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THE DODO AND

ITS

KINDRED.

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THE

DODO AND

ITS

KINDRED;

HISTORY, AFFINITIES, AND OSTEOLOGY

DODO, SOLITAIRE,
OTHER EXTINCT BIRDS
or THE ISLANDS MAUKITIUS, KODRIGUEZ, AND BOURBON.

^^-^

STRICKLAND,

H. E.

M.A., F.G.S., F.R.G.S.,

PRESIDENT OF THE ASHMOLEAN SOCIETY,


A

'-X

&c.,

>

U^'^^'

A.

G.

MELVILLE,

M.D. Edin., M.R.C.S.

"Pes

et

Eeddentur

Caput

fornije."

uni

Hor.

LONDON
EEEVE, BENHAM,

AND KEEVE,

8,

KING WILLIAM STEEET, STEAND.

1848.

REEVE, BE?iHAM. AND REEVE.

PRINTERS A:<D publishers OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS,

KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND,

TO

P.

B.

DUNCAN,

ESQ., M.A.,

KEEPER OF THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM,

Cftig seaorfe

IS!

fingcnbrli,

AS A SLIGHT TOKEN OF REGARD AND ESTEEM,


BY HIS SINCERE FRIENDS,

THE AUTHORS.

ilist

Of ^ubsrrtbfrs.

H.R.H. PRINCE ALBEET, K.G.

GRACE THE DUCHESS OF BUCCLEUCH (two copies).


THE MOST NOBLE THE MARQUIS OF NORTHAMPTON, Pres. Brit. Assoc,
THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF DERBY, Pres. Z.S., F.R.S.
HEll

The Eadcliffe Library, Oxford.


The Belfast Library.
The Edinburgh College Library.
The Signet Library, Edinburgh.
Zoological Society of London.

York Philosophical

Society.

Worcestershire Nat. Hist. Society.


King's CoUege Library, Aberdeen.
Royal Society of Arts and Sciences, Mauritius.
The Chevalier Dubus, Brussels.

The Baron de

Selys Longcharaps, Liege.

Admiral !Mitford, Hunmanby, Yorkshire.


Sii- Robert HaiTy Ingbs, Bart., M.P.
Sir John G. DalyeU, Bart.
Sir W. R. Boughton, Bart., ftwo copies)
Sir

W.

C. Trevelyan, Bart., F.R.S.

Mrs. Dixon, Govan HUl, Glasgow.


Mrs. A. Smith, Edinburgh.
Mrs. C. Clarke, Matlock.
Mi-s. Hodder, Leith Links, Edinburgh.
Miss Christie, Balmuto, Edinburgh.
Miss Wedderbm-n, Berkhill, Edinburgh.
Miss Porter, BirUngham, Worcestershire.
Miss L. Strickland, Dawlish, Devonshire.
P. B. Duncan, Esq., M.A., New Coll. Oxford,
James Yates, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.
C. Stokes, Esq., F.R.S.
John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S.
John Gould, Esq.," F.R.S.

WUliam

Spence, Esq., F.R.S.

Bowerbank, Esq., F.R.S.


John Arrowsmith, Esq., F.R.G.S.

WUliam

Sir T. Tancred, Bart.

P. J. Selbv, Esq. F.L.S.

Sir

James

S.

Menteath, Bart.

Rev. Dr. Dunbar, Applegarth, Dumfriesshire.


Rev. Professor Walker, F.R.S., Oxford.
Rev. Professor Hussey, Oxford.
Professor Daubeny, F.R.S.
Professor BeO, F.R.S.
Professor Lizars, Aberdeen.
Professor Ansted, F.R.S.
Professor J. PhUlips, F.R.S.
Professor J. F. Johnston, Dui'ham.
Professor H. Lichtensteiu, Berlin.

Professor Schinz, Zurich.


Professor Goodsir, Edinljurgh.
Professor Cai'l J. Sundevall, Stockhobn.

Rev. J. Hannah, Rector of the Edinburgh Academy.


Rev. A. D. Stacpoole, New CoUege, Oxford.
Rev. F. O. Morris, Nafferton, Yorkshire.
Rev. A. Matthews, Weston, Osfordshii-e.
Rev. W. C. Fowle, Ewias Hai-old, Herefordshire.
Rev. W. W. Cooper, Claines, Worcester.
Rev. J. JI. Prower, Pvrton, Gloucestershire.
Rev. J. Griffiths, Wadham College, Oxford.
Rev. T. Ewing, Hobart Town.
Rev. T. A. Strickland, Bredon, Gloucestersliii-e.
Rev. W. H. Stokes, Caius CoUege, Cambridge.
Rev. W. Little, Kirkpatrick Juxta, Dumfriesshire.
W. J. Hamilton, Esq., M.P.
R. ParneU, M.D., Edinburgh.
G. Lloyd, M.D., Warwick.
H. W. Acland, M.D., Reader in Anatomy, Oxford.
Dr. Charlton, Newcastle.
J. Scouler, M.D., Dublin.
Dr. CogsweU.
W. A. GreeuhUl, M.D., Oxford.
C. Hastings, M.D., Worcester.
Dr. G. Hartlaub, Bremen.

Dr. Davis, Bath.


Dr. Bennet, Sydney.
T.Horsfield,M.D.", F.R.S.
Hugh Falconer, M.D., F.R.S.

(liro copies).

J. S.

Sir William Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E.

The Very Reverend the Dean of Westminster.


Reverend The Master of University CoUege, Oxford.

Pres. R.S.

YarreU, Esq., F.L.S.

Adam

White, Esq., F.L.S.


G. R. Gray, Esq F.L.S.
T. C. Eyton, Esq., F.L.S'.
Major P. T. Cautley.
,

John Croker.
T. B. L. Baker, Esq., Hardwick Court, Gloucester.
Lieut.

J. WoUey, Esq., Edinburgh.


A. Carruthers, Esq., Warmanbie, Dumfi-iesshirc.
Andi-ew Murray, Esq., W.S., Edinburgh.
John M.Fenwick, Esq., GaUow HUl, Morpeth.
G. R. Waterhouse, Esq., British Museum.

W. Thompson,

Esq., Belfast.

A. Johnstone, Esq., HaUeaths, Dumfriesshire.


G. Shuttleworth, Esq.
W. Bell Macdonald, Esq., Rammerscales, Dumiriesshire.
Archibald Hepburn, Esq.
D. W. intcheU, Esq., Sec. Z.S.
Robert Ileddel, Esq.
H. N. Turner, Esq.
T. Stevenson, Esq., C.E., Edinbm-gh.
Samuel Maunder, Esq.
W. H. Lizars, Esq., Edinburgh.
J. W. Salter, Esq.
C, Winn, Esq., NostaU Priory, Yorkshire.
J. D. Murray, Esq., JIurraythwaite, Dumfriesshire.
H. B. W. MUner, Esq., AU Souls' CoUege, Oxford.
W. V. Guise, Esq., Elmore Com-t, Gloucester.
And. Jardine, Esq., Lanrig Castle, StirUngshire.
Edward Wilson, Esq., Lydstip House, Tenby.
John Henry Gurney, Esq.

C.C.C, Oxford.
H. Wilson, Esq., Wadham CoUege, Oxford.
Henry Deane, Esq.
George Peevor, Esq.

P. L. Sclater, Esq.,
J.

T. A. Knipe, Esq., Clapham.

M.

Fairmaii-e, Paris.

W.

Orde, Esq., Nunnykirk, Morpeth.


Samuel E. Cottam, Esq., Brazennose Street, Manchester.
H. Hussey, Esq., 6, Upper Grosvenor Street, London.

C.

LoveU Reeve,

Esq., F.L.S.

E. Benliam, Esq.
F. Reeve, Esq.

CONTENTS.

Page.

Pakt

I.

History and

external characters of the

Dodo,

Solitaire,

and other Brevi-

pennate birds of Mauritius, Eodriguez, and Bourbon


Introduction

Chap.

I.

The Brevipeiuiate Bird

of ilauritius, the

Dodo

......

3
7

Historical E\'idences

Section II. Pictorial Evidences

28

Section III. Anatomical E\adences

31

Section

I.

Section IV. Affinities of the

Dodo

Chap. II. The Brevipennate Bird of Eodriguez, the Solitaire

Part

35

.....

46

Chap. III. Brevipennate Birds of the Isle of Boui-bon

57

Postscript to Part 1

63

II.

Osteology of the

Dodo and

Solitaire

69

Introduction

Chap.

I.

Osteology of the

67

Dodo

71

Chap. II. Osteology of the Solitaire

113

Postscript to Part II

120

Appendix A. Translations of foreign

B. Bibhography of the

extracts in Part 1

Bidina

123
127

Explanation of the plates

135

Index

139

PART

I.

HISTORY AND EXTERNAL CHARACTERS

DODO, SOLITAIRE,
AND OTHER

EXTINCT BREVIPENNATE BIRDS

MAURITIUS, RODRIGUEZ, AND BOURBON.

H.

E.

STRICKLAND,

M.

A.,

F. G. S.

INTRODUCTION.

Among
has

many remarkable

the

with Organic Life which modern Science

results connected

the chronological succession of distinct races of beings

elicited,

one of the most

is

Geology exhibits to us the vast diversity of organized forms which have

interesting.

supplanted one another tlu-oughout the world's history, and in deahng with this remarkable
fact,

we

are led to search out the causes for these exits

on the stage of Nature.


Nature in the Species
is

It appears,

and entrances of successive actors

indeed, highly probable that Death

as well as in the Individual

agents have affected the distribution of organic

its

inference.

The

effects,

and which

viz.

made known

is

object of the present treatise

is

Numerous

at various periods,

life

has operated exclusively during the existing epoch,


peculiar in

a law

of

but this internal tendency to extinction

both cases Uable to be anticipated by violent or accidental causes.

in

is

to

external

and one of these

the agency of Man, an influence

by testimony

us

as

well as by

some remarkable examples of

to exhibit

the extinction of several ornithic species, constituting an entire sub-family, tln-ough

Human

agency, and under circumstances of peculiar interest.

The geographical

distribution of organic groups in space

of science than their geological succession in time.

between the structures of organized bodies and the


they inhabit.

We

is

a no less interesting result

find a special relation to exist

districts of the earth's surface

which

Certain groups of animals or vegetables, often very extensive, and containing

a multitude of genera or of species, are found to be confined to certain continents and


their cii'cumjacent islands.'

In the present state of science

the existence of this law, without being able to enmiciate

'

To

cite

one instance among a thousand

the group of

exclusively confined to the American continent and the

Humming

we must be

its

preamble.

content to admit
It does not

imply

Birds, containing hundreds of species,

West Indian Archipelago.

is

INTRODUCTION.

iv.

on

that organic distribution depends

soil

and climate

of these conditions in opposite hemispheres


florae

almost wholly diverse.

are

It

and

in

for

we

often find a perfect identity

remote continents, whose faunae and

does not imply that allied but distinct organisms

have been educed by generation or spontaneous development from the same original stock

we

for (to pass over other objections;

fi'om

find detached volcanic islets

which have been ejected

beneath the ocean, (such as the Galapagos for instance,) inhabited by

allied to those of the nearest continent,

But

never connected with them.

though hundreds of miles

may

this fact

forms

terrestrial

and evidently

distant,

new

indicate that the Creator in forming

organisms to discharge the functions required from time to time by the ever vacillating
balance of Nature, has thought

fit

to preserve the regularity of the

System by modifying

the types of structure already estabUshed in the adjacent localities, rather than to proceed
2^er saltmi
this

by introducing forms of more foreign

aspect.

We

need not, however, pursue

enquiry further into obscurity, but will merely refer to the law of geographical

distri-

bution, as bearing on the subject before us.

In the Indian Ocean, to the east of Madagascar, are three small volcanic islands, which,

though somewhat scattered, are nearer to each other than to any neighbom-ing land.

This

circumstance gives them a claim to be regarded as a geographical group, a meagre fragment

and

of an archipelago, although in a general sense they are connected with Madagascar,

more remotely with the African

continent.

In conformity with the above-mentioned relation

between geographical distribution and organic structure, we find that a small portion of
the indigenous animals and plants of those islands are either allied or identical with the

products of Africa, a larger portion with those of Madagascar, while certain species are

And

pecidiar to the islands themselves.

compared

to other lands, so

do we find

in

as these three islands

them a pecuUar group

in each island, yet allied together in their general characters,

any known forms in other parts of the world.


proportions, the wings too short

and

feeble for flight, the

colonized by

Man, by

whom

and so complete was


navigators

were

long

About two

and remarkably
size

isolated

regarded

as

fabulous

from

and grotesque

plumage loose and decomposed,

The

history of these birds

centuries ago their native isles were

these strange creatures were speedily exterminated.

their extinction that the

cluster, as

of birds, specifically different

These birds were of large

and the general aspect suggestive of gigantic immatmity.


as remarkable as their organization.

form a detached

was
first

So rapid

vague descriptions given of them by early


or

exaggerated,

and these

bii'ds,

almost

INTRODUCTION.

contemporaries of our great-grandfathers, became associated in the minds of

with the Griffin and the Phoenix of mythological antiquity.


is

to vuidicate the honesty of the

fragments of these

persons

of the present

rude voyagers of the 17th century, to

work

collect together

which we possess, to describe and depict the few anatomical

evidences

scattered

the

The aim

many

which are

species

lost

search for fiu-ther evidences,

and

to infer

extant, to incite

still

the scientific traveller to

from the data before us the probable rank of

these birds in the System of Natui-e.

These singular

name

technical

which

bii-ds,

the

furnish

Bidince,

human

organic species through

first

agency.

human

of

tide

now undergoing

clearly
It has

attested instances

Man

fruitful

We

population.^

cannot

see

domain

no

less

of future ages wall have a


at present.

It

is,

In the case of the


tory information as

'

ill

As

iustauces, I

ancient,
^

much narrower

to

losses

field for his researches

where

it is

their

doom

structure,

the

Stelleri, or

animals whose

a living pail-);

now

is

Cenm

ih.e.

New

Zealand

habits,

when he

and

affinities.

in

modern

of

than that which we enjoy

is

unable to preserve their

jjrobably not far distant


forest,

ai-e

We

possess only the rude

and the Bos prim igenius, or Urus, destroyed

times.

the Bison prisms, or Aiu'ochs, (preserved only

whence the Czar has

lately eni'iclicd the

London

Zoological

Nestor productus, (a Parrot originally from Phillip's Island near Norfolk Island,

destroyed, though a few individuals, which refuse to propagate,

The progress

Animal and Vegetable existence may

megnceros, or Irish Elk,

Northern Dugong,

(not improbable three) species of Jpterijx


of

it."

unfortunately no easy matter to collect satisfac-

is

it

by imperial intervention in the Bialowicksa

Gardens with

destined by his Creator

which the organic creation seems destined to sustain.

Didina:,

may mention

and the Rytina

Among

is

therefore, the duty of the naturalist to preserve to the stores of Science

no detriment by the

suffer

Man

and hence the Zoologist or Botanist

territories of Natm-e,

so that our acquaintance with the marvels of

last

whose progenitors colonized the pre-adamite Earth

the knowledge of these extinct or expiring organisms,


lives

of

than his numerical increase, continually extends the geographical

by trenching on the

of Art

extinction

without regret the extinction of the

and multiply and replenish the Earth and subdue

in civilization,

the

by the

been proved, however, that other examples

but our consolation must be found in the reflection, that

"be

of

designate

this inevitable process of destruction before the ever-advancing

individual of any race of organic beings,

to

henceforth

shall

and since;' and many species of animals and of

of the kind have occurred both before

plants are

we

distinction

for

and

tlic

still

survive in cages); the two

almost equally anomalous burrowing Parrot, Slriyops Iwbroptilus,

&c.

INTRODUCTION.

descriptions of unscientific voyagers, three or four

oil

paintings,

and a few scattered osseous

fragments, which have survived the neglect of two hundred years.


in

many

cases, far better data for

The

paleontologist has,

determining the zoological characters of a species which

perished myriads of years ago, than those presented by a group of birds, several species of

which were living

We

shall

separately.

in the reign of

find

And,

it

Charles the First.

convenient to treat of each island, and of

first,

of the

best

brevipeniiate bird of Mauritius, the

known and most

Dodo.

its

ornithic productions,

celebrated of these creatures, the

THE

NATURAL HISTORY

DODO, SOLITAIRE,
PART

I.

CHAPTER
The Brevipennate Bird
Section

I.

Bwision of the subject

of Mam-itius, the

Historical evidences

I.

Dodo, {Bidm

Discovery of

ineptus of Linnaeus.)

leg at

Ley den

character of modern

Most

Account given by
Dodo Negative

connected with that extraordinary

with the general facts

known by

the

name

of the Bodo,

grotesque appearance, and the faihu"e of every effort


discover living specimens, long caused

We

of Ver-

evidence.

persons are acquainted

production of Nature,

London

Ragen ;

Extinction of the

of Van der

exhibited in

CaucJie

Voyage of Fan Neck

the Islands

Voyage of Matelief;
Dodo
hufen; of Van dtn Broecke; of Herbert; of
by Olearim Harry's Voyage
Tradescant
by Piso
by Hubert
ofHeemskerk and WillemDodo's

&c.

its

that strange abnormal Bu-d,

made

whose

for the last century and a half to

very existence to be doubted by scientific naturalists.

possess, however, unquestionable evidence that such a bird formerly existed in the small

Island of Mauritius, and

it is

ascertained with no less certainty that the species has been

utterly exterminated for a period of nearly

The

evidences which

we

two

centuries.

possess respecting the Dodo,

may be

conveniently arranged on

the plan adopted by Mr. Broderip, in his valuable essay on the subject,' by dividing
into historical, pictorial,

and

real.
'

Penny Cyclopsedia

vol. ix. p. 47.

them

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

I.

In enumerating the historical evidences on this subject, I shall confine myself to

The

such authorities as appear to be original and independent of each other.


often confounded

by these witnesses have been transcribed and


and

facts

recorded

by a multitude of compilers,

therefore indispensable to our purpose to attend mainly to the statements of original

it is

and

observers,

to refer only incidentally to the remarks of commentators.

It has also

appeared

desu-able not merely to translate, but to reprint the exact words of those brave old voyagers,

who

and medical

in the infancy of nautical

and yet found means

suifering,

science,

encountered a vast amount of peril and

and record the natural wonders which came

to observe

in

their way.

Compilers are unanimous

discovered by Mascaregnas, a Portuguese,


called

the former Cerne.'

statement, though

is

it

exploits of

who gave

own name

his

probably founded on

first

to the latter island,

have not been able to find the original

and the other authors who

Lafitau,

the Islands of Mauritius and Bom'bon were

in stating that

authority for

and
this

Castagneda, Osorio, Barros, Roman,

fact.

treat of the Portuguese conquests in India, record the

Pedro Mascaregnas, and of two or three other persons of the name, but apparently

allusion to the discovery of these islands, which, indeed, lay completely out of the

make no

There

ordinary track of the Portuguese navigators.

1502

assigned to the discovery, which one writer^ fixes at

Be

fourth,^ at 1545.*'

1542; and a

recorded of Mauritius or

its

this as

it

may,

a second,^ at

1505

a third,* at
definite is

Dutch under Jacob Cornelius

the

uninhabited, took possession, and changed

it

seems clear that nothing

it

1598, when

productions until

Neck, or Van Neck, finding

also a great discrepancy in the date

is

its

name from

Cerne to Mauritius.
The Portuguese

'

that

it

discoverers

punctuation of the

text, lay off the

downwards,

insist that the

compared

Swans

to

is

which the

vol. iv. p.

Portuguese called

sailors

wholly irrelevant.

Good Hope, a bay

called Solitaries

The

bii-ds

without developed feathers.

(De

Good Hope, has been

143, and vol.

Du

>

In one of

Quesne

V Acad,

corru])ted

indicated as "

I.

Swan

of Africa (see A. de

Island,

that Vasco de

San Blaz, near an

from the Dodos, which they

Gama,

in

1497, discovered, sixty

island full of bii-ds with wings like

He

Sotilicairos,

Dr. Hamel, in a Memoir in the Bulletin de

vol. iv. p. 53,

la

has devoted an unnecessary amount of

shews that the name

Solitaires, as

appKed to Penguins by

which appeal's to be a Hottentot word.


''

Grant's Mauritius.

on the authority of a stone

Bry's maps, which Ulustrates

de Mascarenhas."

p. 47.)

bats, ii'om being

This small island inhabited by Penguins, near the Cape

route.

de St. Petersbourg,

from

in Leguat's A' oyage,

De

e.

i.

gratuitously confounded with Mauritius.

is

West Coast

Later authors, however, from Clusius

never went near Mauritius, but hugged the African Coast as far as Melinda)

Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopadie.

344).

Nouv. Ann. Mus. H.N., and Penny Cyclop. Dodo,

Blainville,

erudition to the refutation of this obvious mistake.

companions,

an island which, according to the usual

are evidently Penguins, and their wings were compared to those of

De Gama

Clause Physico-matldmatique de

De Gama's

9.),

v. p.

The statement

called after

and then crossed to India, returning by the same


of

x.

Cerne or Ckiie,

it

(see Clusius, Exotica, p. 101).

leagues beyond the Cape of

36, and

vi.

Persian Gidf, but was more proljably on the

Grandsagne's edition of Pliny, Paris, 1829,

bats,

have named this island Ceriw, from an utterly untenable notion

appear to

might be the Cerne of Pliny (Hist. Nat.

pillar,

^q first Dutch

placed in

Penny Cyclopedia.

Bourbon by the Portuguese.

expedition of 1595-1597, these islands are

Piatt 11 f.:)

Comment nous avons

[sur flsle

Maurice, autrement nommee do Cerne) tenu mesmge.

Fac-smdle of Plate 2 of

Tan ISTeclis Voyage.

No.

2.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

In the published naiTativc of this Voyage,^

1.

them

wings, but in place of


five

size of

stated that they found in the island

they deno-

swans, with a large head furnished with a kind of hood

three or four small black quUls

The Dutch

curled plumes of a grey colour.

birds,

it is

among which were some which

a variety of pigeons, parroquets, and other birds,

minated Walchvogel, the

from the toughness of their

sailors called

might be expected

flesh, as

them Walckvoyel, or dugmtinij

in the strongly developed crural

muscles of a cm-sorial bird, though they found the pectoral muscles more palatable.

ample supply of turtle-doves

The following

is

De

differs in sense, the latter is

" Insula dicta praeterquam quod


alit,

be the

less

quoted also

nascentibus feracissima

terrse

sit,

volucres etiam copiosissimas

ut sunt, turtures, qui tanta ibi copia obversantur, uttemi nostrum dimidii diei spatio

ceperimus, plui-es facile prehensmi manibus, aut coesuri fustibus,

preeter quas

Caudam

loco tres quatuorve penuse nigriores prodeunt.

(" au lieu du Cap, out

teueriusculEe,

ils

et masticationis facUis erant;

saporis longe gratioris et suavioris."

print, of

the abundance of this virgin

lUarum tamen

{" voire fort coriaces,

De Bry,

qzi'

which a

ils

chargent ung

The

earliest

ils

et troure

et

by

l'

estomach

et

translation the refreshing simplicity of

it.

mr V Ide Maurice,

se tiemicnt sur

homme

grandeur d'un pied, qu'

'

estoient medicine pour

fac-simile is annexed, exhibits the voyagers revelling in

I will not spoil

isle.

avons veu

"1. Sont Tortues qui


qu'

mak

longius sen diutius

ventres et pectora saporis

pars V. p. 7.

the Batavo-GaUic description which accompanies


" Declaration de ce

carent

Appellationis causa altera erat, quod turtures ibi optabUi copia nobis sufficerent^

la poictrine," Fr.).

The quaint old

alis

quatre ou cincq plumettes cresjmes," Fr.) colorem cineris

elixarentur, plus lentescerent et esui ineptiores fierent.

jucundi

Hee aves

cgnstituunt pauculse incurvis pennse

Has nos Walckvogel appeOitabamus, banc ob causam, quod quo

referentes.

nimium nos

genus aliud quoque grandius conspicitur, cygnis nostris majus (" de la grandeur de

nos Cignes," Pr.) capitibus vastis, et pelle ex dimidia parte q. cucuUis investitis.

quarum

150 aliquando

illorum onere non

si

Csrulei quoque psittaci {" parroqueis gris," Fr.) ibi frequentes sunt ut et aves

pressos sensissemus.
alise

The

esteemed.

Bry's version of this account, and in cases where the French transla-

(Amsterdam, 1601)

tion

also caused the Walckvogel to

no

and the taU consisted of four or

1'

et

haut pays, frustez

rampent encore

fort

est par

de ce qui
d' aisles

nous execute. No.

pour nager, de

telle

:i.

grandeur,

roidement; prenneut aussi des Escriuisses de

la

mengeut.

account of this voyage which I have seen, was published in

folio at

Amsterdam, by Comeille

Nicolas in 1601, and a second edition in 1009, both of which are bomid up in a folio volume of rare tracts,
preserved in the EadcUife Library.

It is entitled

'

Le second

Livre, Journal

cours et Nan'ation historique du voyage faict par les huict Navires d'
la conduitte

de

1'

Admiral Jaques Comeille Necq,

editions were published at the

translation of

same
is

yeai- in

it

occupies the

London.

therefore in error

was published

at

fifth

part of

De

et

du Vice-Admiral Wibrant de Warwicq.'

latter

states

in 1725.

le

Bi-y's India Orientalis,

(Nouv. Ann. Mus. H. N.

vray Dis-

Dutch and

by Hulsius, Niirnberg, 1602, and Frankfort, 1605

Editions were also published in quarto at

when he

Rouen

same time, the

ou Comptoir, contenant

Amsterdam au mois de Mars I'Au 1598 soubs

Gei-maii

a Latin

1601, and an English version appeared the

Amsterdam

vol. iv. p. 4)

in

1648 and 1650

that the

first

M. de BlainviUe

account of this voyao-e

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

10
"

2.

nomme

Est una: oiseau, par nous

Oiseau de Nausee, a

couvert de deux ou trois plumettes crespues, caxent des

quatre plumettes noires

1'

une Cigne, ont

instar d'

le

I.

cul rond,

mais en lieu d'iceUes ont dz trois ou

aisles,

des susdicts oiseaux avons nous prins une certaine quantite, accompagne

d' aucunes TourtureUes, et

qui par noz compaiguons furent prins, la premiere

autres oiseaux,

qu' ds arrivoyeut au pays, pour chercher la plus profonde et plus fraische Riviere, et

si les

fois

navires y

pourroyent estre sauvez, et retoumerent d' une grande joye, distribuant chasque navire, de leur Venoison
prins, dont nous partismes le

auparavant y avoyent este

mais

lendemain vers

le port,

fournismes chasque navire d'un Pilote de ceux qui

avons cuict cest oiseau,

avons menge a demy cru.

que ne

estoit si coriace

au port, envoya

Si tost qu' arrivames

povions asses bovillir,

le

Vice-Admiral nous, avecq

le

une certaine troupe au pays, pour trouver aucun peuple, mais n'ont trouve personne, que des TourtureUes et autres en grande abondance, lesquels nous prismes et tuames, car veu qu' d n' y eust

personne qui

les

En somme c'

effraia,

n' avoient

ilz

de nous nidle crainte, tindrent

un pays abondant en poisson

est

se laissereut

lieu,

teUement qu'

et oiseaux, voire

assomer.

excella tous les autres

il

audit voyage.

"

3.

Un Dactier, dont les

sans se mouillir, et

amiable et doux

nomme
"

sont

feiidles

quand on y

un

forre

mais quand on

gard

le

si

grandes qu' un

homme

en peult guarantir contre

s'

y sort d du

trou, et le mette en broche


trois

ou quatre

commene' d

jours,

vin,

la pluie

comme vin

Secq,

a aigrer, et pourtant est

vin de Palmite.

4.

nomme Rabos

Est un oiseau de nous

Force, fort domptez,

quasi noirs,

quand on

et

Forcados} a cause de leur queue en forme d' une

extend, ont ds bien la longeur

les

d'

une

brassee, a long becq, tous

ayants une poictrine blanche, prennent du poisson volant, qu' ds mengent, aussi

avons experimente a ceux qu' avions prins, car quand nous

comme

des poissons et oiseaux,

les

boyaux

les appres-

tames, et dejettames les entrailles, engloutirent et devoroyent ds lesdicts eutrailles et precordes de

5.

leui's

Estoyent fort coriaces en cuisant.

confreres.

"

il

Est un oiseau de nous

nomme

le

Corbeau Indien,^ ayant

grandeur plus d' une

la

fois

que

les

Parroquets, de double et triple couleur.

"6.

Un

arbre sauvage,

aucuiis navires)

un

aisselet,

y pourroyent arriver
des armoires d' TLollande, Zelande, et d' Amsterdam, a fin qu' autres

auquel nous avons mis

ome

est

en taiderent cest

un

Palmite.

esclat,

longueur de deux ou

la

souvenance

que

Bonne

les

Hollandois y avoyent

partie

de ces

arbres,

este.

par dedans tout blanc

pieds,

douce

compagnons abatus,

et

maladie aux membres, de

la

furent par nos

quotee de la lettre A, bonne remedee pour


trois

si

arrivants audit lieu, pourroyent veoir

"7. Cecy

(pour

la

aucuns en mangerent bien sept

ou huict.

"

8.

Est une Chauvesouris, testue en forme de Marmelot, volent icy en grande multitude, se

pendent en grand nombre aux arbres, ont a


"

9.

Icy dressa

la fois

Mareschal une Forge,

le

et

un combat
pancba

entr' eux,

en se mordants.

la ferrade, repara aussi certain fer qui fust

es navires.

"10. Sont Cabannes par nous dlecq construits d' arbres


Mareschal

"11.

et

Tonnelier a besoigner

En

ce lieu

fit

pour partir avec

This bird

is

et feivdles,

the Fregata aquila, Lin.

pour ceux qui aidoyent

le

premiere commodite.

nostre Ministre Philippe Pierre Delphois

Presche fort severe, sans exception de personne, deux

'

la

homme

fois sur la ditte Isle,

syncere et candide, une

devant

le disner

species oi Buceros.

y alia

1'

une

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

partie, et apres le disner

1'

Icy fut Lam-ent [Madagascarois) baptise, accompagne encore d'

autre.

ou deux des nostres.


" 12. Icy fismes estude de pescher,
coup bien deux

seul

uii

en prismes une quantite incroyable, voire en prismes d' un

et

demie tonneaux, touts de diverses couleuis."

et

shorter and less complete narrative of this voyage seems to have been published in

German, which
in

11

which the Walckvogel are

Walchmjds

WalcJistocieri seu

essent, socii

magna

copia

India Orientalis,' 1601, p. 105.

'

mentioned as follows

briefly

" Eodem quoque loco aves

pariter ibidem

fomlh part of De Bry's

translated^ in the

is

plurimse, inveniuntur, tarn grandes ut

Columbarum

nostri, grandioribus

Sed cum

erant.

Psittacorum appareret, quse adiposse et mansu suavissimse

et

serumnas suas

delicatiores et teneriores aves elegerunt et

fastiditis,

Has

geminos cycnos aequent.

quarum cames esu baud incommodse

noniiuabaut,

iEarum mactatione diluerunt."

These birds are also professedly represented in plate


are evidently copied from

reproduce them here.


statement, if true

no

Cassoioaries, they are of

same work, but

authority,

and

cicurum ut fustibus eas prostraverint.

Sed

is

numerum quoque maximum

et alias

ibidem aves

But

as

to Holland.

repererunt,

tam

quas Walcl-vogel

visse sunt,

Batavi nominarunt, et iinam secum in Hollandiam importarimt."

an important

them

that the voyagers brought one of these birds with

" In eadem insula Psittacorum Colurabarumque

as the figures

do not therefore

In the description, however, at the foot of this plate

viz.,

III. of the

no contemporary

author, not even the diligent Clusius, makes any further allusion to the importation of so

remarkable a bird,

no

history,

known

less

it

is

possible that

that a live Cassowary

was brought
There

for believing that a living

the

quarter of the 17 th century.

would appear from the 'Exotica'

voyage had been published

Nor

is

this

country, and

in his time,

really

'

how

Clusius's

the account of

in his

'

Memoire sur

Van Neck's Voyage

figure

little

the

of

Van Neck

la Collection des

in Part IV. of

De

Part v., and not a translation of a separate narrative.

have been composed by

attracted

it

De Bry from

well

much

show, strong

1605, that a third account of

Dutch

literature

this

Dodo

works of our enterprising

evidently distinct from,

is

{supra, plate II. fig. 2.),

He

studied in this

is

and

is

adds that the beak was thick and

grands et petits Voyages,' Paris, 1803,

De

in
p.

213.

Bry, to be only an abridgment of that given

He

Bry's

title

considers

in extenso

in

also is of opinion that the first four plates of Part IV.

the description given by the voyagers

marvellous about them, which favours this idea.

and

copied, he says,

from the words " omnia ex Germanico Latinitate donata,"

at least is the inference

But Camus

is

it

brought to Holland some time during

Clusius,

of

where

I shall afterwards

deficient are the best British libraries in the

accurate than, the one given by

Such

have confounded the

which seems to be unknovm to British bibliographers.

from a published account of Van Neck's voyage.

page.

may

to Holland,

however, as

any marvel, when we consider how

neighbours in Holland.

more

1597

in
are,

Dodo was

grounds

It

Bry, or his authority,

than the portrait, of the Cassowary with that of the Dodo, for

attention (Clusius, Exotica, p. 97).

first

De

and certainly there

is

a touch of the

[Part

HISTOEICAL EVIDENCES

12

T.

The upper mandible was hooked, the

long, yellowish next the head, with a black point.

lower had a bluish spot in the middle between the yellow and black part, the bu-d was
covered with thin and short feathers, the hinder part was very

He

and

figured.

His original words are

in Holland,
as follows

ex Hollandia solvebant, &c., quinque

....

octo navibus

Dum

valde peregrinam, cujus iconem

liistoriam coutinente,

Ex

illis

quse anno 1598^ Aprili mense,

montosain quandam insulam in conspectu habuenmt, ad

cursum coiivertemnt

Isetabmidi

one of which, about an inch in length, he has

"Cap. IV. Gallinacem Gallus peregrinus.

illas

were

further states, that stones were found in the gizzards of these birds,

saw two of these stones

atque inter

fleshy, the legs

and

knee with black feathers, the

that he

quam

and

feet yellowish, the toes three before

thick, covered to the

one behind.

fat

mdi

in insula haerent, varii generis aves observabant

arte delineatam in Diario

totam

quod reduces cudi curabant, conspiciebam, ad cujus normam

illius

navigationis

est expressa

quam

hoc capiti propono.

" Ela porro


longe diversa:

avis peregi'ina

Cygnum quidem magnitudine


magnum, tectum

ejus etenim caput

rostrum prseterea non planimi, sed erassum

et

veluti

asquabat aut superabat, sed ejus forma

quadam membrana cucidlum

oblongum, subflavi

referente;

coloris parte capiti proxima, cujus

extimus mucro niger, superior quidem ejus pars sive prona adunca et curva, in iuferiore verb sive
supina subcserulea macula

tectam

mediam partem

inter flavam et

nigram occupabat.

Raris et bre\abus pennis

abs carere, sed earimi loco quaternas aut quinas dumtaxat longiusculas nigi'as

esse' aiebant, et

pennas habere: posteriorem autem corporis partem prsepinguem et valde crassam, in qua pro cauda
quaternse aut quiuse crispse convolutseque pennulse cineracei coloris
longa,

quormn supema

crura

pars genu tenus nigris pennulis tecta, inferior

UH

cum

potiiis crassa esse

quam

pedibus subflavi coloris

pedes verb in r^uatuor digitos fuisse divisos, ternos longiores autrorsimi spectantes, quartiuu breviorem
retrorsiim conversum,

omnesque

nigris

bant suo idiomate Walgh-vogel, hoc


ejus caro

non

ventriculo, qufe

fieret

est,

tenerior, sed dm-a

non contemnendi

nauseam movens
permaneret et

facile carere

avis,

partim quod post diuturnam elixationem,

difficibs

saporis esse comperiebant,)

poterant, quos debcatiores et ori magis grates reperiebant

temnerent, et ea se

Nautse huic avi nomen inde-

unguibus praeditos

posse dicerent.

concoctionis, (excepto ejus pectore et

partim quod multos tmiures nancisci

mliil igitur

mirum

si

prse

illis

hanc avem con-

In ejus pon'b ventriculo quosdam lapUlos inventos

Ch.

OP THE DODO.

I.]

quorum bmos hue

aiebant,

eosque

quem

cineracei coloris

et orbicularem,

alteram insequalem et angulosiun,

In 1601 two

fleets of

Dutch

sliips,

Harmansen's ships touched

his

kept by Reyer Cornelisz, and printed in the

'

way, but in the published

His companion Heemskerk, however,

homeward voyage

in 1602,

and

in a journal

Begin ende voortgang van de Vereenighde

Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie' (oblong 4to, 1646,


" or Dodos,
p. 30 of Van der Hagen's Voyage, we read of " Wallichvogels

"Op

in ejus

but soon

sailed for the East Indies,

at Maiu-itius in their

remained nearly three months in Mauritius, on

game

nou

one commanded by Wolphart Harmansen, or

accounts of his voyage no mention of Dodos occurs.

of other

est,

Exotica, p. 99.

Harmansz, and the other by Jacob Van Heemskerk,


separated.

iUum unciabs

juxta pedes avis exprimendum curabam, bmic majorem et graviorem, utruinque

eos ab ave in maris littore lectos, delude devoratos fuisse verisimile

ventriculo natos."
2.

apud oniatissimiun viriun Cliristianum Porretum,

perlatos conspiciebam

uuuin plenum

cliversa3 formae,

magnitudiuis,

13

vol.

s. 1.)

among

at

i,,

a variety

bet lant

onthouden baer Scbiltpadden, WaUlchrogek, Flamencos, Gansen, Eendt-vogels,

Velt-hoenders, soo groot as kleyne Indiaensche Eavens, Duyveu, daer onder sommiglie met roo steerten,

man

(van de welcke menig

sieck geweest

is,)

grauwe ende groene Papegayen, met lange

steerten,

waer

van datter sommiglie ghevangen werden."

One of the

8.

Captains

van West-Zanen, has

left

who

sailed in the fleet of

He

Mauritius.^
to have been

commanded by Admu-al Schum-mans, and

The

important particulars.

suffering from surfeit, like

and

his editor

sailors appear,

Van Neck's

on

crew.

Soeteboom, yet

this occasion, to

it

five

stayed a considerable time at

makes repeated mention of Dod-aarsen, or Dodos, and though

somewhat amplified by

when

In 1602 Willem sailed from Batavia with

was edited and enlarged by H. Soeteboom.'


richly laden ships,

Heemskerk and Harmansz, named Willem

a journal, which apparently was not published until 1C48,

it

contains

his account

some

seems

original

and

have revelled in Dodos, mthout

If the statements are coiTect that three or four,

in one instance two, of these birds fiu-nished an ample meal for Vl^illem's men, the bulk

of the

Dodo must have been

asserted

by

Sii-

mention these
'

This tract

T. Herbert.
birds,

is

prodigious, and might well have equalled

As this

and annex a

entitled

'

fifty

pounds weight,

as

tract is very rare, I will extract, in full, the passages wliich

literal translation.

