugel."

Nieremberg, Hist.

in

comparatively good figure was published

first

"Museum Wormianum,"

1655, in the

alive

The

215 (1635).

p.

(p.

gives a rather

on the authority of Henricus

it,

Hojerus was also the authority for the account given


Nat.,

who

Mergus Americanus."

367, he mentions

p.

the

in

"

of

V,

Lib.

on

p.

301, from a specimen brought

Curiously enough the figure shows a white

ring round the neck, which no Great Auk, of course, possesses.

when

Linnaeus,
in

1758,

scientific

name on

the Great Auk,

gave the following short diagnosis and references:

I.e.,

" AIca

bestowing a

first

compresso

rostro

ancipiti

macula

sulcato,

ovata

utrinque

ante

Fn.

oculos.

Svec. Iig.

Anser magellanicus. Worm. mus. 300


Penguin. Will, ornith. 244

t.

t.

301.

65 Edw. av. 147

147.

t.

Habitat in Europa arctica."

From

referring to the

no doubt as to what species he

The most

Naumann

Edition of
is

given,

sexes

little is

(see above),

seven

fully

folio

there

be

can, of course,

refers.

descriptions

detailed

he quotes,

literature

are probably those given

where

also a

list

New

and figures

of literature

As regards the

pages long!

the

in

difference

the

in

known, because very few specimens exist of which the sex has been

ascertained.

We

find,

however, some with the grooves and ridges on the

more marked, and the grooves purer white, while others have the grooves
a dirtier white and less strongly developed
mostly smaller,
case

my two

Koenig's

think they

possession

It

of but a

an

must be females, the former males

in

adult

male.

somewhat

Probably

Alca tarda, and Professor Blasius

similar

(I.e.)

few examples, and that by far the majority of


have been

killed

Nobody can doubt


were obtained on

Eldey,

in spring,

that the Great

near

Iceland,

all

In this

Professor

in

seasonal

has described

must, however, be remembered, that the date of capture

in collections

of

as these latter are apparently

specimens would be females, and the one now

changes took place as


them.

bill

is

known

those that exist

on their breeding-places.

Auk
in

is

extinct.

1844,

The

last

specimens

and the seas and islands

155

where the great


is

bird used to live are frequented by vessels every year.

It

saw four

true that a certain Lorenz Brodtkorb told that in April, 1848, he

Great Auks, of which he shot one, near the Varanger Fjord, east of the
North-Cape, but Professor Newton and Wolley have,

in

1855,

had an inter-

view with Brodtkorb, and came to the conclusion that he saw and shot the
Northern

Great

This

Diver.

occurrence north of

the more

is

the Arctic Circle

as yet

is

be the case, as the

to

likely

uncertain, the

finding of

Great Auks both on the island of Disco (west-coast of Greenland) and on

Grimsey and Mevenklint on the north coast

From
the

times

historic

Greenland

Labrador,

(Cleadon

Islands

British

Hills

Auk

the Great

that

Seeland, Sejero and

Durham, Scotland,

County

in

open to doubt.

North America from Labrador to Florida.

Ireland), the east coast of

In

we know

finds,

Norway and Sweden, Denmark, with

formerly inhabited

Havno,

and prehistoric

sub-fossil

of Iceland being

we know

where

it

the occurrence on

of

certainly used

to

the

near

islands

breed on the east coast,

but was probably only of rare and exceptional occurrence on the west coast
Iceland,

Islands

Harbour

the

Faroe Islands, Fair Island between the Orkney and Shetland

(doubtful),

Orkneys (Papa Westra),

But as breeding

Ireland.

in

following only are absolutely certain

St.

Skye, and Waterford

Kilda,

within

stations

historic

times the

1.

Funk

2.

Iceland (Geirfuglasker, Grimsey, Eldey).

Islands near Newfoundland.

3.

Faroe Islands.

4.

St. Kilda.

5.

Orkney

Islands.

While we know of regular occurrence and may assume that the bird
has been breeding on the north and west side of Newfoundland, and

in east

Greenland (opposite Iceland).

The remains

Great Auk and

of the

numerous than one would

its

There are

in

collections are

more

the enormous prices paid for

think, considering

mounted specimens and eggs.

eggs

at present

known 79

or 80 skins,

26 or 27 skeletons, a great quantity of detached bones, and about 73 eggs.


I

1.

One

HAVE

IN

MY MUSEUM:

female, formerly in the collection of the late

Comte de Riocour at Vitrybought this specimen from the late Alphonse Boucard,
together with the bulk of the birds of the Riocour collection. It is evidently an adult
adult

le-Fran9ois, in

France.

female, having the white lines on the


distinct grey tinge

on the

flanks.

bill

not very

This shade

is

much

present

in

developed, and showing a

both

my

Great Auks; the

feathers of the flanks, just under the wing, are nearly white, with a conspicuous, very
light
in

grey border.

adult males.

This grey tinge

My

bird

is

is

present in

very well mounted and the feet slightly

all

females, but appears to be absent

worn breeding plumage. As


damaged, I had it reduced to a "

apparently

in

it

was not

skin."

156

Another adult female.

2.

Mr. Leopold Field

in

purchased this from Mr. Rowland Ward, who had

London,

who

1890, written by the late A. Boucard,


is

According to a

in 1897.

"This bird was captured

as follows:

sold
in

it

in that

letter,

dated Paris

from

it

20 Jan.,

le

year to Mr. Field, the history

Iceland in 1837, did

belong to Mr.

first

EimbecU of Brunswick and afterwards in the collection of Mr. Bruch from Mayence."
We must accept this information by the late A. Boucard as correct, though it is difficult
to understand that in the most painstaking and exact list of remains of the Great Auk,
by Prof. Wilhelm Blasius of Braunschweig, or anywhere else, no mention is made
of a specimen in the possession of the late

we have no

and 1890, when Boucard

sold

it

Eimbeck, or the

Auk has been between

explanation where this

Bruch.

late

Moreover,

the time of Bruch's death

London.

to Mr. Field in

This specimen has been described as " immature," but this

is

a mistake.

Evidently

arose

it

from some white speckles being visible on the neck in the photograph (see Symington
Grieve, Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. and Micros. Society, explanation to plate III, on

The specimen

page 269).

which the

feathers, out of

the admirable

transferred to

The grey shade

Naumann.

Mr. Symington Grieve,

though

Some

is

it

itself,

illusion

however, shows no white speckles, but only worn

not a sign of immaturity, but appears

is

years ago an extraordinary rumour was


in

Brehm

the

collection

exchanged by the widow of Pastor C.

this story, or

Brehm

was

benefit of a
his

how

collection

business

of

Florence.

it

arose, but suffice

was

Brehm

in

King of

was kept

in

Edition

of

all

adult females,

Italy,

one of the

finest

was

Germany

in

to

have

who

invented

Auk which was

in

the

in

1868 or 1869.

money was used


it

been

Dresden cup, and

do not know

The

for the

had been the wish

re-stuffed

Bremen and forwarded

for years at the

said

for a rare

The specimen was

Brehm.

Pastor

the collection at that castle


It is

was

brother of the late Dr. A. E. Brehm, as

Schwerdtfeger
It

New

current

to say, that the

it

sold to the late

it

concluded by Dr. Otto Finsch, and the

father,

taxidermist

Rome.

L.

present resting-place was unknown.

its

the

in

body lower than the wing," mentioned by

on the

said to be absent in males.

about the Great Auk

that

on the Great Auk

treatise

"

This error has also been

arose in the photograph.

to

by the
professor

late
in

"Veneria Reale," and recently, when

dissolved,

was placed

Great Auks known.

in

the

Museum

at

157

AESTRELATA CARIBBAEA
(Plate

37.)

Procellaria jamaiceiisis Bancroft, Zoological Journal V,

Pterodroma caribbaea
Jamaica ").

Carte,

&

Aestrelata caribbaea Giglioli

Fulmarus

P.Z.S.

1866,

Ill, p.

Am.

Aestrelata jamaiceiisis Ridgway, Man. N.

p.

8i

10

pi.

93,

p.

Salvadori, Ibis 1869,

caribbaeiis Gray, Handlist B.

(carte).

(1835 Nomen nudum


Mountains

Blue

("

1).

insula

in

p. 66.

107 (1871).

67

B., p.

Cory, Cat. West-Indian B.,

p.

84

(1892).

Oestrelata jamaiceiisis Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus,

name

surprising that the

is

IT this

species,

description

is

Bancroft

as

generally been adopted for

jamaiceiisis has

gave

no

first

: " Head,

neck,

vertex and external

webs

as follows

is

uniform dark sooty brown

primaries a shade or so darker

The

abdominal feathers and under

coverts a shade or two lighter than those of the back


portion

basal

rump

coloured patch on the

The

light-

the wings are expanded,

when

are closed.

upper tail-coverts and

dirty white.

grey or

conspicuous

tail-

rides

dark hazel.

Tarsi,

webs, and nails jet-black.

"Length about
carpal joint to tip of

nostrils

expanse of wings 34 inches; length from

12| inches;

primary lOf inches

first

inches; length of nasal tubes -^

gape. If

of

is

light

when they

but completely concealed


toes,

of

tail-feathers

of

whatever.

description

that of Carte, in 1866, which

back, and wings of a


of the

403 (1896).

p.

length of

inch; length

bill,

of

measured from

interval

between

and commencement of apical curve of upper mandible i inch; length

lA inches;

tarsi

length of

inner toe

sub-equal 2 inches;

length of toes, outer and middle,


First

inches.

If

and second primaries sub-equal, and

about I inch longer than the third. Tail about 4 J inches long and round at
Hallux
extremity. The closed wings extend about IJ inches beyond the tail.
small,

and

in

shape triangular."

"With
furnished
" It

me

respect to the

habits of the bird, Mr.

with the following interesting details

is

night-bird,

living

in

burrows

a gallery 6 to 10 feet long, terminating in a


to

accommodate the

sea

in

pair

search of food

moonlight nights
domicile, and
to their work.

from

(fishes),

and at

island.

chamber

of

the

The burrows form

sufficiently

commodious

at night, flying over the

returning before dawn.

running about

marly clefts

the

this they sally forth

sunrise

kindly

in

mountains at the east and north-east end of the

March has most

the

It

is

often seen on

neighbourhood of

its

sometimes crossing the road, regardless of the labourers going


I

know nothing

of its nidification."

158

The type

of " Pterodrotna caribbaea"

and three specimens are


collections,

and

the British

in

modern

all

is

preserved

Museum. This

in

bird

the Dublin

is

Museum,

one of the rarest

collectors have failed to obtain specimens.

in

Quite

recently (1906) Mr. B. Hyatt Verrill published a pamphlet entitled "Additions


to the Avifauna of Dominica."

heading

"Aestrelata

In this unpaginated essay he said under the

j'amaicensis"

seldom seen during the day.

Lance Bateaux, as well as

at

"Not uncommon

Morne Rouge and

Scott's

the above localities the musky odour of these birds


passing the

the

day

procure, and

is

the

in

although

Dominica),

cliffs

fissures

and

in

Head.

In

but

when

of bats that

They are very

shot at repeatedly only two

of

At dusk they may

company with myriads

crevices.

many

very pronounced

wherein they breed, on a calm evening.

cliffs,

often be seen flying about the

spend

(on

Breeds at La Bime, Pointe Guignarde, and

specimens

difficult

have

to

been

obtained."

From

all

former evidence we might have well considered

to be extinct, but

exterminated.

been

if

Mr.

Verrill's

statement

do not, however, know

is

if

compared with Jamaica examples, and

(apparently

made on Dominica)

Habitat

Jamaica.

is

correct

would be

far

from

Dominica specimens have

the
if

it

this species

Mr.

therefore correct.

Verrill's

determination

159

AESTRELATA HASITATA
Procellaria hasitata
Australia VII,

Kuhl, Beitr.

(sic)

pi.

Zool.

z.

Temminck,

IV, p. 475 (1848

),

220 (1852).

Procellaria rubritarsi Newton, Zoologist 1852,

3692 (ex Gould's MS., descr. nulla).

p.

Aestrelata haesitata Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. XLII,


pi.

60,

fig.

(1868)

Rothsch.

&

II, p,

Oestrelata haesitata Newton, Ibis 1870,

p.

(1880); Stevens, B. of Norfolk,

greyish
tail-feathers

113

189 (1855).

277; Dresser, B. Europe VIII,

361,

pi.

4 (1890)

p.

pi.

545,

Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus.

bill

618

XXV,

brown

upper

rest

broadly edged with

brown

legs

and

The immature

is

less

white

Length

central

white on

and

forehead

dusky-yellow.

feet

bird

tail-coverts

more or

brownish-black, the

but

inches.

adult has the

dark brown, hind-neck white, cheeks and ear-coverts

chiefly

black;

"The

describes this bird as follows:

mantle dark

portions

white;

III, p.

II.

403 (1896).

SAUNDERS
MR. crown
and nape

basal

p. 768 (1856), Elliot, B. N. America


Edition of " Naumann " XII, p. 20 (1903).

New

Hart,

Aestrelata diabolica Bonap., Consp. Av.

p.

p. 168.

Lyceum N.Y.

Procellaria meridioiialis Lawrence, Ann.


pi. 15, p.

Col. 416 (1826); Gould,

PI.

47 (1845).

Procellaria diabolica Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. 1844,

V,

(kuhl).

16

their

under-parts
inches,

wing

be mottled with brown on

believed to

the forehead and to be duller in tint on the upper parts."

Though evidently not

In former

this bird is sealed.

West

several of the

last breeding place

There

it

p.

it

seems certain that the

used to breed

Hayti,

for in vain by
it

in

great numbers on

Colonel

Its

Diablotin on Dominica.

Feilden, in

1889,

who wrote

the "Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Society


later,

ascended La Morne

The

breeding places deserted.

found the old

introduced

in

fate of

Guadeloupe, and Dominica.

Mr. Selwyn Branch again, ten years

au Diable, and
evidently an

times

it

was the Morne au Diable or Morne

was searched

24-39.

extinct,

Indian Islands:

a lengthy article about


V.

quite

"

Manicou,"

North-American Opossum, Mongoose and rats had

entirely extirpated the " Diable."

Two-and-a-half centuries ago Pere du Tertre found this Petrel breeding

on Guadeloupe, and Pere Labat, about forty years


numbers, and gave a long, graphic description of

aux

isles

de I'Am^rique"

then known

as the

(Edit.

" Diable "

I,

or

Vol.

II,

it

later,
in

his

pp. 349-353).

" Diablotin,"

and

their

found
"

it

in

great

Nouveau Voyage

These birds were


flesh

was highly

esteemed, and they were even salted and exported to Martinique and other

French islands

in

great numbers.

160

Ober searched already unsuccessfully

In 1876 Mr. F. A.
It

seems that the disturbance and destruction on

for our birds.

their breeding places

has scattered these Petrels about, for specimens have at various times been
taken on the coast of Florida and Virginia, and even as late as 1893 and
1895,

inland of the State of

Vermont and
Norfolk,

killed in the

undated

an

on Oneida Lake,

moreover, a specimen

Ontario;

England, and an example

have been
In

New York
in

the

has

Museum

been
of

that

fishing

he

grounds

took

killed

Boulogne

in
is

1850 in
said to

neighbourhood of that town.

and

unpaginated

pamphlet,

received

Europe, Mr. A. Hyatt Verrill informs us that this bird


the

Ulster County,

in

and

in

specimen

in

Martinique

September,

is

1904.

This

year

in

"not uncommon on

Guadeloupe

and

last

channels,"

statement

and

requires

confirmation.
In

collections

this

bird

is

very rare.

have the male

which was caught on August 28th, 1893 on Oneida Lake,

New

York.
Habitat

West

Indian Islands.

in

(in

moult)

the State of

161

HEMIPHAGA SPADICEA
(Plate

21.)

Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl.

Chestnut-shouldered Pigeon

(lath.)

II,

add.

375

p.

(1802 Norfolk

Island).

Columba spadicea Latham,


and Knip, Pigeons,

Columba gigas Ranzani, Element!


Columba pHnceps

LX, No. 7 (1802 Norfolk Island); Temmtnck


(1808" Friendly Islands." Errore).

Ind. Orn., Suppl. p.

II, p. i, pi. i

di Zool. Ill,

Vigors, P.Z.S. 1833,

223 (1821 " Friendly Islands." Errore).

i, p.

78 (Australia errore).

p.

Columba leucogaster Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba spec. 12 1827 Norfolk Island).

Hemiphaga spadicea

THE

Island

Norfolk

Pigeon,

to

the

New

zealandiae,

but

differs

similar

XXI,

Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus.

green, sharply defined from

Hemiphaga

Zealand
in

the

238 {1893).

spadicea

hind-neck

the

spadicea,

chestnut back, the wings and upper wing-

rump somewhat

greyish.

As
locality
it

very

coppery or metallic

coverts more greyish, less greenish, also the lower back and

more

is

Hemiphaga spadicea novae-

Pigeon,

having

p.

'far

as

we know

" Australia "

this pigeon

was only found on Norfolk


Like so

being doubtless erroneous.

became extinct on Norfolk

Island, probably

more than

many

Island, the

other birds

half a century ago.

There are evidently quite a number of specimens in various museums,


am aware of the following
I
many of which have never been recorded.
examples

in the British

Museum (Cat. B.
Museum (Bull.

3 in the Liverpool
1

in

my own

Brit.

Mus. XXI,

Liverp. Mus.

I,

collection (Proc. IV, Orn. Congress,

Philadelphia,

in

in Frankfurt a.M. (Hartert, Kat. Vogelsamml.,

in

in

Wiesbaden (Lampe, Jahrb. Nassau Ver. 58).


Bremen (Hartlaub, Verz. Museum, p. 98).

in

Lisbon (Forbes and Rob., Bull. Liverp. Mus.

in

Leyden

(Schlegel,

in

Vienna

(Ibis

in

Naples, seen by myself.

in

Milan, examined by myself.

Museum"

p.

215).

U.S. America (Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. B,

The specimen

p. 238).

p. 35).

p. 225).

p. 189).

II, p.

130).

Mus. Pays-Bas).

i860, p. 422).

at Tring

at Distington.

was bought

at the auction of the

"Cumberland

163

ALECTROENAS NITIDISSIMA
(Plate

22.)

Pigeon hoUandais Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. Orient.

Hackled Pigeon Latham, Syn. B.

Columba nitidissima

II,

II,

loi

pi.

175,

p.

(1782).

No. 36 (1783).

641,

p.

2,

and Faun. Insubr.

Scopoli, Del. Flor.

(scop)

II,

No. 89 (1786) (ex

93,

p.

Sonnerat).

Columba franciae Gmelin,

Syst. Nat.

2,

I,

Columba botanica Bonnaterre, Enc. M6th.


Raniier pirissi Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr. VI,

Columba jubata Wagler,

Syst. Av.,

779, No. 51

p.

233 (1790).

p.

1,

267 (1808).

74, pl.

p.

Columba,

sp. 22

Alectroenas nitidissima G. R. Gray, List Gen.

B.,

(1827).

p.

58 (1840).

Alectroenas franciae Reichenbach, Syn. Av., Columbariae,

Columbigallus franciae Des Murs,

(1788). (ex Sonnerat).

2,

p.

f.

Ptilopus nitidissimus Schlegel and Pollen, Rech. Faun. Madag.,

Alectroenas nitidissimus G. R. Gray, Hand-list

II,

p.

the

These

head,

feathers

and

brilliancy,

constructed,

curiously

rather

are

narrow, and

are long,

and breast

neck

feel of

distinguish

lens,

English,

Woodpigeon

larger than the European

a cartilaginous blade.

they

take

in

a like manner to the wing appendages of the Bohemian


blades

of

and

iris

the

rump and

are of the

same

tail

colour,

Undoubtedly quite extinct.


bird

were

one

in

Edinburgh, one

collected by the Rev.