Derde voornaemste Zee-getogt (der verbondene vrye Nederlanderen) na de Oost-Indien,

gedaan met de Acliinsche en Moluksche Vloteu, onder de Ammiralen Jacob Heemskerk en Wolfert Harmansz.
In den Jare 1601, 1603, 1603.

Getrocken Uyt de naarstige aanteekeningen van

WUiem

op de Brain- Vis, en met eenige noodige byvoegselen vermeerdert, door H. Soete-Boom.


(Brit.
2

Mus.

sp

f.

kerk's Vice-Admiral, in the spring of 1603.

afterwards.

4to.

Amsterdam, 164S.'

16.)

After leaving Mauritius, Schuunaaus returned to Holland in company with

expedition was

van West-Zanen, Schipper

commanded by Van Neck,

So that Clusius

is

as the latter did not

Harmansen and Gamier, Heems-

mistaken in saying {Exotica, p. 101,) that this


return from his second voyage until some years

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

14
" De Vogelen (daar

van vol

't

Sparwers, Valken, Lijsters,

is) zijn

van

allerliande slag

Vlen^ Swaluwen, en menigten van

alle

dagen uyt

om

kleyn gevleugelt goet ; witte en swarte

Koeyen vander

Eeygers, Gansens, Eent-Vogels, Docl-aarsen, Schil-padden,

" Waren de Sclieep-lieden

Duyven, Papegayen, Indische-Eavens,

't

I.

zee."

19, p. 2.

fol.

Vogelen en meer andere gedierten

(diese

op

't

Landt

vinden konden) te jagen, daar benevens hieldense nan op, met de Zegens, Hoeken, en andere vissing in
de weer te zijn

viervoetige gedierten, uytgezondert Katten, zijnder niet, de onse

Bocken, Geyten en Verkens op-geplaut

De Eeygeren toonden

tacken der

waren niet wel te krijgen, vermits haar vlugt in de dichte

hebben namaels daar

ongetemder

liaar

Boomen

andere Vogelen,

als
;

zy grepen Vogelen

by sommige Dod-aarsen, by sommige Dronten genaamt ; kregen den naam van W^aUich-Vogels, ten
tijden dat

Nek

Jacob van

duyfjes

(diese

om

hier was,

bleven, uytgesondert de borst en

maag

datse door

t'

lang zieden naulijx

om

ook

die seer goet waren,

sy

hebben grootc hoofden, en daar kapkens op,

en staarten, hebben alleen ter zyden kleine wiekxkens, achter vier of

wat meer verhieven

ronde stuyten, mosten (om datse wel gevoedt waien) mede stuyt keren;

rep en roer wat sig maar reppen kond, de Visschen die voor eenige jaren vredig leefden,

al in

wierden in de diepste water-kuylen na-gejaagi," &c.

" Deu 25
al't

vijf veerkens,

p. 1.

"De Dod-aarsen met haar


was

haar

zijn sonder vleugelen

hebben bekken en voeten, en gemenehjk in de maag een steen eens vnysten groote

hebbende." fol. 21,

't

wilden, tay en hard

konde bekomen) genoegsaamde de walg kregen van de gemelde Dod-aarsen;

afbeeltsel is in de voorige Plaat

van de andere

murruw

datse door de overvloedige Tortel-

(Julius) bracht V\'illem

met

zijn

^Tol.

21, p. 2.

matrosen eenige Dod-aarsen die seer vet waren

Scheep,

scheepvolk, hadden aau (hie of ^^er tot een maal-tijdt genoeg te kluyven, en daar schoot noch
Sie schikten gerookte Vis, en ook gesouten Dod-aarsen, nevens Land-Scliil-padden,

over

en andere Vogelen, aan boordt, weike voor-sorg daar na wel


eenige dagen doende en besig aan

't

Scliip

te

brengen

van Oegst-maandt 50 grote Vogelen in AtBrui/n-Vis,

liier

mede nog

de Matrosen van W^illem brachten op den 4

liier

onder waren 24 of 25 Dod-aarsen, so groot

en swaar datser ter maaltijd geen twee dar van opeten mogteii,
sout gesmeten."

Waren

quam.

te bate

al

watter voorts over was, wierd' in

't

Fol. 22, p. 2.

" 'S anderen-daags toog Hogeveen (WiUems Coopman) met

vier

matrosen uyt de

stocken, netten, mosqueten, en ander gereetscha'p, op de Jacht, rende Heuvel en

en Valey door, en viugen in de

di-ie

dagen datse

u}^:

't

andere volk vande vloot, in

't

op,

met

Uepen Bosch

waren by de ander-half-hondert Vogelen, en

onder de selve wel 20 Dronten of Dod-aarsen, diese aUe

warense vorder, nevens

tent, versien

Berg

'i

Scheep brachten en in

Vogelen en Visschen

't

besig."^

sout staken, sulx

Fol. 23, p. 1.

TEANSLATION.
" The birds

(of wliich the island is fuU) are of

Hawks, Thrushes, Owls

(?),

Swallows, and

many

aU kinds

small bii-ds

Doves, Parrots, Inchan Crows, Sparrows,

wliite

and black Herons, Geese, Ducks,

Bodos, Tortoises, Sea-cows.

" The

sailors

land, while they

were out every day to hunt for birds and other game, such as they could find on the

became

less active

with their nets, hooks, and other fisMng tackle.

No

quath'upeds

occur there except Cats, though our countrymen have subsequently introduced Goats and Swine.

Herons were

less

tame than the other

the tliick branches of the trees.

when Jacob van Neck was

birds,

They

also

and were

difficult to procure,

owing

to their flying

The

amongst

caught birds wliich some name Dod-aarsen, others Dronten

here, these birds

were called Wallkh-Vogels, because even a long boihng

OF THE DODO.

Ch. I]
would scarcely make them tender, but
and

which were very good

belly,

tliey

and

remained tough and hard, with the exception of the breast

of these bu-ds

given in the

is

they are without wings or

and commonly in the stomach a stone the

feet,

"The Dodos, mth their round


everything that could

tail,

move was

in a bustle

WUlem

the 25th July,

size of a fist.

the

fish,

wliich

had lived in peace

for

many

a year, were

.....

and

his sailors

brought some Dodos wliich were very

fat

the whole

crew made an ample meal from three or four of them, and a portion remained over
sent on board

smoked

WiHem's men brought 50

some days bringing provisions

for

large birds

and heavy, that they could not

large

They

Dodos, Land-tortoises, and other game, winch supply was very

salted

fish,

They were busy

acceptable.

and

stems, (for they were well fattened,) were also obhged to turn tad;

pursued into the deepest water-pools.

On

figui'e

with hoods thereon

winglets on their sides, and four or five feathers beliiud, more elevated than the rest.

They have beaks and

"

The

the Dodos.

little

from the abundance of Turtle-doves wliich the

also, because,

men procured, they became disgusted \nth


accompanmg plate they have great heads,
have only

15

On

to the ship.

the 4tli of

August

on board the Brui/n-Vis; among them were 24 or 25 Dodos,


eat

any two of them

for dinner,

and

all

so

that remained over was

salted.

" Another day, Hogeveen (WiUem's supercargo)

set

out from the tent with four seamen, provided

with sticks, nets, muskets, and other necessaries for hunting.

roamed

tlirough forest

and

valley,

and dming the

half himcfred of birds, including a matter of

Thus were

they,

This account
lieden" killing

and the other crews in the

Dodos

but as the

At the

artist

occupied

liier

Der pallembomen

Wylmen de

En

plate,

our name

has evidently taken Penguins as his models, I do not


:

en vlees van't pluim gediert,

sap, de dronten

papegai hoiit dat

rond van stuiten,

liij

is

For food the seamen hxmt the

The

Parrot's

And

thus

liis

life

flesh of feathered fowl,

they spare that he

among

howl,

when
first

the synonymous words Dodars, from which


introduced.

The

earliest

apparent authority

voyage of Willem van West-Zanen, but his Journal, though written

1603, seems to have been unpublished


interpolated

destroy,

may scream and

fellows to imprisonment decoy."

derived, and Bronte were

for their use is this

piept en tiert.

not easy to determine the date

Dodo

till

the other alterations

and Van der Hagen's

in

This description

made

in Willem's text

by

his editor

evidently extracted from

Matehef s Voyage.

Vide

Soeteboom.

vn-itten in

1607, but I have seen no edition of either work


is

in

1648, and these names may therefore have been

Matelief's Journal, again, which speaks of Dodaersen, otherwise Dronten, was

'

salted.

intended to represent the " Scheep-

They tap the Pahns, the round-sterned Dodos they

It is

doet dat and're meer ook raaken inder miuten."

thus Englished
"

liill

m fowling and fishing."

foot of the plate are these lines

" Vietali soektmen

't

They chmbed up mountain and

days that they were out they captured another

20 Dodos, aU wliich they brought on board and


fleet,

accompanied by a very rude

is

repeat this engraving.

Which may be

tliree

infra, p. 17.

earlier

606,

than

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

16

[Part

1646, and these words may therefore be hkewise due to the officiousness of
earhest use of the

was published

word Dodars may,

here, however,

doubt that the name

and

among Dutch

Dodaers

He tells

of Dodo.

analogous to our term " lubber

sailors,

Thomas Herbert was

Sir

expressiveness rather than elegance.

modern form

There

us that

it is

is little

Dutch language means a slufjyurd,

derived from Dodoor, which in the

is

very applicable to the lazy habits and appearance of this bird.

is

bably a cant word

its

after

occurs under the corrupt form of Toiersten.

it

The

editors.

when Verhuffen's Voyage

date from 1613,

all,

I.

the

a Portuguese word

name

in

to use this

and, in

not improat

first

doudo in the last-named language, means "foolish'' or " simple J'

is

and perhaps aims

fact,

we

find that

But as none of the

Portuguese voyagers appear to have mentioned the Dodo, nor even to have visited Mauritius
subsequently to their
It

seems

far

discovery of the island, such a derivation

first

more hkely that Dodars

Thomas, who

a genuine

is

Dutch word, and

delighted in far-fetched etymologies, altered

it

to

highly improbable.

is

Dodo

that the

pedantic Sir

in order to

make

it fit

with his philological theories.

The

derivation of the

word Dronte,

is still

more obscure than

that of Dodo.

Dutch, and Scandinavian dictionaries are alike unconscious of such a word.

Can

it

Geniian,

be synony-

mous in meaning with Dodoor, and allied to the English drone, in German, drolme ?
4.

In 1605, Clusius saw in the house of Pauwius, a professor at Leyden, a Dodo's leg,

which he describes as having the tarsus a

little

more than four inches

long,

inches in cii'cumference, covered with thick yellowish scales, broad in front,

darker coloiu-ed behind.

The middle

toe to the nail,

was a

over two inches long, the

little

two next were under two inches, and the hind toe one inch and a half
black,

and

less

than an inch long, except that of the back

of this specimen

now

is

in the publick Theater

lost.

It is

toe,

not mentioned in the

'

and nearly fomand smaller and

all

the claws were thick,

which exceeded an inch.

Catalogue of

all

and Anatomie-Hall of the University of Leiden,'

4to., Leiden,

nor in a later edition of that Catalogue, pubhshed by Gerrard Blancken, in 1707


apparently contemporaiy tract entitled
mici,
at

Lugduno-Batavi conspicua;

Leyden,

and M. de

all

;'

'

Res

curiosae et exoticaj in

in a

volume

Blainville tells us that he sought for

The following

is

" Verumenimverb, conoinnata

1678

nor in the

Ambulacro Horti Acade-

nor in two old catalogues of wet preparations preserved

which are bound together

without success.

All trace

the cheifest rarities

it

in the

Clusius' account

et descripta jam

in the Bodleian Library (Line. F. 1. 31.);

Museums

of

Leyden and Amsterdam

qua potui fide hujus

avis historia, iUius

cms genu tenus

rescissum apud CI. Y. Petrum Pawium, primarimn artis medicse in Academia Lugduno-Batava Profes-

sorem videre contigit recens e Mauritii Insula

relatuin.

Erat autem non valde longum, sed a genu

usque ad pedis inflexionem paullo plus quam quatuor uncias superabat

ejus vero crassitude

magna,

ut cujus ambitus psene quatuor uncias aequabat, crebrisque corticibus seu squamis tectum erat, prona

quidem parte

latioribus et flavescentibus,

prona pars singularibus iisque

tam

crasso crui'e

latis

nam maximi

supina verb minoribus, et fuscis

squamis prsedita, supina autem tota callosa

sive medii ad

unguem usque longitude

pedis etiam

digitorum

digiti satis breves

binas uncias non

pro

admodum

of the dodo.

Ch. L]
duorum

superabat, aliorum

verb ungues crassi, duri,

superans."
5.

Exotica,

uii^ri,

minus uncia

posterioris sescxuiciam

omnium

sed posterioris digiti longior reliquis, et unciam

longi,

100.

cap. iv. p.

Cornelius Matelief, a Dutch Admiral, arrived at Mauritius in 1606, and after alluding

in his Journal to the

abundance of birds

" On y trouve encore un

nom

d'autres lui donnent le

de degoiit, parce qu'

in the island, he proceeds

Les premiers qui vinrent en cette

ment des

ailerons

aux

cotes, et

4 ou 5

et epais, leur

petites

grises, sans

nommerent Oiseaux

plumes au

eerste die hier arriveerden

derriere,

un peu plus

sont aussi

que

elevees
ils

les autres.

out dans

Recueil des Voiages de la Comp. des Ind. Or. vol.

version of this account is as follows

"Meuvdnter ooc sekeren

Us

avoir d' ailes ni de queues, mais seule-

bee et leurs yeux fortlaids, et ordinairement

pierre aussi grosse que le poing."

The Dutch

isle les

en pouvoicnt prendre assez d' autres, qui etoient meilleurs.

ils

Leuis pies sont grands

nommeut Dodarse, on Dodaersen

certain oisean, que quelques-uns

de Dronte.

grands qu' un eigne, et converts de petites plumes

une

17

proximorum vix binas uncias fequabatj

illi

lib. v.

iii.

1'

estomac

p.

214.

sommige Dodaersen genaemt wort, van wifSsxzBronteu, de

vogel, cbe van

Metense Walgh-voghels,

om

datse andere genoech konden krijgen.

Dese

ziju so

groot als een Swane, met kleyne grauwe veerkens, sender vleugelen oft staert, liebben alleen ter zijde

klcTOe wiecken, ende achter vier of

veerkens, wat meer verheven als de andere, hebben groote

vijf

dicke voeten, met een grooten leelijcken beck en oogen, ende hebben gemeeidijck inde

Sy

so groot as een vuyst.

zijn redebjck

om

te eten,

maer

t'

beste datter aen

is,

is

ende voortgangh der Vereeniglide Nederl. Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie,


Voy.
6.

mage een

de maeg."
vol.

ii.,

steen

Begin

Matelief's

p. 5.

In 1607 two ships under the command of Van der Hagen remained some weeks in

Mauritius, and the crews feasted on an abundance of " tortoises, dodars, pigeons, turtles, grey

Not content with devouring numbers

parroquets, and other game."

stated that they salted quantities of tortoises

"Pendant tout
de perroquets

temps qu' on fut

le

gris, et d' autre cliasse,

chair des tortues terrestres etoit d'


fort bien,
vol.

iii.

p.

dememe que
195, 199.

The Dutch
deel

un

la,

on vecut de

qu' on
fort

and dodars

alloit

is

it is
:

tortues, de dodarses, de pigeons, de touiterelles,

On en sala,

Recueil

les
et 1'

mains dans

on en

fit

La

les bois

fumer, dont on se trouva

des Voiages de la Compagnie des Indes Or.

See also Prevost, Eecueil des Voyages.

original

of these animals,

consumption during the voyage

prendre avec

bon gout.

des dodarses qu' on sala."

for

Eouen, 1725,

to be found in the Journal of Steven

v. 5. g.

Van der Hagen

246.

in the

'

Tweede

van het begin ende voortgangh der Vereenighde Nederl. Geoctroyeerde Oostindische

Compagnie,' 1646, pp. 88, 89


" Alle den

tijt

dat

liier

Dodaersen, Duyven, &c. ...

lagen,

zijiule

ontrent 23 dagen,

aten anders niet dan Scliilt-padden,

'T Vleesch vande Landt Scliilt-padden

is

goet, ende smakehjck, is door

eenighe van d' haeren ghesouten, ende gheroockt, dat hem M'onder wel ghehouden

lieeft,

als

cock de

Dodaersen, die ghesouten hebben."

7.

We

next come to the narrative of P.

and mentions Dodos under the name

W.

VerhufFen,

of Totersten.

He

who touched
describes

at

them

Mam-itius in 1611,
in nearly the

same

Van Neck, and adds

terms as
if

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

18

the

that his sailors

daUy kiUed numbers of thena

for food,

I.

and that

aggressors with
not careful the Dodos inflicted severe wounds upon their
The earhest account of this voyage is entitled Eylffter Schifi'art, ander

men were

'

their powerful beaks.

und Continuirung der Reyse, so von den Holl-und Seelandern in


kleinen SchifFen vom 1607 biss in das 1612 Jahr,
die Ost Indien mit neun grossen imd vier
Pubhshed by L.
verrichtet worden.'
unter der Admiralschafft Peter Wilhelm Verhuffen

Theil oder Kurtzer Verfolg

Hulsius, 4to. Franckfort,

"Es
Eebhiiner,

1613

Eabos forcados, Feldhuner,


hat auch daselbst viel Vogel als Turteltauben, grawe Papagayen,
andere Vogel, an der grosse den Schwanen gleich, mit grossen Kopffen, haben ein Pell,

und

gleich einerMiiiichskutten iiber


f)-elbe

demKopff und keine Pliigel, denn an

Pederlein, dess,deichen haben sie auch au statt

Pedern stehen

von Parben seynd

sie

grawlecht;

statt derselbeu stehen

etwan 5 oder 6

dess Schwantzes etwan 4 oder 5 uber sich gekeunte

man nennet

sie

Totersten oder Walckvogel, derselben

tiigHch derselben viel gefangen und


nun'gibt es daselbst ein grosse menge; wie denn die Hollander
Vogel daselbst so zahm seyn, dass
aUe
gemeiu
o-essen haben, denn nicht allein dieselben, sondem auch ins
sie die

Tuiteltauben, wie denn auch die andere wilde Tauben

und mit den Handen gefangen haben ;

die Totersten

und Papagayen mit Stecken geschlagen,

oder Walckvogel haben

sie

mit den Hiinden

sie sie nicht mit den Schniibeln, welche sehr gross,


a;e"Tiffen, musten sich aber wolil fursehen, dass
ergriffen, denn sie gewaltig hart zubeissen
dick und knunm seyn, etwan bey eim Arm oder Beiu
Supp. p. 22.
pars
ix.
Orientahs,
India
Bry,
p. 51. See also De
pflegen."

8.

The

fio-ure of

Van den Broecke,


ind.

Compagnie,

which the following

contained in the
vol. 2,

numb,

'

is

a fac-simile,

is

introduced in the Voyages of Pieter

Begin ende voortgangh der Vereen. Nederl. Geoctr. Oost-

xvi, p.

102.'

The

plate contains three figiu-es, representing a

Dodo, a single-horned Goat, and a bird not unlike the Apteryx

in appearance.

The goat

is

mentioned in the text as having been sent to the author when at Surat, as a present from the
I can find however no notice in Van den Broecke's journal of the Dodo,
Sovereio-n "*
of Agra.
'o"

^'b'-

or of the other bird which he has figured,

were sketched during

and

his visit to the Mauritius

can therefore only conjecture that they

(mentioned in page 68,) which lasted from

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

May

April 19 to

19

As the work which contains

23, 1617.

these figures

very rare,

is

it

may

be

well to mention that Thevenot has introduced a reversed copy of the entu'e plate (v\ithout

Bourbon

stating the somxe) as an Ulustration to Bontekoe's notice of brevipennate birds in

(page

5,) to

which however

it

can have no reference whatever.

Though unaccompanied by any

Theveiiofs Voyages, vol. 1.

be no doubt that Van den Broecke's

an authentic and original representation of the Dodo, and the rudeness of the

figure

is

design

is

a proof of

more pointed than

it

The wings

genuineness.

its

and

are here represented as rather longer

in the other figures.

bud Van den

Wliat
country

description, there can

See

came, must be

Broecke's other figure


left to

conjecture,

and

may be
I

intended to represent, or from what

only introduce

it

here from

its

apparently

brevipennate character.

^>L.^-i..->l*

Sir

9.

in 1627, visited Mauritius,

and found

knowledge.

re-write his Travels,

changing the words of each successive

The following

extracts

A Relation

of

some

begunne Anno

yeares' Travaile,

626, into Afrique

and the greater Asia,

especially the

into divers parts

especially the

and some parts of the Orien-

vised and enlarged by the Author.

Indies and lies adiacent.

H. Esquier.

1634.

Fol.

By

London,

Fol.

London, 1638.

" The

Dodo comes

scription

here

and

first

to our de-

Travels into divers parts


Fol.

London, 1677.
"

The Dodo

a bird the

Dutch

call

Walghvogel or Dod Eersen; her body


is

in Bi/garrois,

of Africa and Asia the great.

two famous empires

the Persian and Great Mogidl. Re-

will exhibit the

Dodo more complete

Some Years

and Afrique, describing

Monar-

territories of the Persian

chie,

Some yeares Travels


of Asia

but without much

edition,

from three editions of the work

quaintness of the author's style, and render his observations on the

T.

uninhabited by

still

appears to have been the amusement of Sir T. Herbert's later days repeatedly

It

alteration in the sense.

tal!

it

In his Travels, he describes and figures the Dodo, but without adding much to our

man.

to

Thomas Herbert,

round and

fat,

which occasions the

slow pace, or that her corpidencie

and so great

as few of

them weigh

[Part

HISTOEICAL EVIDENCES

20
" First, liere and here only and in

Bygarroys,

which

for

generated the Dodo,

is

antigonize the V\iWi\\\

body

is

may

shape and rarenesse

round and

pi Arabia: her

few weigh lesse

fat,

then fifty pound, are reputed of more


for

wonder then

mackes may

Dodo,

shape and rarenesse

for

might be called a Phoenix (wer't in


her body

than

fifty

few of them weigh lesse

pound

than stomack

greasie appetites

commend them, but

perhaps

indifferenily

with complementall wings, so smaU

but prove offensive.

and impotent, that they serue only

pictiu'e

head

is

seeming eouered with a


her

bill
is

to the

end

the

thrill, fi-oni

which part

of a light greene, mixt

tis

with a pale yellow tincture


are

small,

and

feathers,

to

like

round and rowling

downy

vaOe,

crooked downwards, in

is

midst

tine

naked,

her

her eyes

Diamonds,

her

clothing

traine

three

the eye

better to

framing so great a body to be guided

halfe of her

round and ex-

is

her slow pace begets that

no nourishment.

The

mach

may

to the

nourishment,

curious,

Let's take her

her visage darts forth me-

fifty

vanquish

can

but otherwise,

oyliness

its

cannot chuse

it

but quickly cloy and nauseate the


stomach, being indeed more pleasurable to look than feed upon.

Nature's

injui-y in

framing so massie

a body to be directed by complemental

wings, such indeed as are unable

to hoise her from the ground, serving

only to rank her amongst Birds

head

is

lancholy, as sensible of Nature's in-

hooded with down of

the other half naked and of a white

a body to be directed

and

by such small

complementall wings, as are un-

hue, as

a dark colour

lawn were drawn over

if

able to hoise her from the ground,

the thiiU or breathing place

serving only to prove her a Bird

midst

which otherwise might be doubted


of:

her head

is

variously drest, the

one half hooded with dowmy blackish


feathers

the other perfectly naked;

is

of a light green mixt

and bright, and instead of feathers


has a most fine

down

a Chyna beard)

her train (like

is

no more than

howked, and bends downwards, the

ai'e

are digested,

which description

will

better be conceiued in her represen-

tation. P. 211.

or breathing place

thrill

midst of

it

is

in the

from which part to the

end, the colour

is

a light greene

mixt with a pale yeUow

her eyes be

thick

gi-eat

Hens

book

Downe, such
trayne

as

is (like

you see in Goslins her


;

a China beard) of three

or fom-e short feathers; her legs thick,

and black, and strong

her taUons or

pounces sharp, her stomach


so as stones

and iron are

gested in

in that

more

and shape, not

resembling the Africk Oes-

little

triches

it

fiery hot,

easily di-

but so much as

for

their

certain dift'ereuce I dare to give

thee (\vith two others) her represen-

tation. P. 347.

little

her leggs

her

fiery, so
;

tallons

as she

in that

and

resembling the Os-

The Dodo

trich.

monds

of finest

her stomach

shape not a

the

is

and black

can easily digest stones

round and small, and bright as Diaher cloathing

the

with a pale yellow; her eyes are round

Lawne had covered it her bill is very

strong and greedy, Stones and Iron

is in

from which part to the end

the colour

suting to her body,

it

her bin hooks and bends downwards;

three or fom' short feathers

appetite

her

jmie in framing so great and massie

to

her

variously drest, for one half is

of a whitish hue, as if a transparent

her poimces sharpe,

It is of

a melancholy visage, as sensible of

small plumes, short and inproportionable, her legs

it is

such as only a strong appe-

through

fat,

to prove her Bird.

and

it is,

tite

:)

in

name

Bird which

treame

injurie

generated the

is

has reference to her simplenes,) a

Arabia

Nature's

of,)

(a Portuguize

them, but to

sdsage darts forth melancholy,

with

some, but better to the eye than sto-

coi-pulencie

Her

meat

less

see or heare

the delicate, they are offensiue and of

as sensible of

pound

(and no where else that ever I could

food, gi-easie sto-

seelie after

than

I.

and one of

take so well as in

could di-aw

my table-

them."P.

383.

Ch.

or THE DODO.

I.]

Sii-

T. Herbert also gives a figure of

what he

21

"

calls

Hen," which

is

intended for the same bird which accompanies theDodo in Van den Broecke's plate

He alludes

they can

among

to "

Hens" among

now be

identified.

the words of Cauche

cm bee de becasse
elles

This bird

probably the same that

is

name

pom-

II

y a en

les

I'isle

prendre

Maurice

il

manger."

Cauche, Voyage,

p.

(p. 18),

et

mentioned by Leguat,

The " Velt-hoenders"

may

also refer to

Madagascar

elles

it.

of Cornelisz

Compare

also

des poules rouges,

sont de la grossem* de nos poules, excel-

132.

10. Franyois Cauche, in the account of his


'

is

by which

ne faut que lem' presenter une piece de drap rouge,

suivent et se laissent prendre a la main

lentes a

of Gelinottes.

and the " Feldhimer" of Verhufien


"

[sitpra, p. 19).

the other birds of Mauritius, but gives us no information

other Mauritian birds, under the

{supra, p. 13),

very probably

Voyage made

in

1638, published

in

the

Relations veritables et curieuses de I'lsle de Madagascar, Paris, 1651,' says that he saw in

Mauritius birds called Oiseaux de Nazaret, larger than a swan, covered with black down, with
curled feathers on the rump, and similar ones in place of wings

and

curved, the legs scaly, the nest

the size of a halfpenny

With

roll,

made

that the beak

was large

of herbs heaped together, that they lay but one

and that the young ones have a stone

egg

in the gizzard.

a view of deducing the size of these eggs, I was contemplating an investigation of

the prices of corn, the wages of labour, the honesty of bakers, and other elements, in hopes of

determining the bulk of a " pain

d'

im

sol" in 1638, but I have fortunately been spared this

enquiry by another passage of Cauche, where .he assigns the same dimensions to the egg of
the Cape Pelican iPelicanus onocrotahis), which
the size of the Dodo's egg.
the Dodo, although

therefore be taken as an approximation to

There can be no doubt that the bird described by Cauche was

his account

was probably composed from memory, or confused with the

descriptions then current of the Cassowary


foot, that the legs

may

for

he

tells

us that

had only three toes on each

were of considerable length, and that the bird had no tongue, which

character was at that time falsely attributed to the Cassowary.

Out

it

of this erroneous statement sprang

up

(See

De

Biy, part IV.

and many authors

pi. viii.)

the " Didus nazarenus," a phantom-species, which

has haunted our systems of ornithology from the days of Gmelin downwards.
tures,

latter

repeat, that these birds derived their

name from

sand-bank, of Nazareth, to the north-east of Madagascar, but this idea

Cauche conjec-

the island, or rather

is

utterly unfounded.

[Pabt

HISTOEICAL EVIDENCES

22

Can

the

oiseau de Nazaret have been a

name

translation of

We

will

noir,

que cliaque oiseau a


recourbees,

a le cul tout rond, le

au Heu

d' aisles ils

ne font qu'mi

les

on tue

La

le petit,

un peu par dessous,

II a

un cry comme

liauts

I'oisoii,

comme un

gros

lis

pain d'un

de jambes, qui sont


n'est

il

du tout

si

sol,

contre lequel

mettent une pierre blanche

ils

ponnent sur de I'herbe qu'ds amassent, et font leurs nids dans

on trouve une pierre grise dans son

gesier,

nous

exceUente pour adoucir les muscles et nerfs."

est

graisse

qui

fouches et feiques [flamingos and ducks], desqueUes nous venous de parler.

CEuf, blanc,

d'un ccuf de poides.

la o-rosseur

le corps,

de plumes crespues, autant en nombre

out pareilles plumes que ces dernieres, noires et

trois ergots a cliaque pied.

savoureux a manger, que

Nazaret.

il

d'aniiees,

que

escaiUees, n'ayans

croupion ome

sent sans langues, le bee gros, se courbant

ils

les forests, si

himself in the witness-box

Maurice des oiseaux plus gros qu'un cygue,' sans plumes par

I'isle

d'un duvet

est couvert

de

bhmder, founded on oiseau de nausee, the French

WaJghmyel ?

now put Cauche

" J'ay veu dans

Ils

I.

les

appeUions oiseaux de

Relation

du Voyage de

Francois Cauche, p. 130.^

11. Oiu' next evidence


this extraordinary bu-d

is

of a very important kind, as

was brought

Europe, and

alive to

Museum,

(Sloane MSS., 1839, 5, p. 9) in the British

more celebrated

Sir Roger), in a

Ostrich, narrates as follows

"About 1638,
cloth,

as I

Sir

it

shews that in one instance at

least

In a

MS.

exhibited in this country.

Hamon

commentary on Brown's Vulgar

Lestrange (the father of the


Errors,

and apropos of the

walked London

streets,

I saw the pictui-e of a strange fowle hong out upon a

in the MS.] and myselfe with one or two more then in company went in to see

[liiatus

was kept in a chamber, and was a great fowle somewhat

bigger than the largest Tui-ky

It

it.

Cock, and so

legged and footed, but stouter and thicker aud of a more erect shape, coloured before Hke the breast of

yong cock

the ende of a

many

and on the back of dunn or deare coulour.

fesan,

chymney in the chamber there

in our sight,

some

as

that afterwards shee cast

them

all

farr the

keeper was questioned therein, yet I

prolific

rendered

men

The middle

Mr. Carlyle designates them

La figure de

cet oiseau est

daus

la

confident

Still

there

may

this very

was

quartos," and literary

but the political storms of that period

possibly linger

its literature is

among om-

records some

2 navigation des Hollandois aux Indes Orientales en la 29 diee de

1'

an 1598.

Fappellent, de nausee."
-

" Peut-estre, que ce

nom

leui-

a esto donne, pour avoir este trouvez dans

celle de Maiuice, sous lu 17 degre au dela I'Equateiu-

3
V,

am

of the 17th century

dumpy

blind to the beauties and deaf to the harmonies of Nature, and

very barren in physical research.


"

it

againe."^

in pamphlets', newspapers, broadsides, " rows of

" rubbish-mountains," as

'

Dodo, and in

heape of large pebble stones, whereof hee gave

interesting statement, but hitherto without success.

Ils

it

have endeavoured to find some confirmation from contemporary authorities of

most

called

bigg as nutmegs, and the keeper told us shee eats them (conducing to

and though I remember not how

digestion),

lay a

The keeper

TUs

passage was

l,p. 369;

v. 2, p.

first

173.

du

coste

I'isle

de Nazare, qui est plus haul que

du Sud."

published in Wilkin's edition of Sir

Thomas Brown's Works, 4

vols. 8vo.

Lond., 1836.

Ch.

OP THE DODO.

I.]

23

which may allude to what must have been,

black-letter hand-bill or illiterate tract,

such a document, I promise a splendidly-bound copy of

shall discover

the meanwhile

we

12th independent notice of the Dodo, which


his "Collection of Rarities preserved at

"

big."

who

The Dodo-book.

In

on to the

will pass

one of the entries

the bibliophile

To

marvel-loving though unscientific age, a very attractive exhibition.

in that

is

contained in Tradescant's Catalogue of

South Lambeth near London," 1656.

Dodar from the

Mauritius

island

it

not able to

is

We

here find

flie

being so

p. 4.

This specimen

is

enumerated under the head of " whole birds

;"

and Willughby, whose

" Ornithologia" was published in 1676, speaking of the Dodo, says, "Exuvias hujusce avis

vidimus in museo Tradescantiano."


in

It is also alluded to

1700, having meanwhile passed with the

Museum

where the head and

at Oxford,

rest of

by Llhwyd'

1684, and by Hyde^

in

Tradescant's curiosities into the Ashmolean

foot of this specimen are fortunately

speak further of these hereafter, and will at present only remark that this

shall

bility the

1638.

same individual which was exhibited

Tradescant,

we know,

in

still

is

extant.

in all proba-

London, and which Lestrange described

spent his life in collecting curiosities

and as there was

in

at that

time scarcely any other museum, public or private, in Great Britain to enter into competition
with

his,

we may suppose

naturally on

its

that such a rara avis as this live

decease find

that this specimen

its

way

was brought from ]Mauritius by

know, having been sundry times


lected in

my

skinned,

and brought home

travels)."

at

p.

Sir T. Herbert,

who

in a letter to

is,

Ashmole,

173, says, " South Lambeth, a place I well

M. Tredescon's

1 think, however, that

been, would

Another not impossible conjecture

into his cabinet.^

quoted in Hamel's "Tradescant der Aeltere,"

Dodo must have

(to

whom

had the garrulous

gave severall things


Sir

Thomas

I col-

actually killed,

a Dodo, he would not have failed to record such an exploit in

his Travels.

13. In Piso's edition of Bontius, 1658, there is a description and figure of the Dodo,

though perhaps neither can be regarded

as original

and independent testimonies.

seems to be copied from one of Savery's paintings, of which


description adds

engraving were
Ornithology,

pi.

Catalogiis

'

little, if

was Dodo.

Animalium quae

He

in

Museo

in

Thevenot's Voyages,

but as Piso's figure

Asbraoleaiio conservantur

veterum Persarum. 4to. Oxon. 1700,

p.

312.

quotes Herbert's account, and adds (on what authority

though Cauche's statement that

e'TO's,

published

27, and other works

it

lays but one (confirmed

is

MS.

figm-e

speak presently, and the

anything, to the details contained in previous authors.

subsequently

2 Historia Religioiiis

I shall

The

vol.

1,

the earliest

Copies of this
in

Willughby's

known copy from

No. 29.

Apropos of Zoroaster's motlier, whose name


is

unknown)

tliat

the bird Uiid

by Leguat's similar assertion of the

numerous

Solitaire) is

more probable.
3

May

Since writing the above, I see that Dr.

Hamel has come

29, 1846.

to a similar conclusion.

Bull. Phys.

Ac. Petersb.

[Part

HISTOEICAL EVIDENCES

24

Saveiy's designs, I have thought


description,

worth insertion here, together with

it

tlie

I.

accompanying

which forms one of Piso's supplementary chapters to " Jacobi Bontii Historiae

naturahs et medicae Indias Orientalis hbri sex," contained in " Guliehui Pisonis Medici

Amstelsedamensis de Indise utriusque re naturali


aedanii,

medica

et

libri

quatuordecim."

Amstel-

fol.

1658.

'^^^
At chapter
"
tlicitur,

De

xvii., p.

Dronte,

aliis

70,

we

Dodaers.

a nostratibus Mamitii

frequeus est miree

read

Inter insulas Indise orientalis, ceusetur iUa quae ab

nomen

audit,

si

ex parte

et

ui-opygium, pennas, et plumas consideres

crui'um brevitatem respicias.


referente.

ob Ebenuin nigrum potissimum

conl'ormationis avis, Bronte dicta.

Indicum, a quibus ex parte figura discrepat,


Africanis,

Coeterum capite

Oculis magnis, nigris

est

Rictu fcedo,

iis

convenit, imprimis

Cerne

cum

et

Galium

Strutliionibus

adeo ut Pygmseus quasi inter eos appareat,

si

magno, deformi, tecto quadam membrana, cucullum

quarum

admodum

aliis

In hac insula

Celebris.

Magnitudinis intra Strutliionem

cum

collo curvo, prominente, pingui

ex coeruleo albicante, exceptis extremitatibus,

acuminata, et adunca.

"-'

inferior

patulo, quasi

rostro supra

modum longo, valido,

nigricat, superior flavescit,

ad ingluviem nato.

rotundo, quod moUibus pluniis griseis, more Strutliionum vestitur

ab utroque

utraque

Corpore obese,

latere, loco

remigum,

exiguis alis plimiatis, ex llavo cinereis, et poue ui'opygium, loco caudte, quinis pinnulis crispis, ejusdem
coloris,

decoratur.

solidis, longis,

Cruribus est ilavescentibus

crassis,

sed

admodum

quasi squamosis, totidem unguibus vaHdis nigris incedit.

et stupida, quseque facile prteda

fit

venatoribus.

curtis,

quatuor

digitis

pedis

Cseterum tardigrada est avis

Caro earum, imprimis pectoris,

est

pinguis, vesea,

of the dodo.

Ch. L]
adeoque multa ut

tres

quatuorve Brontes centeiiis

25

cum

ibi nati,

Si noii

probe

peuu recondimtur.

salitfe in

Lapilli diversse formse et magnitudinis, cinerei coloris,

tamen

aliquando suffecerint.

sociis satiu-anclis

sunt concoctionis, et

elixentiu-, vel veteres siiit, difiicilioris

ventriculo liarum avium reperiuntur,

iii

nou

ut vulgus et pubes nautica arbitratuXj sed in littore devorati, quasi et hoc quoque signo

quod durissima qujeque

Struthionis natura aves has participare constaret,

deglutiant, nee

tamen

digerant."

The 13th

which

historical testimony

have to adduce

Ashmolean Museum (Ashm. Printed Books, No. 967).

without date, and entitled "

first

alias Porges,

House

at the

Leg,

it is

They

Gentleman.