Habitat

Jungle

Sonnerat's

by naked skin of a deep red


a dark blue

end
have

Mauritius.

in

the

back,

in

point.

the

polish,

constituted

Waxwing and

The eye

Fowl.

the wings

of a

conglomeration

granted that they are

for

the barbules, but

it

follows:

as

the feathers of

whether these blades were formed by the

we may

is

could not, with the aid

of

cartilaginous

159 (1868).

p.

2-4.

original description, translated into

much

" It is

?).

228, No. 9164 (1870).

Alectoroenas nitidissimus A. Newton, P. Z. S. 1879, pp.

SONNERAT'S

1302 (1847).

Encycl. d'Hist. Nat., Ois. VI., p. 31, (1854

surrounded

is

and the

the

belly

are of a very bright carmine red

are of

the beak

and the feet are black."

Only three
Paris,

specimens are known of

and one

H. H. Slater.

in

Mauritius.

this

Some bones

164

ALECTROENAS(?) RODERICANA
(MILNE-EDWARDS).
Columba rodericana Milne-Edwards, Ann.

XIX

Sc. Nat. (5)

art. 3, p. 16, pi. 12,

la, ib,

i,

ff.

ic (1874).

THE

sternum

original description of the

as follows:

is

"It

belongs to a

species small in size, barely as large as T. tympanistria, but evidently

much

most

striking characters of this

sternum are the large size of the bouclier, the large

size of the lateral notches,

better built for

and the shape of the


front.

The

In fact the

flight.

whose anterior angle

keel,

is

much produced

not

coracoidal grooves are large and only slightly oblique.

branches detach themselves from the bone

in front of

the costal facets

very widely spread, and stretch more directly outwards than

The lower

of the species of the family.

lateral

and the median blade of the posterior edge

The

keel

moderately prominent,

is

its

is

All

also

the remainder

remarkable from

anterior angle

is
is

its

enlargement.

much rounded, and does


the case, as a rule, in

which

is

hardly at

all

In its shape in general, by the

direction of the latter, this

little

Ttirtur,

but

pronounced keel and the

sternum presents certain analogies to the essentially

arboreal species such as those of the genus Carpophaga, but they

all

diff^er

having the space for the costal facets on the sides of the sternum much

in

more extended, the superior


further back, so that the

lateral

lateral

branches larger, and the latter arising

notches are smaller.

do not know any genus of the family of Columbidae


can at
all
I

general

sloped like a roof, separate the

Rodriguez very widely, not only from Erythroena and

from Vinago.

they are

these peculiarities, to which must be added the

flattening of the bone

pigeon of

in

lateral

branches are equally divergent,

not reach the level of the episternal apophysis, as


the pigeons.

The

in

all

be likened to that found recently in

probability this fossil remainder

propose to
It

is

call

that

in

to the present

which the sternum

Rodriguez, and therefore

of yet another vanished species,

is

Columba rodericana."

probable

Up

in

which

(Translated.)

Milne-Edwards's

C.

rodericana belonged to

the

genus Alectroenas, and was the representative on Rodriguez of the Alectroenas


nitidissima of Mauritius.

Habitat

Rodriguez.

humerus

in

the Tring

Museum.

165

NESOENAS

SALVAD.

normal, not very broad, only the hind toe with the skin prominently

OLES

expanded on the

of twelve feathers.

composed

entirely rufous,

NESOENAS MAYERI
(Plate
Columba mayeri Provost &

Columha meyeri

Schlegel

Pollen,

Ill

Trocaza meijeri Pollen, N.T.D.

p.

Birds "

the

is

App.

p.

in,

p.

36 (1868).

24 (1849).

p.

45 (1854).

45 (1854).

II p.

Mus.

Brit.

vol.

XXI

327 (1893).

p.

by Salvadori

description

the

in

"Catalogue

pink, fading

Head, neck and underparts pale

"

pi.

318 (1863).

Nesoenas mayeri Salvador!, Cat. Birds

following

6o (1843).

R. Gray, fide Bp. Consp. Av.

Trocaza meyeri Bonaparte, Consp. Av.

THE

pi.

II,

(prevost).

3.)

Rech. Faun. Mad.

Peristera meyeri G. R. Gray, Gen. B.

Carpophaga meyeri G.

Fig.

3,

Knip, Pigeons

&

Tail

First primary about equal to the sixth.

sides.

of

into whitish

towards the forehead, cheeks and upper throat, and passing into rather
darker pink on the mantle remainder of the upper back and the entire wings
lower back and rump greyish,
brown, with a slight shade of olive and rufous
;

the latter mottled with chestnut


outer

upper

tail

coverts and

feathers fading into buff on the outer

tail

undertail-coverts pink, like the mantle

on the

slightly pale

wing 85,

tail

65,

bill

is

iris

legs red (fide Shelley).

yellow

bill

idea

that

0-86, tarsus 1-3."

away almost

entirely,

and the

extinct

is

procured, though

the eggs of

this

it

is

by
is,

rare.

pigeon.

Mons.
however,

Paul

Carie

incorrect,

(Ornis
as

it

XII,

can

p.

still

still

living there.

Habitat

Mauritius.

visit to

the

127),

easily

be

M. Georges Antelme, of Mauritius, possesses


That

it

still

exists

is

also

evident

specimens which were sent to the Zoological Gardens, London,

and are

olive

strongly developed.

As observed
it

yellow,

Total length about

This bird was not found by the Rev. H. H. Slater, during his
Mauritius.

tips

undersurface of the wings ashy brown,

In the live bird the pink soon fades

shade on the wings

webs and towards the

and under wing-coverts

axillaries,

shaded with red towards the base


15-5 inches,

cinnamon, the

tail

from two
last

year,

166

NESOENAS DUBOISI
"Pigeons sauvages
Madagascar,

TALKING

of

d'lin

sp. nov.

rouge roussastre" Le Sieur D.B., Voyages aux

etc., p. 171

(1674

Wild Pigeons,

the island of Bourbon

lies

Dauphine ou

Bourbon).
"

Le Sieur D.B."

tells

us that there were on

" others of a russet red colour, a little larger

than

European pigeons, with the beak larger, red at base near the head, the
eyes surrounded by a fiery colour, as
they are so fat

'

in

the pheasants.

qu'on ne leur voit point de croupion

'

At a certain season

they taste very good."

This passage cannot be meant for a turtle-dove, but the description of


the

bill

and surrounding of the eyes shows that

Nesoenas mayeri.

The

latter,

however,

is

it

not entirely russet red, but the

head, necli, underside and back are creamy white,


colour.

refers to a form allied to

washed with a greyish-rose

Therefore the bird mentioned by Le Sieur D.B. was evidently a repre-

sentative of

who was

mayeri or Bourbon.

A'^.

name

the author of the Voyages of the

Habitat

Bourbon or Reunion.

it

"

in

memory

Sieur D.B."

of Monsieur Dubois,

167

ECTOPISTES
Eciopistes Swainson, Zoological Journal

III

p.

SWAINS.

362 (1827

Parti m

Columba

speciosa and

C. inigraton'a mentioned as types, but ten years later the genus Eciopistes was restricted

same

to C. migratoria by the

TAIL

author).

very long and excessively cuneate, the central

primary of the wing longest.

First

pointed.

in

Tarsus very short,

in
is

while formerly the Zenaidura carolinensis auct. used

this genus,

to be associated with

sharply

Now, only the Passenger Pigeon

front half covered with feathers.

included

rectrices

it.

ECTOPISTES MACROURA

(l.)

PASSENGER PIGEON.
Columba macroura Linnaeus,
"Habitat

pi.

23 [1754J.
of accepting this

1906, pp. 474, 475.

name
The

Syst. Nat. Ed.


in

Canada."

Amer. Orn.

p. 102, pi.

Syst. Nat. Ed. XII,

Washington XIX

p.

XLIX

(1808)

TemmincU &

Knip, Pigeons

319 (1831); Baird,

p.

p. 118.

.");

Wilson,

seconde fam.,

pis.

Brewer & Ridgway,

p.

134 (1776

ex Buffon).

id., I.e. p.

Coues, B. North-West,

I,

(1874).

134 (1776 ex Buffon).


Eciopistes migratoria Swainson, Zool. Journal III, p. 362 (1827)
;

142, Kalm., Brisson

(Ex Frisch, pi.


America Septentrional! copiosissima

Histrio P.L.S. Miiller, Natursyst. Suppl.

(1848)

p. 23,

and Auk

42,

Pigeon de Passage Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. II, p. 527 (1771).


Tourterelle du Canada Daubenton, PI. Enl. 176.
ventralis

p.

284 (1766 Ex Brisson, Orn.


Mus. XXI, p. 369).

Syst. Nat. Ed. XII p. 285

48, 49 (1808-11); Andubon, Orn. Biogr. I,


Hist. N.A.B., Land-Birds HI, p. 368, pi. 57, 4

Columba
Columba

Regarding the necessity

Cf. note of Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit.

" Habitat in

Catesby.

p. 100,

(1758 Ex Catesby, Carolina

in Carolina."

see Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc.

Columba migratoria Linnaeus,


I,

164

p.

conclusions of Messrs. Bangs and Allen are perfectly correct).

Columba canadensis Linnaeus,


" Habitat in

Canada, hybernat

p.

387 (1874)

Gould, B. Europe,

pl.

247

Maynard, B. E. North America,

p.

335

(1881).

Trygon migratoria Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl.,


Eciopistes migratorius G. R. Gray, Gen. B.

286-291

Bendire, Life-History N. Amer. B.,

P-

395 (1S95)

Auk

it

does, as follows

purpurascente."

who

p.

495 (1831).
Brewster,
;

Auk

1889, pp.

132; Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI,


p.
p.

17 (1898)

A.O.U. Check-List (Ed.

51 (1896); Minot, B.

New

II)

England,

258 (1855).

true that Linnaeus' diagnosis of his

reading, as

p.

(1844)

1903, p. 66.

Trygon gregaria Brehm, Vogelfang,

is

p.

370; Proc. Delaware Valley Ornith. Club II,


120, No. 315 (1895); Wintle, B. Montreal,
;

471

p.

p.

p.

IT

II,

"

Columba macroura

Columba cauda cuneiformi

These words, however, are

gives an excellent figure and description, as

clearly taken
is

also the

is

very short,

longa, pectore

from Catesby,

" Habitat,"

viz.

168

" Habitat
"

Edwards

figured.

Canada,

in

Bangs,

(Cf.

entirely

Pigeon

it

62" northern latitude.

Being a migrant,

this bird

and to return

to their

after the breeding season,

like

our

North

great abundance, from the Atlantic to the great Central Plains,

in

according

quarters

its

and

described

is

former times occurred throughout

in

and from the Southern States, where

shifted

bird

different

quotes

first

I.e.)

The Passenger
America

though Linnaeus

Carolina,"

in

where an

15,"

pi.

15,

hybernat

rarely occurred, north

homes

abundance

the

to

to

at least

used to migrate southwards


in spring,

or

but

scarcity

food,

of

Sometimes incredible numbers flocked together.

Pigeons.

have been

flights

and others.

In

1813 Audubon says

that

Hardensburg

to

Louisville,

miles,

fifty-five

during

Such

by Audubon, Wilson

described independently

stupendous

also

it

journey from

whole

his

masses

countless

Pigeons

of

"

continued to pass over, and also did so during the three following days.

At

times they flew so low, that multitudes were destroyed, and for many days

Where they

the entire population seemed to eat nothing else but Pigeons."

roosted

millions, the

in

dung soon covered the ground and destroyed the

grass and undergrowth, limbs and even small trees

weight of the

"

birds.

One

broke

was

This

direction.

forty miles in extent.

nearly a north

in

breadth, and upwards

miles in

several

immense

In this

tract nearly every tree

of

was furnished

were branches to accommodate them.

with nests wherever there

the

of the breeding places visited by Wilson, not far

from Shelbyville, Kentucky, stretched through the forest

and south

down from

He was

informed by those who sought to plunder the nests of the squabs, that the
noise in the
for

difficult

woods was so great as


one

person

to

terrify their

to hear another

with broken limbs, eggs and young

Hawks were

numbers, while from

there

was a perpetual tumult

of

crowding

and

Pigeons, their wings resounding like thunder, and


of

falling

trees

sailing

about

in

twenty feet upwards to the tops of the trees

great

crash

was

it

The ground was strewed

speak.

Pigeons.

horses, and that

one

In

instance

he

fluttering

multitudes

of

mingled with the frequent

counted

ninety

nests

in

single tree."
It

is

and that they were


wantonly destroyed.

killed in great

Yet

total destruction, as their

keen.

common

In

man

only natural that

it

power

1874 Messrs. Baird,

birds,

though

such vast multitudes,

numbers, for food, and, maybe, sometimes

difficult to

is

" their

took advantage of

of flight

understand what brought on their

was

great,

and their vision remarkably

Brewer and Ridgway considered them

abundance

in

still

large extents of the country had

169

and
in

in the

more

England States

country, these birds

no longer bred

the

The instance near Montpelier,

communities.

large

the

part of

cultivated

New

" in

At that time

been very sensibly reduced."

near one
"

another."

1895,

now mainly

Breeding range

northern

In

borders

the

in

A.O.U.

in

woods and seldom

the

authors

the

check-list,

say

portions of the Canadas and the

restricted to

United

the

of

through

scattered

being

nests

their

pairs,

the only

is

They now breed

marked exception that has come within my knowledge.


isolated

1849,

in

as

States,

far

west

and

Manitoba

as

the Dakotas."

At the present time

the

Passenger Pigeon seems to

disappeared, a small flock in an aviary apparently being

which

notes,

"

think are of the greatest interest

The disappearance

me

at least forty years,

some

late as 1870

though as

is

left

of

it

the following

Passenger Pigeon

the

of

that

all

Mr. James H. Fleming, of Toronto, kindly sends

alive.

have entirely

Ontario dates back

in

of the old roosts

were

still

much has been

said,

had

frequented, but the incredible flocks, of which so

gone long before that date, and by 1880 the pigeon was practically exterminated,
but over the greater part of

not only in Ontario,

however occasional records


bird taken

September

of birds taken, for

in

some years

An immature

later.

a bird, also immature,

There are

old range.

1887, in Chester County, Pennsylvania,

9,

the last for that part of the State'

taken

its

in

is

is

said to be

my

collection,

There are other Montreal

December, 1888, at Montreal, Quebec.

records of the same date,^ but with the exception of one taken at Tadousac,
July 26, 1889,^ these are the last

Quebec records

Ontario two were taken at Toronto


both immature females, the latter

taken by Mr. Walter

one of a pair seen.

December

19, 1892.

Brett, at
I

on September

in 1890,
is

in

of birds actually taken.

my

collection,

Riding Mountain,

in

New York

in

is

11,

an adult female

May

Manatoba,

also have an adult male taken at

was

and October

20,

as

In

12,

Waukegon,

1892,

Illinois,

the latter part of November, 1892,

and was then assured by Mr. Rowland, a well known taxidermist, that he
had recently seen several barrels of pigeons that had been condemned as
unfit

for

food

New York

they had come to

from Indian Territory, and

believe had had their tails pulled out to permit tighter packing.

Mr. William

Brewster has recorded the sending of several hundred dozens of


to the

Boston market

in

December

of the

same

year,

and

in

ceased after this

till

1898,

when

pigeons

January, 1893

these were also from Indian Territory*; these are the last records
the Passenger Pigeon as anything

more than a casual migrant.

we have

of

The records

three birds were taken at points widely apart,

170

an adult male at Winnipegosis, Manatoba, on April

Owensboro, Kentucky, on July

now

27,

an immature male at

14,*

the Smithsonian Institution,

in

another immature bird taken at Detroit, Michigan, on September

my

collection

published a

1902; this latter

is

list

For

final

possibly open to doubt, but the ones

all

extinction of the Passenger Pigeon

in

flock,

gave for 1900 are,

were seen more than once and by

practical purposes, the close of

remained only the small

had been bred

numbering

in

captivity by Prof. C. O.

in

the Nineteenth Century

in

a wild state, and there

1903 not more than a dozen, that

Whitman,

of Chicago

an effort to obtain fresh blood for this flock that

enquiry that brought

many

replies,

these birds

am aware

started a newspaper

many

referred to the Mourning Dove.

that there has been lately wide-spread and persistent

rumours of

the return of the pigeons, but no rumour has borne investigation, and
that Prof. Whitman's small flock,
last

now reduced

representatives of a species around

(in

1.

Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club,


Wintle, Birds of Montreal, 1896, 51.

3.

In collection of Dr. J. Dwight, Jr.

Minot, Birds of

New

Auk, XX, 1903,

66.

England, 1895, 395.

feel

whose disappearance mystery and

2.

5.

1906) to five birds, are the

fable will always gather."

4.

It

none of which could be substantiated as

records of the Passenger Pigeon, and


I

different

are the descendants of a single pair, and have long ago ceased to breed.

was

in

including sight records, one as late as May,

feel confident, correct, as the birds

saw the

now

these are the last records that can be based on specimens.

" In 1903

observers.

14,

and

II,

1898, 17.

171

FAMILY DIDIDAE.
INCLUDES

very

Columbidae
the

and

extremity

of

of

the

flight,

cranial

the

with

agreeing

forms,

massively-built

the truncation of

in

totally incapable

large

the angle of the mandible, but with

rostrum

strongly

They were

hooked.

the wing-bones being small,

the

the

carina of

sternum aborted, and the caracoidal grooves shallow and separated from one
another.

Two

genera

Didus and Pezophaps.

DIDUS
SKULL

LI NN.

with a very large and deeply hooked rostrum, and the nasal and

maxillary processes of the praemaxilla converging anteriorly

the front

region inflated into a sub-conical prominence of cancellous tissue.

and

humerus

than

shorter

feet

in

the succeeding genus.

Delto-pectoral

distinct.

Two

species

Didus

cucullattis

and Didus

solitarius.

Neck

crest

of

172

DIDUS CUCULLATUS

(d

DODO.
(Plates 24, 24a, 24b, 24c.)
Walchvoghel Van Neck, Voy.,

p.

pi.

7,

Walchvogel De Bry, Orient. Ind.

(1601).

VIII,

pt.

t.

11

(1606).

Gallinaceus galltis peregrinus Clusius, Exot. Libr.

Dod-eersen or Valgh-vogel Herbert's travels

Cygnus cucullatus Nieremberg, Nat.


Dronte Bontius, Ind. Orient,

Raphus Moehring, Av.

Hist. Ill p.

Struthio cucullatus Linn., S. N.

THE

first

99

t.

fig.

ex.

t.

100 {1605).

page 212.

Clus.) (1635)

gen. 57 (1732).

Dodo Edwards, Glean. Nat.


Didus ineptus

231 (with

p.

p.

70 (1658).

p.

t.

ist ed. (1634)

Linn., S. N.

description

p.

179

267 No.

of this

pi.

296 (1757).

155 No. 4 (1758).

p.

(1766).

very remarkable

bird

account of the voyage of Admiral Jacob van Neck

Amsterdam

published by Corneille Nicolas at


" Blue parrots are very

numerous

are a kind, conspicuous for their


only half covered with skin as
in

if

in 1601.

size, larger

It is

clothed with a hood.