West end

two

this there are

editions, the

among

The second

a bird that cannot flye."

by one of

sworn Servants,

his Majestie's

are to be seen at the place formerly called the

Here,

of Pauls."

Of

Catalogue of part of those Rarities collected in thu'ty

years time with a great deal of Pains and Industry,

R. H.

contained in a small tract in the

is

other rarities,
edition

is

we

find at p. 11, "

entitled, "

Musique

Dodo's

Catalogue of

many

natural rarities with great industry, cost, and thirty years travel in foraign Countries collected

by Robert Hubert ahas Porges, Gent, and sworn servant


seen at the place formerly called the Music

At page 11

12mo, London, 1665.


heavy bird that cannot

fly

it is

"A

the following entry:

is

And

to his Majesty.

House near the West end

daily to be

of St. Paul's Church."

legge of a Dodo, a great

In

a Bird of the Mauricius Island."

all

probability this

the same specimen that afterwards passed into the collection of the Royal Society, and

mentioned in the catalogue of their " Natural and


1681,

who

thus describes

it

though

it

The

four inches long

This specimen

is

now

yet above five in thickness, or round about the joynts

preserved in the British

in

Museum, and

12, su/pra).
"

Museum

1666, enumerates, among other

gives a figure of the bird in pi. 13,


(p.

shortness,

may

wherein

render

it

of

The following

I shall notice

it

hereafter under

'

14. Olearius, in his Catalogue of the Gottorf

was published

its

p. 60.

the head of Anatomical Evidences.

edition

is

in

leg here preserved is covered with a reddish yellow scale.

be inferior to that of an Ostrich or Cassoary, yet joyned with

almost equal strength."

by Grew

" The leg of a Dodo

Not much above

Rarities," published

artificial

is

f.

5,

which however

are his words

at

Copenhagen, of which the

first

He

also

curiosities, a

is

Dodo's head.

merely a copy from that of Clusius

Num. 5 ist ein Kopff von einem frembden Vogel welchen Clusius Galium peregiinum, NierenCygnum cucullatum, die Hollander aber Walghvogel, vom Eckel den sie wegen des harten

bergius

Fleisches

machen

angetroffen haben

Emeu und

'

It

sollen,
;

sol

Die Hollander sollen zu

nennen.

auch keine

Pinguinen. Clus. exot."

has been supposed that this

is

Fliigel,

erst solclien

Vogel

aufi'

der Insel Mauritius

sondern an dessen Stat zwo Pinnen haben, gleich wie die

Olearius, Gottorfische

Kunstkammer.

4to, Schleswig. ed. of 1674.

the same leg as that described by Clusius {utpra, p. 16), but there are certain

discrepancies in the measurements which render this doubtful.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

26

[Part

This specimen has been very recently recovered from oblivion, and
chief treasures of the

The

15.

latest

Royal

Museum

at

known testimony

Copenhagen, to which

as to the existence of

of the

again refer.

I shall

Dodos

now one

is

I.

in Mauritius

contained

is

MS. in the British Museiun (Sloane MSS. 3668. Plut. cxi. F.) for a reference to which,
as for many other valuable suggestions, I am indebted to J. Wolley, Esq. of Edinburgh, who
has taken much interest in the history of the Dodo, and has liberally communicated the results
This document is entitled " A coppey of Mr. Beuj. Harry's Jomnall when he
of his researches.
in a

was cheif mate of the Shippe Berkley

Castle, Captn.

Wm.

Talbot then Commander, on a

voyage to the Coste and Bay, 1679, which voyage they wintered at the Maurrisshes."

The Journal

more than a

is little

valuable, of a brilliant comet.

They

India, being unable to weather the

Marushes," the 4th June, 1681.


to build huts,

ship's log, containing


left

Cape

" After

all

observations, perhaps

Deptford 19th Nov. 1679, and on their return from


of

Good Hope, they determined

They saw land on the 3d

and they had much labour

many rough

to

make

and on the 11th they began

July,

in spreading their cargo out to dry

these turmoyles, and various accidents, wee the beginning 7ber. brought

one parte of our misery wass that that time wee designed

for " the

for recreation

wee were

all

to a period:

forct to impt. in

Labour.

" The a\Te whilst wee have been here hath been very temperate neither over hott nor over cold
itt

hath been showery 3 or 4 Days sucksessively, and showery in the night, sometimes a Sea Brees httle

wind morning and evenings.


" Now having a little respitt I
of

parts

itts

ffirst

will

make a little

description of the Island,

of winged and feathered ffowle the less passant, are

first

of

its

Products then

Dodos whose JJlesh

is

very hard.

a small sort of Gees, reasonably good Teele, Curleves, Pasca fflemingos, Turtle Doves, large Batts,

many

small Bii'des which are good.

" The Dutch pleading a propriety


goates Id per
allso the

pound

Deer wliich

to the Island because of their settlement

have made us pay for

or \ piece of 8 per head, the which goates are butt reasonably good, these wild, as
are as large as I beheve any in the world,

these 3 pie. of 8 per head. Bullocks large 6 pie. of 8 per head

and

as

good

fflesh in their seasons;

[that] ys for victuaUing, heer are

for

many

wild hoggs and land turtle which are very good, other small creators on the Land, as Scorpions and

Musketoes, these in small numbers, Ratts and

ffleys

a multitude,

" In the woodes Eaboney, Box, Iron wood blacke and


sortes of other

wood, though heavy yett good for

" In ye Sea and


good though some 70
full of

Munkeys

of various sorts.

read, a false but not lasting

fire,

various

fiering.

River, green tortoise very good, Sliirkes, Doggs, Mulletts, Jackabeirs (butt nott
lb).

Breams, Pomfletts,

Plaise, a ffishe like a

Sahnond, and heer soe called but

small Boaues forked, severall sortes of read fiish butt nott houlsome, various sortes of small

ffish

Crabes, Ells large and good.

Pann, good oysters and


" Herbage ffruite and Graine, ffrench or Cidney Beanes, Patatoes, saUating ; Piunplemuses, oranges,

for the

Jumboes, Waiter and musk "Melones, Sugar Cannes, Pumkines, Tobacco that Hellish weed, and many
other tilings forgotten."

of the dodo.

Ch. L]

Such then

the

is

this singular creatiu-e.

sum

of the Historical Evidence which

In 1644 the

Dutch

fu'st

probable that these gigantic fowls, deprix'ed of


speedily diminished in nmuber,

and

Me

possess for the existeiice of

colonized the island of Mauritius, and

slow of

flight,

foot,

and useful

for food,

it is

were

exterminated by the thoughtless rapacity of the

finally

Their destruction would be further hastened, or might be mainly caused, by

early colonists.

the Dogs, Cats,

and Swine which accompany

To such animals

lized in the forests.

be a dainty treat

and that

" Here, (in Mauritius,) are

damage

27

the eggs

in his migrations,

and young

of the

no mere conjectm-e

this is

Hogs

Man

of the

to the inhabitants, by devouring

is

the

are speedily natura-

other birds would

who

proved by Leguat,

China kind

all

and

Dodo and

tells

us,

These beasts do a great deal of

young animals they can catch." p. 170, Eng. ed.

That the destruction of the Dodos was completed by 1693, may be inferred from the
narrative of Leguat,

who

in that year

remained several months in Mauritius, and enumerates

animal productions at some length, but makes no mention whatever of Dodos.


He further
says, " L'isle etait autrefois toute remplie d'Oyes et de Canards sauvages; de Poules d'eau,
its

de Gelinottes, de Tortues de mer et de terre


passage proves, that even

1693,

civilization

tout cela est devenii fort rare."

niais

This

had made great inroads on the fauna of

]\Iam'itius.

In 1712 the Dutch evacuated Mam-itius, and the French colonized the island under the

new name

of Isle de France.

This change in the popidation vdll account for the absence of

any traditionary knowledge of so remarkable a bird among the


quent evidence

and

his son,

is

Baron Grant resided

equally negative.

who compiled

no trace of such a bird was


there previously to 1778,

be found

M. Morel,

at that time.

and whose attention seems

judicious criticisms of Buffon (Hist. Ois. vokii. p. 73),

to have
tells

a French

M. Bory de

St.

Vincent remained

enquiry respecting the

Dodo and

inhabitants on the subject.


to

in Mauritius

xii. p. 1.54).

and Bom-bon

in 1801,

At

assures us

its alhes,

(vol.

ii.

p.

les

in Mauritius

traces of the existence of the

The

late

and has

quatre prin-

without gaining the slightest information from the

a public dinner at the Mauritius in 181 6, several persons from

(De BlainvUle in Nouv. Ann. Mus.

some years

resided

306) that he made every possible

90 years of age were present, who had no knowledge of such a bu'd from

tradition
for

He

Mers d'AMque).

who

been drawn to the subject by the

an excellent work on the physical features of those islands (Voyage dans

cipales iles des

70

some time

for

(p.

official

145*) that

us that the oldest inhabitants had no

recollection of these creatures (Observations sur la Physique, 177S, vol.

left

from 1740 to 1760

the "History of Mauritius" from his papers, states


to

All subse-

later inhabitants.

in Mam'itius

Mr.

vol.iv. p. 31).

J.

and Madagascar, previously to 1816, and he

Dodo could

recollection or

V. Thompson also resided


states that

no more

then be found, than of the truth of the tale of Paul and

Virginia, although a very general idea prevailed as to the reahty of both (Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 1, vol.ii. p. 443).

This Hst of negative witnesses

may be

closed with the late Mr. Telfair,

a very active naturalist, whose researches were equally conclusive as to the non-existence of

Dodos

in Mauritius in

modern times

(Zool. Journ. vol.

iii.

p. 566).

[Part

PICTORIAL EVIDENCES

28
Section

II.

Pictorial Evidences

Picture in

the British

his picture at Berlin ; his picture at

Museum

ViennaJohn

Roland

Saveri/ s picture at the

I.

Hague ;

Saveri/' s picture at Oxford.

The

next series of evidences to be adduced are those derived from contemporary paintings.

We

have seen that the narratives of the early voyagers are in several instances accompanied

by rude

by

delineations of Dodos, but besides these

artists of great merit,

who

we

possess certain

oil

paintings of this bird

apparently aimed only at correctly representing the object before

All these pictures, except one, closely resemble each other, and though exhibiting

them.

slight variations, they

seem to have been taken from one

original design.

They moreover

agree sufficiently well with the engra\ings in the early voyages, to leave no doubt of their

being intended for the same species of bird.

one of these

is

Dodo

The

iu all

first

of these paintings,

and one

is

to exist

by John Savery, the nephew of Roland.

and the best known,

modern books of natural

property of the

now known

anonymous, three bear the name of Roland Savery, an eminent Dutch animal

painter in the beginning of the 17th century,


1

Five of these paintings are

is

that from which the figure of the

history has been copied.

George Edwards, who

This picture was once the

in his work on Birds, vol. vi, pi. 294, tells us,


" The original picture was drawn in Holland from the living bird, brought from St. Maurice's
artist,

'

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

29

Island in the East Indies, in the early times of the discovery of the Indies by the

Cape of Good Hope.

It

and afterwards becoming

The above

sity.

was the property of the

my

late Su-

property I deposited

history of the picture I

had from

This picture

secretary to the Royal Society."

it

H. Sloane

the artist has introduced, I

painted from

am

in the British ]\Iuseum as a great curio-

Sir

is stiU

H. Sloane and the

Dr. INIortimer,

late

preserved in the British

Museum, and

described. It repre-

depicted with great

Judging from the animated and natural expression which

quite disposed to believe the assertion of Edwards, that

Unfortunately there

life.

of the

to the time of his death,

may be seen in the Bird Gallery along with the Dodo's foot, to be hereafter
sents the Dodo surrounded by American Maccaws, Ducks, and other birds,
exactness and attention to details.

way

is

neither

name nor

date

upon the picture

it

was

but from

the style of execution, and the identity of the design with the pictures next to be noticed,

may be
of

attributed to one of the

the

life,

Dodo

is

two Saverys.

probably represented of

rather larger specimen than either of those

The engraving on

As

its

the opposite page was

to illustrate his treatise in the

true magnitude, although

whose

it

the other birds in this picture are the size

skulls are

now

made under Mr.

Penny Cyclopaedia, and

as

is

it

it

must have been a

extant.

Broderip's superintendance,

an accurately reduced copy of

the painting in question, I have obtained the permission of Messrs. Clowes to introduce
it

here.
2.

In the Royal Collection at the Hague

is

by Roland Savery, which

a painting

is

pro-

nounced by Houbracken (Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilder-

Hague, 1753,

essen,

vol.

i.

p. 68,) to

be one of that master's

Orpheus charming the animal creation with


beasts,

his

music, and

which are depicted with the utmost accuracy, we see

the strains of the Lyric Bard.

therefore suppose that the artist

whom

he could confide.

1845, and Professor Owen,

among innumerable birds and


the clumsy Dodo spell-bound by

the smallest indication of pictorial licence

would have marred the consistency

ducing a fabulous or even an exaggerated representation.

in

It represents

and almost

All the other animals in this composition are exact

mechanical copies of nature, without

must have been copied from

cJtpf d' oeuvres}

carefid sketches

Such were

who was

the

made

my own
first

either

The Dodo,
by the

we cannot

of his design

by

intro-

like all the other figures,

artist himself or

by persons

impressions on examining this painting in

to call the attention of Naturalists to

it,

expresses

a similar opinion.
"

WHst at the Hague," he says,

"in the summer

of 1838, 1

was much struck with the mdnuteness

and accuracy with which the exotic species of animals had been painted by Savery and Breughel, in
such subjects as Orpheus charming the beasts, frc, in which scope was allowed for grouping together
a great variety of animals.

the living models to these


'

Understanding that the celebrated menagerie of Prince Maiuice had afforded


artists,

I sat

down one day

before Savery's Orpheus and the Beasts, to

make

Dr. Hamel, in his recently published work entitled 'Tradescant der Aeltere,' p. 170, states that this picture

was painted in 1638, but he has probably no other authority than the conjecture that the

London

served as Savery's model.

liird

she\\Ti that

year in

[Part

PICTOEIAL EVIDENCES

30

of the species which the picture sufficiently evinced that the artist

list

Judge

alive.

of

my

had had the opportunity to study

surprise and pleasure in detecting in a dark corner of the picture (which

hung between two windows)

I.

is

badly

the Dodo, beautifully finished^ shoAving for example, though but three

inches long, the auricular circle of feathers, the scutation of the tarsi, and the loose strnctm^e of the

In the number and proportions of the

caudal plumes.

Edwards's

oil

painting in the British

from the study of a hving bu-d,

The

bird

apphed

Not any

its feet.

Shortly after visiting the

in the

Hague

Hague

in

collection."

1845,

Dutch

of the

Peimy

made a

size

and

in nearly the

same attitude

this pictiu-e peculiarly interesting


fe.

is,

that

1626," being painted in one corner.

it

search in the Royal Gallery at

found one which represents numerous animals in Paradise, one of which

same

whom

Cyclopaedia, vol. xxiii. p. 143.

Among them

which contains several of Roland Savery's highly finished paintings.

Berlin,

the

naturalists to

and his subject, seemed to be aware of the

for information respecting the picture, the artist,

Dodo

accords with

and I conclude that the miniature must have been copied

standing in profile with a lizard at

is

it

most probable, formed part of the Mam-itian menagerie.

wdiich, it is

existence of this evidence of the

3.

Museum

and in general form,

toes,

is

a Dodo, of about

But what renders

as the figure last mentioned.

affords us a date, the words " Roelandt Savery

(See Frontispiece.)

As Roland Savery was born

in

1576, he was 23 years old when Van Neck's expedition returned to Holland; and as we are
told

by De Bry that the Dutch brought home a Dodo on that occasion,

that Savery

may

possible

it is

have taken the portrait of this individual, and that the design thus made

may

we

feel

have been copied by himself and by his nephew John

Or

in their later pictures.

disposed (for the reasons given at p. 11, supra) to doubt the correctness of

ment, we

may yet

suppose, with Professor

the living prototy])e for Savery's pencil.

by Edwards,

p.

Owen,

De

if

Bry's state-

that the menagerie of Prince Maurice supplied

This opinion

that the pictm-e in the British

It is far

bu'd.

enough

is

corroborated by the tradition recorded

Museum was drawn

in

more probable than the conjecture of Dr. Hamel,

317) that Savery's pictures were copied from the

Dodo

Holland from the living


(Bull. Ac. Petersb. vol. v.

exhibited in London, as this indivi-

dual must in that case have lived in captivity at least 12 years, from 1626 to 1638.
4.

The present

was

sheet

just rescued fi'om the printer in time to

addition to our Pictorial Evidence.

Dr.

J. J.

announce an important

de Tschudi, the eminent Peruvian

hearing that this work was in preparation, has had the kindness to transmit to

me

traveller,

an exact

copy of a figm-e of the Dodo by Roland Savery, which forms part of a picture in the imperial
collection of the Bellvedere at Vienna,
states that this picture is

dated 1628

and which
two years

is

here introduced. (Plate HI.)

later

than the Berlin one.

circumstances which give an especial interest to this painting.


in the

Dodo, exhibiting an

artist

had a

living

activity of character

hungry

infer that the

First, the novelty of attitude

which corroborates the supposition that the

model before him, and contrasting strongly with the aspect of passive

And, secondly, the Dodo

stohdity in the other pictures.


rently with

Dr. Tschudi

There are two

looks, the

Dodo

fed

merry wrigghngs of an

upon

eels ?

eel

is

represented as watching, appa-

in the water

The advocates of the Raptorial

Are we hence to

affinities

of the Dodo,

Plate

^r"^

-Hv

Fac- simile

of

Saverys

picture

of

the

die

Bellvedere at Vienna

Ij'Ijo^ 30.

of the dodo.

Ch.L]

whom we

of

31

soon speak, will doubtless reply in the affirmative, but as I hope shortly

shall

to demonstrate that

it

belongs to a family of birds,

all

the other

members

of which are

frugivorous, I can only regard the introduction of the eel as a pictorial license.
in all his other

Savery brought into juxta-position animals from

paintings,

without regarding geographical distribution.

In

this, as

countries,

all

His delineations of birds and beasts were

wonderfully exact, but his knowledge of natural history probably went no further, and

although the
eat

Dodo

The mere

it.

we have no

certainly looking at the eel, yet

is

collocation of animals

in

an

artistic

proof that he

is

going to

composition, cannot be accepted as

evidence against the positive truths revealed by Comparative Anatomy.

The

5.

Museum

at

known.
It

painting which I have to mention

last

Oxford in 1813, by

It

is

W. H.

is

the one presented to the

Ashmolean

Darby, Esq., but of whose previous history nothing

is

painted by John Savery, the nephew of Roland, and bears the date of 1651.

appears to be copied from the same original design as the three

referred to, but a remarkable feature in

it is its

colossal scale, the

Dodo

first

pictures above

standing about 3 feet

6 inches high, and being nearly double the size which the picture in the British Museum, the
description of eye-witnesses,
It

is difficult

and the existing remains warrant us

to assign a motive to the artist for thus magnifying

uncouth

in appearance.

that this

was the

it

an object already

Lestrange and

hong out upon a

his friends as they "

cloth,"

which attracted

walked London streets"

by showmen being in general more remarkable

the delineations used

sufficiently

not for the discrepancy of dates, I should have conjectured

identical " picture of a strange fowle

Hamon

the notice of Sir

Were

in attributing to the bird.

in

1638;

for attractiveness

than

veracity.

Section III.

Real or Anatomical evidences

Dodo's foot

in British

Museum

Head andfoot

at Oxford

Head at Copenhagen Probability offinding further remains in MauritiusFigure of Dodo as deduced

from
I

COME

evidence

Non-development of

lastly to

speak of the evidence afforded us by the few imperfect remains of this extra-

come down

ordinary bird which have

Dodo

of the

interest
is

are

now

extant in as

Hubert

many

The
in

first

museum

Portions of probably three distinct individuals

public

of these

is

M. de

in

vol. iv.

added

memoir.

to the value of this

proving the

in Europe, that each of these three

specimens

when

p. 15).

liy

From the cabinet of the Royal Society it was transIt appears


British Museum, where it is now preserved.'

1681.

Blainville inadvertently states, that "

(Nouv. Ann. Mus. H. N.

It is remarkable, as

the Dodo's leg, or rather foot, mentioned, as before stated,

1665, and by Grew

or beginning of the present centmy,

museums.

catalogues printed in the 17th century.

ferred early in the last centm-y to the

to us.

which the discovery of the Dodo excited

specially referred to in
1

certain organs no proof of imperfection.

the

tHs

leg passed into the British

Museum was

little

more attention

Museum

at the

end of the

last

established through the influence of Sir J. Banks."


to names, dates, and

such miuutise, would have

[ParT

ANATOMICAL EVIDENCES

32

no further notice

to have attracted

Naturahsts' Miscellany,

pi.

and

external characters of the tarsus

stuffed specimen of the

The

1656, was bequeathed with the


of the
state,

Ashmolean Museum
till

in his

it

This foot seems to have belonged to a somewhat larger

143.

Ashmolean specimen, and from

individual than the

2.

1793, when Dr. Shaw gave a figure of

till

I.

excellent preservation exhibits the

its

(See Plate VI.)

toes in a very interesting manner.

Dodo mentioned

in the catalogue of Tradescant's

rest of his curiosities to Elias

Here

at Oxford.

Ashmole, the munificent founder

remained in an

it

Museum,

not a very perfect

entire, if

1755, when the Vice-Chancellor and the other Trustees, to whose guardianship the

worthy Ashmole had confided his treasures, came in an unlucky hour to make their annual
In those days Oxford presented the still existing anomaly of a
visitation of the Museum.
University, in which Zoology

removed
tion

was not publicly taught

to the metropolis, the

Ashmolean Society was

had not opened a door to continental

Lister, Plott,

as a science

literature.

the Royal Society had long

as yet unborn,

The

literary

and

and the Taylor


scientific

Institu-

ardour which

Aubrey, Ashmole, Wood, Llhwyd, and others had awakened in the 17th century

had now subsided, and the University seems to have relapsed into the scholastic torpor of the
middle ages. We need not therefore wonder at the fate which befel the L.\st or the Dodos.
This unhappy specimen, then at least a century old, had,

and neglect
removed
priately

at a

and according

to a record

now

meeting of a majority of the

remarks (and Mr. Broderip


" Some

liave

extant, was, with

will forgive

we

remains of the

others, " ordered to

re-quoting the passage)

be

Mr. Lyell appro-

it

deserves

all

But the death

men.

commemoration

and

learn from the archives of the University of Oxford the exact day

it is

of a species

with no

smi\ll

and year when the

specimen of the Dodo, wliich had been permitted to rot in the Ashmolean Museum,

last

were cast away.

my

many

this fatal decree,

accidents which happen alike to

so remarkable an event in natural history, that

interest that

On

visitors."^

become decayed by time

complained that inscriptions on tombstones convey no general information except that

individuals were born and died


is

appears,

it

The

rehcs

we

" a Museo subducta, annuentibus Vice-cancellario

are told were

aliisque

Curatoribus, ad ea kistranda convocatis, die Januarii 8vo, a.d. 1755."

By

a lucky accident, however, a small portion of this

last

The head and one

escaped the clutches of the destroyer.

preserved in the Ashmolean

Museum.

descendant of an ancient race

of the feet were saved from the

The head

figured in Plate V.,

flames,

and are

and

in tolerable preservation, exhibiting the remarkable form of the beak

is

still

is

and

nostrils,

the bare skin of the face, and the partially feathered occiput which the old authors com-

The eyes

pared to a hood.

still

remain dried within the sockets, but the corneous extremity

of the beak has perished, so that

conspicuous in
less

infer

to have

scarcely exhibits that strongly

The deep

been a female specimen.

For particulars of

gical Journal, vol.

iii.

p.

The

scientific

its

inferior size

we may

value of this specimen has lately been

this act of well meant, but too sweeping, reform, see Mi'. J.

559.

hooked termination so

transverse grooves are also visible,

developed than in the paintings, from which, and from

though
it

it

the original portraits.

all

Duncan's paper

in the Zoolo-

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

33

very greatly increased by the careful dissection which Dr. Acland, the Lecturer in Anatomy,

made

has

of one side of the cranium.'

removing

from the

it

left side,

By

dividing the skin

down

the mesial line, and

the entire osteological structure of this extraordinary skull

is

exposed to view, while on the other side of the head the external covering remains un-

See Plates VIII. and IX.

distm-bed.

The

foot,

which accompanies

this interesting

cranium, was formerly covered with decom-

posed integuments, which presented few external characters.

These have recently been

removed by Dr. Kidd, the Professor of Medicine, who has made an interesting preparation of
the osseous and tendinous structures, and exhibited

some remarkable characters

to

which

shall presently advert.


3.

Gottorf

Museum

centuries,
p.

71

now

have

to speak of the cranium,

lately discovered

and Lehmann

rubbish,

and

is

now

in

by Professor C. Reinhardt

Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Car.

museum

in the public

opportunity of examining

it.

in the

This specimen, after being forgotten for nearly two

Copenhagen.

at

was very

mentioned by Olearius as being, in 1666,

AU

at

vol. xxi. p.

(see Kr5yer's Tidskrift, vol.iv.

491), amongst a heap of venerable

Copenhagen, where, two years ago, I had an

the soft parts are removed, and

it

exhibits the

same

important osteological characters which have been recently brought to hght in the Oxford
head.

It

is,

however,

base of the occiput being removed.

less perfect, the

It is

about half

an inch shorter than the Ashmolean specimen, and proportionably smaller.

These are the only known fragments which are ascertained to be genuine

Dodo.

Yet

it

cannot be doubted that

if

a judicious series of researches were

caves and supei-ficial deposits of the island of Maiuitius,


disinterred,

many more

Sn W.

of the
in the

osseous remains might be

and possibly the entire skeleton might be reconstructed.

recent letter from G. C. Cuninghame, Esq. to

relics

made

I rejoice to find,

by a

C. Trevelyan, that this problem has

attracted the attention of the Natural History Society of Mauritius,

who propose making

excavations for this especial object.

Let us now endeavour to combine into one view the results of the
anatomical data which

we

massive clumsy bu'd, ungraceful in

form

a better idea of

sions of a

where a

Swan.

it

its

figiu-e it to

Duck

We

cannot

or Gosling enlarged to the dimen-

one of those cases, of which we have

many examples

in Zoology,

organs in a species, remains permanently in an undeveloped

Such a condition has reference to

peculiarities in the

mode

of Ufe of the

animal, which render certain organs unnecessary, and they therefore are retained through

'

this

and

ourselves as a

form, and with a slow waddling motion.

than by imagining a young

It affords

species, or a part of the

or infantine state.

We must

possess respecting the Dodo.

historical, pictorial,

Zoologists are indebted to P. B. Duncan, Esq., Keeper of the

Ashmolean Museum, who

liberally

life

permitted

important dissection of a unique specimen to take place, and I have great pleasure also in recording that

was performed " annuentibus Vice-cancellario

aliisque Curatoribus,"

A.D. 1847.

it

in

an imperfect

permanent sucUing

in
is

I.

developed condition which marks the

state, instead of attaining that fully

The Greenland AVhale,

mature age of the generality of animals.


A

[Part

ANATOMICAL EVIDENCES.

34

may be

for instance,

called

having no occasion for teeth, the teeth never penetrate the gums, though

The Proteus, again,


youth they are distinctly traceable in the dental groove of the jaws.
which
fill
subterranean
caverns, the gills
a permanent tadpole ; destined to inhabit the waters
in other Batrachian Reptiles are cast off as the

which

retained tlirouo-h hfe, while the eyes are

And

the sense of vision.

permanent
and

nestling, clothed

down

Dodo

multiply examples), the

(or rather

is

instead of feathers, and with the wings and

tail

to

was) a
so short

feeble, as to be utterly unsubservient to flight.^


It

may

Why,

never used

may be

it

in darkness ?

asked, does the

Why has the

for mastication ?

account for the presence of organs which are prac-

difficult to

appear at fkst sight

tically useless.

Whale

Proteus eyes

possess the germs of teeth which are

when he

and why was the Dodo endowed with wings


This question

useless for locomotion. ?


will

mere subcutaneous specks, incapable of contributing

lastly (not to

with

animal approaches maturity, are here

is

at

especially created to dwell

is

when

all,

those wings were

too wide and too deep to plunge into at present

merely observe, that these apparently anomalous facts are really the indications of laws

which the Creator has been pleased to foUow in the construction of organized beings
inscriptions in an

unknown

hieroglyphic, which

which we have scarcely begun

we

master the alphabet.

to

mean

are quite sure

they are

something, but of

There appear, however, reasonable

o-rounds for believing that the Creator has assigned to each class of animals a definite type or

structure from which

He

Thus,

cations of form.

has never departed, even in the most exceptional or eccentric modifi-

we

if

Mammal imphed

suppose, for instance, that the abstract idea of a

the presence of teeth, the idea of a Vertebrate the presence of eyes,

and the idea of a Bird the

presence of wings, we may then comprehend why in the Whale, the Proteus, and the Dodo,
these organs are merely suppressed,

And

let

us beware of attributing anything like imperfection to these anomalous or-

ganisms, however deficient they

admu"e

and not wholly annihilated.

may be

in those complicated structures

Each animal and plant has received

in other creatures.

its

which we so much

peculiar organization for

the purpose, not of exciting the admiration of other beings, but of sustaining
Its perfection, therefore, consists,
its

And

point of view

equally perfect

claims to be lord of

'

hagen,

Our

its
all.

efforts to realize ttis

who has made,

or

is

we

its

existence.

organs, but in the

it is

destined to

live.

department of the organic creation

shall find that every

appropriate habitat, and

its

destined functions, as

Such a view of the creation

is

surely

extinct creatm-e will be assisted by the skill of

making, plaster casts of the Dodo, the

(Bull. Phys. Ac. Petersb. vol. v.

Britain.

or complication of

own

is

the humblest animalcule, or the simplest conferva, being as completely or-

ganized with reference to

who

number

whole structure to the external circumstances in which

adaptation of
in this

not in the

its

p 318).

We may

size of life,

more

Man

himself,

philosophical than

Ms. Jenssen, a sculptor

at

Copen-

and coloured from Savery's pictures

hope that some examples of

this

work of

art will soon reach

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

the crude and profane ideas entertained

Dodo

"

un oiseau

He

manquee."

dont toutes

bizarre,

35

by Buffon and

his disciples,

parties portaient

les

was the

fancies that this imperfection

le

one of

whom

calls

the

d'une conception

caractcre

result of the youthful impatience of the

newly-formed volcanic islands which gave birth to the Dodo, and imphes that a steady old
continent would have produced a much better article (Bory St. Vincent, Voy. aux Isles des

Mers

d' Afrique. vol.

Section IV.
Rasores

Affinities
;

nor

305.

p.

ii.

vol.

iii.

p.

Not
Opinions
of Owen

of the Dodo

allied to

the Raptores

to

of Gray ; of Broderip

the

Grallatorial or Natatorial orders

of Vigors ; of

Affinity

169).

of the Bodo

Be

nor

to

the

Blainville ; of La Fresnaj/e ; of Gould;

to the Pigeons,

proved by numerous agreements

of structure.

We

now approach

the most difficult part of oiu- subject,

perfect data as history

and anatomy present, the

in the class of Birds.

Now

and exceptional animal

it

in

of the

determine, from such im-

Dodo to other generic forms


Dodo is a very anomalous

forms a very isolated genus,

it

which the more prevalent arrangements of ornithic

just as its native island

far

struc-

intermediate between Asia and Africa, and can

is

We

hardly be referred to either continent.


close or satisfactory affinities

viz., to

evident, at first sight, that the

is

in the language of systematists,

removed from the large groups


ture are displayed

affinities

must

not, therefore, expect to discover

between the Dodo and other

All that

birds.

any very

we can do

is

to

seek for those other generic forms to which, in the majority, or rather the preponderance of
its

characters,

it

makes the nearest approach.

The most prominent

sequence of the shortness of


only three

its

wings.

families of existing birds,

any of these

birds, their feathers

families.

are

This

manifestly

its

inability to fly, in con-

an exceptional peculiarity which occurs in

the Penguins, the Auks,

Now

and the

Ostriches.

It is,

the Penguins are the most completely aquatic of

all

almost reduced into the condition of scales, and their wings are

practically converted into fins, while the

entire discoimection

is

is

whether the imperfectly developed wings of the Dodo indicate an

therefore, natural to inquire


affinity to

Dodo

characteristic of the

palmated and plautigi-ade

The Auks,

from the type of the Dodo.

of

feet at

once prove their

which a single

species,

AIca

impennis, has the wings too short for flight, while the other species of the group are volatile,
represent geographically in the northern hemisphere, the Penguins of the southern, and are
equally remote from the bird before us.

The Struthious bkds make a somewhat nearer

approach to the Dodo, in the rudimental natm-e of their plumage, but their long legs and
neck, the comparatively feeble beak, the absence, or very slight development, of the hallux, and

numerous other

peculiarities,

no means nearly

allied to the

and the Dodo


affinity

(so far as

we

prove them to be modifications of the Grallatorial order, and by

Dodo. The apparently similar texture of plumage

in the Ostriches

are acquainted with the latter), does not necessarily indicate any

for a terrestrial bird of

whatever order,

if

deprived of the means of

flight,

would, of

would no longer exhibit

that peculiar compactness,

Dodo, then, be neither a Penguin, an Auk, nor an Ostrich,

whole order of birds, or (which


other group, to which

We

to the Divers, or the

remove

Its

is

far

more probable)

its

must be an exceptional form of some

it

Dodo can be

referred neither to the Grallatorial nor Natatorial

great bulk, and the vast strength and curvature of the beak,

my own

some recent

naturalists,

The arrangements

we can compare

to

it.

a brief notice of the opinions

views of this question, I will give

whose

seem equally

There apparently remain, therefore, only

called.

the Galhnaceous and Raptoinal orders with which

Before stating

own person a

AIca impemiis to the other genera of Alcidae.

from the Insessores, properly so

it

must evidently be

stands in the same relation as the Ostriches to the Bustards, the

it

have seen that the

orders.

it

independent organization, representing in

and

either an entirely unique

Penguins

and those beautiful mechanical arrange-

in the feathers of volatile bu-ds.

ments which are seen


If the

I.

modified as to serve only as a clothing to the skin, and they

feathers so

course, have its

of

[Part

AFFINITIES

36

criticisms are philosophical in spuit, if not correct in result.

of earlier systematists

may be

omitted, as being too crude and vague to be

worth recording.

Mr. Vigors,

in his elaborate paper

484, referred the

tions,' vol. xiv. p.

on the "

Dodo

Affinities of Birds," in the

to the Gallinaceous order,

intermediate between the Stridldonida and the genus Crax.

its

head and

foot,

flight, it

may

purposes of

is

decidedly gallinaceous

witli

its

and from the

its

being more robust,

But the

foot

in wliich character

it

economy, and from the appear-

insufficiency of its wings for

equal certainty be pronounced to be of the

referable to the present family {StndJiionida;).

exception of

be

to

it

His words are as follows

" Tlie bird in question, from every account which we have of


ance of

Linnaean Transac-

and considered

Stndhmis

structure,

tlie

and

has a strong liind toe, and, with the

stiU adheres to the StrntJrionida,

it

cor-

responds exactly with the foot of the Linnaean genus Crax, that commences the succeeding family.

The

bu'd thus becomes osculant, and forms a strong point of junction between these two conterminous

groups, which thougli evidently approacliing each other in general points of similitude, would not
exliibit that

intimate bond of connection which

the neighbouring subdivisions of nature, were

M. De

Blainville,

p. 24, objects to this

in the Nouvelles

we have

it

seen to prevail almost uniformly throughout

not for the intervention of this important genus."

Annales du

Museum

arrangement on the following grounds

-.

d'Histou-e Naturelle, vol.

1st, the

iv.

form of the beak, in which

the strength, the terminal hook, the nudity of the base, the width of the gape, remind us (as he
says) of a rapacious rather than of a granivorous bii'd

are not provided with an


4thly, the strength

'

M. De

notice of

it

in

written by "

scale

and shortness of the

the short and woolly


taste of the flesh

incumbent

to be

nuiis

Ho

6thly,

and bad

consequently concludes

acquainted with this valuable paper by Mr. Vigors, only from a brief

Mr. Duncan's " Memou- ou the Dodo,"

un auteur anonyme,

tarsi

7thly, the alleged toughness

8thly, the absence of metatarsal spines.

who seems

and curvature of the claws

squamous covering of the

5thly, the

plumage of the head and neck

and

Blainville,

3rdly, the strength

legs

2ndly, the position of the nostrils, which

in the

Zoological Journal, vol.

que je crois etre M. Macleay."

iii.

p.

558,

tells

us that

it is

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

Dodo

that the

is

a Raptorial bird,

Vultures, in proof of which he adduces

allied to the

smooth area of the beak,

1, the eyes placed in the

37

as in Catluaies

very forward on the beak, and without incumbent scale


the beak, resembling those of Sarcorhamphns

the orbits,

its

flattening

on the

folds at the base of the

hood of skin

3, the

the oval nostrils placed

2,

form,

sinciput, as in the last-named Vulture

5,

and colom- of

size,

the form of the cranium,

4,

between

"width

its

the two caruncular

curved portion of the beak, somewhat as in SarcorhatHphus

like that of Cathaiies

7,

the almost naked neck, of a greenish colour

the

6,

S,

the

form, number, and arrangement of the toes, and the strength and cm-vature of the claws
9,

the squamose system of the tarsi and toes

common,

the muscular stomach, which are

10, the crop at the base of the neck

as he says, to the

two orders

and

11

and

the absence

of the metatarsal spine.

Notwithstanding these apparent agreements with the Rapacious order, M. de Blainville


admits that the legs of the

Dodo

are

much

shorter

and stronger than

of the

la

that the

These

Fresnaye, in an outline of his classification of the Bh'ds of Prey, adopts

and makes the Didbice the

(Revue Zoologique, 1839,

Dodo

and other

a greater anomaly in a rapacious, than in a gallinaceous bird.

views,

Blainville's

Fidfiiridce

inability

Dodo.

The Baron de

M. de

and that the

however, do not prevent him from giving his vote in favom' of the Raptorial

difficulties,
affinities

any known Vulture

in

by a membrane

that the toes are not connected, as in the Vultures,


to fly appears even

p. 193).

or loM^est, sub-family of the

fost,

In accordance with this idea, he conjectures

inhabited the sea-coasts, and fed upon the remains of Crustacea, Mollusca,

offal cast

up by the waves.

Mr. Gould, from a consideration of the several characters above enumerated,


especially the compression of the

as

M. de
Mr.

Blainville (Nouv.

Ann. ^lus. Hist. Nat.

face, arrived at

and

the same conclusion

vol. iv. p. 34).

E. Gray has expressed the opinion that the bird represented in the pictm-es of the

J.