Walghvogel,' for the reason

that

the

17th and 18th

number

Centuries

numerous pictures
it

Century,
best
seek.

among which

The

consists

tail

These we used

to

longer and oftener they were

Nevertheless

of

of

we

which

works on travel and voyages published


find all
I

sorts of notices about the

have given outline drawings.

in

the

Dodo, and

From

these

appears that the Dodo became extinct about the end of the 17th

i.e.,

1680

1690.

known and most


The

as follows

and breast were of a pleasant flavour and easily masticated."

In a large

sources

which was

These birds lack wings,

cooked, the less soft and more insipid eating they became.
their belly

the

in

than our swans, with huge heads

of a few soft incurved feathers, which are ash coloured.


'

1598,

in

there, as well as other birds

the place of which 3 or 4 blackish feathers protrude.

call

was given

The causes

of the extermination of this, perhaps the

talked about of the recently extinct birds, are not far to

total inability of flight, the

heavy slow

gait,

and the utter fearlessness

from long immunity from enemies, led to a continual slaughter for food by
the sailors and others

who came

to and dwelt on Mauritius.

cause of the extermination of this and


Islands

was probably the introduction

These animals increased enormously


soon destroyed

all

many other

birds in

But the

the Mascarene

of pigs, and also of the Ceylon


in

numbers, ran wild

the eggs and young birds they could

in

find.

final

Monkey.

the woods, and

173
It is

many years

strange that for

after great attention had been paid to

the Dodo, ornithologists differed conspicuously as to what family

other two Didine species belonged.


bird, in

fact

Linnaeus called

as forcibly declared

the

it

to be an

Didtinculus strigirostis

representative,

Pezophaps

not at

is

solitarius

THE FOLLOWING
1.

Vienna,

Sion House.

4.

Vienna.

truth

is,

that although

be

to

two species

closely allied, yet the

Emperor

Library of the
in his

of

near

its

Didus and

Duke

By Hufnagel,

Francis.

1626, reproduced

book, 1868.

"Altes Museum," Cabinet

Berlin.

The

Samoa, which was supposed

A LIST OF THE PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE DODO.

the

3.

was a Struthious

it

calmly Struthio cucullatus, while others just

abnormal Vulture.

of

all

by von Frauenfeldt
2.

asserted that

form a group of very specialized pigeons.

IS

in

it

Many

and the

it

3,

Division

of Northumberland.

Kunsthistorisches

2,

By Roelandt

No. 710.

By John Goeimare,

Savery, 1626.

1627.

Hofmuseum, formerly Belvedere.

By Roelandt

Savery,

1628.
5.

London.

6.

Pommersfelden, Bavaria.

By Roelandt

Zoological Society, formerly Broderip.

By Roelandt
7.

Haag.

8.

Stuttgart.

Count Schonborn,

Savery, undated.

"Orpheus charming the

Beasts."

Savery, undated.

Mauritshuis.

Orpheus charming the Beasts."

"

Formerly Dr. Seyffer, but sold

By Roelandt Savery.
By

and since disappeared.

at his death

Roelandt Savery.
9.

London.

British

Museum, formerly belonging

to G.

Edwards.

Probably by Roelandt

"

Orpheus charming the

Savery.
10.

Emden.

Galerie der Gesellschaft

Beasts."

fiir

Bildende

Kunst.

By Roelandt Savery.

Ashmolean Museum.

By John Savery,

11.

Oxford.

12.

Haarlem.

13.

Dresden.

Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie.

" Circe

14.

Dresden.

Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie.

"The Creation

Dr. A. van der Willigen, Pz.

By

1651.

Pieter Holsteyn (1580-1662), not dated.

and Ulysses."

By

C. Ruthart, i566.

Supposed

of the Animals."

by Franz Francken (1581-1642), no date, and said to be by a different

At least 2 Mauritius Dodos have been exhibited alive


brought back by Van Neck

in 1599,

and which most

for nearly all Roelandt Savery's pictures,

year 1638, mentioned by Sir

Hamon

This

Museum

is

(1656),

Europe, one

served as the model

and one exhibited

Lestrange.

bird afterwards preserved in Tradescant's

likely

in

to be

artist.

in

London

in

the

almost certainly the

and

finally in

Oxford

(Ashmolean Museum), and probably served for the model of the supposed
Savery picture

in

the British

Museum.

The Dodo inhabited Mauritius.


NOTE. Didus nazarenus Gmelin, based on the "Oiseau de Nazareth" of Cauche (Descr. de I'lle de
Madagascar, p. 130, ff, 1651) is evidently founded on a mistaken and partly fictitious description of a Dodo, or
rather a mixture of that of the Dodo and a Cassowarj'. The name was, perhaps, also a mistake, derived from that
of " Oiseau de natts^e,'' which has a similar meaning as " Walghvogel."

174

Explanation

Plates

of

Dodo.

of

Plate 24.
This was taken from the picture by Roelandt Savery in Berlin, but the wings, tail and bill
have been altered, partly from Pierre Witthoos' picture of the Bourbon Dodo, and partly from
anatomical examination. The tail, however, appears to have been curled over the back in life,
according to most authors.

Plate 24 (a).
Fig.

No. 7

in

Reproduction

1.

Dodo

in outline of the

in

Savery's Orpheus at Haag.

Vide antea

the List of Paintings.

Vide antea No. 13


Fig.

1.

Ruthart's "Circe and Ulysses" at Dresden.

in

the List of Paintings.

Dodo (and Pelican

?J

in

Frans Franckens

(?)

picture in Dresden.

Vide

the List of Paintings.

in

Plates 24 (b
No.

in

Outline of

3.

antea No. 14

Dodo (and Pelican?)

Outline of

Fig. 2.

and

c).

Dodo

Outline of

in

Vide antea No.

Roelandt Savery's picture at Berlin.

the

2 in

List of Paintings.

No.

2.

Outline of picture by Roelandt Savery in the British

Museum.

Vide antea No. 9

in the List of Paintings.

No.

3.

No.

4.

Outline of

Dodo

in

Jacob van Neck's Voyage, Plate

Vide antea No. 4

Roelandt Savery's Dodo, Vienna.

Outline of

2 (1598).
in

the

List of

Paintings.

No.

5.

Outline of

Dodo

No.

6.

Outline of

Dodo

in Piso's additions to

No.

7.

Outline of

Dodo

in Sir

No.

S.

Outline of

Dodo

in

Clusius Exoticorum

No.

9.

Outline of

Dodo

in

Joan Nievhof's Gedenkwaerdige Zee and Lantreize, 1682.

No.

10.

Outline of

in

Dodo

No. 3

in

No. 5

in the List of Paintings.

Broeck's Voyage (Peter van Broeck's Voyage, 1617).

in

Thomas

Jacob Bontiu's Oriental Natural History, 1658.

Herbert's Relation of some yeares Travels, 1626.


libri

decem, 1605.

House, 1627.

Vide antea

Roelandt Savery's picture at Pommersfelden.

Vide antea

John Goeimare's picture

at Sion

the List of Paintings.

No.

No.

11.

12.

Outline of

13.

in

Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's restoration of the

Amsterdam Academy,
No.

Dodo

Dodo

in

Transactions, &c., of the

vol. 2, 1S54.

Outline of

Dodo

in

antea No. 5 in the List of Paintings.

Roelandt Savery's picture, Zoological Society, London.

Vide

175

DIDUS SOLITARIUS

(selys).

REUNION DODO.
(Plates

25, 25a, 25b.)

Great Fowl Tatton, Voy. Castleton, Purchas

Pilgrimes, ed.

his

(1625)

p.

331 (Bourbon

or R6union).

Dod-eersen Bontekoe, Journ. ofte gedencU. beschr. van de Ost. Ind. Reyse Haarlem(i546)

Oiseau Solitaire Carr6, Voy. Ind. Or.

Le Sieur D.

Solitaire Voy. fait par

p.

12 (1699).

B. (1674)

p. 170.

Apterornis soUtarius de Selys, Rev. Zool (1848)

p.

293.

Didus apterornis Schlegel, Ook een Wordje over den Dodo

Pezophaps borbonica

Bp., Consp. Av.

II p. 2

Ornithaptera borbonica Bp., Consp. Av.

p. 6.

15

p.

f.

2 (1854).

(1854).

II. p.

2 (1854).

Didine Bird of the Island of Bourbon (Riunion) A. Newt. Tr. Zool. See. VI pp. 373-376,
62 (1867).

pi.

Apterornis solitaria Milne-Edw., Ibis (1869)

p.

272.

? Didus borbonica Schleg., Mus. P.B. Struthiones

Solitaire of

THE

Riunion A. Newton, Enc.

Brit. II p.

Didine bird of Reunion was

p. 3 (1873).

732 (1875).

mentioned by Mr. Tatton, the Chief

first

Officer of Captain Castleton, in his account

"Purchas
"

There

his Pilgrimes."

and so be

Our men

shot.

did beat

them down with

men

is

detailed description

as follows

being white, and in a manner

sticks

Ten men may

and stones.

a day."

They are as
of the wings

is

and by Carre

in

1699.

in

5 separate

But the

first

given by the Sieur D. B. (Dubois) in 1674, which

"Solitaires.

These birds are thus named because they always go alone.

big as a big goose

and of the

those of the Ostrich.

tail.

Woodcocks

larger,

and the legs and feet

(he

and have white plumage, black

At the

tail

at the extremity

there are some feathers resembling

They have the neck long and the beak formed

of the

itself to

fly,

then find frequent mention of this bird by Bontekoe

treatises or editions, from 1646 to 1650,

more

other fowles, as having not been troubled nor feared with

all

take fowle enough to serve fortie

We

as follows:

and a great fowle of the bignesse of a Turkic, very

and so short winged, that they cannot

tame

is

store of land fowle both small and great, plenty of Doves, great

is

Parrats, and such like


fat,

His account

of their voyage given in

refers

to
like

the woodrails,

Erythromachus

those of Turkey-chicks.

running, only flying but very

little.

It is

the best

like that

W.R.),

but

This bird betakes

game on

the Island."

176

It

seen that, while Dubois says the wings and

will be

Pierre Witthoos's

picture,

from which the accompanying

drawn, shows the wings yellow.

what

description, or,

is

may

This

much more

Witthoos shows a distinctly mutilated

either be due to

The

albinistic.

(the

are black,

was

partly

Dubois' faulty

Amsterdam,

the picture by

in

bill

evidently done by the bird's keeper

bill,

untrimmed

to prevent being injured by the formidable hook of the

two pictures

plate

probable, the bird brought to

which Witthoos painted, was somewhat

addition to

tail

one formerly

in

In

bill.

the possession of Mr. C. Dare,

of Clatterford, in the Isle of Wight, and a second in Holland, both by Pieter

we know

Witthoos, painted about the year 1670),

given in Zaagman's edition of Bontekoe, 1646.


four primaries point

down and forward, which

condition of the specimen figured, so

wing drawn

Island of

In all these
is

drawings the

first

probably owing to the injured

the accompanying plate

in

the true Dodo's and the

like

Habitat

of this bird only the drawing

had the

reconstructed.

bill

Bourbon or Reunion.

Only known from the above-mentioned descriptions and two drawings.

No specimens

existing.

This bird became extinct between the years 1735 and 1801, because
the latter year Monsieur Bory St. Vincent
Island,

and no such bird existed then

made

survey of the

his scientific

we know

while

that

in

Monsieur de

la

Bourdonnaye, who was governor of the Mascarene Islands from 1735 to 1746,
sent one alive to one of the directors of the French East Indian Company.
this,

the second living specimen

brought to

Europe,

we

Of

unfortunately have

neither drawing nor history.

Explanation

of

Plates.

Plate 25.
Drawing
from the model

of

White Dodo from Pierre Witthoos'

of the

picture, the bill

and

tail

being reconstructed

common Dodo.

Plate 25 (a).
Outline of figure of

Fig. 5.

White Dodo

in

the picture by Pieter Witthoos circa 1670

vide supra.

Woodcut

Zaagman's edition

Fig.

8.

Outline of

Fig.

7.

Outline of figure of White

in

Dodo

in

of

Bontekoe van Hoorn, 1646.

an edition of Plinius Secundus about 1643 but

without date.
Fig. 4.

Plate 25

Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's reconstruction of the Reunion Dodo.

(b).

Drawing from description

of the Sieur D.B. (Dubois), 1674.

177

PEZOPHAPS
SKULL

with

moderate

processes

maxillary

region

frontal

pectoral crest of

rostrum, slightly hooked, and


praemaxillae

the

of

with but

flat

Manus armed with an

STRICKLAND & MELVILLE.

little

Neck and

and

the nasal
anteriorly

the

Coracoid stout.

cancellous tissue.

tuberosity.

ossified

diverging

feet

Delto-

long.

humerus aborted.

The male

This genus connects Didus with the Columbldae.

is

much

larger than the female.

PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIUS

(Cm)

THE SOLITAIRE.
(Plate

23, 25a,

Figs.

Solitaire Leguat, Voy. deux lies ddsertes Ind. Or.

Didus solHarius Gmelin,

S. N.

bird

was

&c., p.

46 (1848).

Bartl. (nee. Gmel.), P.Z.S. 1851, p. 284, pi.

Pezophaps minor Strickland, Contr.

THIS

pp. 98. 102 (1708).

p. 728, n. 2 (1788).

Pezophaps solitaria Strickland, the Dodo,


Didus nazarenus

3.)

2,

1,

first

seems to have

to Orn. 1852, p. 19

made known by Leguat

arisen,

owing to

his

XLV.

).

in

applying the same

Dodo

as the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) gave to the Bourbon


is

the original description


"

The

taller

little

than turkeys.

proportion than a turkey's

too

and

little

more crooked.

1674.

them
This

its

to

when

it

They have scarce any

lifts

is straight,

up

head without comb on cop.

and a

his head.

little

but

fly,

longer in

is

black and

their

wings are

eye

Its

They never

support the weight of their bodies


call

tail,

roundish, like the crupper of a hare.

is

Their neck

themselves and flutter when they


for

in

to

their hind part covered with feathers

lively,

name

feathers of the males are of a brown-grey colour, the feet and beak

are like a turkey's, but a

They are

some confusion

1708, but

they serve only to beat

one another.

They

will whirl

about

twenty or thirty times together on the same side during the space of

4 or 5 minutes.
of a rattle,

The motions

and one may hear

of their wings
it

make then a

two hundred paces

off.

noise very like that

The bone

of their

178

wings grows greater towards the extremity, and forms a


under the feathers as big as a musket
defences of this bird.

we

places, because

'Tis

From March

brown.

The females are wonderfully

peak

of

sort

them

call

feather

The

which

breasts,

their

straggling from the other

is

all

have an agreeable

"

enough

means

unfortunate

their habits

even with

all

They walk with so

owing

settlers,

the

to

and the unceasing slaughter by the


1780.

only have the accounts of Leguat

when we do

sometimes very familiarly

birds will

by the pigs

depredations

come

not run after them, yet they will never

of sustenance

When

till

they

near

up

grow tame,

as soon as they are caught they shed tears, without crying, and

manner

risings

their fine mien often saves their lives."

Solitaires,

we

Though these
to one,

over their bodies,

They have two

effect.

became extinct between the years 1760 and

Of

dun

of

and good grace that one cannot help admiring them and

and monkeys introduced by the


latter,

they have

feathers are whiter there than the rest, which

the

loving them, by which

The

some

fair,

is

adjust themselves, and make them

thick,

craws, and

stateliness

some

fair hair

represents the fine neck of a beautiful woman.

livelily

much

and

fat,

feathers on their thighs are round like shells at the end,

and being there very


their

upon

a widow's,

they being very careful to


their beaks.

beautiful,

because they are the colour of

fair,

like

No one

colour.

on

we approach them

September they are very

to

open

in

admirably well, especially while they are young, some of the males

weigh 45 pounds.

very hard to catch

its

the woods, but easy

in

run faster than they, and sometimes

without much trouble.


taste

That and

ball.

round mass

little

beak are the chief

refuse

all

die.

these birds build their nests, they choose a clean

place, gather

together some palm leaves for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a
half high

which
it

is

from the ground, on which they

much

bigger than that of a goose.

in their turns,

and the young

while they are sitting upon


not able to provide for

is

when they
female

very singular

drives

without her bounds.


to the male

who

is

They never

is,

one egg,

The male and female both cover

not hatched

till

at 7

weeks end.

All the

or are bringing up their young one, which

is

several months, they will not suffer any other

the males will never drive

make a

away the females, only

stranger, not leaving

The female does the same as


them away.

of the place.

own

noise with their wings to call their

away the unwelcome

drives

lay but

come within two hundred yards round

perceive one they

she

it,

itself in

bird of their species to

But what

sit.

We

it

till

it

was

to males, which she leaves

have observed

this several times,

and

179

affirm

it

The combats between them on

to be true.

this occasion last

some-

times pretty long, because the stranger only turns about, and does not
directly from the nest.

quite driven

out of their limits.

it

one, and left

However, the others do not forsake

it

till

fly

they have

After these birds have raised their young

to itself, they are always together, which the other birds are

it

and though they happen to mingle with other birds of the same species,
these two companions never disunite.
not,

We

have often remarked, that some days after the young one leaves

the nest, a

company

of 30 or 40 bring another

fledged bird, joining the band with

We

bye place.

father and mother, they

its

we

this great

its

in

numbered

Barclay got 3 more bones,


collected 8 bones,

and

in

in

of complete skeletons
:

number

In

18.

Dodo

1864 Mr.

E.

was

in

resident

1874, a thorough search

in

Museums by

number

of complete

of bones.

figure.

{a).

Outline of figure in Leguat's Voyage, 1708.

Fig. 2.

Outline of Schlegel's reconstructed figure of the Solitaire, 1854.

Fig.

Outline of Solitaire in Frontispiece to Leguat's Voyage, 1708.

3.

Mr.

magistrate,

was made, and a

collected.

Coloured drawing made from Leguat's description and

7.

When

we

Newton and Captain

Mr. Jenner, the

1865

all

of Mauritius in 1844, and up

Plate 23.

Fig.

two young ones

Abbe Pingre's descriptions were

Explanation of Plates.

Plate 25

some

Island of Rodriguez.

Represented
large

to

1866 nearly 2,000 bones were collected, but during

the Transit of Venus e.xpedition

Habitat

couples, and left the

distinctness from the

1852, these bones

number

march

ground pigeon down to 1866, except a few bones.

Strickland proved
to

and the new

called a marriage."

Leguat's, d'Heguerty's, and the

had of

it,

frequently followed them, and found that afterwards the old

ones went each their way alone, or


together, which

young one to

skeletons and a

181

TYMPANUCHUS CUPIDO

(l.)

HEATH HEN.
Tetrao ciipido Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X,
pi. I,

" Habitat in Virginia ")

1743.

Pinnated Grouse Latham, Gen. Syn.

Bonasa

i6o (1758

p.

II, 2, p.

II,

App.

p. i,

219 (1825).

740 (1783).

Shaw's Gen. Zool. XI,

ciipido Stephens, in

ex Catesby, Carolina

Vieillot, Gal. Ois. II, p. 55, p.

299 (1819

p.

New

Jersey and Long

Island).

Ciipidonia ciipido

Baird,

Am.

N.

B.

Martha's

p.

628 (i860

partim)

Vineyard and Naushon Island)

138 (1870

p.

Maynard, B. E. Massach.

Brewster,

Auk

1885, p. 82

(Massachusetts).

Ciipidonia ciipido var. ciipido Baird, Brewer

&

Ridgway, N. Amer. B.

Ciipidonia ciipido brewsteri Coues, Key N.A.B., App.

p.

Amer. B.

Amer. B. Ed.

II,

(second ed. of separate copy,

LINNAEUS'

a tergo

This diagnosis

description

"Tetrao pedibus
he adds

After the habitat

vertex subcristatus
quinque."

taken

is

colli

much

hirsutis alis succenturiatis

" Color

singulae

from Catesby, who gives a

and a recognizable coloured

He

plate.

feminae

Tetricis

duae parvae alae

the neck-tufts are composed of five feathers, and


to be

355(1885); Bendire, Life-

p. 15) (1896).

brief diagnosis is:

cervicalibus."

p.

93 (1892); Grant, Cat. B. Brit. B. XXII, p. 77; Check-List N.


115, No. 306(1895); Hartlaub, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen XIV, i
p.

I,

p.

440 (1874).

884 (1887).

Tywpaiiiichiis ciipido Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. VIII,


Hist. N.

Ill, p.

specially

pennis

shown

his figure they are

in

good

fairly

mentions that

Catesby expressly states that he does not know exactly

pointed.

from which part of America

specimen came

his

yet

Linnaeus says

"

Habitat

in Virginia."

Hen

Formerly the Heath

New

inhabited

England and part of the

Middle States (Southern Connecticut, Long Island,

Eastern Pennsylvania), but

Martha's Vineyard.

common on

scrub and feeding on acorns.


this protection

number were

seems not
killed,

to

They were then


and

sold

1893 to

perhaps, fortunate rather than unfortunate, because Mr. Hoyle (the


collected them) told us that in

the

fall

of

1894 a

fire

destroyed

1897 they were practically gone.

perhaps, two

pairs

of

liberated and broods of

" Prairie Chicken "

young

was

it

oak

"strictly protected by law," but

various museums.

to

was then

chiefly haunting

have been effectual, as from

skinned,

it

About that time

woods and

that island, inhabiting the

Nantucket,

Jersey,

1887 Ridgway stated already that

in

apparently extinct, except on


still

New

many

1897 a

This

man who

of them,

and

But almost worse than

{Tympanuchus americanus)

(of the latter apparently)

was,

in

this,

were

were seen, so that

it

182

is

to be feared that birds shot

blood

of

somewhat

americamis

T.

to

difficult

in

now on Martha's Vineyards

them,

distinguish,

Nevertheless, a bird taken in 1901

the

two

forms

being

Island

may have

closely

related,

and evidently sub-species of each other.

was pronounced

to

be typical cupido by

Mr. Brewster.

From

these facts

birds the fate of

which

it

is

mixed with foreign blood,


Proceedings

of

the

herewith corrected.

IV.

is

pretty clear that the

sealed,
will

and which,

if

Heath Hen

among the

not already exterminated or

soon have disappeared.

International

is

Ornithological

The footnote
Congress,

p.

in

203,

the
is

183

COTURNIX NOVAEZELANDIAE
(Plate

quoy&gaim.

28, Fig. 2.)

Coiurnix Novae-Zelandiae Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool.


fig.

(1830 "

Z61ande

")

Zealand,

B. Austr.,

Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXII

THIS

and

text

New

161, pi. (1873); Hist. B.

p.

pi.

fig

(1837-38)

Zealand, 2nd ed.

distinguished from

easily

is

The male has the upper-side almost

other species.

New

B.

XXIII (1888);

p. 225, pi.

I,

Nouvelle

la

Buller,

245 (1893).

p.

though a typical Coturnix,

Quail,

Tamise de Cook), k

habit la baie Chouraki (riviere

11

Gould, Syn.

242, pi. 24,

p.

I.

all

each feather

black,

bordered and indistinctly barred with rufous-brown, and with a wide,

creamy white

The

shaft-line.

throat and

sides

the

of

head

rufous-

are

cinnamon, the feathers of the chest and breast at their basal half buff with

a broken black
near the

tip,

cross-bar, the

distal

half

black,

with two pale buff

or with a continuous white border.

This sole representative of the " gamebirds "

former days very numerous

disappearance

Its

in

to

burning

regular

No doubt

Buller.

once,

the

more or

Zealand was

is

now

in

the South

in

evidently extinct.

apparently not due to excessive shooting, but rather to

is

the introduction of rats, cats, and dogs, and

and

New

in

both islands, but especially so

wherever there was open grass-land, but

Island,

spots

of

the

establishment

the

sheep-runs, according
itself

to

Sir

extensive sheep-farms

of

uninhabited grass-land

less,

but not least, to bush-fires

last,

was ominous

for the

Walter
in

the

future of

the Quail.
It

is

not quite clear

when

the Quail disappeared.

North Island was shot by Captain Mair at Whangarei

were

recorded

1867 and

in

Haast's "Journal of
still

very abundant

Blue Skin Bay, shot

" Birds of

New

the South

Island

Zealand

down

in

"

"

it,"

last of its race."

the

Nelson Province"

and

"

if

two specimens

1867 or 1868."

In

he informs us that

to 1875, but

specimen said to have been shot


evidence of

in

it

last

on the

Specimens

procured.
is

In

to be

said

in 1861 on the grassy plains of the interior.

Sir Walter Buller mentions


in

1860.

but were apparently not

1869,

E.xploration

in

The

in

in

the

1871,

true, this individual

it

said to be
his

from an island

Second Edition

was found

of the

occasionally in

"Supplement" he speaks
but adds, " There
bird

is

of

no absolute

must have been about the

Therefore, evidently the note about 1875

was erroneous.

184

The

statement

Kings Islands

of

given to Sir Walter BuUer

home by

over with

deep brown

They show

distinctly the

all

much
Of

Island,

Walter

have

Edition

of

Buller's

my

that this

bird

shell,

was

in

BuUer,
his

(This

1860.

in

New

brown

lighter

in

son's

the

Cambridge, a pair

in

others,

in

is

the specimen

One

By

Buller

bought

ago.
p.

ad.

figured

in

with

it

a curious lapsus

35,

in

1905,

and one 3

states
in

the

and E. French near

of 1859.

the British

Christchurch

Museum, and doubtless many

besides

Shot at Whangarei,

S ad.

Supplement,"

collection.)

summer

in

underlying

Coturnix coturnix.

Zealand."

years

eighteen
"

One

plumage, shot by Messrs. Walter

Seven specimens are

covered and

character of Quails' eggs, but,

the " Birds of

Kaiapoi, South Island, in the

in

and

patches

collection

collection

Sir Walter

year's

in

by Major Mair,

memoriae

first

and the egg

345 by 2r3 mm.

34-3 by 25 and

birds

the Second
Sir

Three

on

collection.

are easily distinguished from eggs of

larger,

They measure

North

to a Synoecus,

They have a brownish-white

H. O. Forbes.

Dr.

markings.
being

my

in

eggs

took

have, however, also two eggs of Coturnix novaezealandiae, brought

washed

now

is

he

that

The eggs belonged

erroneous.

is

Cheeseman,

Mr.

Museum, the types

New

in

Paris, three

Zealand, some in the Canterbury

most of which have never been recorded.

185

DINORNITHIDAE.
MOAS.

THE

announcement of the former existence of large Struthious birds

first

New Zealand was made


" New Zealand," he states

in

Cape

in

hands of a

The

North Island.

the

man was

scientific

In his

book

that he found large bird bones near

East

by Mr.

first

Polack

J. S.

in

1838.

specimen, however, that came into the

Owen

the bone sent to Professor

Mr. Rule, who reported that the natives had told him that
Eagle which they called

of a large

Mr.

Raptores,

Struthious

He

bird.

was a

Rule's bone

described

of the Zoological Society, and

was

it

November

was the bone


his

any connection with

femur of

of

portion

on

it

it

Owen, with

Professor

once saw that far from

extraordinary knowledge, at
the

" Movie."

1839 by

in

12th,

gigantic

1839, at a

meeting

figured on Plate 3 of

Volume

of

III

the Transactions of the Zoological Society.

The next

Owen
Islands, New

Professor
of

account of his

W.

from the Rev.


Zealand, July

The

them

Buckland.

Dr.

latter

letter,

received by

C. Cotton, dated Waimate, near the

11th,

had

form of a

takes the

and

1842;

Wm.

meeting with the Rev. Mr.

at East Cape.
to a

Moas

notice of the

collected

Mr. Williams

in

it

writer

the

Williams, a fellow missionary

lot

of

"Moa"

bones and sent

reported a conversation with

also

two Englishmen, who declared they had been taken out by a native
and had seen a Moa

On January

alive,

24th,

but had been too frightened to shoot

Professor

1843,

Bay

gives an

Owen

it.

number

exhibited a

at night

of bones

from Mr. Williams' collection, and described them, giving the bird the name
afterwards changing the

of " Megalornis novaezealandiae"

Dinornis, as Megalornis

bones

and

more

fully,

stnithioides,

he

was preoccupied.

contained

those

somewhat

which

Hutton,

priority,

priority over stnithioides),

the second

inconsistently

Captain

Following the laws of

A number

in

in

title

into

describing these

box of Mr. Williams' collection

changed
later

his

the

reinstate the

name

specific

classification,

however {novaezealandiae

we must

generic

Afterwards, when

has

10

name

to

retained.

months'

novaezealandiae.

of other finds occurred between 1842 and 1847, but by far

the largest and most important collections were

1847 and 1852 by the Hon.

W.

Mantell,

who

made and sent home between

sent to Professor

Owen many

hundreds of bones and eggshells, from which the Professor was enabled to
determine

and describe a large

this to separate

some genera.

number

of species,

and even

as early

as

186

The

made by

bulk of later finds were

Hutton, and Mr. Aug. Hamilton,

Glenmark Swamp and Te Aute


here an account of

all

made by such men

many

Forbes, and

it

Thomson,

Dr.

Mr.

Mr.

Earl,

many fragments

Besides

others.

would take too much space to give

Moa

other extraordinary discoveries of

the

as

and the two most famous deposits were


but

Sir Julius von Haast, Captain

Thorne,

deposits

number

eggshell, a

of

H. O.

Dr.

of eggs have been found, which will be enumerated elsewhere.

Feathers have been found


in

Those from Clutha are mostly dark, being black

caves near Queenstown.

with white tips

Clutha River, near Ro.\burgh, and also

at

Queenstown ones resemble feathers

while the

australis in colours.

Professor

was feathered down

to

the

Owen

has shown that Megalapteryx huttoni

and

toes,

the

in

plate

have

clothed with feathers similar to the Clutha ones, which

The Moas

this species.

both

in

12 feet.

numbers and
Professor

of Apteryx

represented

believe belong

it

to

one time must have been extraordinarily numerous,

at

species,

and they

varied

height

in

from 2J feet to

Parker has shown that some of the species had crests

of long feathers on the head, and, as

some

show no

the

signs of this, he infers that

adult

males

of

skulls

the same forms

had this appendage.

alone

There has been much discussion as to the time when the Moas became
extinct,

and we know for certain that

and Anomalopteryx antiquns, belong to a much


the bulk of the other species.

go into the arguments, but


of

we

Maoris and their traditions,

Dinornis maximus

the two species,

geological epoch

earlier

would be too lengthy for

It

can, by the study of the

my

purpose to

middens"

''kitchen

adduce that the Maoris arrived

fairly

than

in

the

hunted Moas, and that they

North Island some 600 years ago, that they

exterminated them about 100 to 150 years after their

In the South,

arrival.

or rather Central, Island, the Maoris appear to have arrived about 100 years
later,

and to have exterminated the Moas about 350 years ago.

fair to say,

It

is

however, that Monsieur de Quatrefages adduces evidence

paper which goes far to prove that

Moas

18th or even beginning of the 19th

century

existed
in

down

those

to the

parts

of

end

only

in

his

of

the

the Middle

Island not, or scantily, inhabited by Maoris.


Tiie Dinornithidae form a separate group of

way

closely related to the Australian

have asserted, but nearer to

the

Emu

South

other living Ratitae, though exhibiting


Apterygidae.
family.

The

There have
first

been a

by Reichenbach,

(Dromaius), as

many

in

no

ornithologists

American Nandu (Rhea) than any

many characters

number
in

the order Ratitae,

of

in

common

classifications

1850, with

set

7 species and

up
7

with the
of

this

genera

187

The next was by Von


The

into 4 genera.

who enumerated 10 species, divided


was Lydekker's, in 1891, who acknowledged 23

Haast,

third

Then came Mutton's,

species, divided into 5 genera.

Megalapteryx, with

again Megalapteryx

known 2

then

its

divided into 7 genera.

Moas which

of species of

which

1895, in

in

ought to be distinguished, and of

really

there has been a tendency

on

for

the

variations,

and

that,

could have

Museums,

besides,

occurred

such a degree

of

the

various

was impossible

it

such a small

in

when

reached

to

distinguishing

Professor

years

late

most of the species as synonyms, the

unite

to

authors declaring that bones vary

was

Professor Parker's,

and 21 species are acknowledged, divided into

There has been a great amount of controversy as to the number

5 genera.

relied

1892, which left out

in

and acknowledged 26 species,

species,

we have

Lastly
left out,

is

1873,

in

all

species

the

in

the characters

were

many

so

that

The extreme

area.

Forbes,

that

lumping

this

the

of

forms

distinct

of

Bulletin

individual

Liverpool

pp. 27 and 28 (1900), divided the Moas into six genera, each

111,

He

with a single species.

thus ignores the fact that by doing so he has united

forms which were founded on fully adult bones, and yet some of them were
only about half or two-thirds the size of the others.
too

many

have been made, and at least 7 of Captain Button's forms

species

On

must be sunk.
and

1900,

will,

so

and

the other hand some have been described

have

that in

Palaeocasuarius of
brings
not

these

so

name

to

many

others

species

Professor

to

else.

Parker's

in

into

the

Birds and

Cassowaries

could

be so

not

maintained.
flora

for the

differentiated
at least

from

species

first,

east.

many

adding

only

My

5,

which

reasons for

genera, as those of the " lumping

and 7

the bones of the Ratitae are

of the

face

my
am

much

great

number

found on

New

Guinea,

species of

Moa

on so small

solid

individual variation

species

of

the

much more

Paradise

of

contention

that

there

area

not

easily

an

is

we have strong support in the present fauna and


presumption that, when the Moas first came into existence and
into species. New Zealand was a much larger area, stretching

Moreover,

the

north, and from

on the

find

classification,

than those of other birds, and are not given to so


secondly,

against

have divided these

to 38 species, divided into 7 genera.

school " do, are twofold,

and,

rather

others

of

1895

since

Forbes, with 3 species, and Megalapteryx, with

my number up

uniting

uniting

more species than anyone

according

genera

been obliged

spite of

obliged to acknowledge
into

personally think that

So

Macquarie

Islands in the south to the

Lord Howe's Island


that,

like

the

giant

on

the

Kermadecs

in

the

west to the Chatham Islands

tortoises

on

the

Galapagos

Islands,

188

they only got driven so closely together after

when

their

specific

of the family

as follows

is

differentiation,

The

the land gradually subsided, owing to volcanic action.

differentiation

DINORNITHIDAE.
Skull with a short and wide beak.

wing absent, only an


present.

An

inner border of

No

the bone.

or short and wide, and

second trochlea

is

no perforation

anterior surface

its

may

or

longer than the fourth, the third

Most

is

is

and slender

either long

may

of the

not be grooved.

The

not pedunculated, and there

the groove between the third and fourth trochlea.

in

tibio-tarsus the cnemial crest rises well


is

placed near the

is

superior notch to the sternum.

The tarso-metatarsus

absent or

Hallux

dromioides.

the tibio-tarsus, which

bridge to

species of very large size.

is

Dinornis

indication in

extension

Pectoral girdle very small or absent,

above the head

In the

the extensor groove

separated by a considerable interval from the inner border of the bone.

There

is

a well-defined

deep, and there

intercondylar

no deep

is

pit

popliteal

depression

rises considerably

stout, but

deep,

is

above the

is

not markedly cur\'ed

and the summit of

The

level of the head.

the
pelvis

that of the Apterygidae, but the pectineal process of the pubis

great

and scapula are aborted and may be absent.


long

Apterygidae

and

narrow,

by the

or

absence

broad
of

and

the

differs

is

total

disappearance.

notch,

In

trochanter

The coracoid

that

of

divergent

the

The cenical vertebrae are

expanded neural platform as far as the

forwards.

less developed,

from

processes, and the reduction of the coracoidal grooves to


their

The

The sternum, which may be

short,

superior

is

approximates to

and the ischium and pubis may be longer and more slender.

either

gorge

the intercondylar

on the lateral surface of the entocondyle.

femur may be either slender or

The

tubercle

small

relatively

the

lateral

facets

or

short,

an

sixth.

Anomalopteryx and Megalapteryx the number of cervicle vertebrae

and there are 2 cervico-dorsal and 4 free dorsal vertebrae, so

is

21,

to

assume that

this is the correct

The feathers had

number throughout the

family.

after-shafts.

THE GE.NERA ARE AS FOLLOWS:


Dinornis Owen.
Palapteryx Owen, part.
Palapteryx Hutton.
Tylapieryx Hutton.

Megalapteryx Haast.
Anomalopteryx Lydekker,
*Mesopteryx Hutton.

part.

it

is

fair

189

Pachyornis Lydekker.

Cela Reichenbach.
Dinomis Owen,

Palapteryx Haast.

part.

Meiononiis Haast.

Dinomis Owen,

Anomalopteryx Lydekker.

Euryapteryx Hutton.

Mesobteryx Parker.

r-.

part.

*Megalapteryx Forbes,

Palaeocasuartus rorbes.
f

part.

Emeus Reichenbach.
I

<

Anomalopteryx Reichenbach.

Euryapteryx Haast.
Syoriiis Hutton.

Dinomis Owen,

Meiononiis Haast.

Dinomis Owen,

part.

have adopted

substituting

Cela

Professor

obliged

felt

to

Parker's classification

in

As

to the species

name a number

Lydekker but not named, because


letters A, B, C, &c.,

of

have used

species acknowledged

this

system of

letter.

few

a synonym

by Parker and
species

indicating

which has crept into our nomenclature,


is

will

by the

make

all

denoted by the

of these species will naturally later have to be sunk, as

some have been founded on

when we

is

only

my own judgment

understanding impossible, as not always the same species

same

the genera,

Reichenbach for Mesapteryx Hutton, which

of Megalapteryx Haast.
I

part.

skulls

and others on leg bones, or

get perfect individual skeletons

may prove

so,

which,
I

do

will

be

to be identical, but

not think these will be many.

Besides

found

in

number

of

imperfect

eggs,

Dr. A. B. Meyer's article in the

known two

perfect

Moa

of

Otago Museum.

Molyneux River, igoi.

2.

Tring Museum.

Molyneux River,

3.

Rowley

South

igoi.

Island, 1859.

which

1903, pp. 188-196, there are

eggs and one almost perfect one.

1.

Collection.

Ibis,

particulars

Pachyornis pondorosus.
Megalapteryx huttoni.

Dinomis novaezealandiae.

191

DINORNIS.

THEsomewhat
skull

and the

anticular process,

very convex,

and

3 costal articulations, very small

pelvis

narrow with a high

is

postacetabular portion
the

level

pectineal

process
is

The

reflected

ilium,

The

front.