Dodo was made up


if

beak and nudity of the

by joining the head

artificially

of a bird of prey approaching the Vultures,

not belonging to that family, to the legs of a Gallinaceous bird. But, as Mr. Broderip well

remarks, "

if this

which are either

be granted, see what we have to deal with.

extinct, or

have escaped the researches of

a bird of prey, to judge from

whose

pillar-like legs

1.

The base

larger than the

We

have then two

all zoologists,

Condor

species,

to account for

one,

the other, a Gallinaceous bird,

must have supported an enormous body."

on the following grounds


"

its bill,

Mr. Gray's opinion

is

based

-.

of the bill

is

enveloped in a cere, as

may be

cere are distinctly exhibitedj esjieciaUy over the back of

tlie

seen in the cast, where the folds of the

nostrOs.

The

cere is

only found in the

Raptorial birds.

"

2.

The

nostrils are placed exactly in front of the cere, as they are in the other

are oval and nearly erect, as they are in the true Vultures, and in that genus alone,
dinal as they are in the Cathartes,

naked, and covered with an arched

all

the Gallinaceous

Lmh,

scale, as is the case in all

Raptores

they

and not longitu-

Grallatores, and Natatores;

the Gallinaceci.

and they are

[Part

AFFINITIES

38
"
a

3.

In Edwards's picture the

bill is

represented as

much hooked

(like the

Raptores) at the tip

character which unfortunately cannot be verified on the Oxford head, as that specimen

the horny sheath of the

and only shows the form of the bony

bill,

" With regard to the

size of the bill,

reut species of Vultures, indeed so

much

so

is

destitute of

core.

to be observed that this part varies greatly in the

it is

that there

no reason

is

I.

difl'e-

to believe that the bird of the

Oxford head was much larger than some of the known Vultures.

" With rc^rd to the


from

all

claws."

foot,

it

has

the Vultures in the shortness of the middle toe, the form of the leg, and the bluntness of the

(Penny Cyclopaedia,

vol. ix. p. 55.)

Mr. Broderip, on the other hand,


follows

the character of that of the Gallinaceons birds, and differs

all

discussion of the question,

after a full

sums

up

it

as

" If the

picture in the British

creature then

living, to

term would

be to

was

it

to be fed

clumsy

the cut in Bontius be

representations of a

faitliful

a Vulture, in the ordinary acceptation of the

Vulture without wings

How

not only without wirigs, but necessarily slow and heavy \n progression on

The Vultunda:

feet.

Museum and

a bird a bird of prey

set all the usual laws of ada^jtation at defiance.

And

make such

are, as

we know, among

its

the most active agents for removing the decom-

posing animal remains in tropical and intertropical climates, and they are provided with a prodigal

development of wing to waft them speedily to the spot tainted by the corrupt incumbrance.

But no

such powers of wing would be required by a bird appointed to clear away the decaying and decomposing
masses of a luxm'iant tropical vegetation a kind of Vulture for vegetable impurities, so to speak,

such an

office

Professor
at

would not be by any means inconsistent with comparative slowness of pedestrian motion."

Owen

has lately

made

more minute examination of the remains preserved

Oxford than was in the power of M. de


through the medium

relics

of drawings

the recent dissection of the foot,


observations in a
vol.

iii.

p.

331.

and

made

memoir published
Mr.

Owen

in

Blainville,

and

casts.

who was

only acquainted with these

The former was

further

aided

by

by Dr. Kidd, and has given us the result of his


1845, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society,

remarks, that the

Dodo

differs

from

all

Raptorial birds "in the

greater elevation of the frontal bones above the cerebral hemispheres, in the sudden sinking

of the interorbital and nasal region of the forehead, in the rapid compression of the beak
anterior to the orbits, in the elongation of the compressed mandibles,
direction of the sloping symphysis of the lower jaw."

smaller in proportion, and the nostrils

more

The arguments adduced by Professor

in

He

and

in the depth

and

further adds that the eyes are

advance and lower down than in the VuUuridcB.

Owen

in favour of its affinity

to the Vulttu-es,

common

Cock, Crax, and

from a comparison of the bones of the foot with those of the

other GallincB, on the one hand, and of the Vulture and Eagle on the other, will be stated at

length in Part

II.

of this work.

" Upon the

He

concludes as follows

w'hole, then, the Raptorial character prevails

most in the structure of the

foot, as in

the general form of the beak of the Dodo, and the present limited amount of our anatomical knowledge
of the extinct terrestial bird of the Mauritius supports the conclusion that

form of the Raptorial order.

Devoid of the power of

flight, it

it is

an extremely modified

could have had small chance of obtaining

of the dodo.

Ch.L]
food by prejdng upou the members of

decaying organized matter,

it

littoral Fishes, Crustacea, &c.,

its

own

most probably
which

its

class

and

39

if it

did not exclusively subsist on dead and

restricted its attacks to the class of Reptiles

well-developed back-toe and claw would enable

and to the
and

to seize

it

hold with a firm gripe."

It is

Owen

however evident from the many counter-arguments which both

De

and

Blainville

have with great impartiality adduced, that their conchisions as to the Raptorial
of the

affinities

Dodo

are far from being absolutely demonstrated.

many

to the GaOinaceous hypothesis, there are at least as

systematic zoologist finds no

however we look a

little

more

If there are objections

and the

to the Raptorial one,

one conclusion than in the other.

satisfaction in the

further into the field of ornithic creation,

we

If

shall find a family of

birds ready to claim relationship with this pedestrian outcast, and to admit

him among

their

kindred.

The various

zoologists

who have

hitherto attempted the classification of the

to have been unconsciously influenced by


it

only with birds of large

each zoological group


those limits

by overcoming

and where the characters of structure

of diversity in

this prejudice, as to the

must now

The

call

upon

zoologists to

make

But although

mere

in

two organisms essen-

ought to justify their separation.

size

importance of
its

true place

among

the Insessores, and

is

very isolated in character, and though

probably intermediate between the Insessorial and Gallinaceous orders, can with
either.

we

In this group

find

some genera that

which are entirely

terrestrial,

while the majority, of which the

combine

both these

modes

instance,

composed almost

much

of

life.

But the main

exclusively of the seeds of various plants

is

destined to

live.

characteristic of all

and

Common

the beak considerably elongated, feeble, and slender.

and berries of various kinds of palms,

fig,

wholly in

trees.

We

But

trees, others

is

is

an

then- diet,

accordingly find

and mechanical structure

Those which feed on

the seeds of small grasses and other plants, like the

several groups of Pigeons called Nutmeg-eaters

live

difficulty

common Wood-Pigeon

diversity in the forms of their beaks, according to the size

the seeds on which each genus

It

Mennra,

size in classification, that the

a similar concession in regard to the Dodo.

extensive group of Columbidce, or Pigeons,

be referred to

between

certain limits of magnitude, yet the range

has been recently removed from the Rasores to

e. g.,

often very great,

by

Dodo, appear

and they consequently compared

colossal stature,

the Ostrich, the Vulture, or the Albatross.

characterized

correspond, no amount

tially
is

is

is

size, like

its

cereal grains

of

and

Pigeon and Turtle-dove, have

in tropical countries there are

and Trerons, which feed on the large

nutmeg, and other

trees.

especially those of the genus Treron [Vinago of Cuvier), have the beak

These

much

birds,

fruits

and

stouter than

other Pigeons, the corneous portion being strongly arched and compressed, so as greatly to

resemble the structure of certain Rapacious birds, especially of the Vulturine family.
Tliis

Raptorial form of beak

very singular
little

is

yet

bhd of
known

the
of

Samoan
its

carried to the greatest extent in the genus Biduncuhis, a

is

Islands in the Pacific

habits,

but Mr.

Stair,

Ocean

(see plate VII.

f.

1).

Very

a missionary recently returned from

[Part

AFFINITIES

40

those islands, has reported that the bird feeds upon bulbous roots.

Mr. Titian Peale, an American natm-alist (whose account

saw something
name.

Megapodidm, though he recognised

two figures of

has eiven

it

name

described the bird, under the

first

p. 175, referred

of Natiu-al History, vol. xvi.

Annals

in the

rostris,

unpublished),

still

form or habits that reminded him of the Dodo, and hence

in its

W. Jardine, who

Sh-

Its first discoverer,

I beheve,

is,

in

it

in his Birds of Australia, Part 22,

We

approaches nearest to the Pigeons.

generic

its

of Gnathodon strigi-

conjecturally to the

it

several dove-like characters.

I.

And Mr.

Gould,

who

pronounces that the bird

soon see that the Bidine and Columbine

shall

hypotheses, though apparently incongruous, resolve themselves (as often happens) into one

Truth.

Although certain genera of Columbidte are thus seen

no two groups

that of the Raptores, yet

to observe that mechanical

substances,

strength,

can be more opposed in habits and

class

whether

for

It is interesting,

however,

the devouring of animal or vegetable

obtained in both cases by a similarity of structure.

is

now we

regard the

Dodo

Vulture-like frugivorous pigeons,

more

same

than the " feroces Aquilse " and " imbefies Columbse."

affinities

If

in the

assume a form of beak resembling

to

consistent with

as an extreme modification, not of the Vultures, but of these

we

shall, I think, class

what we know of

its

structure

and

in a

it

habits.

group whose characters are far


There

is

no a priori reason why

a Pigeon should not be so modified, in conformity with external circumstances, as to be inca-

pable of

flight, just as

Now we

a Penguin.

we

bkd

see a GraUatorial

modified into an Ostrich, and a Diver into

and about one

are told that Mauritius, an island forty miles in length

hundred miles from the nearest land, was, when discovered, clothed with dense

and various other

A bud

trees.

adapted to feed on the

the perpetual luxmiance of tropical vegetation, and would have but

then should

tearing with

its

kernels with

Man

have the means of flying

first

Mr. E.

J. T.

life

Blytli, in

on fallen fruits and


the elegant hackled

the Nicobar,

revel in

need of locomotion.
tree to tree,

Dodo

to the

Such, in

existence.

its

my

Pigeon.'

neighbourhood of the Pigeons, originated

Reinhardt of Copenhagen, the discoverer of the cranium in the Gottorf

was

at

Copenhagen

an excellent

treatise

in

1845, Professor Reinhardt was then absent on a

vol. xiv. p.

858, and Ann. Nat.

Some much resemble

Partridges in their

on the Columbidce (Journ. As. Soc. Beng.

Hist. vol. xix. p. 99), speaking of the Gourince or

of

would

Such a bird might wander from

colossal, brevipennate, frugivorous

idea of referring the

When

Museum.

it

powerful gizzard, enjoying tranquilhty and abundance, until the arrival of

was the Dodo, a

The

little

powerful beak the fruits which strewed the ground, and digesting their stony

its

with Professor

mode

destroyed the balance of Animal Life, and put a term to

opinion,

'

it

palms

produced by these forests

fruits

would, in that equable climate, have no occasion to migrate to distant lands

Why

forests of

Ground Pigeons,

says

"

* other genera are completely sylvan in their abode, feeding on the ground, more especially

berries.

Such are the magnificent Go(/ras of the Moluccas and

Ground Pigeons

Andaman, and Cocos

{Calcenas), one of

Isles."

which abounds

New

Guinea, *

in the forests of the

* and

Malay Peninsula, and

in

of the dodo.

Ch. L]
voyage round the world, but

was

orally

41

informed that he considered the

On

mediate between the Pigeons and the Galliuaceous birds.

remains which

Ave possess in Britain,

to the Pigeons than I then understood

man, however, has

me

informed

left

Swedish and Danish

several

and

extinct bird
I

he

wUl now

be

to

inter-

subsequently examining the

soon saw reasons for classing this bird even nearer

by Professor Reinhardt.

to be placed

it

London on

his

Denmark

1845, he had pointed out, in

lately visited

that, before

Dodo

zoologists,

in

This gentle-

return from his distant voyage, and has

"the striking

which

affinity

exists

to

letters

his

between

this

the Pigeons, especially the Trerons."


briefly notice the points of

agreement

the structure of the Dodo, and in

in

that of the Pigeons, which serve to substantiate the above hypothesis.

A. External characters.

The whole group

of Pigeons are remarkable for having the corneous

portion of the beak very short, the bas;il portion long, slender, and covered with a soft naked skin,
wliich characters exist in the

Dodo, but not in the GaUinaceous

In

Cathartiius, in the Kaptores.

bare,

is

birds, nor, with the exception of the

birds the basal portion of the mandibles, whether feathered or

all

divided fi'om the corneous termination by a separating line

portion, instead of being depressed, soft, and vascular, as in the

CathartiiicR

they

may
2.

which have a

are the only Raptores

certainly

Dodo and

surrounded by a naked skin, which,

if

extended over the

the beak, would produce the appeai-ance wliich

and a

(see plate

VIL),

more expansion of

little

it

and in

the Pigeons,

has received the

is

this basal

prominent

name

of cere.

this very superficial character

be said to resemble the Dodo.

species of Treron, in Geopliaps, Macropygia,

In some

and Diduncvlus

soft cere,

but in the Raptores

and somewhat hard and horny, resembUng wax in appearance, whence

The

all

we

this junction

this

and other Columbine genera, the eyes

face, so as to join the bare

In those rare genera, Verrulia

see in the Bidus.

of the ocular

and

are

basal portion of

rostral areae actually takes place,

naked surface over the forehead would transform those birds into

miniature Dodos.
3.

In the two strongest beaked genera of Pigeons, Treron and Didunculiis, the corneous portion

of the beak

and

is

is

strongly uncinate and compressed, while the tip of the lower mandible curves upwards,

overhung by the upper one.

conformation
4.

is

repeated in

In Treron and

in

comparison of plates V. and VII.

Bidus the

nostril is placed

plate

VIT.

equally forward, but none so low

stress

we can

with in Bird-books,

Now

is

overhung above by a

M. De

of.

Some
(See

that I

BlainviUe as a Vultmine character.

attach to the plirase, " nostrils fui-nished

in fact, the case in the

soft,

tumid

know

as Treron or Bidus.

bii-ds,

down

mth

skin,

Dodo, whose

The only

an incumbent scale," often met

that the nostrils enter the beak obliquely, so that their upper

tliis is,

tliis

be laid on the supposed absence of an incumbent scale in the

ecaiUe superieure "), referred to by

wliich

the lower.

orifice

Nor can any

fig. 3).

Dodo ("sans
meaning

have

precisely

This forward and low position of the nostril

occm-s more or less in other genera of Pigeons, but in no other family of


of the Vultures

show how

about the middle of the beak, close to the base

of the corneous portion, and near the lower margin.

tliis

will

Didus.

nostrils are

margin overhangs

remarkably obUque, and are

agreeing herein with the Pigeons, and (htfermg from the

Raptores.
5.

We find

in the Pigeons, even to a greater degree than in Bidus, that

forehead to the beak, and the rapid narrowing of the beak in front of the

sudden sinking from the


orbits,

which Professor

APFINITIES

42
Owen

[Part

points out as a distinction between the latter bird and the Vultures.

prolongation of the beak, and the approach to paraUehsm in


birds which exliibit

tliis

its

This

opposite surfaces

is

I.

the resvdt of the

and the only other

conformation, are certain Grallatores and Tenuirostres, neither of wliich groups

have any reference to the present question.


of gape

The apparent width

6.

wide

as in the Raptorial birds,

and

From

fact

is,

De

BlaiuviUe in proof of

Dodo

that the rictus of the

by no means so

is

On

proportionably no wider than in the Pigeons.

is

the original specimen, the angle of the


the eye.

one of the characters referred to by

is

But the

the Vulturine relations of the Dodo.

mouth

is

examining

seen to terminate three quarters of an inch in front of

remarkable cutaneous ridge, wliich seems peculiar to this bhd, extends

this point a

backwards and downwards beneath the

eye,

and gives the appearance of a very capacious mouth.

(See

plate V).

The

7.

tarsi of the

Dodo

are only partially covered with transverse scuta, the upper portion being

This structure

clothed with small scales.

is

used by

De

Blainville as an

argument

the majority of Pigeons the tarsi are covered anteriorly with transverse scuta, yet
find that in

two genera, Starnoenas and Goura, whose habits are almost whoUy

tarsi clothed

with small

The absence

8.

Gallinaceous

are

short robust tarsi, and broad expansion of the lower surface of the toes in the

HombiUs

[Bitcerotida) ,

movement

A general

know no

and these assuredly have no


fij-mer footing,

affinity to the

and

to

it

is

The design

Dodo.

compensate

But

constant, even in the

An

is

more

or less

in the Pigeons, whose habits are essentially arboreal, the

strictly

terrestrial

genera, and in the case of the Dodo,

to the ground.

analogous persistence of type

is

Nature

still

adheres to the Columbine

seen in the Ground Parrots and Ground

Cuckoos, in which the reversed position of the outer toe, an essentially scansorial structure,

down

whereas in those orders

such as the Rasores and Grallatores, the hind toe

must have been exclusively confined

position of the liind toe.

of

for the shostness, or

character of perching birds consists in the hind toe being articulated so low

essentially ambulatory,

former structure

(see

of the toes.

raised above the level of the other toes.

although

Dodo

other group in which the toes are similarly expanded

that its inferior surface forms a continuous plane with the sole of the foot

which are

find the

conspicuous in the Pigeons, especially in the group Treronina (including

probably to give the bird a

is

insufficient lateral

10.

we

terrestrial,

of the Dodo, prevails equally throughout the Columbida.

much more

this structure

in

interesting to

not unlike those in the Dodo.

CarpopJiaga), than in the Vultures.

except the

But although
it is

of metatarsal spines wliich has been adduced as an objection to the supposed

affinities

The

9.

PL VI)

scales,

for its affinity to

whoUy squamose.

the Vultures, in which the tarsi and greater part of the toes are

is

maintained

spite of the discordance of habits.

On

comparing the

relative lengths of the anterior toes in the chfi'erent genera of Pigeons,


with reference to their pecuharities of habit, we find that in the exclusively arboreal genera (such as

11.

Treron, Carpophaga, Ptilonopus, &c.), the inner toe is shorter than the outer

genera

(as

Phaps, Geophaps, &c.),

both modes of
with

this,

we

(as

life,

from which I

Now

it is

Dodo, the most

terrestrial of all

although the head of the

infer that it fed,

arboreal buds,

hke those bhds, on

Dodo

in the

more

terrestrial

Pigeons, the inner toe

Conformably
is

considerably

agrees most nearly with that of the Trerons,

tropical fruits,

interesting to observe that the structure of

the Ground Pigeons.

longer than the outer; while in those genera wliich combine

Columba, Turtur, GeopeUa, &c.), these digits are nearly equal.

find that in the

longer than the outer.

it is

yet as

its

tlie

Trerons are exclusively

foot approaches rather to that of

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The Dodo,

12.

43

any membrane between the toes; whereas

like the Pigeons, is destitute of

the

all

Vultures, as well as the Gallinaceous birds, are characterized by a short interdigital web.

The

13.

strong, blunt claws of

short,

merely such as we

propensities, but are

Bidus do not indicate any Eaptorial

find in most ground birds, as in the terrestrial genera of Pigeons, as well as in the

Gallinaceie.

B. Internal Characters.
a Vulture,

Tough

it

or, at least,

that

it

An

14.

undoubtedly was, and so are

Swan, yet no one would argue from

Wood-Pigeons

are by

argument which has often been used to prove that the Dodo was

was carnivorous,
all

Swans

that

tliis

the toughness and supposed bad taste' of

is

The toughest bird

large birds.

and Ducks. Even common


And the alleged bad taste of the Dodo is a pure
in Van Neck's Voyage, (see p. 9, supra,) that the

disgusted with these birds, and called them

expressly attributed,

to

first,

their

"

now-a-days,

sailors

shall

!]

Van Neck seem to have been


their salt provisions

know concerning

call

less dainty, for

{supra, pp.

1.5,

they both feasted on

It

17).

is

therefore clear

the flavoui- of Dodo-meat affords no

pliagal dilatation or crop.

some

is

were " saporis jucundi et masticationis

cases

(as in

This

is

The voyagers

the latter Walchvogel.


fi'esh

that

wlio fol-

Dodos, and stored them

the

little

which we ever

objection to the Columbiue hypothesis.

bud must have had

15. It appears from the paintings of the Dodo, that this

in

disgust

supphed ad lihitum with Turtle-Doves and "Wood-

if

Pigeons, would doubtless devour the former, and

among

tliis

and, secondly, because they found an abundance of Turtle-Doves wliich they hked better.

And no wonder; Dutch


lowed

But

Walckvogcl.

toughness (accompanied, however, with the admission that the

breasts and stomaclis [imagine the taste of a Vulture's stomach


facUis

flesh.

are not allied to Geese

no means remarkably tender.

invention of the moderns, founded on the statement

Dutchmen became

its

I ever tried to eat, was a wild

many

a structure which occurs in

a very large oeso-

different orders, its object

granivorous birds), to macerate the food before

it

being,

passes into the stomach

in

others (as in the Kaptores), to enable the bird to swallow large quantities of food at distant intervals.

The crop

in which the crop is

with

its

We

"stomach,"
the gizzard

more developed than in the Pigeons, the

figures of the

as there are

Dodo

no birds

are quite consistent

do not know much as to the degree of muscularity of the Dodo's gizzard.

{venter, ventriculus, estomach,


is

intended,

can hardly have been the


that the

Dodo had

it

would

case, for

stones in

Be

condition of that organ.

which require them to

17.
Solitaire

but

to its affinities,

as

supposed relation to that family.

16.

birds,

much

of the Dodo, therefore, does not prove

We

are told

its

are assured

gizzard

tliis

as

it

remarkable

for laying

that order (as far as I

a character which

is

always accompanied by a very muscular

may, we know that stones are only swallowed by frugivorous

and are never found in the gizzards of the Eaptores.

by Cauche that the Dodo

laid

statement.

liis

a large number of eggs.

am

This, however,

by numerous witnesses {supra, pp. 12, 15, 17, 20, 22,)

triturate their food,

(mentioned hereafter), confirms

by the

maag,) wliich the old voyagers found tender and palatable,

certainly imply a small degi-ee of muscular rigidity.

we

If

only one egg, and the analogous case of the

Now

the Gallinaceous birds are generally

Eaptorial birds, indeed, lay but few, yet no species of

aware) lays a single egg, Hke the Dodo.

But

in the Pigeons

we

find that

a very small number of eggs (commonly two) are the prevailing rule, wlule in certain genera {Carpiophaga

and

Ectopistes, see Blyth in Journ. As. Soc.

Beng.

vol. xiv. p.

855),

a single egg

is

produced, as in

Bidus.

There yet remain several osteological peculiarities in the

Dodo which

are

strongly

demonstrative of

its

CohmUdcn, and of

aiRnity to the

as these will form the subject of the second part of


detail

by Dr.

work, and will there be treated in

more important

Melville, I will only briefly eiuimerate the

the long narrow nasal fissures

and

of the

These are

ones.

bony septum of the

20, the form of the posterior facet of the lower jaw

oblique duection of the zygomatic bone

the mesial occipital foramen above the

foramen

mac/iinm,

(pecidiar,

it

full
:

nostrils;
;

21, the

22, the peculiar form of the palatine bones

I.

But

remoteness from the Raptores.

its

tliis

IS, the absence or non-development of the vomer,


1 9,

[Part

AFFINITIES

44

would seem,

23,

to the

Pigeons and the Dodo); 24, the breadth and peculiar twist of the metatarsal of the hind toe
25, the oval transverse section of the tarso-metarsal

(see Plate XI.);

form

26, the peculiar

of the upper extremity of the tarso-metatarsal, including the arrangement of the calcaneal
processes,

and of the canals

to the Pigeons

the tarsus,

for the passage of the flexor

and the Dodo)

and not on the

tendons

and 27, the

fact (peculiar

that these canals pass ou the outside of the posterior ridge of

inside, as in Gallinaceous birds.

Such are the principal points of agreement between the Dodo and the Pigeon family,

and

will

it

be admitted that they are neither few nor

three points of diversity which

are,

however, two or

mention.

fair to

I need only allude as a matter of form to the non-development of wings, as

1
all

only

it is

There

trivial.

hands that

tliis

character distinguishes the

mately compared, and

is

as

much opposed

Dodo from

to the

all

other birds with which

admitted on

it is

can be

it

legiti-

normal structure of the Rapacious birds, as to that of

the Columbida.

The

2.

small size of the cranium in proportion to the beak distinguishes the

the Pigeons than from the Vultures.


brain and eyes.

Tliis

pecuharity results from the

It is a general law that animals of great

relative

Dodo no

less

from

dimensions of the

magnitude (the Elephant and Whale, for

do not require those important organs to be eidarged in the same proportion as the parts

instance,)

destined for locomotion, and the nutritive functions.^


a bird as

smaU

Dodo should

tlie

differ in tliis respect

We

need not, therefore, wonder that so colossal

from other members of that family to which

it is

nearest

alhed.

The Dodo

3.
tlie

is,

Owen

as Professor

remarks, " peculiar

among

birds for the equahty of length of

metatarsus and proximal phalanx of the hind toe," wlule in most birds this phalanx

longer than the metatarsal which supports


general

affinities of

metatarsal, the posterior metatarsal,

genus according as

it.

The

a doubtful ornithic genus can be

its

habits

are

fact

is,

however,

drawn from the

that

is

considerably

no argument

as

to the

relative proportions of the tarso-

and the proximal phalanx ; these proportions varying in each

more

or less

cujsorial,

ambulatory, or insessorial.

glance at

Plate XI., where the forms of these bones in five different genera of Pigeons are exliibited, will substantiate
4.

'

tliis

remark.

And,

lastly,

This law

is

the nostril of the Dodo, although agreeing in position with that of Trermi,

probably based on the distinction between ponderable and imponderable substances.

and muscles of an animal are mechanical structures, the


masses which they are required to move

size of wliich bears

is

of a

The bones

an exact arithmetical relation to the

but the eye and the brain have to deal with light and the nervous fluid

imponderable agents, to which the ordinary laws of mechanics do not apply.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

clifferent_/b;v,

Tliis difference,

45

being slightly oblique upwards and backwards, wliile that of Trero7i


however,

is

is

more

It appears then, that the only points in

from the type of the Pigeons, are few


mation to the Raptorial form

and

in

which the Dodo can be said to

number, and are not such as

think

will

it

to

differ materially

make any

member

Postscript 1.

At

hagen."

At

the time

approxi-

be granted that the numerous and important

characters which have been above noticed, will warrant us in regarding the genus

very aberrant

horizontal.

not greater than what prevails in the nostrils of other genera of pigeons.

Bidus

as a

of the family Columhida.

pp. 25, 33, svpra, I have inadvertently spoken of

when Olearius published


Dukes

"the Gottorf Museum

his catalogue, this collection

whence

was not

at

at

Copen-

Copenhagen, but

at

was removed by Frederic IV., about 1720, to


Copenhagen, and was incorporated with the Eoyal " Kimstkammer " in that metropolis.

Gottorf, the seat of the

2.

of Sclileswig;

It has been suggested to

me

that translations of the Latin, French, Dutch, and

extracted above (pp. 9-25), would be acceptable to

Appendix.

it

many

readers,

German

passages,

and these are therefore given

in the

CHAPTER
The Brevipennate Bird

{Pezophaps

to the Zoological Society

of Rodriguez, the Solitaire.

solitaria, nobis

Bones
of London

Evidence of Leguat ; of Herbert

II.

Didm solitarius

sent to the Paris


Affinities

Museum ;

to tie

of Gmelin.)

Andersonian Museum at Glasgow ;

of the Solitaire.

NOAV proceed to notice another bird of equally remarkable structure to the Dodo, and the

evidence, both historical

The Island

positive.

and

osteological, of

of Rodriguez,

which

whose

existence,

about

is

though

less

abundant,

is

equally

miles long by six broad, and

fifteen

situated about three

hundred miles

called the Solitaire,'^

which seems to have been an homologous representative of the Dodo

the last-mentioned island.^


condition until 1691,

and remained there


and education, has

left

two

a party of French Protestant refugees settled


years.

'

The name

which we
the

same

Leguat's

name

shall

had

The

is

chief portion of his

original,

originally

speak presently.

species,
bii-d

Prench

Solitaire

Their commander, Pran^ois Leguat, a

a higlily interesting account of their adventm-es,

productions of the island.


I will extract in the

Mamitius, gave birth to an apterous bud


in

Rodriguez appears to have remained in a desert and uninhabited

when

for

to the east of

upon the

man

island,

of intelhgence

and of the various

work which concerns us

present

at

accompanied by an old translation.

been given to an

allied,

though doubtless

bird in Bom-bon, of

distinct,

Leguat (who never visited Bourbon) probably supposed the Eodriguez bird to be

and therefore gave

it

the

name which other voyagers had imposed on

the

Bom-bon

the type of the " Bidus solitarius " of systematists, I prefer retaining for

it

par

But

bird.

as

excellence the

of Solitaire.
-

Representation in Zoology

group or species in

oiu"

to a group or species

Vertehrata.

of

is

in another

part

e. g.,

the Cetacea

Analogous representation

hotnologous.
office,

among Mammals

and

is,

in the

Mammoth and modern

Thus the Elephants

of India

Elephants do in time.

where a

among

Homologous representation

same part of the organic creation perform a similar

phical regions, or at diii'erent times.

is

quoad hoc, similarly organized,

represent ig analogy the Fish

This kind of representation exists irrespectively of time and space.

where two groups or species

space, as the

two kinds, analogous and

part of the organic creation performs a similar

office in diii'erent

geogra-

and of Africa represent each other by homology

See Philosophical Magazine, Ser.

is

3. vol. xxviii. p.

in

354.

-^

>-

^^

^-^3*.

Jt-.^L^'-^fati''i^'>V^'- ' "^^ 'yyis^Th

E mSfim

'id

M^

vv -^
^

~~(r

V.

Irth

Ii^::.

Perxk

ESLAMB F

\Vat'

11

LOOKING SOUTH
ixstant

Jeiit-etTi.

.*

Flatt Iir

pl6

'*^>"

'^^i^^ Mf^^r^J

t.

-^^

^tsa^^fc^.

PfJWtdty kr^

Pure

iv'ratkuriii

^SGWEEo

Casue

Hill

C^v^tvj

Bay

Friar's Hood

.^Wesi

Diamond Isknd-

Ch.

OF THE SOLITAIEE.

II.]

Voyages
2

Avantures de Francois Leguat.

et

12 mo., London, 1720. (2nd

vols.

A new

47

Voyage

and

Leguat

ed.)

by Francis

to the East Indies

Companions.

bis

12 mo.

London, 1708.
" De tous

de cet

oiseaux

les

I'espece

isle

" Of

la

able

noui de Solitaires, parce qu'oii les voit rarement en

because

troupes, quoiqne

plumage ordinairemeut

le

de coq d'Inde, et

Les males ont

y en a beaucoup.

il

grisatre et brun, les pieds

bee aussi, mais un peu plus crocbu.

le

n'ont presque point de queue,

lis

lis

clieval.

d'Inde, et out

le

cou

1'

di'oit,

ne volent point, leurs


le

que pour

quand

lis

Tun

I'autre.

pendant I'espace de 4 ou 5 miiuites


de leurs

un

ailes fait alors

de mousquet, cela

On

defense de cet oiseau.

vite qu'eux,

proche

dans

mouvement

le

comme une

goiit

meme

on en ap-

ils

sont extraordinaii'ement gras,

&

est

d'une beaute admirable,

de brunes

cheveux blonds.

de

coulem-

j'appelle blond,

y en a de

une couleur de

EUes ont uue espece de bandeau

comme un bandeau
I'autre

il

de veuves au haut du bee, qui

tannee.

Une plume

ne passe pas

sur tout leur corps, parce qu'elles ont

grand besoin de

les ajuster,

&

Les plumes qui accompagnent

de se polir avec
les cuisses

le

un
bee.

sont arron-

up

lifts

Their

fly,

Head.

his

and

will whirl

to support the

one another.

call

during the space of

side,

The motion of

They

two hundred Paces

foiu-

and one may hear

The Bone

off.

or five

makes thea

their "VVings

a noise very like that of a Rattle


it

They

about for twenty or thirty times together

on the same
minutes.

black and

is

or Cop.

they serve oidy to beat them-

when they

flutter

is sti-aight,

than a Turkey's

Eye

Its

Head without Comb


their Wings are too little

weight of their Bodies


selves,

Neck

its

of their

Wing

grows greater towards the Extremity, and forms a


Httle

round Mass under the Feathers,

Musket

That and

Ball.

fence of this Bird.

Woods, but
faster

without
they

Beak

its

'Tis very hard to catch

much

are

weigh

From March

Trouble.

extremely

forty-five

and

fat,

call

Widow's upon
of a

dun

them

fair,

all

with their Beaks.

thick,

of the Males

beautiful,

They have a

No

over

sort of

\_lege

tlieii-

fair,

Peak, like

is

stragghng

Bodies, they being very

and make them

The Feathers on

like shells at the end,

have an agreeable

some

Beaks], which

one Feather

careful to adjust themselves,

round

some

because they are of the

their Breasts

coloui'.

from the other

to September

Pounds.

colour of fair Hair.

are

De-

in the

admirably well,

tast

young,

" The Femals are wonderfully

it

open Places, because we run

easie in

especially while they are

is

big as a

as

are the chief

than they, and sometimes we approach them

some brown

livres.

blondes

never

mth

but their Hind-part covered

they are taller than Turkeys.

trouve des males qui pesent jusqu' a

" La femelle

est

court plus

n'est pas fort

il

en est excellent sur tout quand Os sont

On

jeuiies.

45

Quelquefois

les

Depuis le mois de Mars jusqu' au

fort aisement.

mois de Septembre

la principale

comme on

Ueux degages,

les

d'en prendre.

difficile

le

ils

cote,

a bien de peine a

attrapper dans les bois, mais

&

quand

du meme

bee sont

le

Tail,

They

roundish, like the Crupper of a Horse

is

and

lis

bruit ([ui approche fort de

et

Feathers

Beak

the Feet and

tlio'

of the

more crooked.

Kvely,

sous la plume une petite masse ronde


balle

have scarce any

Kttle

houpe.

L'os de I'ailleron grossit a Textremite et forme

pas.

hke a Turkey's, but a

Httle longer in proportion

on I'entend de plus de 200

celui d'une Crecerelle, et

Males are of a brown grey Coloiuare

of the Solitary,

The Feathers

it

ne s'eu servent

there are abundance of them.

and a

lis font avec vltesse

suite

name

very seldom seen in Company,

is

when

se battre et T^ovjfaire le moulinet

20 ou 30 pirouettes tout de

it

leve la tete.

il

sont trop petites pour

ailes

poids de leurs corps.

veulent s'appeller

coqs

les

un peu plus long a pro-

a cet oiseau

L'oeil noir et vif, et la tete sans crete ni

soutenir

croupe de

monies que

sent plus haut

portion que ne

et leur derriere

comme une

couvert de plumes est arrondi

is

the Bu-ds in the Island the most remark-

all

that wliich goes by the

plus remarquable est ceUe h laquelle on a donne le

all

even

their Thiglis

and being there very

effect.

They have two

dies par le

plus blanc que le reste,


seiu de

ment un beau

taut de fierte et

&

Risings on their Craws, and the Feathers are whiter

un agreable effet.

there than the rest, which livelily represents the fine

elles

much

qui represente merveiUeuse-

de bonne grace tout ensemble, qu'on

ne pent s'empecher de

les

&

admirer

de

They walk with

so

Statehness and good Grace, that one cannot help

admiring and loving them; by which means their

Elles marchent avec

femme.

Woman.

neck of a Beautiful

d'un plumage

le jabot,

Elles ont deux elevations sur

I.

sont fort

comme

et

bout en coquilles,

epaisses en cet endroit-la, cela produit

sorte

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

48

Mein

fine

often saves their Lives."

p. 71.

de

les aimer,

que souveut leur bonne mine leur a sauve

la

vie." p. 98.

The author then proceeds


" Tho' these Birds
run

after

"

Egc,

We

'tis

of Sustenance

on one

flat

side

Stone was there when they were hatched,

They have never but one of 'em, and


that a like

Mass

till

When

They never

sit.

Male and Female both cover

it

Months, they

and the young


their

same

But what

is

unwelcome Stranger away, not leaving

as to the Males,

several Times,

and I

whom

affirm

it

it till 'tis

way

alone, or in Couples,

"
is

and the new fledg'd Bird, with

We frequently

Tliis Particularity

sincere Truth,

is

not able to provide

is,

the Males will never drive away the

Wings

liis

the Female, and she

to call

The Female

We

do's the

have observ'd this

sometimes pretty long, because the Stranger

However, the others do not forsake

After these Birds have

rais'd their

it

young One, and

tiU

left it

which the other Birds are not, and tho' they happen to mingle with

Companions never

some Days after the young one leaves the Nest, a


it,

one, which

without her Bounds.

from the Nest.

out of their Limits.

other Birds of the same Species, these two

one to

young

very singular,

this occasion last

fly directly

to itself, they are always together,

bye Place.

The

Weeks' end

to be true.

only turns about, and do's not


it

from the Ground,

at seven

till

she leaves to the Male, and he drives them away.

" The Combats between them on

they have quite driven

and

gather

bigger than that of a Goose.

not hatch'd

is

Females, only when he perceives one he makes a noise with


drives the

foot

much

is

a half high

not sidfer any other Bird of their Species to come within two

will

hundred Yards round of the Place

them up a

up

so narrow,

Nests, they choose a clean Place,

theii-

or are bringing

it,

is

tliis

always.

it

whet our Knives better than any

It serv'd to

but one Egg, which

in then- turns,

upon

All the while they are sitting


for itself in several

from the Craw to the Gizard

besides, the Passage

these Birds build

lay

believe

them be never so young, you meet with

together some Palm-Leaves for that purpose, and heap

on which they

We

and round on the other, heavy and hard.


for let

of half the Bigness cou'd not pass.

other Stone whatsoever.

caught they shed Tears without

as they are

they die.

both Male and Eemale, a brown Stone, of the bigness of a Hen's

find in the Gizards of

somewhat rough,

As soon

never gi'ow Tame.

will

manner

refuse all

sometimes very familiarly come up near enough to one, when we do not

will

them, yet they

Crying, and

as follows

its

disunite.

Company

We

have often remark' d, that

of thirty or forty brings another

young

Father and Mother joyning with the Band, march to some

foUow'd them, and found that afterwards the old ones went each their

and

left

the two

young ones

has something in

it

together, wliich

wliich looks a

little

we

call'd a

Marriage,

Fabulous, nevertheless, what I say

and what I have more than once observ'd with Care and Pleasure."

This description

is

accompanied by a

a very different bird from the

Dodo

figure,

and

its

which

at

accuracy

once shews that the Solitaire was


is

attested

by the

fact

that in a

Fldie IVn/fS.

Pac-amile of

xKe

Frontoiece

of

Leguat'^ Yoj^gQ.

Ch.

49

OF THE SOLITAIRE.

II.]

maps which accompany

landscape (see plate IV.) and two

the work,

no

than twenty-

less

eight small figm-es of Solitaires are introduced, aU of which very closely correspond with the

enlarged representation here exhibited.