The sternum

coracoidal

facets,

costal processes, the

lateral

distinct

which the

in

postacetabular

much

The

length of

the

tibio-tarsus

and more often

equalling

latter

not inflected.

is

long and

comparatively

is

rising but slightly

hallux

exceeding the

length of the tibio-tarsus.

slender, with a short neck, the head

and projecting only a small distance, the linear aspera

the form of a long

irregular

line,

is

and tarso-metatarsus are long and

length of the femur, and also exceeding half the

The femur

and postacetabular

the true

flattened.

extremity of the tibio-tarsus


species.

inferior border of the

The pubis has a small

vertebrae.

and the ventral aspect of

distal

the

slender,

in

and does not descend as a sharp ridge below

flat,

very broad and

some

in

is

the anterior

of

vertebrae

present

wide,

narrowing

very broad and widely divergent, and a wide xiphisternal notch.

processes

The

with

no

inflected,

pneumatic foramen.

with a very large


broad,

long as

as

moderately

symphj'sis

prominent and broad inferior ridge, widest

elongated,

is

nearly

much

angle

the

The

praemaxillae.

surface of the

the form of a narrow U, with

in

wide,

squamosals

has a flattened frontal region,

It

upper

the

comparatively

Breadth at the

beak.

height at basi-temporal.

anteriorly, with a

quadrate

with

depressed,

deflected

median ridge on

is

distinct

is

and

pointed

twice the

and a wide
mandible

much

and

broad

is

the outer

the

of

side

distal

in

extremity

moderately expanded, the popliteal depression small, deep, and sharply defined,
the profile
trochlear

surface

nearly

comparatively slender,
being trefoil-shaped.

semi-ovoid

cordyle

inner

the

of

flat.

The phalangeals

proximal

the

and

surface

In the vertebral

of the

of

and the

narrow,

the

pes

are

interior

long

and

terminal segments not

column the middle

cervicals are

long

and narrow, with the postzygapophyses directed much outwardly and separated
by a very
wide.

and

deep channel,

The

anterior and

dorsals have

middle

the

short

ones

(those

posterior

haemal

large anterior pneumatic foramen between the

triangular in shape.
size,

and include the

Type

All the species of this


tallest

of

the genus

Number

of species

members

of

processes

transverse

with

face

centrum low and

the

and neural spine, the

spine or carina) having

nib-facet,

the foramen

being

genus are of comparatively large

of the family.

Dinornis novaezealandiae (Owen).


7.

192

DINORNIS MAXIMUS
maximus Owen,

Diiiornis

Trans. Zool. Soc. VI.

XXIV.

D. excelsus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

D. giganteus Haast, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

THIS

the largest

is

p.

88,

497 (1868).

p.

no

p.

owen.

(1892).

No. 20 part.

from 375 to

species of Moa, the tibio-tarsus being

39"2 inches in length, while that of the largest D. giganteus does not

exceed 35 inches, but

number

by far the largest

of

the

latter

are

considerably shorter.

The type bones were obtained

New

Owen

Zealand, and were sent to Professor

Madras
No.

Glenmark Swamp, Middle

in

Staff

Corps.

Casts of these bones

by Major

are

the

in

Island

of

Michael of the

J.

British

Museum,

161 in the Palaeontological Department.

This bird was the tallest of


considerably exceeded

in

all

known

though

birds,

bulk by Aepyornis

ingens

must have been

it

and Aepyornis

titan

of

Madagascar.
Locality

Glenmark Swamp, Middle

Island,

New

DINORNIS ALIUS
Ditiornis

maximus Owen,

D.

Owen,

altiis

Ext. Birds N.Z.

253 (Dr.

p.

owen.

Lillie's

p.

497 (i858).

known by a tarso-metatarsus, femur and

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

great

and

are

D. maximus.

specimen) (1879).

Ext. Birds N.Z. (1879) p. 361.

D. giganteus var maximus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI

ONLY

Zealand.

length,

The bones

more

This form must therefore,

slender
till

at

tibio-tarsus

from the

once noticeable by their

than

the

same

bones

be treated as a separate species.


Locality

Middle Island,

New

in

further material comes to hand,

Zealand.

Collected by Dr.

Lillie.

193

DINORNIS GIGANTEUS
Owen, Trans.

Dinoriiis giganteus

Moa

Dinornis maximus (non D. maximiis


D. validus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

metatarsus,
tibio-tarsus

D. validus

XXX

307 (1846).

Trans. Zool. Soc.

!)

147 (1877).

p.

(1S92).

more variable forms

the

tibio-tarsus

remarkably

is

17'5 to 19 inches in

D. giganteus

of

p.

(i85o).

Owen

length,

in

the tarso-

in

The

constant.

while the tarso-

length.

from Poverty Bay

is

the type of

from Glenmark.

is

Habitat

New

North and Middle Islands,

Portion of skeleton

New

of 1867

iii

of

p.

almost invariably 35 inches

is

metatarsus varies from

The type

the

while

Owen

Inst. p.

as regards size, one

is,

and

Zool. Soc. Ill p. 237 (1843)

giganteus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog.

owen.

in

Zealand.

Tring Museum, from Kopua Swamps, Canterbury,

Zealand.

DINORNIS INGENS
(Plate
Dinornis ingens Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

owen

42.)

Ill

p.

237 (1843).

Movia ingens Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. xxx (1850).


D. ingens var. robustus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 307 (1846).
Palapteryx robustus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Ill p. 345 (1848).
D. finiins Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

D. potens Hutton,

I.e.

p.

T\ INGENS shows

that

was

form

The type

skull

widely
of

114 (1892).

p.

robustus

ingens

of

but the inter-gradation

size,

retain

to

and robustus, which

the

Captain

four

and

Middle

came from Timaru,

the

type

from

the

The
skeleton
skeleton

now

feathers
in

in

the York

my museum, and
is

The only

though being more or


is

the

feathers

is

locality.

drawn a

little

Museum and elsewhere

vary considerably

in

Apteryx feathers.

an almost perfect skeleton

in

the Tring

Museum.

the

made

too

not of any consequence, as the

is

less coloured like

found with

criticism that might be

that the feathers are

those of Apteryx australis, but this

feathers in the Tring

There

firtnus

was reconstructed by Mr. Frohawk from the

Museum.

connection with this picture


like

of

North and Middle Islands.

plate of this species

and

Islands.

Poverty Bay, while that of potens

quoted from the East side of Middle Island, without specific type
Habitat

species

Hutton admits.

North

over

distributed

P.

from Wanganui, that

in

seems impossible

it

potens

ingens, firmiis,

This

XXIV

considerable variation

complete

so

is

Inst.

115.

in

much

Moa

appearance,

194

DINORNIS GRACILIS
Dinornis gracilis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV (1855)
D. torosus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

IF

we acknowledge

Inst.

XXIV

and Middle Islands, then

141.

p.

117 (1892).

p.

both on

occurs

D. novaezealandiae

that

owen.

the

North

that the distinctness of D. gracilis

feel sure

and D. torosus cannot be maintained, as the measurements intergrade


completely.

The type
is

of D. gracilis

came from Wanganui, while

a nearly perfect skeleton found

Habitat

There

New

a cave at Takaka, near Nelson.

in

Zealand.

an imperfect skeleton

is

in

the Tring

Museum, from

New

cave at Takaka, near Motueka, Province of Nelson,

Dinornis dromioides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

III.

p.

form also inhabited both

The type

of

D.

XXIV

islands, but

came

dromioides

owen.

235 (1843).

Palapteryx dromioides Reichcnbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog.


Palaptery.x pleiius Htitton, Trans. N.Z. Inst.

p.

p.

XXX

(1850).

122 (1892).

was probably one

from

a limestone

Zealand.

DROMIOIDES

DINORNIS

THIS

that of D. torvsiis

Poverty

Bay,

of the rarest.

and that of

P. plenus from Glenmark.


Habitat

New

Zealand.

DINORNIS NOVAEZEALANDIAE
Dinornis novaezealandiae Owen, P.Z.S. (1843)

D. struthioides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.


Inst.

XXV

changed

the

D. strennus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

PROFESSOR OWEN

accept this change, as

though w^e
change.

all

Ill

it

is

p.

owen.

8.

p.

244 (1844).

p.

8 (1893).

name

of

this

form, but

we cannot

against the laws of nomenclatorial priority,

appreciate the motive the Professor had in making this

The type came from Poverty Bay, but the

bird inhabits both islands.

This species had wings.

Habitat

A
Auckland,

New

Zealand.

nearly perfect skeleton in the Tring

New

Zealand.

Museum from Waitomo

district,

195

MEGALAPTERYX
ORIGINALLY

from

Haast

by

distinguished

haast.

Dinornithidae

the

an

as

ancient form of the Apterygidae, but afterwards united by Lydekker

with the
as follows

which
pelvis

femur and

the genus

of

is

from Dinornis by the extreme slenderness and length

tibio-tarsus,

latter the length


is

Lydekker's diagnosis

" Distinguished

of the

Mr.

Dinornithidae.

is

and the

tarso-metatarsus,

relatively shorter

The

considerably shorter than that of the femur.

much narrower than

surface of the

Dinornis, with the ventral

in

of

postacetabular sacrals ridged and narrower, and a more developed pectineal

process to the pubis.

The femur

markedly curved forwards, with the

is

distal

extremity moderately expanded, the popliteal depression larger and less defined,
the linea aspera narrower and sharper, and a more distinct anterior inter-

muscular ridge."

The
Mr. Charles

W. Andrews'

teryx teniiipes in

text and

pi.

Width

VI)

description of the

Museum

the Tring

are

characters

diagnostic

additional

following

from

taken

complete skeleton of Megalap-

(Nov. Zool. IV, pp. 188-194,

fig.

1-2

in

of cranium at paroccipital processes less than half the length of

the basis cranii.

Length of premaxilla

the basis cranii.

Body

less

than two-and-a-half times that of

of the premaxilla pointed and slightly decurved

The

length and breadth less than the basis cranii.

occipital

its

plane slightly

Occipital condyle projecting slightly beyond the parocci-

declined backwards.
pital processes.

Anterior and posterior lambdoidal ridges separated by a very

narrow interval

in

their middle

more than double the length


very prominent.

very large.

region only.

of the basis cranii.

The distance between the temporal

with the lambdoidal ridge.

process.
its

at

squamosals slightly

Mammillary tuberosities not

Margin of tympanic cavity evenly curved.

width of the cranium at the fossae.

The

Width

The

Temporal fossae

ridges about four-fifths the

posterior temporal ridge confluent

Post-temporal fossae very large.

inferior temporal ridge is strongly

The zygomatic process

is

marked, and there

well developed.

Rostrum

is

a pretympanic

dilated

towards

anterior end, compressed and carinate beneath the large presphenoid fossae.

Mandible very slender.

Posterior angular process small.

Sternum very convex,

and with a very nearly straight anterior border between the tuberosities for
the coracoscapular ligaments.

Costal processes short but large, with distinct

196

coracoidal facets.

sternum

is

The

lateral processes are long

just as wide as

The most notable character


being longer than
long,
in

it

is

is

and

distally

expanded.

There are three costal

long.

The

articulations.

the enormous length of the toes, the middle one

the tarso-metatarsus.

The ungual phalanges are

peculiarly

narrow and curved, instead of being comparatively short and broad, as

most other Moas.

Type

of the

Number

genus Mcgalapteryx

of species

4.

heciori,

Haast.

197

MEGALAPTERYX

HECTORI

Megalapteryx hectori Haast, Trans. Zool. Soc. XII,

p.

i5i (1886);

haast

Lydekker, Cat. Fossil

B. Brit. Mus., p. 252.

THIS

form was described by Sir Julius von Haast as a gigantic Apteryx.

This error arose from the absence of the

skull.

There

however, no

is,

doubt now, since the skulls of Megalapteryx are known, that although

form a distinct sub-family, the birds included

sufficiently aberrant to

in

this

genus are Dinornithidae and not Apterygidae.


Habitat

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

MEGALAPTERYX HAMILTONI
Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds

THEand

type

M.
Habitat

left

relatively

tenuipes.

Brit. Mus., p. 252,

femur. No. 32145

narrower
This

North Island,

Named
of extinct

is

in

is

than

New

Zealand.

Zealand

birds.

under M. tenuipes (1891).

the British

Museum.

femur,

either

the

most noticeable

after Mr. A. Hamilton,

New

in

spec. nov.

of

It is

M.

smaller

hectori

or

at the distal extremity.

(Type locality Waingongoro.)

who

did so

much

in

discovering deposits

198

MEGALAPTERYX

TENUIPES

Megalapteryx tenuipes Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds

THIS

species

relatively

was described from the

more slender than

one-ninth of

The length
width of

of the

distal

its

in

length, while

tibio-tarsus

is

M.
in

Brit.

I\lus.

tibio-tarsus,
hectori.

M.

hectori

approximately 0405

extremity about 0044

1-74

251 (1891).

p.

which

Its distal
it

inches.

lyd.

is

is

longer and

width

is

about

about one-seventh.

mm.

16 inches, and

Type specimens Nos.

49989 and 49990, British Museum.


Habitat
locality

Middle Island,

New

Zealand, and perhaps North Island.

(Type

Lake Wakatipa, Queenstown, Otago.)

Complete skeleton

in

the Tring

Museum.

Mr. Lydekker mentions also a right femur from the North Island, of
the same proportions as those of M. tenuipes and 0'255 m. (= 101 inches) long.
It

may

probably belong to a different form, as

only from the Middle Island.

we know M.

tenuipes otherwise

199

MEGALAPTERYX HUTTONII
(Plate
Diiwniis hutionii Owen, Ext. Birds, N.Z.,
Dinoniis

41.)

430 (1879).

p.

Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI,

didiiiits

D. diiiiformis Haast, (non

Owen

synonymy

clear

that

(Ext. B.

form

of this

huttonii

430) says

p.

" In

the collection

that

scarcely

save

I,

is

Glenmark Swamp, South

large variety of that species."

species.

The

tibia

metatarsus, that
but

are

rather

the
well

is

name D.

is

it

Professor

Owen

are

bones

D.

tibia characteristic of

They are noted as

belong

didiformis

marked and quite


it,

casuarinus

"The bones
probably to

new

femur and

the

but

distinct,

of a

that

pass almost into D. casuarinus,


is

undoubtedly

good

species,

Possibly the Dinornis of the South Island,

easily distinguished by its tibia."

with the

think

Island,

Captain Hutton remarks:

have associated with

smaller.

6 (1869).

from the dimensions (?w.r.) of the type

size,

in

bones of Dinornis didiformis from the North Island.

have arranged under

but

proper name.

its

&

83, Nos. 5

p.

129 (1892).

p.

from the

differ,

XXIV,

somewhat confused,

is

Owen

of

257 (1883).

p.

1844) Trans. N.Z. Inst.

Mesoptery.x didinus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst.

THE

(owen).

D. didiformis of the North Island,

may need

to be noted for the convenience of naming the bones as Dinornis huttonii.

When
identity

describing his D. didinus, Professor

Owen

failed to recognise its

with his previously named D. huttonii, doubtless owing to the leg

bones being hidden by the dry integument.


to reinstate the

name

huttonii, as

This being the case,

it is

necessary

has four years' priority over didinus.

it

Captain Hutton says that a few bones of this form have been obtained
in

the North Island at Poverty

is in

but

am

convinced he

error and that these bones are aberrant individual bones of A. didiformis

and that M. huttonii


plate

Bay and Te Aute

of

species

this

is

confined to the South or rather Middle Island.

has

been

reconstructed

by

mummified remains which form the type specimen


the feathers found

in

the alluvial

of

Mr.

Lodge

The

from

the

Didornis didinus, and

sands of the Clutha River.

The type

of

Dinornis didinus was found at Queenstown by Mr. Squires.


Habitat

Mr. C.

Middle Island,

W. Andrews,

in

New
his

Zealand.
description

of

my

complete

skeleton of

Megalapteryx tenuipes has shown that Owen's type specimens of his Dinornis
didinus are certainly

of a species

of the

genus

Megalapteryx,

and closely

200

allied

to

M.

whether the
belong to

A
preserved

Mr. Andrews,

tentiipes.

pelvis

some

however, throws

and femora, referred to

species

this

by

doubt

as

to

Hutton, really

it.

complete
in

egg

which

the Tring Museum.

consider
Its

must

of

this

species

measurements are as follows

Large circumference,

21-4 inches

Small

175

,,

be

,,

=
=

is

535 mm.

4375 mm.

This egg was dredged up on the Molyneux River, near Otago, during
gold dredging operations in 1901

few months before

in

the

to Pachyornis ponderosus.

same

a second
river,

and

perfect

was

egg was dredged up a

referred

by

Dr.

Benham

201

ANOMALOPTERYX
THE

which

has

a very

slight

is

constricted

pneumatic

small

inflection

symphysis

praemaxillary

foramen.

in

The sternum

wider and lower than

is

distinct

pectineal

and tarso-metatarsus are

relatively shorter than in Megalapteryx.

than half that of the tibio-tarsus.

relatively shorter

is

The

facets.

much below

process.

pelvis

is

and

relatively shorter

The length

the level of the

hallux

Dinornis, the latter being shorter than the femur, which

less

lateral processes

with the lower border of the postacetabular

in Dinornis,

and without any

tibio-tarsus

longer, flatter

is

narrow costal processes, slender

portion of the ilium descending as a sharp ridge

and

The

Dinornis, having no distinct xiphisternal notch, three

which are often elongated, and usually no coracoidal

in

V-shaped, with

is

the angle, and a distinct postarticular process.

of

costal articulations, long and

ribs,

quadrate

the

very narrow and pointed, with a long and narrow inferior ridge,

and narrower than

sacral

slightly deflected

and

ridge,

The mandible

not expanding markedly at either extremity.

The

and

long, sharp

Breadth at the squamosals IJ times the height at basi-temporal,

beak.

with

narrow and vaulted, with a

skull is

reichenbach.

is

present.

is

stouter than

usually stouter

of the tarso-metatarsus

The femur, besides being

readily distinguished from that

of Dinornis

by

usually

its

more

expanded extremities, the rather longer neck, and the much larger and

ill-

defined popliteal depression.

The vertebrae are

of the general type of those of Pachyornis, but the

the third dorsal.

The phalangeals

are intermediate between those of Dinornis and Pachyornis.

Haast considered

commences

anterior pneumatic foramen

that the coracoid

Pachyornis.
there

is

As

was aborted and

often absent in this genus, in Emeus, and

additional characters of the skull

a prominent

supra-occipital protuberance,

squamosal above the quadrate


the

in

basi-occipital

processes

may

it

be mentioned that

and a depression on the

the par-occipital processes are pointed, and

only

slightly

prominent

profile of the basi-occipital is nearly straight.

so that the posterior

The quadrate has a very short

anterior process.

the genus are small, in fact parvus

All the species of

but one of the family.

Type

of the

Number

genus

of species

Anomaloptcryx didiformis (Owen).

4.

is

the smallest

202

ANOMALOPTERYX DIDIFORMIS
Dinomis didiformis Owen, Trans.

Zool. Soc.

Ill,

p.

242 (1844).

Anomalopteryx didiformis Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog.


A. didiformis LydeUker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus.,

THE

present form

is

collected by the Revd.

Habitat

North

Wm.

Island,

Williams, and

New

30 (1850).

p.

p. 275.

Owen's type was

North Island.

confined to the

came from Poverty Bay.

Zealand.

Museum.

Portion of skeleton in Tring

ANOMALOPTERYX PARVUS
Dinornis parvus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI, pp. 233-256,

Anomalopteryx didiformis Hutton, Trans. N.Z.


A. parva Lydekker,

THIS
in

small form

is

Inst.

my museum
Habitat

is

123 (1892), part.

The

confined to the Middle Island.

now

in

the British

in

a cave at Takaka, near

A much

Museum.

type, a skeleton

less perfect skeleton

at Tring.

New

Zealand.

ANOMALOPTERYX ANTIQUUS
"Avian Remains" Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

Anomalopteryx antiqutis Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

ANTIQUUS was

XXllI,

p.

p.

124 (1892).

named by Captain Hutton from the photographs

very slight on which to found a species, but

bones were discovered

in

Timaru, Middle Island,

in.

New

Zealand.

of bones

The evidence

prefer to treat

the Upper Miocene, a

than most remains of Dinomithidae occur


Locality

hutt.

369 (1891).

XXIV,

Inst.

described by Dr. Forbes in the above-quoted article.

for the

(1883).

c, p. 278.

Middle Island,

p.

(owen).

LI-LVII

pis.

XXIV,

almost complete condition, was dug up

Nelson, and
is in

t.

(owen).

much

it

is

as one,

older stratum

203

ANOMALOPTERYX FORTIS
Anoiitalopteryx fortis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst.

HIS
I

is

XXV,

p.

hutt,

9 (1893).

the largest of the genus, and the type bones

came from Glenmark.

append comparative table of Measurements:


Tarso-metatarsus,

80

A. fortis
A. didiformis

6-3

....

6-3

A. pan'us

Locality of

Habitat

inches.

Type

Tibio-tarsus.

133

98
80

137

8-5

175

Glenmark.

Middle Island,

New

Femur.

Zealand.

inches.

inches.

205

CELA
SKULL

rather less than the breadth at the squamosals.

hidden

condyle

by the

fossae and supra-occipital narrow.

the

though

tip,

Length from the supra-

times the height at the basi-temporal.

occipital to the nasals

at

Breadth at the squamosals

convex, the temporal fossae very large.

l'6-I-7

Occipital

REICHENBACH.

supra-occipital.

Beak

more pointed than

nearly straight and rather slighter than

Ridge between temporal

short, slightly

compressed and rounded

Anomalopteryx.

in

Lower mandible
Sternum

Anomalopteryx, V-shaped.

in

with coracoid pits faintly indicated or absent

Costal

length less than breadth.

processes well developed, lateral processes diverging at different angles.


Pelvis broader in

forward.

proportion than

Moa

Type

is

Hallux present

some

in

of species

The

smallest

Cela curtus.

5.

CELA CURTUS
Dinornis curtus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

Ill,

p.

Cela curtus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog.


Cela curia Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

XXIX,

p.

p.

(OWEN).

325 (1846).

30 (1850).

550,

pi.

XLVII,

Fig. B.

and the following are the two smallest species of Moa, having been

about the size of a large turkey.


at

species.

Cela curtus.

of the genus

Number

THIS

more

Tarso-metatarsus shorter than the femur, and less than half the

length of the tibio-tarsus.


species of

Dinornis, the acetabula set

in

It

also

is

the most abundant species

Whangarei, and appears to have been most common

The type

of the Island.

Habitat

is

from Poverty Bay.

North Island,

New

Zealand.

in

the

North

206

CELA OWENI
Diitornis oweni Haast, Trans. Zool Soc. XII,

Cela curtus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

DR.

VON HAAST

Julius von

(Sir

127 (1892), portion.

p.

Haast) took as his type of Dinornis

my

now

the Auckland

in

Museum.
Haast

in

While

the specific characters,

readers to the original diagnosis for

wish to specially draw attention to the fact that Dr. von


in

(1886).

oweni the almost complete skeleton collected by Mr. Cheeseman

a cave at Patana, Whangarei, and


referring

XXXI, XXXII

p. 171, pi.

XXIV,

Inst.,

(HAAST).

says that

made by Mr. Thorne and Mr. Cheeseman,

the collections he examined,

there are bones belonging to at least 20 skeletons of his D. oweni, and that

some were even smaller than the


constant

average

Captain

Hutton

has united

different individuals,

from curtus,

due to

difference

sex.

species.

Cela curtus

50

Cela oweni

4-4

to consider Dr.

565

11-25 inches

inches

9-6

inches

6-5

Whangarei.
North

Island,

New

Cela geranoides Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

species

is

Waingongoro.
Habitat

von Haast's

Femur.

Tibio-tarsus.

Zealand.

Palapteryx geranoides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

is

CELA GERANOIDES

HIS

as

bones of at least 20

fact of

me

Tarso-meta tarsus.

Habitat

notice to this,

append measurements of the leg bones of

Cela curtus and C. oweni

special

showing the same characters and the same differences

D. oweni as a distinct species.

Locality

draw

The

quite sufficient evidence for

is

the types of

and the only difference was the

form with curtus, saying Haast's type

this

that

of

individual

only a small

type,

Inst.

confined to the
It is

North

Ill,

XXIV,

North

p.

p.

New

345 (1848)

126 (1892).

Island.

most commonly found

Island,

Zealand.

(owen).

in

The type came from


the South of the Island.

207

CELA RHEIDES
Dinornis rheides Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV,
Syornis rheides Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

is

a very

difficult

form to

would

alive,

questionable, and

while Haast united

a
if

concur

doubt
it

if

good

skeleton

Hutton's

have kept

known, and

it

Middle Island,

New

it

found

in

were

bones

type

Ill, p.

in

sent

from

1849.

Inst.,

Inst.,

(OWEN).

307 (1846).

Syornis casuarinus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog,

Meionornis casuarinus Haast, Trans. N.Z.

is

crassus,

Zealand.

Dinornis casuarinus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

/^ CASUARINUS

very

separate as no bones of

CELA CASUARINUS

Syornis casuarinus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

Emeus

is

might prove sufficiently distinct

The

obtained.

treatment

united to

Waikawaite, Middle Island, by Colonel Wakefield,


Habitat

bones consisted

Whether Professor Owen, were he

Captain

in

to P. gravis.

were

131 (1892).

ought not to be

it

single individual united are

p.

^partim).

consider, as the type

of those of three different forms.

now

8 (1850

p.

XXIV,

Inst.

(OWEN).

p.

XXX

(1850).

VII, pp. 54-91 (1875).

XXIV,

p.

133 (1892).

both Islands, and

is

abundant

in

the Middle

Island.

The type came from Waikowaiti.


Habitat

New

Zealand.

Portions of one skeleton and two almost complete

Museum

one of the

latter

from Kapua Swamps.

skeletons in Tring

209

EMEUS

THE

skull

REICHENBACH.

very short and wide, with a blunt and slightly deflected

is

rostrum, and a very small pneumatic foramen to the quadrate.

mandible

is

The

the shape of a wide U. with a slightly inflected angle,

in

and a large post-articular process.

The symphysis

very wide and deeply

is

excavated, with a broad and slightly prominent inferior ridge narrowing in

The sternum resembles

front.

that of Anomalopteryx

wider and approaches that of Pachyornis.


are relatively shorter and thicker than
in

Pachyornis

hallux

tibio-tarsus

The length

of

much

and tarso-metatarsus

is

the tarso-metatarsus

is

middle of the shaft being rather more than one-fourth of

its

of the type of Anomalopteryx.

than most of those of Cela and Anomalopteryx.

not inflected.

considerably less

than that of the femur, and than half that of the tibio-tarsus,

The vertebrae are

is

Anomalopteryx, but less stout than

in

the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus

present.

is

The

but the pelvis

its

width at the

length.

The species are larger

Additional cranial characters

are that the skull usually has very broad and blunt paroccipital processes

there

is

upon the frontal aspect of the squamosal above the head of the quadrate.
basi-occipital tubercles are prominent,

The quadrate

this bone.

and give an arched posterior

elongated with a long anterior bar

is

of the squamosal for the reception of its head

than

in either of

Type

is

inclined

Emeus

of species

Diiioniis crassus

Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

Ill, p.

307 (1846

much more outwardly

partim).

XXX

XXIV,

p.

132 (1892).

Syoniis crassus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

has

led

to

having associated with

Inst.

much
the

confusion,

real

from Waikouaiti.
Middle Island,

Imperfect skeleton

in

New

(1850).

owing to

Professor

Owen

portions of crassus in his possession

bones of elephantopus, ponderosus and

the cavity

(OWEN).

p.

Habitat

to

6.

crassus Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog.,

species

profile

crassus (Owen).

EMEUS CRASSUS
Emeus

The

the other genera.

of genus

Number

THIS

no distinct supraoccipital prominence, and no well-marked depression

Zealand.

Tring Museum.

struthioides.

The type came

210

EMEUS BOOTH
Emeus, Species A, Parker, Trans.

EASILY

the

379 (1895),

found by Mr. R. S. Booth at Stag

skull

Museum,

Emeus gravipes

Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus.,

47444d, on

p.

Dinornis gravis (portion) Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VIII,

present

metatarsus

species

smaller than

is

shaft,

Middle Island,

p.

wider.

mm. =

51

New

E.

Length,

32044 e on

p.

VON HAAST

mm. =

the

7-8 inches

tarso;

width

NOM. NOV.

p.

379 (1895).
p.

301 Nos. 32017, 32016, a-e and

united this form with Dinornis gravis, and the skull

the type of E. haasti

is

put on a skeleton of D. gravis in the

The measurements

smaller than those of the other species.


:

and has

307 (1891).

Canterbury Museum.

Habitat

299, to

Zealand.

species B, Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII

is

p.

2 inches.

gravipes Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus.

which

298 (1891) Nos. A95, on

198

Emeus

J.

Otago

in

lyd.

crassus

Emeus

SIR

now

361 (1872).

p.

EMEUS HAASTI
c to

Point

Ibis 1874, p. 213.

relatively

at middle of
:

Type specimen

300.

Euryapteryx gravis Haast,

Habitat

XVI.

Zealand.

EMEUS GRAVIPES

THE

pi.

figured as above.

New

Middle Island,

p.

distinguished by the shorter and narrower beak.

University

Habitat

Zool. Soc. XIII,

nom. nov.

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

of

this

species

are

much

211

EMEUS PARKERI
Emeus

THIS

nom

nov.

species V, Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 380 (1895).

species

once distinguislied from the other species of the genus

at

is

by having right-angled

The type

orbits.

Swamp, named Euryapteryx

by

gravis,

a skull

is

Prof.

from

Hutton,

Hamilton

Otago

the

in

Museum.
Habitat

Middle Island,

New

EMEUS

Zealand.

EXILIS

Dinornis didiformis Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc.

Euryapteryx

DIFFERS
conspicuous one
skeleton in the
:

E. crassus

surface.

frontal

Habitat

Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

from

anterior
slight

exilis

in

The

rising

the

to

skull,

remaining

Wanganui Museum.
North

Island,

the

in

the

New

Ill,

tibia

among
cranial

species.

For

pi.

XXIX,

Inst.

full

Zealand.

(hutt
24 (1846), part.
p.

552,

being

pi.

XLVIII,

more

roof,

as

has

opposed to
is

(1897).

convex on the

other differences,

The type

Fig.

a very

the

very

a nearly complete

description see Hutton,

I.e.

213

PACHYORNIS

THEThe

skull

either vaulted or

is

the quadrate and mandible resemble the

The sternum

closely.

flat

is

and

the

genus somewhat

in that

notch, broad and short costal processes, and

widely divergent lateral processes


pelvis

same bones

rounded,

Anomalopieryx, while

in

and very broad and short, with no coracoidal

facets, a very small xiphisternal

The

more

and

more prominent than

tubercles

and narrow beak.

flattened, with a sharp

processes are shorter

paroccipital

basi-occipital

LYDEKKER.

while there are only two costal articulations.

extremely low and wide, with the anterior wall of the acetabulum

is

very deeply concave, the ventral surface of

all

the vertebrae behind the true

sacrals

narrow and convex, and from which the very broad sacral

ribs

to

the ilium, of which the inferior postacetabular border

very sharp,

join

and descends

The

the pubis.
the distal

than

in

far

below the

level of the ribs.

tibio-tarsus

is

There

is

is

no pectineal process to

very short, with the shaft curved outwards,

much

extremity markedly inflected, and the fibular ridge

The

the other genera.

fibular

the distal extremity of the fibular ridge

extensor tubercle

shorter

border below the smooth space at


is

extremely rough

and the

very prominent, being situated partly on the

is

ascend

distal

line of

the

upper half of the extensor groove, instead of being altogether external to


the same.

The tarso-metatarsus

is

still

shorter and wider than

in

Emeus, the

width at the middle of the shaft being usually rather more than one third

The

of the length.

and

third trochlea is

from the

rises very abruptly

more prominent than

in

the other genera,

shaft, the outer border of the anterior surface

usually expanding suddenly at the proximal extremity, and the outer ridge of
this

surface

being

always more prominent than the inner, whereas

other genera the opposite condition obtains.


that of Dinornis,

is

very

the head rising and

much

projecting very

forming a rough nodule near the

more open, and leading

distinct channel.

The

the

The femur, as compared with

shorter and thicker, with a longer neck, and


considerably,

end of the

distal

the distal extremity more suddenly expanded,


larger,

in

the

aspera

linea

mainly

shaft, the outer surface of

and

the

to the inner surface of

profile of the inner condyle is

popliteal

depression

the shaft by a more

wider antero-posteriorly,

and more rounded, the anterior intertrochlear surface being deeply channelled.

The phalangeals

of

the

pes are

much

shorter

and

stouter than

in

Dinornis, the proximal surface of the terminal segments generally presenting

a trefoil-shaped contour.

The length

of the tarso-metatarsus

is

very

much

214

less than half that of the tibio-tarsus.

In the vertebral

column the cervicals

are short with very stout centra, the prezygopophyses in

the

middle region

being nearly horizontal and separated from one another by a wide

The

posterior face of the centra

much

the last two vertebrae

carina), this

of the

rib-facet.

and narrow, and the neural spines of


In the dorsals there

inclined forward.

no anterior pneumatic foramen

haemal

tall

is

the

till

fourth

(or

foramen being situated on the

The

channel.

is

usually

the last with a distinct

line of the anterior

border

and fourth dorsals are extremely compressed.

third

Throughout the series also the neural spines and transverse processes are
comparatively long.

rostrum

manner

Additional characters of the skull are that the sphenoidal

expanded

is

a lance-like

in

shape at the anterior extremity,

unlike that of any of the other genera.

Then the

supraoccipital

never has a veiy strongly developed median

prominence, and the temporal fossae are comparatively short.

may

in

be readily distinguished

The mandible

from that of the other genera by the low position

of the inner aperture of the dental canal,

which pierces the bone obliquely to

join the small lateral vacuity.

Type

of the

Number

genus

of species

Pachyornis elephanfopus (Owen).

8.

PACHYORNIS ELEPHANTOPUS
Dinornis elephantopus Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV,
Palapteryx elephantopus Haast,

Ibis,

Ser. 3, vol.

Euryapteryx elephantopus Hutton, Trans. X.Z.

UNTIL
Type

all

Inst.

149 (1853).

212 (1874).

XXIV,

p.

135 (1892).

Lydekker described Pachyornis immanis, and Mr. Andrews

Mr.

Aepyornis
of

p.

IV, p.

(owen).

titan,

known

this

was undoubtedly the most bulky and ponderous

Ratitae, extinct

and

living.

Awamoa, near Oamanu.


Habitat

Two
Swamps.

Middle Island,

imperfect

New

skeletons

in

Zealand.
the

Tring

Museum

one

from

Kapua

215

PACHYORNIS IMMANIS
Pachyornis iinmaiiis LydekUer, Cat. Foss. Birds

THIS

the most bulky and largest

is

Dinornithidae.

all

Rothschild, which, though by no


is

most

the

metatarsus

is

and

bulky,

has

specially short

the

and

member

shortest

measures

elephantoptis

The

mm. = 33

84

(shaft)

skull is

239

and also of

genus,

Casuarius

is

philipi

tallest species of Casuarius,

and

stoutest

legs

the

tarso-

stout.

The type tarso-metatarsus measures


width

to-day

means the

343 (i8gi).

p.

the

of

parallel

living

Its

Mus.,

Brit.

lyd.

inches,

mm. =

while

9"4

mm. =

228
the

inches

much more depressed than

in

inches,

and

tarso-metatarsus

type

and

9-9

mm. =

65

2'55

in

of

inches.

elephantopus and with deeper

temporal fossae and a shorter post orbital region.

Type

No. A168 British Museum.

Habitat

New

Middle Island,

Zealand.

PACHYORNIS ROTHSCHILDI
Pachyornis rothschildi Lydekker, P.Z.

THE

bones

in

the Tring

S.

1S91, pp. 479-482,

Museum, which form

pi.

the

unfortunately have no history and their locality

lyd.

XXXVIII.

type of this species,


is

unknown.

It

differs

from the other species of the genus by the slenderer proportions of the
tibio-tarsus,

24 inches by
nearest

which

42

in size.

in

is

22 inches long by

29

inches distal width, as opposed to

elephantopus and 20 inches by

Femur: length

10'6 as opposed to

35

in

ponderosus, the two

125 inches

in

elephantopus.

216

PACHYORNIS PONDEROSUS
Euryapteryx ponderosus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

species

slightly smaller than P. elephantopus, the tarso-metatarsus

is

825

elephantopus

the tibio-tarsus varies from

femur,

The
the

137 (1892).

p.

varying from

24 to 21-1

of

Inst.,

and more elongated


Habitat

Cast of egg

dredged up

which are

in

as opposed to

18'6,

rounder

Type

New

ponderosus,

in

flatter

Hamilton.

Zealand.

Tring Museum, taken from specimen

1901 in the

in

18'5 to

9-25 in

to

processes at the hinder angles

the

higher and

elephantopus.

in

Middle Island,

94

from

as opposed to 13 to 11-8.

10,

basi-sphenoid,

opposed to

to 8-0 inches, as

can be distinguished by

skull

(hutt)

Molyneux River,

in

Otago Museum,

incomplete skeleton

also

from

Kapua Swamps.

PACHYORNIS INHABILIS
Pachyornis inhabilis Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

DIFFERS
distal

Inst.

XXV,

11

p.

hutt.

(1893).

from ponderosus by having the great inward expansion at the

end

of

the

induced

expansion has

This

tibio-tarsus.

ornithologists to separate the species of Pachyornis into

Euryapteryx and Pachyornis

but

some

two genera

do not think this expansion of

sufficient

importance to warrant generic separation.


Habitat

Middle Island,

New

Zealand.

PACHYORNIS VALGUS
Euryapteryx valgus Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

THIS

species

metatarsus

great

at

XXV,

once distinguishable from

p.

all

12 (1893).

others by the extraordinary

expansion of the distal end of the tibio-tarsus.

internal

3-5 inches

is

Inst.

= 89

proximal

is

8-5 inches

= 216

mm., and does not


width,

necessary

mm.

differ

to

in

The type came from


:

Enfield in

much from

articulate

Middle Island,

New

New

with

Zealand.

Zealand.

The

tarso-

length and the proximal width

expansion described above.

Habitat

(hutt.)

crassus except in the

the

distal

internal

217

PACHYORNIS PYGMAEUS
Etiryapterxy pygmaetis Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

AS

by

implied

its

name,

this

is

XXIV,

Inst.

p.

(hutt.)

739 (1892).

the smallest species of Pachyornis, the

tarso-metatarsus only measuring 6 inches in length.

The type came

from Takaka.
Habitat

New

Middle Island,

Zealand.

PACHYORNIS COMPACTA
Euryapteryx compacta Hutton, Trans. N.Z.

APPROACHES nearest to pygmaetis

Inst.

XXV,

in size,

p.

11

(hutt)

(1893).

but can be at once distinguished

by the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus not being expanded inwards.

The tarso-metatarsus has the trochleae considerably more expanded than


in

pygmaeus.

New Zealand.
Island, New Zealand.