Besides the above lengthened description, Leguat alludes to these

One

passages.

of these

bii-ds in several

other

very important, as supplying the only testimony extant as to the

is

food of any member of the sub-family Bidinee.


"The Plantane

is

Having abundance of

those of the Palm-tree.

we

left

make mention."

The statement

better things to feed on, Pish

Leguat repeats

that the Solitaii'e lays but one egg,

" They lay three times a

European Birds."

p.

if

of

which we

and that

its

nest

is

shall

a heap of palm-

Cauche makes a similar assertion regarding the Dodo

his statement in another place.

remarkable for that

and Flesh, Pruits, &c.,

Solitaries,

pp. 60, 61.

leaves, is very interesting, as

He

dates of the Plantane are bigger than

the dates for the Turtles and other birds, particularly the

hereafter

'

The

a sort of Palm-tree

am

year,

not

Speaking of Sea-Fowl, he says

and but one egg

mistaken,

at a time, like the Solitaries

we have no example

of anytliing

[supra, p. 22).
:

wliich
like

it

is

the

more

among our

80.

was mistaken, however, for the Em-opean Petrels, the Gannet, and most of the Jlcidts lay only a single egg,

[Part

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES

50

which Leguat makes to the island of Rodriguez on taking

My Mouth

"

That

my

Now

am

Thy

my

Heart

about to leave thy wholesora Air,

verdant,

Water of thy

The

clear

Thy

fruitful

excellent Melons,

thy Lamentines,

Thy HiUs always

Rivers,

and smiling Sun,

thy innocent and rare Delights," &c., &c.

on

indeed be gleaned from Herbert,

who

sailed past

and remarks in his Travels, edition of 1638,

it,

" Bigarroys
inhabitants

[i. e.

other tilings

'tis

uberous

other Fowle rare and serviceable."

nowhere

in Dygarrois (and

an

Rodriguez]

as

in,

And

p.

wood

at present confined to

is

One

small item of evidence

Rodriguez in 1627, but without landing

341

so desolate

ile

116.

p.

authentic historical evidence respecting the Solitaire

Leguat's very cbcumstantial, though unsupported, testimony.

may

Though Rodriguez
respecting
colonists,

it

is

coidd see or heare of)

whom

is

who

" Here,

and

generated the Dodo," &c.

known

in

his

time,

a British colony, yet scarcely any information has been published

The

us.

island

is,

however, inhabited by a few

assured Mr. Telfair that no bird of the kind was

(Proc. Z. S. part 1. p. 31).

of Liverpool,

humane

with the Dodo.

beyond what Leguat has given

one of

in

(choyce and store). Tortoises, Dodos, and

again, p. 347, speaking of Mauritius

else that ever I

Avas erroneously identified

it

mean,

desolate, I

This shows that the existence of an apterous bird in Rodriguez was

though

touched with Sorrow,

is

Solitaries,

And aU

his final departure

confesses from the abundance of

Soul

Thy good Palm Wine, thy

Our only

and rather long-winded address,

allusion to Solitaires occnrs in a sentimental

One more

I.

The same negative

recently suffered shipwreck

This gentleman has obligingly favoured

me

result

on this

there

was obtained by Edward Higgin, Esq.,

island,

with some

now known

MS.

and resided there

for

two months.

notes on Leguat's book, together

with other information, which fully estabhshes the general acciu-acy of Leguat, though some
allowance must be

made

for that author not

having been a naturalist, and for his work having

probably been in part wi-itten from memory.

To Mr. Higgin

From

annexed graphic sketch of the scenery of Rodriguez.


of the island,

it

is

We

here exhibited, was the

evident that the Port of Mathurin,

settlement, of which

we have

cannot, therefore,

the

am also indebted for the


map which Leguat has given
I

site

of his

a view in plate IV.

now hope

to procure

any

living Solitaires,

doubt be perfectly practicable to obtain every part of the skeleton of

though
this

it

would no

bird from the

caverns or alluvial deposits of Rodriguez.


If

we had no

other data than the description and figure of Leguat,

refer the Solitaire to the Struthionidce rather than to the

Dodo.

The

have been longer, the beak shorter, and the wings, though useless for
developed than in Dldus.

The

short, arched beak,

legs

we might perhaps
and neck appear

flight,

to

somewhat more

and the defensive structure of the wings,

lit

1^

^
B^

Ch.

OF THE SOLITAIEE.

II.]

But

remind us of the Cassowary, rather than of the Dodo.

we

osteological evidences as to its characters,

51
as Ave

now

possess some actual

are enabled to pronounce positively that this

bird was closely allied to Didus, and was decidedly not Struthious.

As long ago

1789

as

certain bones, encrusted with stalagmite,

to the Dodo, were found in a cave in the Island of Rodriguez,

M.

son-in-law,

Roquefeuille gave them, about 1830, to the late

to the " Societe d'Histoire Natiirelle de File

Cuvier at Paris,
stated

them

who by some unaccountable

to have

The

Maurice."

and supposed to belong

by a

M.

latter

J.

j\I.

Desjardins, Secretary

gentleman sent them to

and circumstance,

confusion of time, place,

been recently found, under a bed of

lava,

and

were corrected by M. Desjardins, in the Analyse des Travaux de

in Mauritius.

These errors

la Soc. d'Hist.

Nat. de Vile

Maurice, Ide Aiinee.^ (See also Proceedings of Committee of Zoological Society, part

was probably the

It

1831

interest excited

by these bones, that induced the

Dawkins and

to apply for further information to Col.

late

3, p.

Mr.

M. Eudes, then

to

whose

Labistoiu-,

111).

Telfair in

resident at

Rodriguez. The results of his enquiries are thus recorded in the Proceedings of the Zoological
Society, part. 1, p. 31.

"Col. Dawkins, in a recent

Kodriguez, conversed \\ith every person

to

visit

respecting the Dodo, and became convinced that the bird does not exist there.

was that no bird

is

to be

found there, except the Guinea-fowl and Parrot.

The

From one

whom

person, however,

he learned the existence of another bird, wliich was called Oiseau-banf, a name derived from

From

which resembles that of a Cow.


first

the description given of

believed that this bird was really the

be a Gannet.

It is

" Col. Dawkins

visited the caverns in

caves

his informant, Col.


it,

it

A beautiful rich

soil

voice,

its

Dawkins

proved to

places,

forms the ground-work of them, wliich

No

at

island.

which bones have been dug up, and dug in several

and contains no pebbles.

sis to eight feet deep,

by

but on obtaining a specimen of

found only in the most secluded parts of the

but found only small pieces of bone.

from

Dodo

it

met

lie

general statement

is

animal of any description inhabits these

not even Bats.


" M. Eudes succeeded in digging up in the large cavern various bones, including some of a large

kind of bird, which no longer exists in the island

were presented to the Society.

The

entrance, where the darkness begins

the reason

why

jectures that the bird was at

feet,

aU times

and he suggests

it

cats

Those near the surface were the

rare, or, at least,

adds, that the Dutch,

which annoyed them ; these


poultry

whom

they

may be

least injured,

and

but nowhere in considerable quantity ; whence M. Eudes con-

indicated by the bones has never been seen by

M. Eudes

these he forwarded to Mr. Telfair, by

the httle attention usually paid to this part by visitors,

they have not been previously found.

they occur to the depth of three

"

only part of the cavern in wliich they were found was at the

who

first

A bird

uncommon.

M. Gory, who

of so large a size as that

has resided forty years on the island.

landed at Rodriguez,

left cats

there to destroy the rats

have since become very numerous, and prove highly destructive to

as probable that they

may have

destroyed the large kind of bird to which the

bones belong, by devouring the young ones as soon as they were hatched,

a destruction which may

have been completed long before the island was inhabited."

'

am

indebted to Mr. G. C. Cuninghame for sending me, through Sir

archives of the Mauritian Society, detaiUng the above facts.

W.

C. Trevelyan, extracts from the

Mr.

to the Zoological Society of

them

I.

having thus procured from Rodriguez a collection of bones, presented one

Telfair

portion of
at

[ParT

ANATOMICAL EVIDENCES

52

London, and another to the Andersonian

Museum

Glasgow.

Mr. G. C. Cuninghame, of Port Louis, Mauritius, having been recently applied to by


Six W. C. Trevelyan, made several enquiries as to the locality above indicated, and gives a

somewhat

different account

"I

removed

learn that the bones

[in

1831] were found by digging

in a place apparently hollowed

out by the action of running water under a mass of rock on the side of a narrow chasm or ravine
that the floor of the cavity

is

of dark coloured earth, sloping sharply

down

to its

mouth, near which,

but now considerably below the level of the cavity, a small stream runs at present."

In October 1845, Capt. Kelly, of H.M.S. Conway, made, at Mr. Cuninghame's request,

He was

a search for the locality thus indicated.

but examined two caverns, one of which


tiful

stalactites

base of a

chff,

contained numerous and beau-

the other, which he was unable fully to explore for

The

ground.

a level piece of

at the

unsuccessful in finding the precise spot,

red mould, which I strongly

floor of

want of a ladder,

both caves, where not covered with stalagmite,

recommend

who may

to the attention of those

is

is

in

a fine

hereafter have

the happiness of digging for bones in Rodriguez.

The bones which were sent

vol. xxii. p.

132

Ed. Journ. Nat. Sc.

possess at Oxford,

He

at

Revue

vol.

iii.

Sept. 103, 104, 109,

p. 30),

110

Bull. Sc. Nat.

but no detailed account of them has yet

Being anxious to compare them with the remains of the Dodo which we

been made public.

England.

were exhibited in 1830 by Cuvier to the Academy

to Paris

of Sciences (Ann. des. Sc. Nat. vol. xxi.

applied to

M. de

Blainville to permit these

bones to be brought to

once gave his consent, and commissioned Professor Milne Edwards to

bring them with him to the meeting of the British Association at Oxford in June 1847,

an act of

liberality

which has enabled Dr. Melville and myself to make the desired comparison.

We were further
at

permitted, by the kindness of the Trustees of the Andersonian

Museum

Glasgow, to exhibit to the Association the bones from Rodi'iguez presented to that institu-

tion

by the

allowed

late

Mr.

Telfair.

him not only

These gentlemen entrusted the rehcs to Sir

to diffuse,

by means

W.

Jardine, and

of plaster casts, the information they convey, but to

bring with him the bones themselves to the Meeting.

The bones which were sent by Mr.


with some unfortunate
Society,

find

made

at

them were

during the

last

my

fate.

We

it

to the Zoological Society, have

request a diligent search for these specimens, but

fruitless.

Among the many

late
all

met

Curator of that
his endeavours to

treasures which have been presented to the Society

twenty years, and which for want of space are

by Mr.

Telfair

still

but, alas

buried in vaults and outthe bones of the Solitaire,

was, had flown away, and the only bones that remained belonged to Tortoises

are again, therefore, obliged to

evidence.

1833

Three or four years ago, Mr. Eraser, the

houses, he found the identical box sent

apterous as

Telfair in

fall

In the Proceedings of the

back upon

historical

Zoological Society for

records in place of ocular

March

12, 1833, p. 32,

we

Ch. IL]

of the solitaire.

53

read that " the bones procured [in Rodriguez] for Mr. Telfair were laid on the table.

numerous bones of the extremities

include, with
several bones

of the hinder extremity of a large bird,

reference to the metatarsal

out that

it

of one or

bone of the

bird,

also proportioned in its

Dodo

tlu-ee directed

and one

forwards,

Museum,

preserved in the British

to

which

it

was

magnitude and form."

zoological affinities, our only data are the bones

Museum

Solitaire,

and

to determine its

which the Curators of the Paris and Glasgow

have enabled us to bring into juxta-positiou.

from the Paris

With

which was long and strong. Dr. Grant pointed

In our attempts, therefore, to reconstruct the skeleton of the

collections

They

large species of Tortoise,

and the head of a humerus.

possessed articulating surfaces for four toes,

backwards, as in the foot of the

more

The bones

of the supposed SoUtaire

are five in niuuber;' viz., a femur, a tarso-metatarsal, a humerus,

the medial portion of a sternum, and a portion of the cranium.

Unfortunately they are

all

incrusted uniformly over with stalagmite, from tV to to of an inch in thickness, which pre-

examination of the surface of the bones, or any minute description of their structure.

vents

all

They

nevertheless supply us with several important elements

to guide us in reconstructing

the skeleton of this lost bird.

From

the uniformity in the appearance and thickness of the incrustation,

evident that these bones have


floor of a cavern,

all

been obtained in one

locality,

it

appears

probably in some pool on the

And from

exposed to the dripping of water containing carbonate of hme.

the fact that no duplicate bones occur amongst them, and from their apparent agreement in

proportionate

same

size,

we have

a right to assume that they are portions of the skeleton of the

(See Plates XIII.

individual.

The Glasgow

series of

and XIV.)

bones are aU portions of the hinder extremity, and consist of

three femora, a tibia, and two tarso-metatarsal bones.


history, proves

mentioned.

them

They

to have

still

been obtained under

on the

floor of

different circumstances

from those

last

contain nearly the whole of their animal matter, present a glossy

surface, considerable specific gravity,

extraneous matter.

Their appearance, as well as their

and are neither changed

They have the appearance

some dry

cave,

in colour nor incrusted with

of having been obtained from a reddish soil

where they have been protected from the changes of weather

and from the action of mineral waters.

The only bones which


(Plate

are

common

XIV.) and the tarso-metatarsal.

to the Paris

(Plate

The

present every indication of specific identity.

and dimensions (allowing

And

this,

certain that these


^

There

series

are

the femur

comparing these together, they

tarso-metatarsal at Paris

is

of the

same form

much

Glasgow.

larger, o\ving to the thickness of its stalag-

yet reducible to the same dimensions as the largest of the three Andersonian

is

From

femora.

and Glasgow

On

for the thickness of the incrusting matter) as the pair at

the Parisian femur, though apparently

mitic coating,

XV.)

is

and from the anatomical

two

coflections of bones

relations of the

bones to each other,

it

appears

belong to one and the same species of bird.

a sixth bone in the collection, but

it

belongs, not to the Solitaire, but to a Tortoise.

And

as

[Part

AFFINITIES

54
that they were

we know

now

all

I.

brought from the small island of Rodriguez, where no bird

which they can be referred, we have a right to assume that they belong to the

exists to

and figured by Leguat

extinct species described

as the Solitaire.

comparing these bones from Rodriguez with the few remains extant of the Dodo of
The tarso-metatarsal from
Mauritius, we see at once that they are not specifically identical.

On

Rodi-iguez
.

is

about an inch longer than that of the Dodo, and the proportions of the other

bones indicate a more erect and longer legged bird, precisely as the description and figure of
the

given by Leguat

Solitaii-e

wodd

form of the calcaneal processes, the expansion of the


large surface of attachment for

On

lead us to expect.

the other hand,^ the peculiar

end of the tarso-metatarsal, the

distal

the posterior metatarsal, and other characters which

distin-

guish the Dodo, are precisely repeated in the bones before us, showing that the species to

which they belong

And

Dodo.

it

is

is

unquestionably very nearly allied

important to remark that as

far as

between these two extinct bu-ds, they are shared


no other known families of

in

to,

wc can

is

with the Pigeons, and exist in

birds.

very imperfect (see Plate XIII.),

is

With such incomplete

entirely wanting.

appear premature to assert the generic distinction of these

two

data,

it

Dodo and

gical characters) in

provisional generic

the Solitaire

two

name

I therefore propose to

Pezophaps (from

of

Tre'^by,

therefore,

it

seems certain

to the present standard of zoolo-

would be classed (according

distinct genera.

may,

Yet from the greater

birds.

length of the legs, and less development of the beak, as indicated by Leguat,
that the

agreement

trace the points of

common

Unfortunately the cranium of the supposed SoUtaire

and the anterior portion

though not identical with, the

bestow upon the

pedestrian,

and

(/>ai/r,

Solitaire the

a pigeon), in the

confidence that future discoveries of the remaining parts of the skeleton will justify this

The Columbine characters

denomination.

of the Solitaire will be

Melville in the second Part of this work, but I


arities

\vill

recorded by Leguat in his account of the

affinities.

I refer

to the feeding

draw attention
Solitaire,

fully described

in passing, to certain peculi-

which confirm

on Dates or Plantains, the monogamous

this

first

of these characters

is

incompatible with any supposed Raptorial

are opposed to the Gallinaceous hypothesis, but the whole of

last

the habits of that anomalous family, the Columbidce}


of the affinity of the Sohtaire to the

And

Dodo, we thus obtain a

as

affinities,

them

we have

reflected

view of

its

habits, the laying

only one egg, the building a nest, and the inability of the nestling to provide for
the

by Dr.

itself.

Now

and the four

are consistent with

osteological evidence

and

collateral proof of

the Columbine relations of the latter bird.

There

is

one remarkable character in the skeleton of the Solitaire which seems opposed

to the supposition that

it

flying requires great size


'

belongs to a brevipennate bird.

and strength

Ml". Blytli tells us that the

certain species invariably but one

America {Ectopktes

ndgratoria)."

In ordinary birds the power of

in the pectoral muscles,

and

a largely developed keel

Pigeons of the genus Carpophaga " do not in general lay more than one egg, and
;

in

which respect they resemble the celebrated Passenger Pigeon of North

Joiu'n. Asiat. Soc.

Bengal,

vol. xiv. p.

855.

Ch.

OF THE SOLITAIEE.

II.]

upon the sternum

Now

were

less

it

is

destitute of a medial

find a considerably developed keel, such as

The shortness

indicate volatile powers. (See Plate XIII.)

of the

The presence

would therefore appear anomalous,

of a sternal keel

not for a circumstance mentioned by Leguat, namely, that the bird used

and was able

for self-defence,

to inflict considerable blows with these

members,

end a corresponding strength of the pectoral muscles, and enlargement of the

would be required.

Dodo and

It

moreover, evident from the

is,

more developed both

and

in size

structure, than

Before leaving the Island of Rodriguez I must


of Leguat

for

which

sternal keel

to us,

both of the

flight,

were yet

the case in the StruUdonidce.

attention to the following passage

call

Gelinottes sont grasses, pendant toute I'annee,

un

si

bien leur nids que nous n' en avons

gris clair, n'

oui'let

EUes ne

trop pesantes.

Si

1' ceil.

p.

1'

translation

and

weU

that

Tliey cannot

fly,

cliose

de rouge, cela

bien que dans

si

as follows

is

fat all the year

we cou'd not
eyes,

their fat

1'

"

Eng.

les irrite

the Didince, while

" Gelinotte "

if

find

'em out, and consequently did not

their beaks are

straight

makes 'em too heavy


fly at

you

to catch

it

EUes ont

rendant

qu' eUes viennent


les

may have

for

Tlieii-

colour

sexes.

is

always

They bide

tast their esgs.

They

and pointed, near two inches long, and red


it.

If

you

ofier

them anything

that's red,

ed. p, 75.

allied in

fly,

appearance to the Grouse of Europe,

we have

and

this bird out of the pale of

here an indication of another

related,

perhaps by analogy only, to

pointed towards the Apteryx. This conjecture derives

Maiu-itian bird, figured

i^ide supra, pp. 19, 21),

by Van den

Bi-oecke,

and by Herbert,

and which may have been related

of Leguat, especially as the latter mentions

Mavu-itius, as well as of Rodriguez.

out of your hand, and in the heat of the combat

Eng.

not quite, unable to

unknown

and described by Gauche

fort

plumage between the two

I cannot help suspecting that

its affinities

probability from the

EUes cachent

ed.], la graisse les


si

round, and of a most delicate taste

would imply a bird

brevipennate bird, nearly,

sexes.

ardeur du combat on a occasion de

but the " straight pointed beak, two inches long," seems to place
the Gallinaceous order.

deux

opportunity to take them with ease."

Gelinotte

les

leur bee qui est droit et poiutu, est rouge aussi; long d' environ

emporter

they are so angry that they wUl

The name

EUes sont toutes

goiit tres delicat.

decouvrir, ni par consequent gouter leurs Oeufs.

there's very Utile difference in the

have a red Ust about their

we had an

un

103.

" Our Wood-Hens are

their nests so

Et

pu

on leur presente quelque

prendre facUement."

of a bright gray,

d'

se sgauioient gueres voler [" they cannot fly

attaquer pour taclier de

The English

&

y ayant que tres peu de difference de plumage, entre

rouge autour de

deux ponces.

also.

wings

d'

1'

is

its

"Nos

un

handed down

figiu'es

the Solitaire, that the wings of these birds, though too short for

considerably

humerus,

than the positive testimony of Leguat, prove that the bird was wholly unable

from the ground.

to rise

we

in the sternum of the Solitaire

would almost
however, no

the Ostriches, where the wings are short and

in

muscles are exceedingly small, and the sternum

feeble, the pectoral

keel.

But

for their insertion.

00

Gelinottes

among

to the

the birds of

Gauche, too, records that his " Ponies rouges au bee de

Becasse," were
jVIr.

caught

Hio-o-ins iiit'orins uie

Rodrio-uez

Gelinotfe

recommend

with

red rag

that a species of

hke Leguat's

it

may be

question

is

On

Gelinottes.

Nimida, or Guinea-Fowl,

(introduced probably by the early voyagers),

Leo^uat's description

The

[Part

ON "GELINOTTES."

5(i

and

it

is

is

I.

the other hand,

now abundant

in

therefore possible that

intended for this bird, although the discrepancies are considerable.


therefore open to further investigation,

to the attention of the " Societi'i cVHistoire Naturelle de

and

would

especially

Vile de Maurice!'

CHAPTER

III.

Brevipennate birds of the Isle of Bourbon.

Evidence of Cadleton;

of Bontehoe

Indications of a Brevipennate

New Zealand

The
is

Bird in

Madagascar Review of

of a British

of Carre; of Sieur D. B.; of Billiard ;

the whole subject

Analogical

Officer

case of

Conclusion.

hundred miles

volcanic island of Bourbon, which lies about one

to the

S.W.

of Mauritius,

proved by indubitable evidence to have been inhabited by two species of birds, whose

and

inability to fly,

Dodo

with the

consequent rapid extinction, brings them into the same category

their

of Mam-itius

and the

Rodriguez.

Solitaire of

be remembered that

It will

Bourbon was discovered between 1502 and 1545 by Mascaregnas, a Portuguese, who

by

called the island


1

in

The

own name, but seems

to have left us

which concerns us

earliest notice

"There
;

is

store of Land-fowl, both small

and

J. Tatton,

great,

and a great fowl of the bigness of a Turkie, very

beeing white, and in a manner tame

with shot.

Our men did

to serve forty

men

separately in 1690,

a day."

and

Harris's Voyages, vol.

is

i.

p.

and so are

them down with

beate

no other record

by Captain

is

In the account of his voyage, written by

1613.

like

his

Castleton,

who

one of his

of his visit.

plentie of Doves, great Parrats,

fat,

and such

and so short winged that they cannot

all

sticks
vol.

and
i.

p.

Ten men may take

stones.

331.

tiie,

and in Grant's Mauritius,

p.

fowle enough

This narrative was also pubhshed

included in Prevost's Histoire Generale des Voyages, vol.


;

we read

officers,

other fowles, as having not been troubled nor feared

(Purchas, ed. 1625.

115

Bourbon

visited

ii.

p.

130;

in

164.)

In 1618, Bontekoe, a Dutch voyager, spent twenty-one days in Bombon, which he


" there were
describes as abounding with Geese, Parrots, Pigeons, and other game, and adds,
2.

also Dod-eersen,

which have small wings, and so

that they coidd scarcely walk,


alono- the

ground."

The

and when they

far

from being able

tried to run,

to fly, they

fat

they dragged their under side

original words, contained in the Journael ofte

gendenckwaerdige

Beschryvinge van de Oost-Indische Reyse van Willem Ysbrantz Bontekoe van

Rotterdam, 1674, are as follows

were so

Hoom,

4to.

" Daer waren oock eenige dod-eersen, die kleyne vleugels hadden, maer konden niet vUegen, waren
langhs de aerde." p. 7.^
soo vet datse qualijck gaen konden, want als sie liepen, sleepte haer de neers
Utrecht in 1649
Bontekoe's Voyage was published in Dutch at Haerlem in 1646, at Rotterdam in 164.7, at
will be found in Thevenot's
and 1651, and at Amsterdam in 1648, 1650, and 1656. A French translation
in Hiilsius's " Vier und zwanzigste
llelations de divers Voyages Curieux, Paris, 1663, vol. i., and a German one
1

Schiffnrt," &c. 4to. Franckfort,

1648.

p. 7.

EVIDENCES OF BEEVIPENNATE

58

[Part

I.

Bontekoe appears to have considered these birds identical with the Dodos of Mauritius,
and the slowness of pace and shortness of leg, which his description implies, hardly agree
But as we have no other proof of the existence
with what we know of these Bom-bou birds.

Dodo

of the

in

Bom-bon, and as Bontekoe's account must have been written from memory

was afterwards blown up, and he was the

(for his ship

The probabiUty

accuracy in his statement.

scientific

sole survivor),

is,

that

when he

we must not

look for

compiled

in after years

the narrative of his perilous adventures, having a recollection of a large brevipennate bird in

Bourbon, whose tameness rendered

an easy prey to his

it

he concluded

sailors,

it

be the

to

Dodo, and adopted the name and descriptions of that bird which had been given by previous
navigators.

We

3.

Bourbon

in 16GS,

and

" J'ay vu dans


habitans ont

dans

relates as follows

ce lieu

II

nomme F Oiseau

Solitaire,
;

on

parce qu' effectivement

n'

chair en est exquise

fait plaisir

elle fait

Nous voulumes

Voyages

une couleur cliangeante qui

C'est

et

pai's-la,

Vaisseau,

le

des Indes Orientales par

" I here saw a kind of bird wliich

ne se

et
;

que

plait

est toujours

La

tire

ils

M.

La

sur le jaiine.

pourroit faire les delices de nos


et les faire

presenter

moururent de melancolie, sans

Carre, 2 vols.

12mo.

vol

i.

vouloii-

See

p. 12.

vol. ix. p. 3.

its legs

found elsewhere

I have not

are longer.

The beauty

which verges upon yellow.

The

they are always alone.


of

its

flesh is

it

is

that which the inhabitants call

and only frequents the most secluded

for, in fact, it loves solitude,

never sees two or more of them together

colour-,

solitude,

the Oiseau Solitaire,

not that

la

garder deux de ces oiseaux pour les envoyer en France,

also Prevost, Hist. Gen. des Voyages,

Translation

aime

celuy que les

c'est

n'avoit point les jambes plus hautes.

s'il

meilleurs mets de ce

Sa Majeste; mais aussi-tot qu'ils furent dans

ni boire ni manger."

il

ailleui's

en a jamais vu deux ni plusieurs ensemble

a voir.

un des

visited

ne ressembleroit pas mal a un Coq d'Inde,

beaute de son plumage

tables.

une sorte d' oiseau que je n'ay poiut trouve

les endroits les plus ecartez

seul.

who

have next to notice the narrative of a Frenchman, named Carre,

plumage
exquisite

country, and might form a dainty at our tables.

We

is
;

dehghtful to behold.
it

places.

It is not unlike a Turkey,

One

were

it

It is a changeable

forms one of the best dishes in this

wished to keep two of these birds to send to

France and present them to His Majesty, but as soon as they were on board ship, they died of melancholy, having refused to eat or drink."

It will

be observed that Tatton describes these birds as white.

" une couleur changeante qui tire sur le jaune,"

is

Carre's expression,

rather vague, but seems to imply a pale

yellowish or creara-colovu-ed tint, which another author might easily have described as white.

At any

rate there

seems no reasonable doubt that Tatton and Carre both described the same

species of bird.
4.

In the year after Carre's

tmder M. de

la

Haye.

One

visit,

a French colony

of the party,

interesting account of the expedition.

who

His journal

calls
is

was sent from Madagascar

to

Bourbon

himself the Sieur D. B., has

left

an

contained in a MS., given by Mr. Telfair

Ch.

BIRDS IN BOURBON.

III.]

to the Zoological Society of

He

unpublished.*

Bombou, but

inhabited

bii-ds

hope

wliicli I

will

much

not be allowed to remain

longer

not only confii-ms the accounts given by Tatton, Bontekoe, and Carre, of

a brevipennate bird in

group of

London,

59

that

gives us a clear proof that a second species of the

Speaking of the land-birds of the

island.

same
he

island,

enumerates,

queue

il

a des

plumes approcliantes de

" Oiseanx

comme

mais plus gros,

les

hleus, gros

pieds de poules,

Translation

comme
ils

is

long,

hke those of Turkeys.

col long, et le bee fait

le

poulets d' Inde.

les Solitaires,

overtake them

I should

out

le

ils

plumage tout

ils

la

comme

Get oiseau se prend a

bleu, le bee et les pieds rouges,

courent extrememeut vite, tellement qu'un

sont tres bons."

size of Solitaires,

feet of a hen.

and the beak

tliey

wings and

tips of the

always go alone.

tail

black.

like that of a

is

They do not

The

They

it flies

are the size of a

feathers resemble those

tail

Woodcock, but

This bird has recourse to running, as

" Oiseaux hlem, the

larger

but very

the legs and

httle.

have the plumage wholly blue, the beak and


but they run extremely

fly,

fast, so

that a

feet red,

dog can hardly

they are very good eatuig."

have been disposed to refer the " Oiseau bleu " to the genus Porphyrio, were

not told that they were the size of the Solitaire,

resembled those of a hen, and that they never


the Birds of

ont

lis

comme

These birds are so called because

the neck

resembhng the

we

et pieds

ue volent point, mais

and are white, with the

of an Ostrich

2.

sont gros

"Solitaires.

large Goose,

feet

celles d'Autruclie,

jambes

chien a peine d' en attraper a la course

1.

Us

parce qu'ils vont toujours seuls.

ne volant que bien peu.

la course,
2.

ainsi,

grosse Oye, et ont le plumage blanc, noir a Textremite des ailes et de la queue.

celui des Becasses,

faits

nommes

"Solitaires: ces oiseanx sont

1.

comme une

Bourbon (Voy. aux quatre

lies

fly.

de

la

e.,

i.

of a large Goose, that the feet

Moreover, Bory

Mer

St.

d'Afrique, vol.

Vincent in his

list

of

makes no mention

i.),

of any species of Vorphyrio.


It is

evident from these statements,

1st,

That Bourbon was formerly inhabited by a brevipennate bud

whose white or
distinct

light yellow

from the Dodo of Mauritius and from the so-called

The account given by the Sieur D. B. seems

2ndly,

some, though very imperfect, powers of


the contrary,

we may presume

And 3rdly, it is
was

called the

plumage, and Woodcock-like beak proves

flight

it

to

Solitaire,

have been

Solitaire of Rodriguez.

to

imply that

this bird possessed

but as Tatton and Bontekoe distinctly assert

that this statement of the former author

was inaccurate.

clear that a second brevipennate species, the " Oiseau bleu " of Sieur D.B.,

also a native of

Bom-bon, though

fi'om its speed in

running

it

probably escaped the

notice of the earlier voyagers.


5.

Of

Cyclopaedia,
'

(Proc.

this
art.

Oiseau
"

This passage was


Z. S. pt. xii. p.

bleu, the

only other indication which I have met with

Bourbon," where
first

it is

stated that in

Bourbon there

is

is in Rees'
" a kind of large

published in a paper which I communicated to the Zoological Society, Apl. 23, 1844.

77.)

EVIDENCES OE BEEVIPENNATE

60
denominated VOiseau

bat,

bleu,

[Part

which are skinned and eaten as a great dehcacy."

evidently a blunder, as regards the " Oiseau bleu " being a bat,

but

This

I.

is

proves that some

it

author besides the Sieur D. B. has noticed the Oiseau bleu of Bourbon, though I have been

unable to discover from what work this statement


6.

inhabit

We

Bom-bon

that island

till

copied.

these apterous species of birds continued to

least, of

have evidence that one, at

is

Among

with bu-ds which were not alarmed at the approach of man.

which was pursued on foot

they were

Bourdonnaye, who sent a specimen as a curiosity


Now M. de la Bom-donnaye was Governor of the

still

to

resided in

some of the

to

colonization " the

first

who

Billiard,

had access

to have

between 1817 and 1820, and appears

archives of the island, tells us that at the time of its

Solitaire,

M.

nearly the middle of the last centmy.

original

woods were

was the Dodo or

these

M. de

be seen in the time of

to

filled

la

one of the Directors of the Company."


France and Bourbon from 1735 to

Isles of

1746, so that these singidar birds must have survived tUlthe former, and mai/\\?L\e continued
till

the latter date at


7.

in

least.

In Grant's Mauritius, p. 167,

is

an extract from " Observations on the

1763, by an Ofiicer of the British Navy," which

may

possibly indicate that these singidar

birds survived in that island as recently as the above date

" The

plain dss Caffres

\rild

is

Ou

above the sea

formed by the summits of mountains

tliis

never descend to the sea-side, and

at a very considerable elevation

elevated plain there are small trees, vith broom,

There are

oat, and fern, which grows to the height of a slirub.

who

are so

little

Bom-bon

Isle of

accustomed

to,

also

fiirze,

a kind of

some curious birds which

or alarmed

at,

the sight of man,

that they suffer themselves to be killed by the stroke of a walking-stick."

Whether the " curious birds " here alluded


not, does not appear,

but

No

Vincent made a

St.

Bourbon, no such birds were then in existence.

Bom'bon

respecting the brevipennate birds of

Historical testimony.

is

at present confined to

delineations of these creatures appear to be

osseous remains have never yet been sought

We

be referable to the brevipennate group or

seems certain that in 1801, when Bory

it

carefid scientific survey of the Island of

Our evidence

to,

now

extant,

to the

allied

Mauritius, or to the Ostrich of Africa, though from the descriptions given, the former

supposition

is

as the region
'

their

and have consequently never yet been found.

for,

cannot therefore at present decide whether these extinct birds were more

Dodo of

and

most probable.
most

We

likely to contain birds allied

The reader must beware of adducing an

by

of an extraordinary height, which frequent the rivers

Du Quesne

and

In

quoted by Leguat,

have not been able to find the

p.

56

(for I

does the English translator of Leguat

No

Bourbon,

lakes,

"

The Giant and

and whose

flesh

is

the

like

Dodo

recent

compiler,

are large birds

that of the Bittern."

Quesne's account of Bourbon (drawn up apparently as an emigrant-trap) as

(Hist, of Mam'itius, p. 154.)

oiseaux montes sur des echasses," &c.

affinity to those of

additional testimony from a passage wliich that careless

Grant, in his chapter on Bourbon, professes to quote from

Du

Madagascar

naturally look to the little-known island of

original), the

The words " and the Dodo "

mend

words are " Les Geans sont de grands

are therefore an interpolation of Grant's, nor

the matter (p. 41), by rendering

Geam

into Peacocks

The

fact

that these Gea/is are evidently (notwithstanding the Stork -like aspect of Leguat's plate at p. 171) Flamingos.

is,

Ch.

BIRDS IN MADAGASCAR.

III.]

travellers

61

have alluded to the existence of any Struthious or brevipennate birds in ]\Iadagascar,

though from the following passage in Flacourt's Histoire de


lished at Paris in 1658, 4to.,

than two centuries ago.

it

la

grande

Madagascar, pub-

Isle

appears that a bu'd of that family inhabited IMadagascar less

Flacourt

us that " the Vouron paira

tells

is

a large bird which

frequents the region of Ampatres [a province at the south extremity of Madagascar] and lays

eggs like the Ostrich.


it

inhabits the

It is a

"Oyseaux qui hantent


fait

il

les bois.

TAutruche;

des oeufs conime

prendre;

kind of Ostrich

the inhabitants are unable to capture

it,

and

most desert places."

cherche les lieux

This brief indication

les

may

Touron patra,

c'est

un grand oyseau qui hante

c'est

une espece d'Autruchej ceux des

plus deserts."

dits

les

Heux ne

Ampatres

ct

peuvent

le

165.

p.

perhaps guide the future explorer of ]\Iadagascar to a

dis-

covery of great zoological interest.

On

a review of the various

brought together,

it

seems

Historical

and Osteological evidences which

have

now

sufficiently clear that the three oceanic islands, Mauritius, Rodri-

guez, and Bom-bon, which, though

somewhat remote from each

other,

may be

considered as

forming one geographical group, were inhabited, until the time of their human colonization,

by at

least four distinct,

but probably

once reminds us of the analogous case of the


zeal of Messrs. Cotton,

scientific

of brevipennate bu'ds.

allied, species

New

This result at

Zealand group of islands, where the

Williams, Colenso, ManteU, and others, has brought to

Owen

hght a mine of osteological treasures, from which the consummate sagacity of Prof.

new genera

has re-consti'ucted two

Seven species of Dinoniis and two

of brevipennate birds.

Owen,

of Palapteryx have been clearly established and elaborately described by Professor

while in the

still

second species,

surviving genus Apteryx, of which Mr. Gould has very recently described a

we

see an almost expiring

The extraordinaiy

member

success of the natm-alists of

alluvial deposits a series of osseous

same

of the

New

zoological group.

Zealand, in procuring from recent

remains which have more than doubled the number of

StrutJdoid birds previously known, should encoiu-age the scientific residents in the islands of
the Indo- African Sea to

would make a

amid the ruins

make

similar researches.

series of excavations

The

in the alluvial deposits,

of old habitations in Mauritius, Bourbon,

discover remains of the Dodo, the


'

I feel confident that if

two "

Solitaires,"

an active naturalist

in the beds of streams,

and

and Rodriguez, he would speedily

or the " Oiseau bleu."

But

would

recent discovery of the heads of Binornis and Palapteryx has proved that these two genera are not so

nearly allied as was at

first

supposed.

Professor

Owen

read a paper on the subject to the Zoological Society,

January 11th, 1848, in which he shows that " the beak oi Palapteryx

is

decidedly Struthious.

The beak and

skull

o{ Binornis differ very essentially from any form, either recent or extinct."

{Athenatim, no. 1057, p. 116).

recent communication to the Geological Society, Feb. 2nd, 1848, Dr.

states that the ornithic bones sent

his

sou from

New

Zealand are referable to no less than_/?ye genera.

ManteU

{Athenceum, no. lOGl,

p.

218).

In a

by

especially direct the attention to the caves with

chief

[Part

CONCLUSION.

62

agents in the

nesros,

who

for

which those volcanic islands abound.

destruction of the brevipennate birds were probably the

many

I.

The

run-away

years infested the primaeval forests of those islands, and inhabited

the caverns, where they would doubtless leave the scattered bones of the animals on which

they fed.

Here, then,

may we more

especially

hope to find the osseous remains of these

remarkable animals.

Should any copies of

this

work

find their

way

to

Mauritius or Bom'bon, they

may

perhaps incite the lovers of knowledge in those islands to investigate fiuther the subject

which has been


for the trouble

diligently,
it

has cost,

but imperfectly, pm-sued in


if

my

tliis

volume.