Type from Enfield


Habitat

Middle

in

219

PALAEOCASUARIUS
FORBES founded
DR.three
as

this

distinct

Dr.
following
original

sizes

forbes.

genus of Dinornithidae on remains of Moas of


regards femora collected by him at Manitoto.

my

Forbes has kindly placed these bones at

summarises the results of


idea

my

examination.

as to the distinctness of Palaeocasuarius

disposal,

find that Dr.


is

and the
Forbes'

perfectly justified,

as not only are his characters of the tibio-tarsus, as opposed to those in the

other genera, correct, but the proportions between femur, tibio-tarsus and tarso-

metatarsus are quite different to those of other genera.


of the

three

bones

in

Palaeocasuarius elegans,

give the proportions

Megalapteryx tenuipes, and

Pachyornis elephantopus, which are the three most nearly

allied

genera

220

PALAEOCASUARIUS HAASTI
Palaeocasuarius haasti Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

FEMUR

length approximately

trochanter

225

85

" This

author

tells

bird

new

width across head and great

275

length 7 inches

It

width

in

inches.

considerably the cassowary in

exceeded

us of this bird.

the publication in

inches

189 (1892).

p.

Museum.

Liverpool

in

XXIV,

Tarso-metatarsus

inches.

centre 115 inches, at distal end

Type from Manitoto

Inst.

forbes.

is

a pity that

size,"

is

all

the

Dr. Forbes did not insist on

of his paper, as proper descriptions of all the twelve

full

species are wanting.

Habitat

New

Zealand.

PALAEOCASUARIUS VELOX
Palaeocasuarius velox Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

FEMUR:

95

length

across distal end


in

centre

15

25

inches.

p.

189 (1892).

Tarso-metatarsus

inches, across distal

New

XXIV,

inches; width across head and trochanter

Type specimen from Manitoto


Habitat

Inst.

forbes.

end 3 inches.

in Liverpool

Museum.

Zealand.

Palaeocasuarius elegans Forbes, Trans. N.Z.

Inst.

XXIV,

p.

forbes.

189 (1892).

length 1075 inches; width across head and trochanter

across

distal

end

34

inches.

Tarso-metatarsus

width over centre 175, over distal end about

Type specimen from Manitoto


Habitat

New

inches,

length 7 inches; width

PALAEOCASUARIUS ELEGANS
FEMUR:

275

Zealand.

in

the Liverpool

33

Museum.

length
inches.

325

inches,

78

inches,

221

AEPYORNITHIDAE.

THEMadagascar

we have from

notice

first

of

Struthious

large

man

scientific

birds

the existence on

of

by

the description

is

Isidore

Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire of two eggs and a few osseous remains, in the

Annales

Sciences

des

important

objects

naturelles

were sent

the

to

Zoologie,

III,

XIV

vol.

(1850).

Monsieur de Malavois, but were obtained from the natives

M. Abadie.

by Captain

this evidence

egg arrived

third

Reunion,

by a colonist of

describer

in

These

Madagascar

The name given on

smashed.

was Aepyornis maximus.

Since then some 40 eggs at least and a large number of odd bones

have been collected by Monsieur Grandidier, Messrs.

Last and others, and

Dr. Forsyth Major, but only one practically complete, and one less complete

named Aepyornis

skeleton of a smaller species,

A
these

number

large

and

bones

on the evidence of

has been diagnosed

species

of

hildebrandti by Dr. Burckhardt.

eggs by Professor

Dawson Rowley

Milne-Edwards, Mr.

and Mr. Andrews, and a second genus, Mullerornis, established.

The following

is

the diagnosis of the family

AEPYORNITHIDAE.
Head

less

Brain case

narrower.

than

flattened

much

the

in

Dinornithidae,

Occipital condyle strongly

greater in volume.

pedunculate.

Temporal fossae deep and narrow.

each

well

side

straight

and

marked

pterygoidal

hollowed out
to

that of

The

in

coracoidal

It

is

thin

articular surfaces

of

The symphysis

The basisphenoid has on


The lower mandible
R/iea,
is

but

long,

plastron,

flattened,

contracted,

and

affinities

and much widened.

those of Apteryx.

similar to

is

maxillary

the

The sternum presents many

the shape of a ladle.

Apteryx.

apophysis.

somewhat that

recalling

stout,

branches are higher and stouter.

much longer and

The Coraco-

scapulars are feeble, and have so faint an articular surface that the humerus

must have been rudimentary.


digit four,

and the inner

Hallux absent, outer digit has

striking

extremity

of

the

the middle

digit three phalanges.

There are three genera and twelve

five,

character

is

that in

tarso-metatarsus

is

species.

the

genus

larger than

Aepyornis
the

distal

the

proximal

extremity, a

feature not found in the majority of other birds.

Monsieur Grandidier has expressly pointed out that Aepyornis had only
three toes,

cannot, therefore, understand

both state that the hallux

is

present.

why

Messrs. Lydekker and Evans

222

In

spite

Major and the large


bones

is

we

compared with

contained

Dinornithidae

the

in

from making a

am

inclined,

the

masses

This

paucity of

if

too

of

bones

many

of

material

the described species,

study of

Forsyth

the number of Aepyornis

vast

museums.

critical

are at present unable to say

diagnosed.

home by them,

collections sent

infinitesimal

prohibits us

researches of Messrs. Grandidier, Last, and

of the

the
quite

so that

or too few species have been

however, to think that

if

we

ever get complete

skeletons of the larger forms, Ae. grandidieri and Ae. cursor will prove to

be se.\es of one

species,

present, however, the

and also Ae.

titan

measurements are too

and Ae. viaxhnus.

different to allow of their being

united without further investigation.

The three genera are as

follows

AEPYORNIS

T.GEOFF.

Aepyornis Geoffroy Saint Hilaire.


Epioniis Geoffroy Saint Hilaire.
Epyoriiis Auct.

MULLERORNIS

milneedwards & grandidier.

Mullerornis Milne-Edwards and Grandidier.

FLACOURTIA

Andrews.

Flacourtia Andrews.
Mullerornis Milne-Edwards and Grandidier

For the

(part).

223

AEPYORNIS
CHARACTERS
Mullerornis

same as those

of

GEOFF.

the

family

the species are very heavy,

but

in

opposition

ponderous, and clumsy, the

bones being both actually and comparatively much stouter.

from Flacourtia

not having an ossified boney bridge

in

groove for adductor of outer

Type

of species

9.

Aepyornis titan Andrews, Geol. Mag. 1895,

andr

303.

p.

appears to be the largest species of the genus, though Ae. maximus


considerably

however, the
Ae. titan

over lower end of

digit.

AEPYORNIS TITAN

is

Differs

Aepyornis jnaximus Geoff.

Number

THIS

to

In

stouter.

the

original

referred to

tibio-tarsi

description

Smallest Femur.

430

about....

Circumference, narrowest point

Width,

distal

Width

....

end

of shaft at narrowest part

....

Largest Femur.

Length
Circumference at narrowest point
Width,

distal

....

end
Distal part of tibio-tarsus.

Width
Width

at distal

end

of shaft at narrowest point

Circumference of shaft at narrowest

point.

Tarso-metatarsus.

Length

Width

at proximal

Width

at distal

Width

at

Ae.

ingens,

that species are really those of

Length

of

end

end

narrowest point of shaft

Circumference at narrowest point of

shaft..

224

The

and most vertebrae, as well as the sternum of

skull, pelvis,

this

form are unknown.


Habitat

S.

W. Madagascar.

Three Femora, two tarsi-metatarsi, and two incomplete


in

Museum,

the Tring

are

collected by Last in the Antinosy country.

There are two eggs


which are as follows

tibia-tarsi

of

this

species at Tring,

the

measurements

of

No.

1,

Antinosy Country, Last.

Large circumference

....

....

....

8625 mm.

Small circumference

....

....

....

631 5

No. 2 (traded).

Large circumference

....

....

....

883

mm.

Small circumference

....

....

....

763

,,

The egg mentioned by Mr. Lydekker


No. 41847

judging from

is,

in

Cat. Foss. Birds B.M., page 214,

undoubtedly an egg of this species, and

its size,

quote the measurements, as they are very large


....

....

....

921

mm.

Smallest circumference

....

....

....

768

,,

in

1854

in

the Paris

Large circumference....

....

Small circumference

....

....

In addition to these four eggs

are the following which

Museum measures
925 mm.
:

....

...

....

....

753

,,

which are undoubtedly of Ae.

consider to belong to that species

titan,

there

Museum, Mr. Armange.

Paris

Hamburg.

Messrs. Gilford, Orange,

Rowley

New

Jersey.

collection.

These four eggs range from 900 mm.


and 770 mm.

Largest circumference

The egg purchased

to 736

mm.

in

to

8635 mm.

small circumference.

in large

circumference,

225

AEPYORNIS MAXIMUS
Aepyoniis maximus

I.

Geoffrey St. Hilaire, Ann. Sci. Nat. s6r

Acpyornis ingeits Milne-Edwards

THIS

the

is

Ae.

the

name maximus
eggs

of the

in

bulkiest

the largest eggs

belong to this species.

will

It

for this form,

next

those of

to

be argued that

but the

name

of

name

XIV,

p.

209 {1851).

of grandidieri, given by Mr.

so

tall

Ae. titan

is

must

based on one

evidently belong

Dawson Rowley

as

have no right to use

maximus

form and not to the form subsequently called maximus,


the

vol.

though not

species,

Museum, and as these

Paris

the

3,

Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, pp. 122-127 (1894).

and

stoutest
All

titan.

&

geoff.

to

must apply

in

this

to that

1867 to a portion

of eggshell of the lesser form.

The measurements

of the limbs are as follows

Fem^ur.

Total length

440 mm.

Width
Width

at proximal

190

at distal

200

265

780

mm.

....
end
....
....
end
Circumference at narrowest part of shaft

Tibio-tarsus.

Total length

Width
Width

end
end

at proximal

180

at distal

160

210

Total length

420

mm.

Width
Width

170

160

200

Circumference at narrowest part of shaft


Tarso-metatarsus.
....
....
....
end
at distal end
Circumference at narrowest part of shaft

The

at proximal

description of the foot in the diagnosis of the family

the pes of this species.


British

is

is

but as neither

more than

is

composed

likely that the articulator

The dimensions

of the type

of the bones of a single individual

made a

mistake.

egg are as follows

340

Large diameter
Small diameter

....

....

....

225

....

....

....

850

,,

Small circumference

....

....

....

710

,,

S.

....

W. Madagascar.

There are about 16 eggs known of

mm.

mm.

Large circumference

Habitat:

to 816

based on

and Tring Museums of Aepyornis hildebrandti show a larger number

of phalanges
it

It

is

true that the two mounted skeletons in the

in

circumference.

this

form, varying from 854

large circumference, and from 743

mm.

to 715

mm.

in

mm.
small

226

AEPYORNIS GRANDIDIERI

rowley.

Aepyoniis Maximtis Auct.


Aepyornis grandidieri Rowley, P.Z.S. 1867,

THIS

the form which

is

nearly

p.

all

Geoffroy's Ae. maxunus, belong.

Rowley was founded on a piece


"

The

granulation

The

pieces.

with a

tail

is

difference

pieces are
birds,

The

original description of

and

of eggshell,

in

all

much

is

which required

family as Aepyoniis niaximus


I

tail

the shell also

is

even when the

observer,

These fragments belonged to the egg of much smaller

mixed.

the embryo of

this species

as follows

and presents an aspect so diverse that

finer,

by the most careless

detected

is

is

Dawson

the other specimens appear like a comet

strength

less

colour, quality and locality of that shell

For

bones, referred erroneously to

are here only small indentations without any

only half the thickness,


the

the

a marked degree different from that of the other

in

pores which

air

892.

in short,

Yet the

the shell.

in

clearly point to a bird of the

same

a smaller and more delicate Aepyornis.

propose the name of Aepyoniis grandidieri."

The measurements

of bones of the hind limb are as follows

Femur.

Length

Width

at distal

end

320

mm.

190

640

mm.

Tibio tarsus.

Length

There are

at Tring

two eggs

of this species.

No.

1,

traded.

Length

2830 mm.

Width

2150

Large circumference
Small circumference

Ambovombe

No. 2 Ambondo,

....

....

....

7775

,,

....

....

....

6700

,,

in

the district of Fort Dauphin.

Large circumference

....

....

....

775

Small circumference

....

....

....

6625

mm.

There are recorded of these eggs, besides the two mentioned above,
eight further

specimens,

circumference, and 686

varying

mm.

to 654

from

mm.

810

mm.

in small

to

771-5

mm.

in

large

circumference.

In addition to these there are in various collections about eight or nine

eggs whose species

is

doubtful.

227

AEPYORNIS CURSOR
Aepyornis cursor Milne-Edwards

RIGINAL

Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII,

Ae.

follows:

as

description

Ae. grandidier i

&

= maximus

at proximal

Width

at distal

cursor

almost

is

but

end

Habitat

slender.

mm.

140

end

120

Circumference of shaft

Width

as large as

more

is

380

....

....

124 (1894).

p.

nee. Geoff roy,

auct.,

Length of tarso-metatarsus

Width

m.-e.& grand.

155

65

of shaft

Madagascar.

AEPYORNIS MEDIUS
Aepyornis medius Milne-Edwards

&

& grand.

m.-e.

Grandidier, Ann.

Nat. ser. V, vol. XII,

Sci.

179

p.

(1869).

Aepyornis medius Milne- Edwards


(1866-73), P- 97> "ote

THIS

and

is

described

general characters, and

a different species, which


is

Grandidier,

not

only

& Mad.

Rech. Faune. Orn. Et. Masc.

was founded on a femur found

form

Madagascar,

question

&

2.

belongs

evidently

we

will

call

by

distinguished

narrower external face of the bone

"It

follows:

as

to

Aepyornis
lesser

its

which

Amboulitsate

at

presents

an

the

Aepyornis,

W.

in

same
but to

The femur

medius.

but

proportions

by

in

the

variation results in causing the

whole area between the trochanter and the base of the femoral neck to be

much

less

depressed.

The intermuscular

line,

which

marks

surface of the deep portion of the femoral triceps muscle,

whereas
also

it

is

very pronounced

the larger femur.

The

more rounded, and the distance which separates the

from the proximal extremity


is,

in

however, the same as

surfaces above

it

in

is

larger;

is

the

hardly indicated,
posterior side

the shape of this large depression

do show some differences,

we know

West Madagascar.

the articular

that these characters

are not very reliable as they are subject to individual variations.

Habitat:

is

popliteal depression

the larger femur, and although

Circumference of shaft 215 mm."

insertion

228

AEPYORNIS HILDEBRANDTI
Aepyornis hildcbrandti Burckhardt,

MUST
I

and

refer

too

my
I,

Abh. (VI)

II,

p.

127 (1893).

readers to Dr. Burckhardt's description, as

technical

comparative.

Pal.

burckh.

to

be

reproduced

here,

especially

it

as

is
it

however, give here some of his measurements:


Tibio-tarsus.

too long
is

not

229

AEPYORNIS MULLERI me
Aepyornis mulleri Milne-Edwards

THE

original description

&

Grandidier, C.R. CXVII, pp. 124-125 (1894).

commences: "The new

the researches of M. G. MuUer, and which


is

smaller.

Nevertheless,

& grand.

is

it

we

superior in

described by M. Burckhardt, which also

species which

came from

name Ae.

shall

size

we owe

to

mulleri,

Ae. hildebrandti,

to

We

Antsirabe.

possess

the almost complete skeleton of this bird, the skull, mandible, vertebrae, ribs,

sternum, a part of the pelvis, the leg bones, and a few phalanges of the pes;
so that

we can now

Aepyornis."

exactly define the position and affinities of the genus

Then follows the diagnosis

of the

family,

which

have given

before.

Habitat

Central Madagascar.

AEPYORNIS MODESTUS
Aepyornis modestus Milne-Edwards

MESSRS.

&

me.

Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat.

MILNE-EDWARDS & GRANDIDIER

that the bone (a portion of a femur) which

is

Geoffroy),

it

Type

in

Amboulitsate,

in

XII,

p.

189 (1869).

the type of the above


in

Ae. medius this

Ae. grandidieri (= triaximus auct.

was 270 mm.


locality

(5)

state at pages 180-181

name, had a shaft-circumference of 120 mm., while


circumference was 215 mm., and

& grand.

West Madagascar.

nee.

231

MULLERORNIS
BIRDS

medium

of

size,

MILNE-EDWARDS & grandidier.

not

They appear

Aepyornis.

Known only from


Number of species 2.

heavy and

having the

resemble

to

more

massive

of

Casuaridae.

the

closely

build

leg bones.

MULLERORNIS BETSILEI
Miillerornis

betsilei

ORIGINAL

Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend., CXVIII,

description

tarso-metatarsus
section

bone

itself

"

milne-edw.& grand.

through

is

as

follows:

"The

leg

not enlarged as in the

the

shaft

having more the proportion of


....

are

125 (1894).

slender,

the

preceding genus, and the

shows almost an

Length of tibio-tarsus

bones

p.

isosceles

triangle.

The

Droniaius.
....

....

....

390

mm.

Circumference of tibio-tarsus

Width

of tibio-tarsus

Width

of proximal

Width

of distal

end

end

Length of tarso-metatarsus
Circumference of tarso-metatarsus..

Width

of shaft of tarso-metatarsus

Width

of

" Mullerornis

much

rarer."

Habitat

proximal end
betsilei

inhabited the

(Translated.)
:

Central Madagascar.

same area

as Ae. mulleri but

was

232

MULLERORNIS AGILIS
Mulleromis

agilis

ORIGINAL
Coast

for the

grooves

are

Milne-Bdwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend., CXVIII,

description as follows:

we

"

M.

manner

in

marked.

pp. 125-126 (1894).

agilis inhabited the

only possess, of this species, one

tibia,

which

The

exterior

border of

Length of tibio-tarsus

the

bone

pronounced

crista."

Width

of tibio-tarsus

34

Width

at proximal

Width

at distal

....

end

end

South-west Madagascar.

65
75

lower

(Translated.)

440 mm.
97

remarkable

above the

Circumference of tibio-tarsus

Habitat

is

South-west

which the intermuscular bony ridges and the tendon-

articular surface has developed into a very


"

milne-edw. & grand.

233

FLACOURTIA
DIFFERS

from Mullerornis

in

Andrews.

having a completely ossified bony bridge

over the lower end of the groove for the adductor of the outer
in

Number

the tarso-metatarsus.

of species

1.

FLACOURTIA RUDIS
Mullerornis

rtidis

&

Milne- Edwards

(milneedw. & grand.)

Grandidier, Compt. Rend. CXVIII,

Flacourtia rudis Andrews, Nov. Zool.

II,

p.

p.

126 (1894).

25 (1895).

ORIGINAL description as follows "The third species M. rudis (=


:

was discovered by M. Greve


The
massive.

ment

digit,

in

tibio-tarsus is of about the

The tarso-metatarsus

of the distal extremity,

extremely large.

is

the fossiliferous beds of the

same length as

and of which the

betsilei,

digital articular

Between the middle and outer ones there


the outer

Aepyornis (or Mullerornis, w.r.)."

in

M.

Length of tibio-tarsus

digit,

(Translation.)

mm.

....

400

....

....

100

,,

35

75

of distal

Habitat

end

West Madagascar.

more

which passage

....

Width

Coast.

a bony opening

is

....

of tibio-tarsus

is

attachments are

Circumference of tibio-tarsus

Width

but

remarkable on account of the great enlarge-

for the passage of the adductor muscle of

not present

in

F. rudis)

West

is

235

DROMAIUS PERONI
(Plate
Casoar de

HoUande

la Nouvelle

nom

nov.

40.)

P^ron, Relat. Voy. Terr.

Austr.

pi.

467,

p.

XXXVI

(1807).

Droinoitis ater Vieillot, Gal. des Ois,

Dromaeiis ater Blyth,

text).

Ibis 1862, p. 93.

most unfortunate that the larger number of authors have neglected

is

IT

226 (not

pi.

to go carefully into the

synonymy

would

necessary, after

name

appropriate
Vieillot,

the

in

distinctly

have

not

states

been

of

and

aier,

81

rename the

to

Nouveau

Dictionnaire

that

Dromaius

his

of this bird

years,

Emu

D'Histoire

ater

they had done so

if

the very

reject

to

Kangaroo

of

X,

Naturelle

was a name given

it

Island.

page

212,

Latham's

to

Casuarius novaehollatidiae, and makes no mention of P^ron or of the

Isle

Decres.

The

figures

Peron's work of the adult male and female are not

in

me

good, but those of the young and nestlings appear to

and the plate

my own

the Galerie des Oiseaux

in

from the type

are taken

life

made by

des

Plantes.

himself on

specimen

Decres Island and

The only known specimens

skin

All these

The

quite excellent.

is

in

the

Paris

and skeleton

are

in

what remain

in the

at

Museum, while

of

menagerie of the Jardin


extinct species are the

this

Paris and the skeleton in the Florence

of

the three

living

Emu

Liverpool a full-grown, though immature

as Dromaius peronii,

scanty plumage

it

but owing to

will

of the

is

it

the

in

same

as a second

size

very

mounted

recur to this lower down.

male

adult

of

There

proportionally longer legs and

not absolutely safe to identify

is

specimen of D. peronii.
Description

its

Museum.

brought to Paris by

birds

Peron, and no other authentic specimens exist anywhere.

Museum

and

latter

Peron was done by Lessieur from a series of sketches from

the plate in

mounted

to be very accurate,

(ex

Cat.

Birds

Brit.

Mus.)

Similar

to

D. novaehollatidiae, but

much

black

body brown fulvous, with the apical half very dark

feathers of the

blackish
blue.

brown

smaller,

and with feathers

of the

neck entirely

and feet blackish, naked skin of the sides of the neck

bill

Total length about 55 inches, tarsus 1140, culmen 2-36.

Immature

plumage entirely sooty

in first

longitudinal

bands

Island, also

Flinders,

of

rufous brown.

King

Islands,

In

black.

addition

to

and Tasmania had

Nestling whitish with

Decres or Kangaroo

Emus

living

on them

236

at the time of Peron's


localities

were

visit,

we

existence

in

and

believe,

should find that each of these islands had had

a distinct species or race of Emus.


into account that

come

it

is

authentic specimens from these

if

Taking

slightly different

this for granted,

from the type of D. peronii,

to the conclusion that the Liverpool specimen

one rather poor specimen to separate

this

species, especially as

there

is

absolutely no

it

have

an immature, though

is

full-grown individual from one of these other islands;

from

and also taking

but

it

is

not possible

from the Kangaroo Island

indication of the origin of this

specimen.

Habitat

One
in

Island of Decres or

stuffed specimen (Type)

Kangaroo

Island.

and one skeleton

in

Paris,

one skeleton

Florence, and one stuffed specimen in Liverpool (an species diversa?).

some leg-bones

in

Adelaide, Australia.

Dr. H. O. Forbes,

the

first

It is

to

point out

certainly totally

hollandiae or D.

Also

who

kindly lent

me

the last-named specimen,

the differences of this bird


distinct

n. irroraius.

was

from D. novaehollandiae.

from birds of similar age of either D. novae-

237

DROMAIUS MINOR
Dromaeus minor Baldwin Spencer,

AS
I

of

Vict. Nat. XXIII, p. 140 (1906).

Mr. Bernard H. Woodward, of Perth, West Australia, was organising


an

expedition

1906), to

the

(spencer).

first

Kangaroo,

to

Emu

hunt for

to describe

what

felt

and King

Flinders,

Islands

remains on these islands,

new

sure would be two

(December,

had hoped to be

species of Dromaius.

have, however, been forestalled by Professor Baldwin Spencer in the case

King

Island,

whence a

collection

of

17 femurs,

19

made by Messrs.

metatarsi, and portions of 8 pelves,

tibio-tarsi,

Alex.

Morton and R. M.

Johnston, T.S.O., formed the material for the description of a

The diagnosis
mihi).

Tibia

not

or

is

as follows

only

Smaller

than

exceeding 330

slightly

Tarso-metatarsus not exceeding 280


not or only slightly exceeding 280

"

mm.

in

D.

mm.

in

new

species.

(= D.

peronii

greatest

length.

ater

greatest length.

Pelvis,

length

mm."

D. minor was a smaller but stouter bird than D. peronii.

dimensions

28 tarso-

Comparative

239

INDEX.
PAGE

Aechmorhynchus

PAGE

XI

119

australis (Mergus)

Aepyornis

223

australis (Miro)

....

....

....

XI

Aepyornithidae

221

benedeni (Anas)

....

....

....

IX

Aestrelata

157

betsilei

(MuUerornis)

231

232

bifrons (Metapteryx)

alba (Notornis)

144

Biziura

109

alba (Porphyrio)

143

bonasia (Aphanapteryx)

131

XI

boothi (Emeus)

210

albifacies (Sceloglaux)

XI

borbonica (Emberiza)

....

....

albifrons (Miro)

XI

borbonica (Pezophaps)

....

....

175

153

borbonica (Phedina)

....

....

XI

borbonicus (Fregilupus)

....

"

....

....

(MuUerornis)

agilis

albicilla

(Clitonyx)

Alca....

Alectroenas

....

163

Alopochen

....

borbonicus (Necropsittacus)

....

62

alphonsi (Astur)

83

borbonicus (Palaeornis)

....

67

altus (Dinornis)

192

borbonicus (Trochocercus)

....

XI

bouquet! (Amazona)

....

XII

Amazona
americana (Meleagris)
americanus (Siphonorhis)

Anas

57

XII
43
103

....

21

brachyurus (Rhamphocinclus)

....

Branta

....

....

....

29

brewsteri (Tympanuchus)

anna (Ciridops)

41

broeckii (Aphanapteryx)

Anomalopteryx

201

bruante (Foudia)

antiquus (Anomalopteryx)

202

Bubo

Aphanapteryx
apicalis

(Moho)

131

27

....

Bowdleria

angustipluma (Chaetoptila)

antipodum (Palaeocorax)

....

....

....

XI

....

181

....

....

131

....

....

7
71

127

Cabalus
caeruleus (Anadorhynchus)

....

54

calcitrans (Cnemiornis)

....

97

....

Apterornis

145

californianus (Pseudogryphus)

....

XII

Aptornis

147

Camptolaimus

....

105

Ara

....

51

Ardea

111

Astur

83

ater (Dromaeus)

Athene
aucklandica (Nesonetta)

augusta (Amazona)

235

....

....

canadensis (Columba)

167

cancellata (Aechmorhynchus)

....

119

capensis (Upupa)

....

....

....

87

Carbo

75

carribbaea (Aestrelata)

157

XI

carolinensis (Conurus)

XII

XII

Casuarius

....

....

....

....

240

INDEX

241

PAGE

XI

Hemiphaga

....

69

herberti (Didus)

131

....

203

Heterorhynchus

35

hildebrandti (Aepyornis)

Foudia
forsteri
fortis

(Cyanorhamphus)

(Anomalopteryx)

....

....

163

francicus (Necropsittacus)

....

62

Fregilupus

....

franciae (Columba)....

fuscatus

....

....

....

....

70

(Psittacus)

fusco-fulvus (Nesacanthis)

....

gallinacea (Progura)

....

....

161

....

...

228

hochstetteri (Notornis)

142

huttonii (Megalapteryx)

199

Hypotaenidia

123

hypsibata (Branta)

IX

....

immanis (Pachyornis)

215

Gallinago

121

impennis (Alca)

153

gigantea (Leguatia)

....

....

151

imperialis (Aphanapteryx)...

131

giganteus (Dinornis)

....

....

193

ineptus (Didus)

172

XI

ingens (Dinornis)

genibarbis (Myadestes)

Geospiza

II,

12

206

geranoides (Cela)
....

....

....

52

gracilipes (Dromaius)

....

....

gracilis (Cnemiornis)

....

....

98

gracilis (Dinornis)

....

....

194

gossei (Ara)

....

....

grandidieri (Aepyornis)

gravipes (Emeus)

....

....

....

guadaloupensis (Ara)
guildingi

(Amazona)

haasti

216

insignis

(Ocydromus)

insularis (Xenicus)

XI

Ixocincla

jamaicensis (Aestrelata)

....

....

XII

XI

lautouri (Biziura)

71

leguati (Erythromachus)

....

220

lentus (Aepyornis)

....

XII

leucopogon (Strigiceps)

159

leucoptera (Prosobonia)

Lithophaps

....

81

hamiltoni (Megalapteryx)

....

....

197

Harpagornis

....

....

85

harrisi (Phalacrocorax)

....

XII

hasitata (Aestrelata)

....

....

159

lyalli

....

133

lydeUkeri (Casuarius)

lydekkeri (Prociconia)

....

....

197

Hemignathus

....

....

33

....

228

....

....

hectori (Megalapteryx)

135

151

....

hawkinsi (Diaphoraptery.x)

..

leguati (Necropsar)....

Leguatia

XII
109

....

....

....

105

...

leguati (Bubo)

210

157

59

habroptilus (Stringops)

....

...

labati (Conurus)

haasti (Palaeocasuarius)

hamiltoni (Circus)

23

....

labradoria (Camptolaimus)

54

haesitata (Aestrelata)

129

lanaiensis (Hemignathus)

....

(Emeus)

inhabilis (Pachyornis)

210

....

gutturalis (Cinclocerthia)

193

226

Grus

....

30
..,

118

....

Lophopsittacus

49

Loxops

39

lucidus (Heterorhynchus)

..

23

(Traversia)

mackintosh! (Porphyrio)

35

..

X
X
X

INDEX

242

macroura (Ectopistes)

....

167

madagascariensis (Mascarinus)

....

64

madagascariensis (Upupa)

....

....

3,

Moho

27

Monarcha

....

....

....

XI

moorei (Harpagornis)

....

....

85

....

magnirostris (Geospiza)

....

....

11

moriorum (Palaeocorax)

....

....

major (Carbo)

....

....

88

mulleri (Aepyornis)....

....

....

....

....

95

moUeri (Hypotaenidia)

....

majori (Centrornis)
mantelli (Notornis)

141

martinicana (Amazona)
martinicus (Ara)

....

....

....

Mascarinus

229

XI

MuUerornis

231

57

murina (Pyrrhula)

XII

53

murivora (Athene)

75

63

murivora

75

nanus (Plotus)

mascarinus (Mascarinus)

....

....

64

mauritiana (Ardea)

....

....

115

mauritianus (Lophopsittacus)

....

49

mauritianus (Sarcidiornis)....

....

maximus (Aepyornis)

....

maximus

....

(Strix)

89

nazarenus (Didus)

....

....

....

177

Necropsar

....

....

....

....

101

Necropsittacus

....

....

....

....

225

Nesoenas

....

192

Nesolimnas

....

....

....

....

125

165

Nestor

....

....

....

....

45

medius (Aepyornis)

227

newelli (Puffinus)

megacephala (Ardea)

Ill

newtoni (Foudia)

....

195

newtoni (Genyornis)

melanocephala (Anthornis)

....

XII

melitensis (Columba)

....

....

(Dinornis)

mayeri (Nesoenas)

Megalapteryx

....

....

....

....

....

....

melitensis (Grus)
melitensis (Strix)
melitensis (Vultur)

....

....

....

....

X
X

165

XI
....

newtoni (Palaeolimnas)

nigra (Pomarea)

....

nitidissima (Alectroenas)

....

IX

nobilis (Palaeopelargus)

X
....

....

....

165

Microtribonyx

....

....

....

migratoria (Ectopistes)

....

XI

X
....

149,

150

79

IX

Metapteryx

....

newtoni (Strix)

...

meyeri (Columba)

61

....

....

13

163

X
47

norfolcensis (Nestor)

Notornis

141

novaezealandiae (Cereopsis)

....

99

167

novaezealandiae (Coturnix)

....

183

....

....

137

novaezealandiae (Dinornis)

....

194

....

....

98

novaezealandiae (Psittacus)

....

69

minor (Dromaius)

237

novaezealandiae (Thinornis)

....

XII

minor (Ocydromus)

129

oahensis (Phaeornis)

minor (Pezophaps)

177

millsi

(Pennula)

....

minor (Cnemiornis)

....

....

Miro

....

XI, 15

19

Ocydromus

....

....

....

....

129

Oestrelata

....

....

....

....

157

modestus (Aepyornis)

....

....

229

olivacea (Ixocincla)

XI

modestus (Cabalus)

....

....

127

olivacea (Psittirostra)

37

INDEX

otidiformis (Aptornis)
ovveni (Cela)

Oxynotus
Pachyornis

....

pacifica (Drepanis)

....

pacifica (Hypotaenidia)

pacificus

(Cyanorhamphus)

pacificus (Pareudiastes)

....

Palaeocasuarius

Palaeocorax
Palaeolimnas
Pelaeopelargus
Palaeornis

papa

....

(Fringilla)

parkeri (Emeus)

parvus (Anomalopteryx)

....

patricius (Dromaius)

Pelecanus

....

Pennula
peralata (Gallinula)....

peroni (Dromaius)

....

perspicillatus (Carbo)
perspicillatus (Phalacrocorax)

Pezophaps

....

Phaeornis

....

pisana (Fulica)
Platibis

plenus (Palapteryx)
Plotus

Pogonornis

....

Pomarea
ponderosus (Pachyornis)
potens (Dinornis)
primigenia (Grus)
principalis

....

(Campephilus)

prior (Fulica)

prisca (Palaeolimnas)

....

INDEX

244

PAGE
solitarius (Didus)

....

solitarius (Pezophaps)

spadicea (Hemiphaga)
subflavescens (Cyanorhamphus)

subtenuis (Platibis)

sumnerensis (Chenopsis)
stanleyi (Notornis)

....

strenuipes (Gallinula)

strenuus (Dinornis)
Strigiceps

....

Strix
struthioides (Dinornis)
sylvestris

(Ocydromus)

tannaensis (Platycercus)

tanagra (Turnagra)....
teauteensis (Circus)

tenuipes (Megalapteryx)
terrestris (Cichlopasser)
terrestris (Geocichla)

terrestris (Turdus)

theodori (Anas)
titan (Aepyornis)

torosus (Dinornis)
traversi (Miro)

PLATES.

EXTINCT

BIRDS

Plate

-c.

FREGILUPUS VARIUS
(Natural Size)

DURABLE^ PAPER
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EXTINCT BIRDS

Plate 3

#^
1.

2.

GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS
GEOSPIZA STRENUA

3.
4.

NESOENAS MEYERl
CHAUNOPROCTUS FERREIROSTRIS

(All Three-Fourths Xatcral Sizefrom skins)

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EXTINCT

BIRDS

1.

2.

Plate 4

HEMIGNATHUS ELLISIANUS
HETERORHYNCHUS LUCIDUS
(All Five-Sixths Natural Size

'<

DUFWBIE^ PAPER

3.

4.

PSITTl ROSTRA PSITTACEA


CIRIDOPS ANNA

-frotii sbitts

No.

from type

DEPPEl

BIRDS

EXTINCT

Plate 5

.^(^

1.

MIRO TRAVERSI

(Four-Fifths Natural Size)

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CQLCR

&

2a.

TRAVERSIA LYALLl

(Four-Fifths Natural Size)

3.

BOWDLERIA RUFESCENS

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EXTINCT

BIRDS

Plate 6

Fig.

From

NESTOR NORFOLCENSIS
Museum

Fig. 2.

HEAD OF NESTOR PRODUCTUS


From

the specimen in the Tring

Museum

(Five-Sixths Natural Size)

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Plate 9

BIRDS

MASCARINUS MASCARINUS
(Three-Ouartehs Natural Size)
BURABLE^ft- PAPER

COLOR

EXTINCT

Plate 10

BIRDS

iteiK

ARA TRICOLOR
(Eleven-Thirteenths Natural Size from specimen

DURABLE^^- PAPER
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in Liverpool

Mnseum)

EXTINCT

Plate

BIRDS

ARA GOSSEI
(Four-Fifths Natural Size/i-omi Gosse's description)

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EXTINCT

BIRDS

Plate

4^-

ARA ERYTHROCEPHALA
(Six-Tenths Natural Size/mm Cossc's description)

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12

EXTINCT

Plate

BIRDS

ANADORHYNCHUS PURPURASCENS
(Two-Fifths Natural S\zEfron: a description)

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13

EXTINCT

Plate 14

BIRDS

ARA MARTINICUS
(Two-Fifths Natural Size/ran; description)

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EXTINCT

BIRDS

Plate 15

ARA ERYTHRURA
(One-Half Natural Size from description)
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Plate 16

EXTINCT BIRDS

CONURUS LABATI
.

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(Natubal Size -from Labat's description)

EXTINCT

Plate

BIRDS

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AMAZONA VIOLACEUS
(Two-Thirds Natural Size/row description)
DURABLE^^^ PAPER
COLOR

17

EXTINCT

Plate

BIRDS

AMAZONA MARTINICANA
(Two-Thirds Natural Size -from Labat's description)

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PAPER

COLCR

IJ

EXTINCT

Plate 19

BIRDS

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PALAEORNIS

EXSUL

(Three-quarters Natural Size)

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COLCR

Plate 20

EXTINCT BIRDS

PALAEORNIS WARDI
{Three-Quarters Natural Size)
OURABLE^^t PAPER
COI.CR

EXTINCT

Plate

BIRDS

HEMIPHAGA SPADICEA
(Two-Thirds Natural Size)

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21

EXTINCT

Plate 22

BIRDS

ALECTROENAS NITIDISSIMA
(Natural Size)

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Plate 23

EXTINCT BIRDS

PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIA
(About Oxf.-Third Natural Size/rom descriptions and drawings)

DURABLE^ PAPER
COLOR

[1]

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EXTINCT

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1,

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2,

3.

DIDUS CUCULLATUS

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explanation)

EXTINCT BIRDS

Plate 24b

19.

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COLOR

DIDUS CUCULLATUS

EXTINCT

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Plate 24c

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EXTINCT BIRDS

DIDUS

SOLITARIUS

(One-Third Natural Size/iohj Dubois' description)


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EXTINCT BIRDS

Plate 25b

Fig.

1,

Fig. 4,

PAPER
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Plate 31

BIRDS

V^--Hjvi>'

LEGUATIA GIGANTEA
(One-Sixth Natural Sizefrom description and drawings)

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COLOR

EXTINCT

Plate 32

BIRDS

APTERORNIS COERULESCENS
(One-Half Natural Size -frotn

DUBABIE^ PAPER
COLCB

tlcscnptioits)

EXTINCT

Plate 33

BIRDS

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(FivE-NiNETHS Natural Size)

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EXTINCT

Plate 35

BIRDS

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2.

PROSOBONIA LEUCOPTERA
(Natural Size)

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Plate 38

BIRDS

ALCA

IMPENNIS

(Five-Ekihths Natural Size/ron stuffed specimen)

DURASLE^p^ PAPER
COLOR

EXTINCT

Plate 39

BIRDS

CARBO PERSPICILLATUS
(Seven-Sixteenths Xatural Size)

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COLCR

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Plate

BIRDS

MEGALAPTERYX HUTTONI
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(One-Qoarter Natural Size rcstomi drawing from feathers and mummified

DURABLE^fir PAPER

COLCR

41

EXTINCT

Plate 42

BIRDS

DINORNIS INGENS
(One-Elevexth Natural Siz^ restoration from skeleton and feathers)

DURABLEJ^ PAPER
COLCR

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 9999 05294 931 8

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