And

I shall feel

rewarded

researches into the history and organization of these birds,

aided by the anatomical investigations which Dr. Melville has introduced into the second
part of the work, shall have rescued these anomalous creatui'es from the

and established their true rank in the Scheme of Creation.

END OF

P.^RT

I.

domain of

Fiction,

Postscript to Part I.

The

foregoing sheets had been printed some time, and the second part of this work had been unavoidably

delayed by the great attention which the osteological plates and descriptions required, when I was led to

some additional sources of information which demand

The

of these

first

notice.

a rare edition of Boiitekoe's Voyage, kindly

is

communicated

to

me by

Dr. Bandinel,

the Bodleian Librarian, entitled " Journael van de acht-jarige avontuerhjcke Reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz

Bontekoe van Hoorn, gedaen nae Oost-Indien," pubhshed in 4to

Zaagman.

There

is

The

only by a year or two) to 1646.

Bontekoe (noticed

at p.

57

that the underside of the

de neers iy na

(i. e.

at

no date, but from a narrative introduced at the end,

siqjra),

narrative

is

Amsterdam, by GilUs Joosten


it

must be subsequent (probably

nearly a verbatim version of the other

and the only variation of text which concerns

Dodo dragged along

the ground, wliich

But what

almost) langs de Aerde."

contains (alone of all the editions of

is

Dutch

us, is in the statement

here qualified thus

gives a peculiar interest to

Bontekoe wliich I have seen) a

editions of

tliis

figure of the

"

sleepte haer

volume

is,

that

it

Dodo, which I here

present.

Tliis liiglily ludicrous representation is

of the

Dutch

text omits to teU us whether

Zaagman, or whether
no doubt that

it

object

may

tliis

like a Fighting-cock

than a Dodo, and the black-letter

design was due to the pencil of Bontekoe or Ins pubhsher

was copied from some contemporary painting now forgotten.

this figure refers

with which Bontekoe confounded

We

more

to the true
it

(see p.

Dodo

of Mauritius,

But

there can be

and not to the "SoHtaire" of Bourbon,

58 siqwa).

regret that the rudeness of the original woodcut leaves us in the dark as to the nature of the

on wliich the Dodo appears about

to feed.

This figure would pass equally well for a testaceous mollusc,

or for an arboreal fruit, so that the problem of the Dodo's food seems as far from a solution as ever.

POSTSCRIPT.

64

notice of Saver/s Dodo-picture in the Belvedere at

Naturgeschichte, for 1848, p.

fiir

was

its

He

existence.

states that

tliis

by Dr. Hamel,

a pamphlet

last sheets of

my

I received (tlirough the kindness of

fac-simile of

it,

some on

M'ith birds,

entitled

Part

I.

when, hearing

land,

known

tliat this

this

work

and some in the water,

had gone to press, when, on

friend and former fellow-traveller, Mr.

" Der Dodo,

die EinsiecUer,

thus exact as to dates, in order that the similarity between

may be

Phys.-math. Acad.

Dodo and

The

diligent researches of Dr.

Paul van Soldt,


however,

is

for

Solitaire,

my

which

had sought

blackish and the

wings and
stated the

tail

narrative (p.

Dr.

Dodo was

the

to

have added notliing to the

in

the libraries of Oxford and

Van

liistorical

London mthout

evidence which
the Journal of
This,

success.

(See Plates

it is

Hamel has shewn

earliest

account of

described by translators and subsequent compUers as having the wings

I.,

that the whole bird

was greyish, and the

This error was corrected by Matehef

III.)

be grey, and by Verhuffen

IS supra)

is

der Hagen's Voyage, and does not add to the

But we know from the coloured paintings

yellowish.
to

liis

I need only refer

tliis treatise,

given at p. 17 supra.

it

tail grey.

plumage

and

had ascertained them, but he leaves

as far as he

Dr. H. has judiciously remarked that from an obscurity of expression in the

Van Neck's Voyage,

liistorical

notice.

Hamel appear

merely another version of the account of

information respecting

This memoir was read

only work mentioned by liim wliich I had failed to consult

The

recorded above.

I am
my own

and too often omits to indicate the original sources of

affinities,

two or three points which had escaped

Hamilton, P.R.G.S.)

of Dr. Hamel's inferences and

As I have already discussed most of the details contained in

information.

16th, 1848,

erdichtete Nazarvogel."

Dr. Hamel here gives a resume of the

St. Petersb. vol. vii. no. 5, 6.

pictorial evidences respecting the

many

W. J.

May

9th, 1846, but has only just been pubbslied in the Bulletin

Academy on January

untouched the question of their

und der

Unity wliich characterizes Truth.

attributed, not to plagiarism, but to the

before the Petersburg

is

given in the Archiv

is

of which are accurately designed.

Eive weeks had elapsed since the

to

30 supra)

(see p.

there states that he has long

picture measures sixteen by twenty-two inches, and repre-

crowded

sents an ideal landscape with the fore-ground


all

who

he courteously resigned his intention, and contented himself with publisliing

in course of preparation,

a brief notice of

Vienna

J. Fitzinger,

and was on the point of publisliing a

painting,

interestino-

79, by Dr. L.

(or rather his officer

(p.

17 supra), who

and journalist Verkens),

in

whose

added that the wing feathers were yeUow.


the probability that the island, or bank, of Nazareth

more existence than the Bidus nazarenus

to wliich it

gave a name.

21 supra) has no

(see p.

must therefore apologize

to geo-

graphers for having introduced this vigia into the chart of the Indo-Afiican Ocean at p. 6, which was
copied from Mr. Arrowsmith's

The Geans

of Leguat,

map

be Strutliious birds, wliich, bke


Leguat's text, however,

the Solitaire,

does not appear to

it

are so great as to justify

of the world, published in 1842.

which I have referred to Plamingos

tliis

the occasion of
place the

many

Solitaire

visited

are

by Dr. Hamel conjectured to

me

that the discrepancies between his

On

Geam and

re-perusing

the Flamingo

Hamel

tells

us the following anecdote.

The

Rodriguez in 1761, to observe the famous transit of Venus, which was

similar expeditions.

among

60 supra),

conclusion.

After quoting Leguat's account of the Solitaire, Dr.

French astronomer Pingre

(p.

have become extinct since the days of Leguat.

To commemorate

this circumstance

Le Monnier proposed

to

the constellations, but being a better astronomer than ornithologist, he inad-

vertently gave this honour, not to the Didine bird of Rodriguez, but to the

Sohtary Thrush of the

Philippines (Monticola eremita), figured by Brisson, vol.

copying Leguat's figure

as

he might have done.

(See

Memoires de

1'

ii.

pi.

28.

Academic, 1776,

f.

p.

1, instead of

562,

pi. 17.)

It

is

worth the consi-

POSTSCRIPT.
deration of astronomers whether the imaginary outline of
restore to Leguat's Solitaire the honours

In connection with Pingre's

p.

liis

1760 and 1761, and conducted

tliis

might not be so altered

constellation

due.^

its

Hamel adds

Dr.

visit,

the spot in Rodriguez where Leguat and


lived there in

which are

65

the following judicious suggestion

companions resided

for

two

map

the place

is

At

in the map.

It appears that Pingre also

years.

these two spots

In Leguat's

kitchen of the settlers stood, and where the great

on a bench to take their meals.

sit

The

tree

and bench are introduced

probable that the bones for a complete skeleton of Leguat's Solitaire

it is

might be collected ; those of the head and

on that

common

accurately indicated where the

under which they used to

" We know

astronomical observations, for he says (Hist, de FAcad. 1761,

liis

108, and Memoires, p. 415) that the place was called 'Enfoncement de Frangois Leguat.'

tree grew,

as to

feet

on the

the kitchen, and the sternum and other bones

site of

of the tree."

I have next to notice a memoir by Professor Owen, just published in the Transactions of the Zoological
Society,

Mr.

of the
(in

vol.

iii.

W. ManteU

345, on the remains of Dinornis, Valapteryx, Notornis, and Nestor, discovered by

p.

in

New

Dodo's head, to

Zealand.

cai'ry

In

on the comparison of

He

regard to the leg bones) in 1846.

tained by Dr. Reinhardt and by

adduced by Mr. Strickland

Owen has availed liimself of the recent dissection


that bird mth the Binornls, which he had commenced
remarks
"With respect to the Dodo, the idea enter-

this paper Professor

Mr. Gould

in his elaborate

further
of

its affinity

and

to the ColiimbidcB,

was supported by new arguments

interesting communications

and lecture before the British

Association at Oxford (June, 1847)."


Tliis

Professor Reinhardt, I have already

(at p.

40 supra) acknowledged

between the Dodo and the Coliimbida, but there

affinity

pubhshed writings.
supra),

It is true that in

Mr. G. was the

liis

first to assert its

that the form of the beak

and

nostrils

p. 189), stating that

wliich he proposes to

no

is

to

In regard to

correct.

the originality of his idea as to the


trace of this idea in

account of the Gnat/wdon, published March

any of Mr. Gould's


1st,

1846

(see p. 40

affinity to the Pigeons, and he at the same time incidentally adds

" strongly remind one of the celebrated Dodo

he was guided by a sentence wliich he quotes from

1844,

which I must be allowed

quotation contains a slight inaccuracy

Mr. Titian Peale "is

my

this

remark to which

Report on Ornithology (British Association Reports,

said to

have discovered a new bird

name Didunculus." But Mr. Gould never

was actually aUied to the Dodo, and no one in

;" a

allied to the

Dodo,

stated that the Gnathodon (or Bidunculus)

country had ventured to assert the

affinity of

the latter

bird to the Pigeons, until, in the end of 1846 or beginning of 1847, I succeeded in convincing several

Mr. Gould has poKtely informed me that a short time previously

naturahsts that this affinity was real.

the meeting of the Association " Dr. Melville showed

together with skulls of several species of Columhidm,

became a convert

'

From

to its

Columbidine

when

which he speaks of

to

the dissected head of the 'Dodo from Oxford,

form was so apparent that I

their similarity of

affinity."

the Hist, de rAcad. Key. des Sc. 1776, p.37,

tion of his voyage,in

me

Solitaires,

but

it

appears that Pingre published, or at least wrote, a rela-

can find no notice of any such work

among

the published

biographies of Pingre.
2

The

" Birds of Austraha, part xxii.

latitude of Pingre's observatory

was 19 40' 40"

Description of the

S., its

longitude 4"

3'

26"

(hiatlmion strigirostrk

-.

(or 60 51'

30" E.) of

the bu-d which its discoverer,

Mr. Titian Peale, supposed to be aUied to the Dodo, and proposed to name Bidunculus, which was

by

Sir

W.

Jarchne under the

name

aUied to the family of Columbides."

of Gnathodon strigirostris, and which

]\Ir.

Paris.

Gould regards

first

as being

described

most nearly

PART

II.

OSTEOLOGY

DODO

AND

SOLITAIRE.
BY

A.

G.

MELVILLE,

M.D. Edin., M.R.C.S.

INTRODUCTION.

In our

eflPorts

by comparison of

to determine the affinities of an extinct or fossil bird,

its

osseous remains with the same parts in existing forms, vvc must be on our guard against
relying too implicitly on

the affinities which

similarity in absolute- size of the things

appear

be

to

indicated

by an

incidental

compared, overlooking the more important elements

for guiding us to a correct conclusion, namely, correspondence of general

form and minute

configuration.

Having obtained an approximate idea

we

of the affinities

by a comparison

should next enquire whether the existing species of the type to which

afford a range in the

wide to allow of

its

form and

relative proportions of

it

rightly instituted,

has been referred

important homologous parts, sufficiently

anomalies being admitted within the limits of the probable variations

of the type.

The

too frequent disposition to discern in each newly-acquired form, recent or extinct,

one of those links between now dissevered groups of animated beings, which, from the imperfect nature of our conceptions

we suppose

truthfid observer into eiTor in determining

its

to have been

created,

may

lead the most

proper rank.

The progress

of discovery has

indeed added members to some apparently defective families, but

attempts to fuse great

all

conterminous groups together, have only more clearly illustrated the fundamental unity of
organization, without destroying the multiplicity in that unity.

As

in

Mammals,

the cranium with

its

dental armature

is

the part of the skeleton from

which the Palgeontologist derives the most certain indications as to the position of an extinct
species

so in Birds, the

same segment of the osseous frame-work

is

that which preserves the

typical characters, notwithstanding such alterations in other parts as

the

power

number,

of flight, that almost universal characteristic of the class.

size,

and pattern of the teeth

in

Mammals, denoting

may even

The

annihilate

variations in

the

essential differences in the

nature of the food selected, are parallelled in birds by modifications in the form, size and
relative proportions of the beak,

The

force

and

its

horny sheath.

and extent of the movements of the mandibles have an

the nature of the food, and the resistance to be overcome in

its

essential relation to

prehension.

Hence the depth

of the muscular fossae, and the height of the ridges giving attachment to the muscles of mastication,

cannot but convey to us valuable information, which should further be correlated with

that resulting from the indications of the

The form

amount

of

movement

of the palatine bone especially deserves attention, from

of the head on
its

the trunk.

giving attachment to one

INTRODUCTION.

70
of the principal muscles

and subocular

cell.

employed

in mastication,

Unfortunately this bone

is

shape of the tympanic bone, and

The

more

particularly that of

j\Iuch value

are useful guides to classification.

surface,

and moreover bounding the posterior nares

generally deficient in fossil crania.

is

its

inferior articular

be attached to the form

also to

and position of the prefrontal (lacnjmal, of authors), and to the circumstance whether
anchylosed to the cranium, or separate from
fissures

it

to the

to the presence or absence of the vomer,

The general pneumaticity

of the cranium,

form and

and of the

and the

size of the

ossified

be

posterior nasal

septum narium.

which the several elements

ratio in

participate in that property, furnish less distinctive characters

it

the development of

pneuma-

depending on many variable conditions.

ticity

In the former part of this work the views expressed on the


various distinguished zoologists and anatomists, are given at length

affinities of

the

Dodo by

of these. Professor

Owen

alone had the opportunity of studying the evidence furnished by the foot, which led him to

regard the
the

fossil

Dodo

as an extremely modified

form of the Raptorial order.

In the catalogue of

remains of Mammalia and Aves in the collection of the Royal College of Surgeons,

published in 1845, apparently before he had seen the dissected foot, the

among

from some vague resemblances

the Cursorial, or Struthious birds,

advanced

nostrils, to the

The merit due

Dodo

among

placed

and

corresponding parts in different members of that limited group.

to Professor Reinhardt,

who from

the evidence afforded by the mutilated

cranium in the Gottorf Museum, assigned to the Dodo, thus bandied about, a
place

is

in the cere

final resting

the Pigeons, has been freely conceded by his fellow-labourer, Mr. Strickland

who, however, from a minute and accurate comparison of the bones of the leg with those of
other types, had arrived at the same goal, by a different, but equally certain path.

The idea

once attained served to elucidate the true relations of the cere and advanced tubular

which had hitherto been misunderstood

was

also readily

Some

group.

explamed by the

facility

nostril,

the disappearance of the mandibular horny sheath

with which

it

desquamates in other members of

this

learned ornithologists admit, that the correct interpretation of these external

characters alone, might have led to the proper allocation of this strange

and almost fabulous

creature.

From

anxiety to obtain the fullest information, application was

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum,


the integuments from the

left side

for permission,

which was

During

this procedui'e, the leading points

the Pigeons were pointed out

liberally granted, to

of resemblance between the cranium

to its

proper rank.

remove

is

and that of

by Mr. Strickland, who has kindly associated the writer with

him, in the task of describing the remains of this extinct form and

and who claims no share

Mr. Duncan,

was judiciously performed by the Reader of Anatomy, Dr. Acland.

requisite dissection

hence,

to

of the head of the Dodo, where they were most decayed,

and the

My testimony,

made

its affine,

that only of an impartial observer with

in the merit

the Solitaire.

no hypothesis to defend,

due to those who have succeeded in restoring the Dodo

THE

NATURAL HISTORY
OF THE

DODO, SOLITAIRE,
PART

&c.

II.

CHAPTER

I.

Osteology of the Dodo.


(Plates VIII., IX., X., XI., and XII.)

The

skull of the

Dodo

larger than that of

is

though shorter than that of the Albatross

its

any existing

raptorial bu-d,

ratio to that of the

and greater

Goura and Treron

be

will

seen by a glance at Plate X.

The

skull

is

remarkable not only

for its great absolute

abbreviation of the cranium, whose length

and

for the

sudden

it

relative size,

to that of the upper

is

rise of the frontal region

skull hence assumes, as

and

but

also, for

the

mandible as one to two,

above the compressed upper mandible

the

were, the form of a mallet, the head of which corresponds to the

cranium, while the core, or bony termination of the mandibles, acts as a counterpoise.

The shortening

of the cranium

is

due to the small

consequent retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae,

The

relative size of the eyes,

and atrophy of the proper

elevation of the frontal region above the level of the upper mandible,

by a sudden expansion of the pneumatic

diploii,

tilting

and the

interorbital septum.

up the extremity

is

produced

of the

mesial

process of the premaxUlary, and the body of the nasal on each side, at an angle of 45;

while the abbreviated frontal

There

is

is

raised into a broadly

rounded

interorbital eminence.

a similar development of the diploe, though in a less degree, in the Goura.

rise of the frontal region is in

different cause

some Pigeons

moi-e abrupt than in the Dodo, but

is

owing

namely, the great size of the orbit, and the relative slenderness of the

The
to a

bill.

OSTEOLOGY

72

[Part

The upper mandible, viewed from above, presents on each


the core to the base of the maxilla

extending from

side a shallow^ excavation

the upper edge of the

jaw forms the chord of the concavity, which lodges the curved tubular
teristic

appearance

owing to the great compression of the

is

apparatus towards each other, by which they

beneath the upper stem

The length of

its original

the skull,

3 inches

The extreme length

5 lines.

10

is

This charac-

nostril.

beams

of the mandibular

forced almost into contact

diverge towards their upper or terminal angles,

to the apex of the mandible,


post-orbital process,

ramus of the lower

their height being thus increased at the expense of their breadth

while their oblique bases

resumes, so to speak,

lateral

are, as it were,

II.

thickness.

measured from the upper border of the foramen


is

and each beam

2^

8 inches

8^

lines

lines

breadth,

its

in front of the

little

the greatest elevation of the cranium

lower jaw

of the

is

7 inches 9 hues, and

magnum
2 inches

is

its

span 2 inches

be found

to present the

lines.

On

typical characters of that


I.

Dodo

a more minute examination, the skull of the

segment in the Columbidse, which are

feebly uncinated upper core

will
:

Dodo

a character which at once distinguishes the

from the Vulturidae on the one hand, and Cathartes on the other.

An

II.

external nasal fissure extending from the base of the core, as far as, or

the resilient hinge formed by the upper

beam

the cranium

major part of the body of the nasal

of that line

in

divergence of

The

rasorial

raptorial birds, the

all

while in Pigeons the body

its

is

of the mandibular apparatus at

its

is

beyond

junction with

placed in front

abbreviated and rises high on the frontal slope, the

limbs exposing to view, in certain genera, the turbinated ala of the ethmoid.

genus Pterocles presents a similar character

hence

it is

not distinctive of the

Columbidse.

In the Vulturidae, the nasal scale


opens anteriorly by a narrow vertical

is

ossified to support the

orifice

horny

cere,

and the

nostril

while in the Dodo, the elongated lanceolate

nasal fissure extends to the foot of the frontal protuberance.


III.

The

elevation of the base of the maxillary bone to

abbreviated ecto-nasal

hmb, and the

obliquity

meet the expanded

of the zygoma, which

foot of the

must descend

as

it

retrogrades from the junction of these bones, to the level of the inferior articular surface of the
OS quadratum.

The maxillary

in

Pigeons

is

subpyramidal with a triangular section

the apex

extending forwards, like a splint, on the inner side of the lateral process of the premaxillary
the external surface slopes obliquely upwards and outwards fi'om the palatine aspect, and

more or

less

tumid

the angle which

it

wedged between them

anteriorly.

The

ecto-nasal

backwards from the upper angle of the base of the maxilla


the antral plate, and

is

is

united to the

lateral

premaxillary

forms with the inner concave facet

pyramidal foot of the ecto-nasal limb behind, the termination of the


process being

Hmb

is

passes upwards

the inner edge

is

and

prolonged into

separated by a groove, on the floor of which occurs the pneumatic

foramen, from the terminal border of the external surface, which ascends obliquely backwards,
its

upper angle passing into the slender zygoma.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The mandible thus presents a subtriangular


or less tumid, which

the external fibrous wall of the subocular


free outer

surface, of greater or less extent,

membrane

covered by the palatal

is

margin of the palatine

the posterior nares, form a

cell,

The

crest.

wedge subsiding

73

it

is

and more

continued backwards by

extending from the root of the zygoma to the

surfaces of opposite sides, separated mesially

anteriorly towards the nasal orifice,

by

and descending

between the rami of the lower jaw, which are so curved that their convexity mounts into

and the lower margin

the obtuse angle formed between the zygoma,

maxilla

which

indicated in the

is

mucous membrane from the

Dodo by

and extending forwards

cere,

of the lateral facet of the

the upper caruncular ridge, separating the palatal


to the lower angle of the nostril.

In those grallatorial and aquatic birds, as the Ibis, Spoonbill, and Albatross, which have a
similar arrangement, the

margin of the upper mandible overhangs that of the lower

the Albatross the posterior part of the dentary bone

wedge and the acute margin

palatine

is

of the mandible.

IV. The absence of an ossified vomer separating the posterior nares


deficient in the Gallinse

but

is

wanting

in the Vultm'idse

of ossification at

its

in the Vulturidae

exists in the

this is also generally

form of a narrow lanceolate

plate,

formation of the

generally

is

membranous

in

Pigeons

it

exhibits

however traces

attachment above, in the Calmias nicoharica, and Lopholamus antarciicus

it is

exists,

it

it

in Cathartes.

V. The septum narium

Cathartes

and in

lodged in a deep groove, between the

wholly

ossified, a small perforation

only existing in certain species

although reduced in length, by the removal of

common

VI. The form of

nasal vestibule.

In the

bone in Pigeons

\\s& palatine

Dodo

is

it is

its

in

anterior part in the

completely membranous.

characteristic,

and diSers from

that in the

Rasores, in the presence of the horizontal plate or crest, which affords an increased surface

muscle

for the origin of the internal pterygoid

supports the fold of mucous

In the Vulturidse, the crest


arising from

rostnim

it

membrane forming

is

much

is

much

and of the descending

the lateral boundary of the posterior nares.

is

narrower from the unexpanded condition of the

contracted longitudinally, whereas in Pigeons

forwards along the inner margin of the palatine stem, to near


process

is less

palatine stem

elongated,
is

and the

inflected portion of

straight in Vultures,

Cathartes the stem

is

also curved

less elevated than in Pigeons

which

palatal process,

broader, indicating the greater strength of the muscle

the sphenoidal plate

the nasal process

it,

its

attachment

extends

it

the palatine

in Pigeons, is entirely absent

arched with the concavity inwards in Pigeons.

the nasal process

is

more extended than

the

In

in Vultiu-es, but

the crest however indicates the raptorial character

by

its

great breadth.

We

shall afterwards see

how

the form of this bone, in the Dodo,

is

modified by the

compression of the mandible and the abbreviation of the rostriun, without departing from
the Columbine type.

VII.

The shape

in difierent

of the inferior articular surface of the tympanic bone, although

genera of the Columbidse,

is

it

varies

distinguished from that in the Vultm-idse, by the

OSTEOLOGY

74

and by the greater breadth

greater transverse diameter of the internal,

which
is

is flat,

or sHghtly convex, and

narrow and sigmoidal

convex in

ridcfe is

more oblique than

II.

of the external condyle

In the Viilturidse and Cathartes, the latter

subcircular.

concave behind longitudinally, and rounded trans-

front,

In Cathartes the inner condyle

versely.

[Part

is

grooved at the base externally


In the Dodo,

in ordinary Pigeons.

its

form

and the trochlear

is

similar to that in

the typical genera of the Columbidee, and differs from that in the large Vultures, with which,

from a correspondence in absolute

The absence

antorbital process of the frontal,


it is

of the ethmoid

readily compared.

and

of

\hs,

prefrontal

is

which advances along

presence in

dove-tailed between the nasal

bone and

outer edge to the lacrymal groove

its

anchylosed to these bones above, and internally to the highly developed

alae

the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure being in most Pigeons wholly obliterated.

In Goura, a slender style separates

its

inner margin from the nasal, so that

gomphosis, into a deep semi-elliptical notch on the broad antorbital process.


to

its

this aberrant genus to the Columbidas.

The subtriangular body

in the adult

may be more

of the posterior superior condyle in the typical Rasores,

Pterocles, approximates, so far,

VIII.

size, it

by

it is

inserted

It is

not subject

removal by maceration, or such forces as woidd almost inevitably break off the upper

mandible

and

its

occurrence in the fractured cranium of the Solitau'e,

presumptive evidence of the Columbine

In Pterocles, the prefrontal


relation to the antorbital process

that this process extends along


free,

affinities of that extinct

from the narrowness of

process

its inferior

and the ate of the ethmoid are wanting, while


the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure
adult, in all raptorial

is

is

the apex of the prefrontal,

the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure

is

downwards

is

is fii-mly

large

the free external angle

and persistent

united to the cranium; the supra-orbital

The

be overcome,
in the

Dodo

is

is

the inferior

although variable in different species, according

very minute

it

mem-

olfactory

but the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure remains.

size of the croiophyte imjiression ,

and the

between the shallow notch lodging

gives increased breadth to the forehead.

ala is anchylosed to the prefrontal below,

or even Cathartes

and

to the post-orbital process.

completely ossified, and

IX. The

is

uuanchylosed, even in the

foramen opens into the apex of the infundibular turbinated ala of the ethmoid

to the resistance to

its

not probable

and the deeply concave supercihary margin, which sweeps

In Cathartes, the prefrontal


is

it is

reduced to a slender curved style

prefrontal

antorbital process forms only a shght angular separation,

brane

frontal aspect,

in Pterocles they are greatly developed,

The

obliterated.

its

buds, except the aberrant genus Cathartes

supports the os superciliare

rapidly outwards and

form.

In the typical Rasores, the prefrontal

outer margin.

and projects greatly outwards

regarded as

anchylosed, but I have not been able to ascertain

is

its

may be

when compared with

exceedingly small, and

is

that in the Vultmidae,

not compensated by an

increase in the area of the internal temporal surface.

X. The great extent of the digastric impression in Pigeons and


contrasted with

its

small size in raptorial birds.

anticipated, resemble the Columbidse.

The Rasores

in the

Dodo,

in this respect, as

is

well

might be

of the dodo.

Ch. L]

XL

The presence of a

single mesial supra-occipital aperture above the foramen

which

for the transmission of a vein,

Among

cerebellar sinus.

other family of birds.

75

arises

the Raptores,

it

magniun,

from the muscles of the neck, and joins the posterior


occurs in some Owls, but

Dodo with

Its co-existence in the

Columbidge, shows the value of apparently

have not seen

it

in

any

other indications of affinity to the

trivial characters in

determining the position of

an anomalous form.
XII. The generalpnemnaticitii/ of the cranial vault

is gi'eater

and sphenoidal rostrum are usually much more expanded than

Dodo resembles

In these respects the

in Pigeons,

and the

in the Vultiu-idae

prefrontals

and Cathartes.

the Columbidse, and differs remarkably in the bullose

appearance of the prefrontal, and in the breadth of the rostrum, from the typical raptorial

The

birds.

Pterocles also approaches the Columbidae in these characters.

XIII. In the lower jaw, the curvature of the rami


short and ascending, symphysis
period, of the opercular elements

and the

differences in the

jaw

more curved than

is

form of the articular smface, corresponding to those


tympanic, distinguish the lower mandible, in

and Cathartes

in the Vulturidae

into the

digastric facet

The family

is

posterior

We

in the less aberrant Raptores.

in the latter, however, the

lower

how

these

shall afterwards see

The development

important differences are repeated in the Dodo.

typical Rasores,

less angular,

the small area of the temporal and pterygoid

ali-eady alluded to, in the inferior surface of the

the Columbidse from that

more or

the presence of the interangular foramen in certain genera

the large triangular digastric, or basal, facet

impressions

their union at a

the separation of the dentary, and, in some cases to a late

and internal angular

of the basal angles of the

processes, so characteristic of the

observed in Pterocles.

characters of the skuU in the Columbidse, just enumerated, are derived from

the consideration of parts, important either in a physiological, or morphological, point of

One

view.

types

or

more of them may be absent

in abeiTant

members, or be common

to chfferent

but the whole, or a majority of them, occiu-ring in the skull of an extinct form, woiUd

justify us in assigning to

it

a place

among

this interesting

and extensive group.

Before proceeding to a more minute description of the skull of the Dodo, and to a comparison of

it

which warrant us in

The

restricting

zygoma

scale

bone

Dodo

skidl of the

feebly uncinated core


ossified

we may recapitulate shortly, those important differences


such comparisons to the members of the Columbine group.

with that of other Pigeons,

differs

from that of the Vultm-idEe, in the

in the elongation of the external nasal orifice,

in the great relative size of the maxillary

in the

form of the mandibular

in the absence of the ossified

siu-face of the

septum narium

form, and minute configuration, of the lower jaw


obliteration of the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure

region,

and absence of the os

and the great

superciliare

bone

tympanic

relatively small

and absence of the

in the obliquity of the

in the

form of the palatine

in the absence of the

vomer

in the

in the anchylosis of the prefrontal,

in the greater

and

and

breadth of the interorbital

in the small area of the crotophyte impressions,

relative size of the digastric surface

in the existence of the mesial

supra-

OSTEOLOGY

76
foramen

occipital

mandible to the cranium

and of the

in the ratio of the

the retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae

in

of the frontal protuberance


then, are

cranium

great pneumaticity of the

in the

[Part

some of the more important and

distinctions

characteristic

upper

the absence

in

excavations of the upper mandiljle.

lateral

II.

Such,

without entering into

superfluous details, regarding the diJSerences in the minute configuration of similar parts, as

vary even in the same group.

may

these

The Cathartes resembles the Dodo,


losis of

the prefrontal

interorbital region

more

in the retrogi-ession of the

and

in the absence of the ossified

ethmoidal

fossa3

in the curvature of the lower jaw.

important characters,

common

to

vomer;

in the breadth

of the

however, in other

It differs,

with the typical Vultm-es, and

it

in the anchy-

peculiar in

is

possessing the nasal vestibule, characteristic of the Cathartine modification of the raptorial type.

From
orifice

the typical Rasores,

Dodo

the

greater complexity of the palatine bone


in the absence of the posterior

jaw

presence of the

of the ethmoid

alse

in the elongation of the external nasal

in the double mastoid condyle of the

and great development of

in

zygoma

in the obliquity of the

and internal angular processes of the basal

in the anchylosis of the prefrontal,

difiiers,

in the greater development of the maxilla

in the

tympanic

facet of the lower

process

in the

the retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae

in the

great pneumaticity of the prefrontal, and of the sphenoidal rostrum

its inferior

and

in the absence of the

mesial supra-occipital foramen.

The

skull of Pterocles resembles that of the

Dodo

in the

same degree

as

it

approaches

the type of the Columbidse.

From
bone

the Insessores, the

Dodo

by the absence of the vomer

obhquity of the zygoma


It

would be

and by the

is

at

once distinguished by the form of the palatine

by the elongation of the external nasal

useless to state the essential differences

it

now proceed

transverse,

and a

Dodo

to describe the skull of the

subelliptical facet

of tlie cranium,

and measures two inches and eight


It presents

half.

by the

no one

as

is

likely to

has any affinity with either of these groups.

The jiosterior
is

between the skull of the Dodo, and

and Natatorial orders,

that hi the different families of the Grallatorial

suppose that

fissure

relation of the antorbital process to the prefrontal.

is

lines

an upper crescentic segment,

in greater detail.

formed by

tlie

occipital

and a half; and


witli a vertical

bone;

its lesser,

one

its

greater diameter

incli

plane, embracing in

and seven
its

lines

concavity a

lozenge-shaped surface, which inchues obhquely downwards and forwards at an angle of 125.

The upper convex margin corresponds

to the supra-occipital ridge, continued

on each side into the

convex incurving border of the paroccipital process, which projects outwards, forming the posterior wall of
the tympanic cavity.

The

infra-occipital ridge,

forming the central moiety of the concave edge, overhangs

the recess perforated by the foramen magnimi, like the dripstone of a Gothic arch

hne drawn from

its

corbal-hke origin outwards, on each side, to the inferior angle of the paroccipital process, indicates the

remamder

of this

rhomboidal

fossa,

boundary ; along which the


occupying the

vertical supra-occipital surface is broadly

lateral angle

of the lozenge.

Tliis depression is

rounded

off into

the

bounded externally by

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

the lower sharp edge of the internal

waU

'

of the tympanic cavity,

77

arching from the paroccipital angle to

the posterior border of the basilar pyi-amidal protuberance, which projects vertically downwards

prominent ridge, notched in the centre, ascends, incUniug inwards and backwards along

and with

its

depressed cerebellar elevation


is

it

rough

internal edge,

fellow forms the anterior boundary of the occipital facet, indicating nearly the division between

the sphenoid and occipital bones.

which

its

The

and

supra-occipital plate presents, in the centre, a triangular, broad

the truncated apex

on

is

a level with the infra-occipital ridge, a line above

perforated mesiaUy by a short canal, half a Hne in diameter, opening internally immediately

within the upper margin of the foramen

magnum

a slight crest traverses the median line,

becoming more

apparent as the convexity subsides towards the base, the angles of which extend to the most concave part
of the supra-occipital ridge

below

it

enters the furrow leading to the orifice just mentioned.

oblong surface, external to the central protuberance on each

side, is divided into

Tlie large

two subequal portions, by

a convexity directed downwards and inwards from the origin of the superior occipital ridge to that of the
inferior, it

corresponds to the semicircular canals witliin; on the

nent superiorly, and subsides towards the

lateral

venous groove

left side

elevated towards the supra-occipital ridge, but on the right side

more prominent than the

The

impression.

lateral

and terminates

ridge,

canalicular elevation, to

course,

and

veiu opens

magnum

downwards
a

into the internal segment.

narrow

it

is

is

slightly

raised into a triangular convexity,

parallel, separated only

and opening upwards,

The groove

transmits the lateral venous sinus.

there covered by a narrow osseous bridge on the

is

occipital ridge

is

widest xind most promi-

by a shght

digital

infra-occipital

margin of the cerebellar protuberance, in a short oval canal perforating the

cranium, two Hues and a half above the foramen


it

it

is

venous groove passes obUquely inwards and upwards, above the

at the

of the cerebellar fossa ;

which

it

the floor of the inner segment

tract,

one

Externally,

left side
it

internally, at the

margin

contracts in the centre of

its

a small canal lodging a muscular

curves round the origin of the infra-

line in breadth, separating its termination fi-om the

groove for the bulb

of the jugular vein, whicli the lateral sinus joins.

The

area of the strongly pitted muscular imjjression, on each side,

is elliptical

its

inner angle

is

pro-

longed inwards across the base of the cerebellar protuberance ; the outer occupies the upper part of the
paroccipital process, the lower portion of which
to the supra-occipital ridge,

eminence
for half

is

and the surface

smooth and polished.

From

is

smooth.

In

its

centre

it

extends from the venous groove

increased by the elevations already described.

is

The

cerebellar

the notch between the paroccipital process and mastoid, inwards

an inch, the digastric and occipital impressions are separated only by a smooth convex edge

internally, a prolongation of the parietal tract intervenes, the

more

apex extending to the canahcular elevation

where the supra-occipital ridge originates.


This ridge

is

broad and rough externally

it

ascends on each side, becoming narrow and rounded,

following the undulation of the surface to the angle of the cerebellar elevation

near the mesial line, over wliich


canalicular convexity,

it

arches

it

from thence

it

descends to

presents a slight notch at the upper and inner angle of the

from wluch a groove leads outwards and downwards to a canal perforating

tiiat

eminence, and traversing the cranial diploe to open on the lateral facet below the superior pneumatic fora-

men

it

transmits a vein from the integuments of the cranium.

subsidence of the posterior surface, not by

The convex margin

its

The

supra-occipital ridge

of the paroccipital process increases in breadtli inferiorly, and

tened, giving origin to the Biventer maxilla muscle

a strong

round

its

infra-occipital ridge is broad, rough,

origin

defined by the

and prominent

the rouglmess subsides internally, as

it

externally, the lateral

rough and

is

ligament passing from

forwards and inwards to the apex of the basilar facet of the ramus of the lower jaw,

The

is

elevation above the parietal tract.

its

is still

flat-

lower angle,

present.

venous groove bending

passes into the cerebellar eminence.

The foramen

OSTEOLOGY

78

magnum

has an ovate form, subangular above

it is

six

lines

side

it is

it

and a half high, and nearly

II.

broad,

five lines

cranium, projects on each side into the area of the

inferiorly; the vestibular elevation in the interior of the

foramen beneath the centre, rendering

[Part

on the

fiddle-shaped, but to a greater extent

four Knes in width where thus constricted.

Its mai'giu is

than on the right

left

separated from the infi-a-occipital

ridge aU round by a groove, which widens below from the inclination forwards of the plane of the foramen
its

breadth

one

is

line

and one-third above mesially, and

occipito-atlantal

The

above,

the articular surface

is

subpedunculated

amount

of

downward

it is

most

distinct

riorly,

flexion of the

head on the neck

its

height

is

is

its

and

is

is

side

inner angle

its

conthiued on

form

three hnes, and

its

it inferiorly,

subhemispherical,

is

medulla oblongata ;

for the

is

fossa

its

posterior surface

breadth four Unes.

bulb of the jugular vein

separated from the groove surrounding the foramen

is

directed outwards and forwards to the foramen lacerum posterius, grooving

it is

four lines and a half long, and two and a half broad.

four Hnes and a half long and two broad,

formed by the inner wall of the tympanic

more deeply concave than the


is

its

magnum

common

The

outer boundary of the

to the posterior lacerated

cavity, the lower sharp

and

external,

tliin

and notched

beliind,

carotic

edge of which, concave

extends as already indicated from the paroccipital angle to the pyramidal protuberance

margin

The

elliptic fossa,

foramina,

on the right

a convex ridge,

inner edge

deep

downwards and backwards, so that

directed

lateral basilar fossa presents posteriorly the shallow oval concavity for the

magnum by
its

its axis is

and notched above by the prolongation of the fossa

mai'ked by a faint median vertical groove

The

recess lodges

nearly in the same vertical plane as the margin of the foramen

separated by a groove from the peduncle laterally, but

is

indicating a considerable

is

Tliis

Ugament, to form the bulb of the internal jugular vein.

occipital condyle is

posterior sm-face,

flattened,

and a half below.

tliree lines

which discharges itseK by a large branch perforating the posterior

the great posterior cerebellar sinus,

tliick

its

and rounded in

infe-

inner
front.

divided by a roughened transverse convexity, forming the floor of the vestibule leading to the

foramen ovale and

f.

rotundum ; the foramen

caroticimi, transmitting the internal carotid

panying sinus, leads forwards and inwards from the anterior angle ;

wliile,

and

its

accom-

from the posterior, passes upwards,

curving forwards round the vestibule just mentioned, a canal, wliich transmits an artery and accompanying
vein, with the glosso-pharyngeal

men lacerum

posterius of

and sympathetic nerves

mammals

its

outer wall

is

its inferior orifice

perforated, a

corresponds in part to the fora-

Hue above

its

margin, by a rounded

aperture leading to a broad groove on the base of the paroccipital process anteriorly

venous sinus of the membraua tympani to the internal jugular vein.

it

transmits the

The condyloid foramen

for

the

passage of the hypoglossal nerve, perforates the base of the peduncle of the occipital condyle, one line and
one-third external to the foramen

magimm

one line and a half from

large aperture, transmitting the pneumogastric

it,

towards the carotic canal,

and spinal accessory nerves.

is

the

Ttvo minute apertures sepa-

rated by an osseous line, and probably giving exit to small venules, perforate the lower part of the inter-

space between the condyloid and pneumogastric foramina on the

and a half

left side

on the right

side they are a line

apart.

The lateral fossa is bounded in front, by the posterior convex surface of the triangular basilar pyramid,
whose elongated inner edge extends inwards, slopmg backwards to the groove, uniting the inner and anterior angles of the fossa of

rough

each side beneath the occipital condyle.

a scabrous tubercle

mesial notch.

The breadth

line obliquely to the

height, mesially, is nine lines

half above,

and one

line

The apex and narrow outer

developed at the foot of the inner edge, separated from

of the supra-occipital plate, between the mastoid notches,

and a half ; from the median


its

is

and a

half;

and a half below.

and

The

mastoid notch,
its

it

its

surface are

fellow by a

smooth

is two inches eight Unes

measures one inch eight Hnes and a haK

thickness towards the occipital ridge

is five

lines

and a

distance between the inferior angles of the paroccipital

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

processes,

is

one

and a

incli six lines

and

half;

79

depth from the upper margin of the foramen magnum,

its

ten lines and a half; from the mesial line obliquely to the angle of the paroccipital process,

two

span of

longitudinal diameter of the inferior segment

The

lines.

boundary

its lateral

The

and a

eight Hues

is

of the basilar protuberances,

eight lines

is

The

half.

cranium exhibits, on each

inferior facet of the

increases in breadth, as

it

its

and the

margin between the apices

and a half

basi-occipital is three lines

tliick.

side, the great orbito-temporal excavation, separated

by the short but broad and tumid sphenoid, which expands


constricted at the junction of

is

Tlie span of the anterior

half.

and a

one inch

is

eleven lines and two-thirds;

to join the basi-occipital posteriorly

most

it is

posterior and two anterior thirds, opposite the foramen opticum;

advances, to where

it is

joined by the inferior ethmoidal ala on each side

it

then

it

rapidly becomes narrower, and forms a compressed plate projecting forwards into the inferior nasal fissure.

The
prefrontal

inflated lower ala of the etlunoid coalesces externally with


;

which, from the compression of the cranium anteriorly,

notch, leading into the olfactory fossa, separating

two inches,

six lines

between the outer

and a half

and a haK ; the thickness of the sphenoid

at the

apex

sphenoid.

deepened posteriorly and

on each

is dii'ected,

anteriorly

The

and

six lines

its

extreme length

and two thirds broad. The distance

is

four lines and a half.

by the anterior surface of the

inwards and backwards, sloping outwards as

side,

of the Recti

for the insertion of the fleshy fasciculi

laterally

laterally a slight ridge separates it

it

basilar

common

orifice

from a venous impression on the

of the Eustacliian tubes

median notch between the inner angles of the


each side of an irregular raphe

and

its

basilar protuberances.

antero-posterior diameter

protu-

descends to the
side of the

anterior angle projects in the form of a small, free, triangular plate, curving

beneath the transversely ovate

it is

foramen opticum

The lozenge-shaped concavity on the sphenoid,


berance, which

a deep narrow

of the inferior extremities of the prefi'ontals amounts to one inch, eight hnes

sui-faces

capitis aiitici muscles, is

prolonged forwards

one inch, eleven hnes and a half;

is

where most constricted

is

from the rostrum. The greatest width of the sphenoid,

it

between the outer margins of the tympanic tubes,


is

the bullose inferior extremity of the

downwards

the posterior corresponds to the

This

sui'face is distinctly pitted

on

eight Hnes.

is

groove, two Hues broad, running forwards from the orifice of the Eustachian tubes, impresses the

sphenoid where most constricted, and ceases after a course of four lines with a rounded termination
edges are sharp, and separate

it

from the

lateral

venous impressions

it is

Hned by the sinus leading

its

to the

Eustachian tubes.
Anteriorly the sphenoid

is

The

inferior aspect is

mecHan

raised into an obtuse

on wliich the palatine and pterygoid bones

between the flattened oblong surfaces

ridge,

movements

glide, in the

of the upper mandible.

concave upwards, deepest opposite the foramen opticum, declinmg in front to

the lowest part of the rostrum, and behind to the under surface of the occipital condyle, which

is

in the

same horizontal plane as the former.

The

lateral aspect of the

cranium

is

occupied by the large orbito-temporal fossa, wliich presents the

form of an irregular, four-sided pyramidal excavation


Its different sui-faces converge to the optic

upper descending as

The

it

tracted, interorbital

roof of the orbit.

alfe

septum

the floor and inferior wall of wliich are removed.

the posterior

is

of less height than the anterior, the

retrogrades.

anterior subconcave wall,

turbinated and inferior

foramen

is

formed in

of the ethmoid
;

it

its

anterior moiety

posteriorly

it is

slopes gradually inwards

by the

prefrontal,

and by the united

constituted by the enormously

and backwards, and above

is

tliick,

rounded

Hue drawn from the post-orbital process to the optic foramen, divides the

the narrow, depressed temporal fossa, which inclines forwards, as

it

descends inwards.

The

but con-

off into the

orbital

from

posterior trian-

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

80
gular surface

broken by the projection of the anterior wall of the tympanic cavity, it slopes backwards
process of the mastoid ; the lower is horizontal
its upper margin extends to the post-temporal

is

and outwards ;

and directed to the

The roof
temporal fossa

II.

inferior angle of the paroccipital process.

of the orbit
;

is

formed by the

frontal,

and by the ali-sphenoid, for a short space anterior to the

optic foramen, through the foramen ovale, to the posterior tympanic

Hue drawn from the

The inferior boundary of the mastoid corresarticular facet, will indicate the lower margin of the ali-sphenoid.
process, tlirough the superior tympanic
paroccipital
ponds to a hne (hawn from the notch between it and the
comes into apposition with the
aperture to the inner angle of the root of the post-temporal process, where it
upwards to the post-orbital
inclining
forwards,
passes
suture
the
thence
;
external border of the ali-sphenoid
runs beliind the fenestra ovalis
wliich

is

developed on

elliptic fossa,

and the ex-occipital foUows the course of the canal wliich

division between the sphenoid

The

process.

its

upper angle

the ex-occipital

common

below

it

is

anterior to the inferior tympanic articular surface,

passes internal to the Eustachian tube, cutting tlirough the

the foramen caroticum and

to

f.

lacemm

inwards, intersecting the foot of the basilar protuberance.

winch

is only about six lines in diameter, is remarkable,

amply protected by

The diminished

and

is

and

posterius,

lastly

bends transversely

area of the interorbital septum,

due to the smaU

size

of the eyes, wliich are

The proper septum

the great outward projection of the roof of the orbit posteriorly.

is

reduced to the small space, intervening between the base of the olfactory fossse and the interval separating
the foramina optica, in the antero-posterior diameter ; it is encroached on above by the expanded froutals,

and below by the

of the frontal, the orbital vault


angles, and, as

it

line

relatively very small

were, pressed backwards

from wliich the roof increases

is

in

the abbreviation of the cranium, and consequent shortening

From

inflated rostrum.

it is

bent down abruptly anteriorly, nearly at right

the angle of flexure corresponding to the supra-orbital notch,

breadth as

it

retrogrades oblicjuely dowTiwards.

drawn from the supra-orbital to the temporal notch would cut

off'

an elongated triangular

segment; the hypothenuse corresponding to the convex, thick, and rough supra-orbital margin, and the
The great breadth of the mterorbital region, which is continued backbase to the post-orbital process.
wards diminishing very gradually to the mastoid notch, and the flattening down, as
the orbit beliind the eye
dible,

and

its

The

roof of the orbit

the anterior portion of the orbital vault

descend

nally, causes its surface to

man-

is

arched transversely, but more

extremity of the

pre&'ontal to

rajiidly into that of

the interorbital septum

and

while from the retrogression

hne drawn

fi-om the inferior

the post-orbital process, measuring one inch and seven lines, ascends

obliquely backwards at an angle of 45


limit the orbit posteriorly

concave longitudinally than

flatly

the greatly increased expansion of the diploe of the frontal inter-

of the olfactory fossae, the anterior wall slopes vei7 gradually backwards.

iuferiorly.

and a plane extended inwards

The depth

fi-om

it

to the optic

foramen would

of the vault from the supra-orbital notch,

is

one inch

line.

Va& foramen optimm,

situated

from the anterior and posterior


its

were, of the roof of

contraction in front of the supra-orbital notch, are remarkable peculiarities in the head of

this extinct form.

one

it

together with the great elevation of the forehead above the surface of the

circular contour is

half.

at the

apex of the triangularly pyramidal orbital

sui'faces of the

and a half from the

interorbital septum,

The

which

is

its relatively

basilar surface,

beneath the highest point of the frontal protuberance.


are separated by an interval of six lines

is

equidistant

cranium, and from the supra-orbital and mastoid notches

notched above by a vascular groove, and

Its floor is four lines

fossa,

The

and

its

small diameter

is

two

lines

and a

roof one inch ten lines and a half

anterior edges of the foramina of opposite sides,

and two-thirds, corresponding

to the

broad posterior border of the

convex transversely, and concave vertically.

ant-orbital foramen, for the transmission of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal

nerve and

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

accompanying

vessels, is eight lines distant

and midway between

it

etlmioidal ala,

to the

The

from

and outwards

its

obliterated

is

a narrow,

the inner branch of which probably corres-

the evasation of the latter to form the large

of this fissure,

wliich in other birds transmits the

the upper indicates the union of the prefrontal to the turbi-

extremity an interrupted groove, more distinct on the right side,

downwards

directed

is

an acute angle, to the upper margin of the lacrymal groove, defining the antorbital process

at

as it runs along the outer

margin of the body of the

tumid prefrontal coalesces below with the

Tlie

alse,

a ventricose

posterior expanded border of the inferior

prefronto-etlunoidal fissure

notch between the turbinated and inferior

superior diverticulum of the subocular sinus

irregularly transversely ovate

is

The

wider in the centre, alone remaining

olfactory fossa being the cause of the disappeai'ance

nated ala

form

Its

area inferiorly.

its

three Hnes and a half broad.

is

tripartite chink, shghtly

ponds

from the foramen opticum, in a direction forwards and upwards,

and the ant-orbital process.

projection on the left side, encroaches on

81

prefrontal.

inferior ala,

and

three Unes and two-thirds wide

is

its

broad outer convex surface, beneath the antorbital process, presents the lacrymal groove, more depressed
its

lower margin

it

at

runs forward, inclining inwards, to the outer margin of the olfactory fossa, and

eight lines in length, and tlu'ee

and a half broad

in the inner part of its

course,

rests

it

is

on a quadrate

process of the prefrontal, wliich projects beyond the level of the anterior margin, and comes into contact

with the convexity of the turbinated ala; this projection

and roughened opposite the zygoma, with which


flexion of the

upper mandible.

The

anterior moiety, into a narrow style,

it

separated by a notch, from the prominent inner

is

angle of the body of the prefrontal above, and below from

its inferior

and rough

ant-orbital process is thick

whose apex

extremity

which

would probably come into contact,

is at

is slightly flattened

in the great

the upper border of the lacrymal groove.

From

supra-orbital notch a deep capillary fissure, with small lateral offsets, passes backwards and inwards,
of the orbit for six hnes

margin
side,

it

notched on the right for the transmission of the supra-orbital

is

internally they correspond to a groove

of the orbit

it

opticum, which

running half an inch

in front of,

arteries

and

on the roof

enters, grooving its roof,

and disappearing as

it

and veins

border

above the foramen

little

curves backwards.

left

to the scalp

parallel to, the posterior

winds round a tumid projection of the cUploe of the ala-sphenoid a


it

its

the

probably lodged a small branch derived from a cutaneous artery. The supercihary

perforated about six lines in front of the post-orbital process, by two small foramina on the

is

but

domiward

and contracts in

externally,

second groove, for

the nasal vessels, runs backwards and upwards from the ant-orbital foramen, to join the supra-orbital furrow

above the prominence just mentioned.


channels

one

Numerous

small apertures are seen along the course of these

a faint vascular groove runs from the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure to the centre of the nasal

between the

latter

and the foramen opticum, and bounded

laterally

by the pecuhar pneumatic buUse,

is

quadrate space, variously marked by vascular impressions.

The temporal
digital cavity,

fossa descends obhquely forwards, sloping inwards,

impressing the ali-sphenoid behind the optic foramen.

oblong temporal notch,

five

interiorly at a deep

It opens superiorly by the small naiTow

Unes in depth, and three and a half in breadth ; bounded in front by the short,

thick, post-orbital process, slightly recurved at


toid.

and terminates

tlie

apex, and beliind by the post-temporal plate of the mas-

The small crotophyte impression occupies the temporal gorge, and extends outwards,

as the latter

is

broadly rounded off into the upper facet, in the form of a crescent, whose limbs extend on the triangular
surface of the post-orbital process, and

chord-hke ridge.

The

on the quadrantal post-temporal

internal temporal impression

narrow smooth tract separates

its

plate,

which

is

traversed

has the figure of a right-angled triangle

base from the surface for the 31. Levator ossis quadrati

hypothenuse ascends forwards to the root of the post-orbital process,


ridge from the external impression

its

its

by a shght
;

below, a

the undulated

upper third being separated by a

surface subsides, anteriorly, about a hne beneath the

faint

smooth and

OSTEOLOGY

82
polished elevated area of

which

orbital fossa, the posterior

tlie

seven hnes long

is

its

base

is

[Part

rounded edge of which forms

four lines and one-tliird

above

for a line

anterior margin,

its

the surface

it,

II.

is,

as

it

were,

scooped out.

smooth

tract,

corresponding to the post-orbital vascular flexus, and leading to the foramen rotundo-

remainder of the floor of the temporal fossa

ovale, occupies the

jection of the tympanic tube,

plate, wliich, after

by a curved

it

terminates below,

which runs horizontally outwards and backwards

the convex pro-

at

formed

anterior wall is

its

covering the inferior efferent pneumatic cells and the Eustachian tube,

attached to the outer margin of the sphenoid lozenge and basilar protuberance

a deep triangular incision, bounded below by the thin, inferiorly concave edge
Its orifice is in a

acute angle, with the inner wall.

behind wliich,

formed by

its

junction, at an

hue with the post-temporal process ; the edge

concave, the lower angle being prolonged into a sharp, sUghtly incurved styloid process.

convexity subsides internally towards the digital fossa, wliich

is

presents

it

is

deeply

The tympanic

the deepest part of the lateral facet, con-

is

taining in fi'ont the optic foramen, and belund, the subdivisions of \h& foramen lacerum anteri-us, perforating

The foramen

the thinnest part of the cranial parietes.

and a half long, and one hne


tures

by

liigli

threads

delicate osseous

which lodges the sixth nerve


a vertical groove separated

it is

by a ridge from that which

two Unes long,

orifice of a canal,

a fine bristle

and that

is

the orifice of a canal, four lines and a half long,

is

a groove passes forwards

it.

At the lower

and probably conducting outwards, a twig from the ento-carotid


lines

aperture, one

at the

in diameter, for the transmission

of the

and run into


orifice,

both

it is

capable of admitting

angle, between the optic foramen

opening internally into the sella turcica,

Above the tympanic

artery.

and a haK from the posterior border of the foramen opticum,

hne

pair,

apex of the anterior is situated the

for the transmission of the patheticus nerve

and upwards from

tliii'd

continued upwards from the posterior

for the tliird nerve, is the aperture of a very slender canal,

and three

longitudinally oval, one line

it is

the two anterior give passage to the divisions of the

terminate on a level with the upper margin of the foramen opticum

minute

directed obliquely upwards, and divided internally into tliree aper-

the posterior one

oculomotor and abducens

for the transmission of the

nerves, occurs immediately behind the lower moiety of the optic foramen

convexity,

the rounded, sharp-edged

is

ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve

groove, concave downwards, leads forwards across the patheticus foramen, and apparently enters the optic
outlet, beliind the supra-orbital furrow.

to the second

and third divisions of the

tympanic aperture

it is

vertically oval orifice,

digital fossa is separated

internal maxillary vein,

it

rotiindo-ovale, giving passage

and the margin of the osseous

an osseous thread separates from

base

its

by a sKglit ridge from a concavity on the side of the most constricted

it

slopes inwards below,

gutter on the inferior surface, leading to the

convex upwards
;

foramen

midway between

one hne and a half high, and one wide

part of the sphenoid, beneath the foramen opticum

foramina

occurs

minute foramen.

anteriorly, a

The

The

fifth pair,

and

its

is

is

common

in the posterior triangular tract

the anterior and upper

same shape, but

this depression is

separated fi-om

orifice of

between

produced by the great trunk of the


its

fellow

by the narrow, sharp-edged

the Eustacluan tubes

it,

the smallest, and longitudinally oval

its

and the edge of the

superior border

digital fossa,

is

two

are

the posterior and larger has the

greatest diameter is at right angles to that of the former.

A narrow

band, one hne in

breadth, separates them, and presents two capillary apertm-es above, but supports below the minute, thin

and

flexible

upwardly-curved

on the right

side.

style,

representing the articular peduncle for the pterygoid

wliich does not exist

These foramina transmit communicating branches from the internal maxillary

ento-carotid, with their

accompanjdng venous sinuses

septum between the Eustachian tube and the


curves inwards to unite with

its fellow.

efferent

ai-tery to

the

the canals to which they lead pass backwards in the

pneumatic

cells,

and open into the carotid canal

as

it

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

M.

Tlic triangular sm-face for the attacluneut of the

Levator

extending round the jJosterior border of the foramen opticum


convexity,

ossis (juadrati, occupies the digital fossa,

prolonged outwards over the tympanic

it is

surrounded by a smooth depressed marginal tract of the

The

circle.

83

irregular tympanic excavation

The post-temporal

pital process.

is

corresponding to a vascular

latter,

bounded above by the mastoid, and behind by the

process of the mastoid

parocci-

formed by a thick quadrantal plate projecting

is

outwards with an inclination forwards, behind the temporal fossa;

outer edge

its

attacluneut to the external mandibular ligament, and viewed laterally projects

rough, and gives

is

downwards and forwards

a styloid process in front of the articular cavity for the anterior superior condyle of the tympanic.
ca\ity impresses the base

and posterior surface of the post-temporal

and transverse diameters,

posterior

are three

Hues and a

thinning

plate,

The mastoid

half.

it

internally;

process

like

This
antero-

its

a longitudinally

is

extended, low, obtuse and thick pyramidal plate, projecting downwards so as to conceal the large quadrate
superior pneumatic foramen, internal to

by

facet is separated

a shght ridge

it

The

articular cavities

from the small posterior one, which

by a notch from the paroccipital process


edge.

and between the tympanic

inner surface

its

grooved

is

is reticulate,

its

smooth

external

and separated

at its base,

and forms with the external

inferior articular facet for the reception of the postero-superior condyle of the

a sharp

tympanic

is

oblong, tliree hues and two thirds long and two lines and two thirds deep, and composed of a smaller inner

and a

larger posterior segment, at right angles to each other

beneath

its

anterior extremity

is

the external

lacerated wall of a canal wliich ascends from the foramen lacerum posterius, curving forwards round the

tympanic tube ;

it

passes into a groove, arching backwards to the lower angle of the upper pneumatic orifice,

and terminating in a narrow canal which traverses the diploe

on the

canalicular convexity

occipital aspect.

base anteriorly, wliich widens as


,

below
just

it

ascends

The

at the floor of that orifice,

its floor is cellular

the groove lodges the sinus of the

internal jugular vein

its

outer edge

is

at the

membrana tmpani, which

undefined, the inner

is

its

above, behind the inferior tympanic facet

curves inwards, and passes into a rounded orifice which perforates the

it

mentioned

emerges

paroccipital process presents a shallow groove at

outer wall of the

transmits

canal

blood to the

its

sharp and gives attacluneut to the

membrana

tympani.
Internal to

tympanic

it is

a shorter but deeper concavity, also exposing pneumatic cells beneath the inferior

In the mouth of the tmpanic tube

facet.

is

seen posteriorly the vertically oval

short canal, leading iuwards and slightly forwards to the foramina ovale and

which are separated by an oblique grooved bar ; in front of


to the diploe

surrounding the labyrinth, and the oval

canal, passing forwards


efferent apertures

verging to

tube

is

notch

its

and inwards separated by a

from wliich open into the

feUow ; the common

orifice

cells

tliin

two inches

foui- lines

and a

of the basilar protuberance, over wliich

has already been described.

half;

The

From

it

passes con-

anterior wall of the tympanic

the supra-orbital to the mastoid

between the opposite surfaces of the prefrontal, and of the


;

the anterior margin of the orbit

and a half deep, and from the temporal notch to the lower angle of the

and a

paroccipital,

is

one inch

one inch

six

five lines

half.

The broad

.superior facet of the

cranium, on the removal of the beak so as to expose the upper siwface

of the turbinated alae of the ethmoid, presents a subhexagonal figure


to a

depressed basilar efferent pneumatic

septum from the wide Eustachian tube: the

perforated by an aperture leading into the pneumatic canal.

is

vestibule,

a large pneumatic orifice transmitting air

orifice of the

paroccipital process inferiorly, is an inteiTal of two inches


lines

it, is

orifice of a

rotimdmn of the

Hne drawn between the anterior angles

posterior

the anterior border, corresponding

of the prefrontals, being only one half of the width

and the antero-lateral margins about twice

as long as the postero-lateral

beliind the

of the

hne of the

OSTEOLOGY

84

formed by the beak and the cranium

resilient liinge,

abruptly above the level of the upper mandible,


as the lateral edges respectively,

it

the

[Part
cranio-facial line, at

approach to equality in length.

between the

in front of the post-orbital processes, is three inches nine lines


it is

three inches wide

it

lateral

greatest transverse diameter,

beliind its

little

rounded angles, about

continues forwards for

it

is

haK an inch

one inch

of the

two inches nine

occipital facet, is

and

laterally

The median

two inches nine hnes

of the occipital aspect,

This facet

lines.

presents the deep temporal emarginations, and

is

three inches two bnes.


posteriorly

by the mastoid, presenting the muscular impressions, and extending forwards, so as to enter

anteriorly

measures,

from the anterior angle of the prefrontal to the most remote part

Emeu and

Bustard

is

by the abbreviated and coalesced

frontals,

which are raised by the

process (which in the

into the composition of the post-orbital

element)

it

longitudinal diameter, from the cranio-facial line to the

formed, behind and centrally, by the confluent, short but broad, parietals

is

same

six hnes.

gradually contracts to the notches separating the mastoid from the paroccipital processes, where
transversely,

six lines

anteriorly, it contracts gradually to the

diameter, and then rapidly diminishes in width to the anterior edge, which

rises

has the same form, but the anterior and posterior, as well

Its greatest breadth, corresponding to a line dra\vn

supra-orbital notches, where

wluch the forehead

II.

it

is

constituted

formed by a separate

The wide

sudden and great expansion of the diploe into a broadly rounded, interorbital protuberance.

semi-lunar notch, formed by their combined anterior edges, receives the bodies or frontal plates of the
nasals,

which are abruptly bent upwards

an angle of 45 with the plane of the upper mandible, and

at

ascend high on the frontal slope to coalesce with the


appear to be relatively

much

frontals, the sutures

abbreviated, and to be almost,

if

The

of the frontal,

on each

side, is filled

to the ant-orbital process, the latter

indicated

internally

it is

frontal plate of the nasal.

of the interorbital

is

bone and the ant-orbital process

by the triangular body of the prefrontal


its

wliich

anchylosed externally

is

outer edge to the lacrymal groove, as already

separated from the ecto-nasal limb by a fissure, but

On removing

the nasals

wedged between them, being bent

vacuity left between the nasal

advancing along

not whoUy, separated mesially by the broad

triangular extremity of the nasal process of the premaxiUary, which

upwards in the same peculiar manner.

being obliterated

the beak, the broad,

flat

arch

septum and the turbinated lamina passing out fiom

is
it,

seen,

apex

its

is

anchylosed to the

formed by the prolongation

on each

side,

and curving down-

wards to meet the prefrontal.

In the immature condition, the peculiar frontal protuberance of the Bodo would not be developed,

and the cranium would present a gentle

slope,

descending from the vertex (which

somewhat in front

is

of

the coronal fontaneUe, and corresponds internally to the most elevated part of the cerebrum), to the upper
surface of the mandible.

The
shorter,

profile

would hence resemble that

from the abbreviation of the frontal

in the skull of the Calmnas, &c., but


:

would be

relatively

the length of that bone, and more particularly of

segment, depends on the extent traversed by the peduncle of the olfactory nerve, ere
proper nerve-filaments distributed to the sense-capsule {dfimo'ul).

it

its

much
orbital

terminates in the

upper segment of the

It protects, as the

fronto-ueural ai'ch, not as the lateral moiety of a divided spine, the anterior extremity of the cranio-vertebral
tube, and

is

supported below by the interorbital septum, or centrum, of the frontal vertebra ; which

is

excavated and reduced to a thin vertical plate, by the fossae for the reception of the eyeballs and their

appendages.

In the Bodo, from the small

of the ordinaiy characters of a centrum,

relative size of the ej'es, the interorbital

and the

primary or normal relation to the cerebral cavity.

me

olfactory capsules retrograde, as

The

it

septum assumes more

were, and recover their

attentive study of this singular

cranium has enabled

to recognise the existence only of three cranial vertebra, essentially related to the tlu'ee liigher senses.

OF THE DODO.

85

Ch.

I.]

The

orbito-splienoids, or lower segments of the fronto-neural arch, are rarely developed in bii'ds, as distinct

elements

the bones indicated as such, by Mr. Owen, having no real or separate existence

author regards them as the neurapophyses of the fronto-neural arch, and

and divided

that learned

expanded

the diploe of the coalesced frontals would begin to expand,

As growth advanced,

frontal spine.

the frontal bones as the

and the obliteration of the sutures connecting them

the facial bones, would enable the increased deve-

to

lopment of pneumaticity

to invade the frontal portions of the nasals

maxillary, so as to render

them tumid, and tilt

and the median process of the pre-

their anterior walls forward,

producing the marked distinction

between the cranial and mandibular segments of these elements.

lines

above the highest part of the parietal tract

anterior border

its

notch and the post-orbital process.


;

at

it

slopes rapidly

downwards

to the supra-orbital

boundary follows nearly the posterior margin of the

posterior

and forwards from the mesial

side outwards

edge

its

undeiined, where the frontals coalesce with the expanded cranial portions of the nasals

is

and premaxiUary ;

bilobed

and seven

frontal protuberance culminates at a height of eleven Hues above the cranio-facial line,

The

line to a point

frontal, passing

on each

on the supra-orbital border, midway between the

broad shallow fuiTow traverses the median Kne, rendering

the posterior extremity of the groove, where the coronal fontanelle

existed, is a small

perforates directly the cranial parietes

sub-

it

foramen

and opens

leading into a canal capable of admitting a fine bristle

internally towards the apex of the cerebellar fossa,

transmitting a vein from the scalp to the posterior

cerebellar sinus
is

it

the thickness of the cranium, here, amounts to eight Knes and a half.

and two-thirds wide, and one

a transversely oblong band, three lines

line

long

defLaed posteriorly by an

ungueal fissure-Hke groove, the angles of which extend outwards, curving backwards

From

defined by grooves.
frontal protuberance,

by a

semi-circulai' groove

which sweeps inwards, convex

anteriorly,

each other beliind, a triangular, slightly elevated tract

two others pass forwards, on the


in the centre

left side, to
it

reaches half

curving outwards as

From

way up the

and

it

retrogrades,

is

the internal

is

it is

joined

it,

to

meet the posterior groove

floor of

the metban furrow, with

its

the convexity of the semi-lunar groove,

frontal slope, its angle extends to the sutvire

side.
is

undefined

the external limb rises

less abruptly bent on the body: on the

and continuous

in

left side,

a groove

front with the fissure between the prefrontal

ecto-nasal limb, indicates the outer margin of the body

furrow

on the

precise limit of the subtriangular frontal plate of the nasal,

to a higher level than the internal,

edge,

a furrow, which appears to indicate the anterior edge of the

between the antorbital process and prefrontal on each

The

tliis

"Where the semi-lunar grooves diverge from

is left

base separated from the osseous band by a slight groove.

extremities are also

over the summit of the protuberance,

diverging from

finally

at the outer and anterior angle of the band just mentioned.

frontals

its

and externally curves shghtly backwards to the aperture or notch on the supra-orbital

and, bending backwai'ds, reaches the median furrow

combined

the foramen a venous groove passes outwards, along the posterior border of the

furrow on the roof of the orbit ; about half an inch external to

plate, leading to the

Behind the foramen

and

the upper would form a segment of the frontal

denoted by an interrupted fissure-like groove, wliich may be traced upwards fi'om

the linear impression separating the premaxiUary median process, and the inner limb of the nasal, along the

upper beam of the mandible


its

it

passes inwards as

fellow behind, being separated in

its

it

ascends, but appears not to have

come

in contact with

whole extent by the termination of the premaxiUary nasal process

wliich ascends to touch the frontals mesially, its apex having been probably inserted into the fi-ontal suture.

The

lateral moieties of this extremity

as it ascends

the

cranio-facial line

left

one

is

more

on the right

are also separated by a

tumid than the right, and

side, the

invade the median mandibular stem.

median fissure-Kke groove, wliich disappears


its

anterior bullose extremity overhangs the

pneumatic diploe does not cease so abruptly, and has a tendency to

This portion of the premaxiUary measures sis hues across

its

base.

OSTEOLOGY

86
to ascend ten lines

and appears

and a half to

the termination of the nasal fissure


nasal
is

least

is

more

marked on the

The

cranium,

is

which

the ecto-nasal limb

The

Kmb,

the expanded portion being defined by a semi-lunar

series of larger size


its

much

the anterior edge being

in advance of the posterior,

a deep fissure separates the anterior or inner margin from

the base forms the upper rounded border of the lacrymal groove, and terminates

an obtuse projecting angle.

This surface

sub-crescentic supra-orbital tract

and indicate

by

side,

triangular frontal aspect of the prefi-ontal, from the compression of the anterior part of the

directed very obliquely outwards

anteriorly in

notched on each

the part of the latter, immediately behind the broad outer

anchylosed to the antorbital process

is

cranio-facial line is

II.

the distinction between the mandibular and cranial segments of the

right side

the upper and inner angle

than

ioilated

groove.

The

apex.

its

[Part

is

perforated by

is

numerous vascular

apertures.

rough, and perforated by periosteal vascular foramina

extend fi'om the notch on the antorbital process to the supra-orbital foramen or notch,

inner boundary ; hence the supra-orbital plate appears formed, as

ossification of the periosteum extending outwards to protect the eyeball.

circular venous grooves is also minutely punctate, the apertures

externa of the pneumatic diploe, on the frontal slope,

is

becoming larger

and

tliinned

The space

it

were, by a separate

in front of the semi-

The tabula

anteriorly.

inflated opposite the individual cells

and some of these have opened out ; these appearances indicate that the skull in question belonged to a
domesticated individual.

The parieto-mastoid

tract

gently arched transversely, but ascends rapidly in the antero-posterior

is

It is narrow mesially, but extends laterally so as to

diameter.

posterior angle of this tract,

its

transverse diameter

is less

posterior external angle corresponds to a slight groove

its

notch

liinder

its

occupy two-tliirds of the convex external

The rhomboidal

edge of the cranium, behind the supra-orbital notch.

broadly rounded inner and posterior angle

digastric impression occupies the

than one-fourth of the breadth of the cranium

on the mastoid process leading

separated from the supra-occipital ridge by the

is

horn of the parietal surface ; a smooth narrow tract intervenes between

temporal notch, and

is

to the mastoid

continued into the smooth external surface of

tlie

its

anterior

margin and the

mastoid process

the superior

and anterior angle touches the pyriform muscular area which surrounds the crotophyte impression in
front; the posterior border, as already mentioned,

is

separated from the occipital muscular surface by

the smooth convex edge extending from the canaUcular elevation to the mastoid notch.

The

crescentic

crotophyte impression, forms a shelving entrance internally and anteriorly to the temporal notch
left

side, a sharp ridge separates from the anterior limb of

post-orbital process, with its base


is

a subpyrifoim excavation ;

whilst

its

rounded extremity

margin, and
finger.

is

so abruptly

surface, a triangular

tliis

on the

segment impressing the

Surrounding the crotophyte impression in front and within,

external.

truncated on a level with the posterior margin of the temporal notch,

its

apex

is

separated by a narrow scabrous tract, four lines in breadth, from the orbital

is

sunk beneath the

level of the frontal protuberance, as to lodge the point of the

This impression doubtless gave origin to a cutaneous nfnscle, dermo-mastoideim, which

into the integument of the posterior surface of the neck

it

would

erect the feathers

is

inserted

on the head of the

Dodo, and push forward the hood-like cutaneous ridge.

The
into the

anterior horn of the paiietal tract sweeps

rough supra-orbital space, bounding

small vascular impressions, but

The

anterior

and

is

it

round the dermo-mastoid impression to be continued

destitute of the foramina so

lesser aspect of the

The

externally.

parietal surface is variously

abundant on the frontal

cranium presents the deep olfactory

the thin anterior prolongation of the interorbital septum, which rests below
single small olfactory foramen, on each side, opens directly, with

fossie,

marked by

slope.

separated mesially by

on the sphenoidal rostrum. The

an inclination outwards, into the base of

Ch.
'its

OP THE DODO.

I.]

respective fossa

and

other,

from the apex of the cerebral

cavity,

they diverge slightly from each

by an interval of about four Hues, corresponding

to the breadth of the interorbital

at their

are separated

87

exit

septum.
Before describing more minutely the formation of the oKactory fossae in the Dodo,
to consider

them

first

in other Pigeons, by which

the cranium of

arities in

tliis

In

extinct form.

we

all

it

be necessary

will

shall alone gain a correct conception of several peculi-

Pigeons, as in

many

other birds, the anterior extremity

of the vertical osseous plate, forming the interorbital septum, advances beyond the junction of the nasal

with the frontal bones

and

is

completely covered by the former, wliich meet in the median line posteriorly,

but are separated anteriorly by the extremity of the nasal process of the premaxillary ; hence no part of
appears mesially, beliind the premaxillary and between the nasals, as in the

each side of the expanded upper border of


zontally outwards

arcliing over the

companying

vessels, to

Umeu and other Stmthlonidm. Prom

advanced portion of the septum, a

lamina passes hori-

tliin

from before in the antero-posterior diameter,

contracting rapidly

and inwards,

tliis

it

it

bends downwards

foramen for the transmission of the olfactory and ophthalmic nerves and ac-

meet and be continued

for a gi'eater or less extent along the

mences beneath the common aperture, and increases in breadth


inferior extremity of the prefi'ontal,

it

outer border of a

outwards from the interorbital septum

vertically transverse, subtriangular plate, projecting

as

it

descends

forms the anterior wall of the

by

separating

orbit,

this last

com-

anchylosis with the

its

from the open

it

olfactory cavity in front.

For reasons which cannot be discussed


compressed body of the third and

here, I regard the interorbital

septum

or most anterior of the cranial vertebrae

last,

processes just mentioned, as ossified portions of the ethmoid or olfactory capsule


I

as the

and the

the superior

have hitherto denominated the turbinated, and the lower, the inferior ala of the ethmoid,

and

shall

the remainder of this description.

continue to use these terms in

By

the

sphenoidal rostrum, or rostrum simply, I understand the anterior prolongation of the sphenoid

which supports the

septum

interorbital

the anterior sphenoid in

it

has been incorrectly considered as homologous with

mammals, and hence has received the

special appellation of presphe-

noid in Professor Owen's late paper on the Vertebrate skeleton

septum

in bii'ds

is

the homologue of the

and

'

mammalian presphenoid.

heretofore been denominated the lachrymal


prefrontal in the cranium of fishes

whereas the interorbital

in birds,

reptiles

is

the true lachrymal bone, which

the lachrymal duct, exists in certain Saui'ians, and in the Crocodilida


the higher Vertebrata, Aves and
exceptional instances

Mammalia, while the

among mammals

garded as the true lachrymal, and


this false

is

so

The bone which has

undoubtedly the homologue of the

in birds

it

is

external to

does not occur in

prefrontal only disappears in certain

and mammals

named even by

it

has erroneously been re-

the learned Hunterian Professor;

homology masks one of the most beautiful instances of the unity of organization.

Having thus explained the meaning of the terms employed, we may retm'n
subject

to

our

The
the upper

fissure

remaining between the turbinated ala and the prefrontal, wliich

diverticulum of the suborbital sinus, in several Pigeons, is diminished


'

Reports of British Association, 1846.

in

many

birds transmit?-

by the extension upwards of

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

88
ala, to join

the ajiex of the inferior

II.

the interorbital septum, so as to form a bridge over the oKactory groove,

behind that produced by the turbinated ala

the interval

between them, transmits a branch of the

left

turbinated ala, and


ophthabnic nerve with the accompanying vessels, which groove the outer surface of the
or development
outward
expansion
The
nostrils.
to
the
distributed
escaping from between the nasal limbs are
of the

produced apex obhterates the

fissure

the anterior wall of the orbit presenting only the olfactory

outlet.

There

is

thus

a space between the turbinated ala

left

outward extension of the former


frontal receives

turbinated ala

aii-

is

directly,

it

and the

prefrontal,

closed beliind by the

is

lodges a part of the subocular pneumatic sinus, from which the pre-

by a large apertm-e on

its

The compressed

inner surface.

where the olfactory

below, narrowest in the centre,

wider above and

which

cavity internal to the


orifice

opens into

it

laclirymal duct
the apposition of the pituitary membrane with that of the pneumatic sinus beneath the
bounds it externally, and below it is continued over the groove on the inferior ala to open into the posterior

nares by the concavity of the nasal process of the palatine bone.

In Goura, the prefronto-ethmoidal


completely closed

In Trerm, jDidmicidas, and

come

and Bidmiculus, only

in Carpophaga, Ptilinopus,

In Treron, Geophaps, and Calmias,

fissure is not obliterated.

into

so cui'ved outwards or evasated, as to

margin

into contact with the apex of an inwardly inclined, subtriangular projection from the anterior

two compartments

interorbital septum,

the latter, but not in contact with

it,

downward

cranio-facial line, space is left to permit of the

The curved

shall see hereafter.

which corresponds

The

obliterated in the centre.


leave between

it

its

and the

irregular depression between its thin anterior edge

hinge having retrograded to the

mandible

so that the subocular space

and the subocular space


prefrontal, mi\\ wliich

arching over the foramen that transmits the ophthalmic branch of the
Tliis aperture is

and

is,

as it were,

the olfactory peduncle to

it

its exit at

the autorbital foramen in most other birds


is

much

by the single aperture

the deep narrow groove just mentioned

anterior orifice

rostrmn

is

oKactory outlet.

abbreviated, and

reduced to a small
coalesces inferiorly.

nerve, which grooves

its

the outer

Each

here, the tube in relation to

base widened out, serving to obhterate

The oKactory

fossa has a

for the transmission of the oKactory nerve

fossa

waU
is

the height exclusive of the groove

is

subhemi-

its floor

presents

perforated by the antorbital foramen about tlu-ee

one inch two

is

six Hues.

lines deep,

and

The extremity

five lines

wide at

its

of the high compressed


elastic parietc-s

it

pro-

anterior thickened margin of the inter-oKactory septum

is

lower portion ascends obhquely backwards, to a deep notch immediately below

its

bably terminated in a subacute apex.


its

it

fifth

removed, exposing to view the very loose diploe enclosed by thin and

concave anteriorly, and

is

forms the outer part of the floor of the

the space intervening between the antorbital and oKactory foramina.

lines anterior to the

completely

an ossification of the external wall of the periosteal tube, which conducts

the extremely short olfactory peduncle

spherical base, perforated

is

diminished by an extension forwards of an osseous plate,

from the interorbital septum outside of the foramen olfactorium


olfactory fossa,

tliis

by the expansion of the posterior border of the turbinated

ala,

the roof of the olfactory fossa.

the remainder of

transversely and extended forward, so as to

The

obliterated

project about five

alse,

completely concealed from above by

prefronto-ethmoidal fissure

is

size.

whole length, at that part of the inner surface

much compressed

and the rostrum, a deep narrow groove

di\dded

is

reduced in

widened out to lodge the olfactory apparatus,

to the lachrymal groove externally


inferior ala is

resilient

flexion of the

plate is mucli

and the convexity comes in contact with the prefrontal, in


of the latter,

The

as in other Pigeons.

much

it is

and the turbinated

beyond the junction of the cranium and mandibular apparatus

mechanism we

and thus the pneumatic space

in Treron, from the great expansion of the diploe,

In the Dodo, the prolongation of the


lines

partially so.

Calxnas, &c., the turbinated ala is

of the prefrontal, supporting the termination of the lachrymal duct

it is

The

Ch.

OP THE DODO.

I.]

end

up23er

sharp in the centre.

it is

septum

Tlie

is

89

translucent centrally, and

thinness gives increased

its

space for the lodgement of the olfactory apparatus.

The

smaU

relatively

that the brain

as

is,

it

cerebral cavity has

were, rotated on

its

axis placed

more

and

transverse axis,

its

horizontally, than in other Pigeons

so

this rotation gives rise, or is related, to the

verticahty of the occipital facet.

The apex

of the cerebral case

so depressed as to be nearly equidistant between the

is

under surfaces of the cranium, and to correspond externally to a point a


groove on the interorbital septum.

The

frontals attain a

median thickness of one inch and two or

Hnes, above the truncated apex, formed by a broad septum separating the olfactory foramina
directly into the bases of their respective fossae.

the etlunoid, but

is

upper and

behind the centre of the

little

This septum

a prolongation upwards of the thick interorbital septiun, or body of the olfactory vertebra,

to coalesce with the frontals mesiaUy,

and tlms

to divide the anterior orifice of the cerebral


far to close it

tube into two

the non-existence of any

vertebral segment anterior to the frontal, permits the olfactory capsules to converge towards the

and

by a thin septum, the prolongation

to be separated only

most exposed to the


capsules,

The length

at the optic outlets.

magnum

tlie

olfactory foramina,

The

laterally.

thick-

one inch two hues, and diminishes one

is

one inch nine Hnes and a

perhaps one inch nine hnes, and

is

median

they are thus

of the cerebral cavity, measured from the upper or lower margin

to the olfactory septum, is

foramina for the transmission of the ophthalmic branch of the


cerebral fossae

with odorous particles; the optic and auditory

iuspii-atory currents of air loaded

ness of the interorbital septum, beneath

haK

centrum

of the anterior

on the contrary, are situated between two adjacent vertebrae and project

of the foramen

open

not homologous with the crista galli of

is

foramina for the transmission of the olfactory peduncles, and so

line

tliree

wliich

lialf

one inch

iifth is

its

breadth between the

the extreme width of the

greatest height from the floor of the optic groove,

its

probably about ten hnes.

The

basilar fossa for the

lodgement of

towards the posterior cHnoid


orifices

its

its

medulla oblongata

base by the canal for the abducens nerve.

on the upper surface of the

posterior angle

of a hne

its

transverse diameter

presents, posteriorly
gastric orifice

internus,

slightly concave transversely,

and

rises

pit containing the

is

The extreme length

occipital condyle to the clinoid process, is

one inch and

equal to that of the lower segment of the foramen magnimi


it,

margin ; a narrow convex ridge separates

magnum

cerebellar fossa

is

relatively narrow,

magnum

depressed beneath the level of the cerebral fossae

it

venous groove terminating in the

foramen magnum,

is

its

tumid pneumatic projection about the


floor of the optic fossa is pierced

internal to

which

cerebeUum

lateral occipital

edges uudefijied

it is

and

one inch

its

surface

is

considerably

neither presents the lougituchnal venous groove, nor

foramen

perforated by the mesial occipital apertui-e.

very shallow internally, and

it

length from the upper margin of the

to its apex, dividing the cerebral fossa posteriorly, is

transverse furrows corresponding to the laminae of the

it

aperture from the meatus auditorius

tliis

its

the large infundibular pneumo-

which has a subacute anterior edge rmining backwards on the vestibular convexity, between

The

is

of the basilar fossa, from

overhung by the vestibular prominence, which projects into the area of the foramen

the petrosal fossa.

lateral

is

and lateraUv, the condyloid foramen ; and in front of

at the centre of its lateral

foramen

tlie

which projects with a subcouvex border over the

of the carotic canals, at the posterior part of the shallow and broad seUa turcica; this plate

traversed at

tliird

plate,

at its apex,

size of a large pea,

along
its

The

its

margin posteriorly

is

seen the

lower angle, immediately above the


fossa for the optic lobe

is

relatively

beneath the lateral venous groove, there

overhanging the petrosal excavation.

by the foramen giving passage to the ophthalmic branch of the

The

is

tliin

fifth pair-

grooved by the fourth nerve, which perforates the thin plate forming the posterior

OSTEOLOGY

90
border of the optic foramen

deepest part

at its

it

presents

[PabT

tlie

fossae indicates that the cerebral lobes

form of the cerebral

above the level of the cerebellum

the mesial ridge dividing

towards the inter-olfactory septum, which

foramen

convex in both diameters ;

is

lodging the optic chiasma.

The

slightly

The

the trochlearis nerve.

orifice for

were broad and rounded in front, and elevated

them

is

low and obtuse, and subsides anteriorly

carinate vertically

platform, formed by the interorbital

The broad

subacute.

is

optic outlets,

is

The oculo-motor aperture

foramen ovale.

opens within the posterior border of the optic foramen, beneath the

II.

its posterior, tliick

surface of the cerebral fossa

the outer edge of the olfactory

septum between the oHactory and

and rounded border projects over the groove


is

smooth, and presents no trace of division

into compartments.

The

much compressed and elongated upper

strong,

may be regarded

of the cranium,

downwards and forwards

direction

its

mandible, corresponding to the two anterior tliirds

forming a three-sided pyramid; whose base

thin upper margin of the base forms the hinge for the

anterior

and

beveUed

is

otl'

in a

the feebly uncinated apex projects beneath the level of the narrow

and a plane replaces posteriorly the edge to

palatine facet;

The

as

wliicli

the broad lateral surfaces iuchne above.

movements of the mandibular apparatus

fi-om

backwards the palatine bones to meet on the sphenoidal rostrum, while

inferior angles pass

the slender pterygoids form a counter arch, springing from the inner angle of the inferior articular surface

on

of the tympanic

either side

its

crown abuts against that of the

The strong sigmoid zygoma

palatine.

ascends from the external and inferior angle of the tympanic, to the centre of the outer edge of the base.

The length

of the upper mandible, measured from the cranio-facial Une,

same hue obhquely to the apex,


lines

and

The

inches nine hues and a half;

five

height, opposite the inferior angle,

its

liigh,

is

one inch

compressed core occupies the apical

tliird

its

five lines

it is

and a

the basal two-tliirds,

elements are

whoUy

divides the

obliterated

length,

hmb, whose

of the mandible, a faint

The

lateral stems.

shp extending along the palatine

is

wedged

posteriorly between

it

sutures between their

premaxUlary bifurcates
sui-face,

while the upper

and the expanded foot of

boundary would probably be indicated by a hue about an inch in

inferior

drawn from the midar process

this line it

beam

fi'om analog}', the lateral process of the

sinks into the outer aspect of the maxilla, and

one inch seven

the narrow lanceolate nasal fissure, perforating

upper from the compressed

judging

at a short distance beliind the core, the uiferior

the ecto-nasal

is

half.

formed by the premaxillary, whose strong

mesial process, with the ento-nasal plate on each side, constitutes the upper
linear impression indicating their respective boundaries

inches eight hues, from the

is five

greatest breadth

to the lower border of the nasiil fissui-e

along the posterior half of

meets the maxilla, wliich then passes internally to near the core, and forms the upper and lower,

thick and rounded borders of the lateral beam, except for a short space anteriorly.

The

towards the core

and

stem thus constituted has an elongated subtriangular form, with the truncated apex

lateral
;

the upper subconcave

equal length.

which the mandible


This

breadth

is

three inches nine hues long

the base of two inches

beam on each
is flatly

peculiai-ity in

side,

and extenduig from

the skuU of the Dodo,

only seven lines, and

the same place

of

is

tluee lines

its

prominent external basal edge, beliind

compressed, forwards to the core.

anterior half; the mandible being


is

is

Viewed from above, the mandible presents a broad shallow excavation, impressing the outer

surface of the lateral

in their

margm

Unes, ascends obhquely backwards, forming an angle of 125 with the palatine edge, which

tlu-ee

its

is

due to the close approximation of the

most constricted about an inch behind the

height one inch and

and one-third, and from

tlu-ee

Hues.

this point they

The

lateral

core,

where

least breadth of each

become rather broader

stems

stem

its

at

as they proceed

forwards, their lateral sm-faces curving outwards to pass into those of the core; posteriorly they diverge

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

91

and receive the broad termination of the mesial beam between


tliickness also rapidly increases
di min ishes

that of the base

the upper angle

On

stem.

tracing the groove downwards,

upwards and forwards, and

The

boundary

anterior

which the

behind, the posterior part appears shelving outwards

wliile

it

seen to be continuous with a distinct broad impression,

is

from a narrow

fossa, separated posteriorly

its

distinct, it is

is less

formed by an obHque

The chord

tract of the general excavation

below

chstinct

its

concavity looks

most constricted part of the mandible.

anterior angle corresponds to the

stem increases in breadth.

lateral

Their

front, the base of the core conceals the

which curves downwards and forwards, becoming more

faint ridge,

upper angles.

seen to curve obhquely backwards and inwards, grooving the upper border of the

is also

occupying the deepest part of the

by a

Viewed in

towards the angles, especially the superior.

anterior portion of the floor of these fossae,

their elongated

eight Hnes at the origin of the zygomatic process, but

is

line

descending forwards, in front of

of these fossse, corresponding to a line

the root of the zygoma to the greatest convexity of the core,

two inches and a

is

half,

and

drawn from

their greatest

depth four lines and a haK.

The

lateral

slightly diverge,

stems in front are nearly parallel and separated only by a narrow cliink

and the upper angles

The base bounds

also are, as

it

in front the u-regularly triangular lachrymal fissure

the external border

is

125 with the base

the lower half of the inner border

five

Unes in depth,

air

caiicelli of

The

extends outwards.
of the antral plate

it

is

immediately below the centre of

prolonged mto a narrow, semi-lnnar, antral plate,

inner surface slopes obhquely outwards and

its

its

upper portion,

from the subocular

opens into the

they

the origin of the zygoma, which passes backwards and downwards at an angle of

concave, a groove occupying

conveying

at their base

were, t\\isted outward.

sinus,

is

at the superior angle of

and below

vertically

which

several smaller ones

it,

is

convex ;

an elongated lacerated

the expanded base beneath the root of the zygoma, along which

laclu-ymal groove notches the base above the root of the

is

its

fissure

upper angle

zygoma and upper angle

The pneumatic

corresponds to that on the prefi-ontal behind.

the outer

a large pneumatic aperture

chploe terminates

abruptly five lines and a half above this notch, fitting into the anterior extremity of the groove between
the prefrontal and turbinated

wlule the projecting inner angle of the prefrontal

ala,

depression on the outer sui'face of the protuberance.


limb,

is

a thin elastic plate, five lines

and a thick rough


the centre of

its

internal,

course

it

margin

lodged in a slight

is

The prolonged upper angle formed by the

ecto-nasal

and a half long and about four Hnes broad, with a sharp
it

external,

ascends to a liigher level than the mesial beam, decussating

expands shghtly outwards above, and

is

it

in

separated by a narrow cliink fi-om the

ento-nasal plate.

The

mesial

beam

area is subcircular

is

formed anteriorly by the nasal process of the premaxillary ;

the rentrant angle between

it

and the

at its origin its basal

process on each side corresponds to an

lateral

oblique fissure, leading forwards and outwards to the orifice of the horizontal vascular canal perforating the
core

it

tapers gradually backwards for the space of an inch,

and then continues of nearly the same transverse

diameter to the cranio-facial Hne, but diminishes rapidly in thickness


plates

which pass beneath

it

and meet each other in the mesial Hne

behind,

inferiorly;

it is

supported by the ento-nasal

an elongated narrow triangular

portion appears externally on either side of the nasal process, and causes the mesial
in breadth in its posterior half.

towards

its centre,

where

the fronto-facial Hne

The upper
side

from a

surface

is

is flat

it is

of the mesial

beam

is

and

its

beam

three inches nine Hnes

formed by the premaxillary nasal process

one inch

is five lines

and a

to increase rapidly
;

its least

half, its

breadth

breadth at

transverse diameter, before expanding into the core, nine Hnes.

behind with thick rounded borders

faint mesial ridge,

nasal process

The length

and the edge, descending

in front

it

decHnes gently outwards on each

as it advances, disappears

from the expansion of the

the profile Hne has the same level for an inch posteriorly, and descends very gradually to the

2b

[ParT

OSTEOLOGY

92
and then

constricted part of the mandible,

same

to the

passing into the convex

level,

suture between the premaxillary and ento-nasal plate corresponds to a faint

The

border of the core.

more rapidly

rises

groove which passes forwards, and towards the centre of the stem attains

its

edge, thus defining the

and two Hnes and

elongated triangular external segment of the ento-nasal plate, one inch eight lines long,
a half broad at

base

its

behind,

it is

continued upwards on the frontal

surface of this process, diverging from

its

edge

it

in front,

advances on the under

it

then bends more suddenly inwards for a short space, and

about an inch from the distal extremity of the nasal process, retrogrades and speedily meets

The

septum

as the free edge of the inter-olfactory

beam
Hmbs,

is

fellow in the

the ento-nasal plates continue to meet as far backwards

but where the mesial beam covers that septum and the
This portion of the mesial

they diverge to pass into the respective bodies of the nasals.

alse,

hence thinner and more

is

its

thin lancet-shaped extremities of the ento-nasal plates are thus defined, their apices being

separated by the interposition of the nasal process

turbinated

margin of

slope, separating the inner

the nasal from the terminal extremity of the premaxillary nasal process

median hne.

II.

flexible,

and

its

upper

surface, together with that of the adjacent ecto-nasal

excavated or thinned away in a semilunar tract, convex forwards, so as to give increased flexibility

to the mandibular liinge

the greatest antero-posterior diameter of

tliis

tract is about eight lines,

and

is

it

minutely striated longitudinally.

The depressed

posterior moiety of the nasal process

are concave laterally

and meet below in a crest subsiding behind; so that the mesial beam

and

central moiety,

inferiorly in its

its

primitive division of the nasal process


posteriorly

on the

thus supported by the ento-nasal plates, which

is

is

is

carinate

The

section triangular; a groove furrows the keel posteriorly.


also indicated

by

more perceptible

a very faint mesial groove,

frontal slope, anteriorly it traverses the floor of the depression

on the

flattened posterior

portion of the convex border of the core.


short gnathotheca,

The wedge-shaped core supporting the


four hnes high in the centre

its

gradually, are gently convex,

greatest breadth

and

inferiorly

is

is

two inches long and about one inch

one inch one Une.

The

foramina occur on the right side, haK an inch above the inferior border

forms the termination of the vascular canal, whose entrance

and maxUlary processes


of that range

lateral surfaces

towards the lower edge shghtly impressed

is

the anterior

converge very

a series of seven

is

the largest, and

seen at the rentrant angle, between the nasal

short divergent offsets from it open outwards, giving rise to the other foramina

another set of four in number runs parallel to the upper border, the posterior

is

the largest,

the anterior are narrow and slit-hke, they are also the emergent orifices of vascular canals ascending from
the primary one.

Smaller foramina occur over the intervening space, which

the impressions of venous radicles.

The upper border

is

but sharper in front and prolonged into the feebly decurved apex, which

The
involute

palatine surface
it is

also minutely

is

rounded

off

and not acuminated.

numerous

large

vascular apertures, and traversed

by a mesial ridge

palatine fissure grooves it posteriorly, widening out immediately before its termination to
palatine nerves

and

apex, beliind which


into the

has

its

vessels.
it is

The gently festooned

concave inferiorly;

it

apex

at the

most constricted part of the mandible

of the mandible

and the

lateral

texture, of the domesticated concUtion in

lateral

beam from

by

cellulo-fibrous tissue

the

and, lastly, rises

the palatine tuberosity, which

this line ascends towards the root of the

zygoma.

stem anteriorly present indications, in the opened-out osseous

which the individual hved.

The

nasal fissures are nearly obhterated by the increasing breadth of the mesial

closed

transmit the

alveolar edge is prolonged forwards into that of the

then descends towards the base of the core

Une which separates the external surface of the

The base

grooved by

concave, and bounded laterally by sharp alveolar edges, which are slightly

is

perforated by

is

gently convex, flattened and grooved behind

posterior angles of the external

beam

as

it

retrogrades,

the nostrils opening in front at the grooves formerly described.

and are

of the dodo.

Ch. L]
The strong sigmoidal zygoma
period

formed by

is

malar and zygomat'ic

tlie

the distinction between the malar and maxillary bones

backwards, as already mentioned,

is

beliind,

obhterated sooner

after a course of

the junction of the ecto-nasal limb with the maxilla,

wards to the prefrontal

winch coalesce

styles,

it

an early

at

descends obUquely

an angle of 125, with the posterior or basal edge of the maxilla, and

and outer angle of the tjinpanic,

attains the lower


its origin, at

at

93

two inches seven Hnes and a

directed backwards and sHghtly out-

it is

strongly arched externally, beneath the orbit

it is

in the

downward

flexion

of the upper mandible, the liinder extremity of the anterior segment touches the prefi'ontal, which

tened and granular at the point of contact

The

breadth.

anterior portion

is

in the relaxed condition,

triangularly prismatic

it is

furrowed

is

the lower

presents the prolongation of the upper angle of the maxillary pneumatic foramen into a deep groove

upper

bevelled off inwards to the lower

is

segment

is

duced, as

compressed
it

were,

by the

wards and outwards in

and rounded
front,

where

it

at

each extremity

flattened vertically opposite the prefrontal


rises

it

upwards and inwards, and

the

posterior

and directed down-

the outer

the inner edge

smooth

is

behind than in

is tliicker

into the upper edge of the prismatic portion

The

furrowed lengthwise at each end.

faintly

is

the upper smooth surface pro-

anterior moiety, but grooved longitudinally behind

and

overhangs the inferior groove,

inferior surface slopes

The long

these surfaces are rough and striated.

all

flattening of the upper edge of the anterior portion, is convex,

its

posteriorly,

and shghtly contracted

vertically,

flat-

is

separated by a chink, one Hne in

the outer vertical surface

Prom

half.

the

posterior

extremity presents a convex articular facet, directed inwards, and adapted to the pit on the lower and outer

neck

a groove surrounds its

hgament

for the attachment of the capsular

the outer

angle of the tympanic

edge anterior to

covered by articular cartilage, on which the external mancUbular ligament glides.

greatest breadth

The
fi'om

it, is

is

two hnes, and the depth one and a

vertically

spoon-shaped palatine bones, separated by a narrow cliink anteriorly, arch outwards

riorly to the maxillary, five

flattened into

Hnes in front of

{crest),

angle

its

an oblong plate moulded

lamella {nasal jjrocess) rises from

they enclose between them

membraneous septum,

formed of a scimitar-shaped sub-horizontal lamina

is

The

half.

each other beliind, and finally approximate on the rostrum

nasal fissure, divided in the recent state by the

back

to

the' inferior

Each

into the choanm.

palatine

is

with the cutting edge external, attached ante-

posteriorly towards the rapidly incurving point, the

the rostrum, on which

ghdes

it

a triangular curved

inner concave edge into the laclu'3Tnal vacuity, while a similar plate

its

{palatine process) descends to bound the inferior nasal aperture.


crest is thin, flexible,

and horizontal

maxiQa ;

beliind, it diminishes

from without

to shelve

downwards

The

it

concave in front and convex behind

The
the nasal

and

lastly

it

is

adapted to the tuberosity of the

is

and twisted on

it is

its

bent rapidly inwards, to be attached by

either side of a convex projection

its

this border gives

upwards

The

palatine process

is

and

is

is

attached to the

posterior edge, in an oblique


its

is

upper border, in

shghtly emarginate

attachment to the fibrous membrane of the sub-

ocular sinus, which stretches fi-om the antrum to the inferior ala of the etlimoid
in front of the olfactory fossa,

thus

concave towards

lower border, which

Kne directed downwards and backwards, to the anterior edge of the sphenoidal plate
its anterior moiety, is separated by a narrow fissure from the antrum ; behind it
on

is

uniformly concave.

and inclining shghtly outwards below towards

inner margin of the crest

axis so as

the outer edge of the free portion

nasal process forms an elongated triangular curved plate, with the apex in front
ca\'ity,

its

sweeps inwards, contracting, to be attached to the

sphenoidal plate

the inner

where

slightly in breadth, is tliickened

also curves outwards,

anterior moiety of the lower edge of the

anteriorly,

its

concavity opens

prolonged downwards by the palatine plate.

a low, triangular, and shghtly cuiwed lamina

its

anterior margin

is

convex.

subsiding' in front towards the maxillary,

shorter, subconcave,

and terrdnates

rounded

it is

vertically

is,

prolonged into the

anteriorly,

between the

slit

of the soft parts, the anterior angle of the posterior nares

The narrow,

mandibular beams

lateral

was two inches two

lines

fi'om the convexity of the

obhque hne, directed forwards and inwards

concave

is

elliptical, posterior
;

in the dried state

and a half anterior to

the anterior part of the crest, gives attachment to the tendon of that muscle

from the fossa

between the nasal process and

margin

internal pterygoid; the depressed tract on

fibres of the

which gives attachment to the fleshy

process,

crest to its inner

between the crest and the palatine

defines the fossa

anterior to the subsidence of the palatine process,

its

fleshy fibres also arise

concave vertically and convex horizontally

crest, wliich is

prolonged posteriorly into a deep rough depression on the outer surface of the sphenoidal plate, at the

bottom of wliich
length of

its free

is

The

the pneumatic aperture.

portion

Tor pterygoid

is

\iom.,

two inches and a

bone

palatine

is

almost destitute of pneumaticity

one inch two Hues and a half long,

The outer edge

both extremities.

flattened inwards, so as to encroach

on the upper

aspect,

The

passing into the base of the imier extremity.

in

outwards, extending to the apex of the inner facet

On

the inferior surface

shghtly convex, and

is

bone ; the compressed, oval posterior extremity

culation with the tympanic.

The pterygoid

The

hmb

internal

the posterior condyle, around

above
its

is

left

anterior to

it is

its

tract

an angular

side,

which

thus grooved in

The inner extremity

is

most

anterior edge

its

flattened

two anterior

is

is

shaped

its

the anterior

is

larger

and covered by a

inner angle extends into a curved linear strip connecting

distinct anteriorly

and externally in both.

and impressed by

externally, the figure

a deep pit for the extremity of the

upper and inner limb,

is

formed by a

tliin,

and shghtly deflected outwards above


muscle, except for a

is

more

is

cruciform

zygoma.

is

defined, less curved,

its

pterygoid convexity, at the apex of which

inferior angle is
is

slight

ridge,

and exhibits a

orbital process, corresponding to the

the apex

is

broadly truncated, inflated

convex and pitted

narrow tract beneath the apex, extending backwards along

runs outwards to the anterior condyle;

concave edge, indicates

the lower and outer angle projecting,

The

curved, triangular plate

the outer surface

trian-

them

deep circular concavity, with

at the centre of the outer

The inner margin

membrana tympani.
Viewed

arti-

bent backwards, and supports an oblong articular tubercle, forming

is

leading fr'om the external condyle to an inflected notch

semi-obovate outhne.

triangular

the lower segment being most extended trans-

a reticulate floor pierced by numerous pneumatic apertures, separates them posteriorly.

the attaclmient of the

is

united by ligament to the

impressed by a narrow deep concavity for

is

base are several foramina

gular synovial surface, the apex beliind

the ligamentous groove

is

and expanded

itself

destitute of pneumaticity.

is

The tympanic bone, viewed from behind,

aspect

convex

the upper aspect, a bidentate crest extends from the outer extremity obUquely inwards, and

the surface ghding on the sphenoid

versely.

the

becomes thinner, being

it

iimer edge presents, on the

subsides towards the centre, bounding internally a lanceolate space.

palatine

front

clavicle,

which thus exhibits an elongated triangular

proiection in the centre, the rudiment of the sphenoidal articidar surface

tliirds.

human

curved hke the

is

thick and rounded behind

is

half.

and concave behind, and formed by a thin narrow band, twisted on

externally in front,
at

is

point where the palatines meet on the rostram.

An

it is

the posterior

inner surface

its

II.

a groove, corresponding to the crest externally,

of the nasal process.

indicates the junction of its concavity \\ath that

nasal fissure

obtuse apex behind

off into the

at the anterior part of the sphenoidal plate

in the antero-posterior diameter, but subconvex

tl\e

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

94

for the external pterygoid


its

upper margin, wliich

bent inwards and expanded into a narrow

a pneumatic foramen.

smooth, polished, and convex across the projecting angle.

The

inferior moiety of the external

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The inner

surface presents a tripartite fossa,

towards the extremity of


subtranslucent

deepest inferiorly, rough tlu-oughout; and obliterated

by the expansion of the diploe of the

anterior angle

A triangular flattened

gives insertion to the levator muscle.

it

its

95

Hmb from

between the condyles, separates the upper

orbital process,

which

is

surface, its base extending

a shght concavity, which impresses the external

surface above, and indents the orbital process.

The mandibular extremity


In

constricted in the centre.

projecting crest

backwards on

compressed in the antero-posterior diameter; widest externally, and

is

its

internal half,

the outer segment

its axis.

forms a narrow transversely extended and downwardly

it

broad groove directed obliquely forwards renders

and hollows out the inner tubercle

and expands over the


and over

one, wliich presents a large reticulated pneumatic foramen,

inch
it

is

it is

tlu'ee lines

the width of the upper extremity

is

is

is five lines,

that of the latter, five lines

The rami
interval of

and a

its

rounded edge of the inner

anterior surface, at the external

two

one inch and three

is

greatest height

The upper edge

lines

Each ramus

at a short, acute symphysis,

is fitted

to

is

its

of the

is at

four

is

the centre, and amounts to one inch

it

it

by an

which ascends

thin and curved, the convexity mounting,

is

maxiUa and the zygoma.

diminishes slightly towards each extremity.

sigmoidal, convex behind, but concave in front

is

the symphysis, which

convexity

apex,

its

and a half; the length of the former

lines

between their angles, but unite

of the core ascending very gradually as

its

from

The width

lines.

of the loiverjaw, six inches in length, measured along the lower border, are separated

two inches seven

one

least

half.

an angle of about 45 with the lower margin.

of

and the

orbital process is seven lines long

external to the palatine wedge, into the angle between the inferior margin of the

The

half,

eight Hues and a half, and that of the lower one inch

The

of the inner

tliick

one inch four lines and a

is

three Hues and a half wide, to the zygomatic angle,

outer mandibular condyle

at

greatest diagonal

three lines broad where most constricted.

wliich

lines

The

narrowest.

inner moiety subconcave,

its

Articular cartUage covers the backwardly sloping inferior

externally.

surface of the outer condyle, dips into the groove,

angle of which

and twisted from before

flattened vertically into a quadrate plate,

is

the profile line of the sharp upper edge

advances, and then curving rapidly downwards to the mesial line

broadly emarginate anteriorly, concave above and subangularly rounded below

is

adapted to the concavity of the edge of the upper core, wlule the decurved apex of the latter

emargination.

posterior moiety,

The lower concave edge

by the projection downwards

exclusive of the core,

is

is

rendered sKghtly convex towards the centre of the

and angular elements.

of the dentary

subequal in length to the posterior segment of the ramus

coalescence of the surangular, angular, and articular elements

The dentary

wliich

piece,

formed by the

is

the opercular remains distinct, perhaps, to

a late period of hfe.

The dentary
free

portion,

bifurcates posteriorly

the upper limb

is

slit vertically,

to receive the surangular,

suture between

it

and the short deeper outer lamina,

is

passes forwards, between

it

and the opercular, as

whose

tliick

lower border, thinning anteriorly,

far as the centre of the inferior

irregularly lanceolate opercular, partly covers the angular and dentary pieces,

pressed space {dental canal) containing nerves and vessels

its

with the inner and upper dentary lamina


its

inferior

greatest depth six lines.

anteriorly

it

and

rises to

close the

The
com-

its

superior border comes in contact

terminates one inch behind the lower angle of

edge diverging from that of the dentary

The opercular begins

edge of the ramus.

posterior extremity extends along the inner

surface of the angular, beneath the intiated portion of the articular

the symphysis,

the

The lower hmb extends

seen along the upper edge.

backwards, contracting, along the outer surface of the angular

its

whose

unoverlapped by the long narrow inner dentary plate, advances halfway to the core

its

length

is

about three inches, and

to coalesce with the dentary, along the anterior part

2 c

of

lower edge.

its

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

96

dental space

symphysis, and passes into a deep groove, which, advancing towards the core,

by the perforated and undermined,


outer wall

posterior crenate edge of the latter, as

a rough depressed triangular tract

which

to the tliick posterior sub-vertical border of the symphysis,

emerging close to

canal,

ascends obliquely backwards

dental canal terminates, internally, above the anterior extremity of the opercular

subdivided by a small process of the latter


it,

it

concealed anteriorly

is

its

pierced by two foramina, opening behind into a furrow, which disappears halfway to the dentary

is

The

notch.

from the

large vascular canal perforates the dentary very obliquely, running forward

opens externally nearer the upper than the lower border, about nine lines behind the

it

II.

lower edge, and midway between

its

mentioned, joins this canal at

centre

its

its

is

the

orifice is

continued forwards from

is

perforated horizontally by a vascular

angles

mentary groove, already

the

open upwards from

externally, a series of five large apertures

it

three or four downwards, and one on the rough concave symphysial surface.

The

fissure

cular within

between the angular and articular pieces,

is

concealed by the dentary without, and the oper-

that between the tliin lamina of the surangular and the

converted by the dentary fork into an elongated

element,

is

and one

line

and a half deep,

The posterior segment

its

elliptical

tumid rostrum of the

articular

foramen, six lines and a half long,

anterior angle corresponding to the posterior orifice of the dental space.

of the ramus increases in breadth as

moiety, so as to present a large pyramidal internal angle

it

retrogrades, and chiefly inwards in its hinder

produced backwards into a

wliile the external is

compressed semi-lunar plate, with a thick and rough projecting edge, passing below into the smooth crest

running upwards and inwards, between the basal


slopes obliquely forwards

The

and the anterior aspect of the inner angle, which

facet,

and outwards and passes into the inner surface of the ramus.

basal or digastric facet is triangular, with the

rough obtuse apex internal

the subconcave pitted

surface passes externally into the inner convex aspect of the angular plate.

The complex
concave, reniform

articular surface is transversely

tract,

tympanic mandibular surface


the concavity

is

this

edge

is

posterior rises

internally into a

narrow, rounded without, but internally,

short

articular surface,

coronoid

without,

it

presents a longitudinal, slightly

which plays on the outer flattened segment of the

and forwards, becoming wider and shallower,

cartilage lines the inner half of its floor

The low

deeply excavated for the reception of the ridge-like inner condyle;

witliin, it is

directed inwards

descending, while the

oblong;

with an external convex border

and

process

is

its

it

separated

anterior depressed edge


it

concave transversely

presents the large oval pneumatic apertui-e. Synovial

anterior surface, detacliiug a tract to

an

by

interval

and corresponds to the junction of the four anterior

edge of the surangular, anterior to

its

rough projection, rendering

of

Une the reniform concavity.

six lines

fifths

and

half from the

with the posterior

the upper

smooth and rounded.

it, is

An elongated tubercle extends downwards and forwards from the centre of the outer projecting border of the
external segment of the articular surface,

and

the extremity of the lower dentary limb.


diagonally, into
pitted

M.

it

its

anterior angle

The outer

is

prolonged into a ridge, passing forwards to

surface of the posterior segment

two subequal surfaces; the posterior of which

is

triangular,

is

thus divided

most concave, and deeply

gives attachment to the muscles of the tongue, while the anterior furnishes insertion to the

temporalis.

The
internus

is

pitted

surface

on the inner aspect of the jaw,

defined anteriorly

by an oblique

irregular ridge,

for the

commencing

attachment of the
at the

M.

pterygoideus

upper edge a Uttle anterior to

the articular surface, and descending obliquely forwards to a groove, directed obliquely inwards and forwards,
across the lower edge of the angular, from the extremity of the dentary to that of the opercular

it

extends

backwards on the anterior aspect of the inner angle.

The deeply concave

pitted tract

for the insertion of the external pterygoid, is anterior

and superior

Ch.L]
to

of the dodo.

former

tlie

vacuity

extends forwards, contracting to a groove, which leads to the posterior angle of the ramal

it

behind,

extends upwards to the coronoid edge.

it

Having thus given a


contrast

it

detailed account of the skull of the

generally with that of other Pigeons;

necessity of lengthened descriptions,

of some of the

am

Dodo

Dodo,

it

and

for this purpose,

now remains

to supersede the

skull in that family, with a reduction

for comparison.

indebted to that eminent ornithologist. Sir

the bones remaining in the only specimen of the

W.

Jardine, for permission to examine

Dkhncuhis

Em-ope

in

and thus

enabled to confo-m the opinion expressed by Mr. Gould, regarding the columbine
that singular form,

to.

has been thought desirable to give in Plate X., figures

it

more remarkable and varied forms of the

of the head of the


I

97

by the most

am

affinities

of

certain of all tests, to wit, an examination of its osteological

characters.

The most important and apparent

between the skull in the Dodo and that in the lesser

difference

forms, depends on the small relative size of the brain and visual organs in the former, and the consequent

abbreviation of the cranium and elongation of the basal part of the mandible.

The happy

of Pigeons in the skull of this extinct bird.

learned zoologist to a high place


ca\aty

is

among

num)

transversely,

In Treron, the extreme length of the

while in the Dodo,

plate

is

less vertical

and inclined obliquely backwards.

The

the basilar protuberances for the insertion of the

M.

mesial supra-occipital aperture exists in

an early period,

bone from the foramen magnum.

it is

all

cranial

only one inch nine lines,

The

outlet (foramen

mag-

in Treron. (Plate X., Fig. 2 a, 3 a.)

In the smaller Pigeons, the supra-occipital

more arched

of that cavity in the diminutive Treron.

Dodo than

also relatively less in the

is

though

appreciation of these by Reinhardt, entitles that

Palfeontologists.

nine lines, and in Goura, one inch two lines

more than double the length

little

Tliis difference,

might cause many, even, acute anatomists to overlook the family resemblances to that

readily explicable,

and

at

and flattened than

occipital condyle

recti capitis laterales majores


it is

very large

in the

less

Dodo, being

prominent, and

is less

apparent.

The

and not separated by

Reference to the plates will indicate other minor differences,

wliicli

may

vary in the species of the same genus.

The

superior facet in the smaller Pigeons

of the frontal diploe less abrupt

downwards on the

longer and narrower than in the Dodo, and the expansion

is

the mastoidal angles, bearing the muscular impressions, are also bent

lateral aspects

while in the Dodo, they are thrown upwards by the great development

of pneumaticity in the upper part of the lateral walls of the cranial cavity.

The supra-orbitd border

is

broadly concave and the interorbital region narrowed in ordinary Pigeons, and especially in GeopJiaps.

The

profile is

best seen in the respective figures

the dotted Hne in the

outHne before the development of the frontal protuberance.


in the

Dodo

indicates the probable

In Treron and Goura, there

is

foramen as

Dodo, perforating the cranium in the position of the coronal fontanelle ; numerous venous grooves

converge towards

The form and

it.

relative proportion of the different

muscular areas vary in

tlie different

genera; they are most deeply impressed in Treron.

In Goura there
cerebral cavity,

The

and

is

a tendency to the

it is

development of the frontal protuberance opposite the apex of the

distinctly bilobed, the mesial line being traversed

anterior portion of the coalesced frontals

extent of the interorbital septum


are in

contact with,

is

by a deep longitudinal furrow.

elongated, as in other Pigeons, in relation to the great

the nasals touch each other in the median line, and their inner limbs

and ultimately soldered

to,

the tui'binated

alse.

The hinge formed by the upper

OSTEOLOGY

98
mandibular beam which here

is chiefly

[ParT

constituted by the ento-nasal limbs, exists at the anterior edge of

In the Dodo, ou the contrary,

these plates, and in fi'ont of the posterior extremity of the nasal fissure.
this hinge is

in the same transverse

by a space pennitting the downward

it

which projects

alee,

free

mandible

flexion of the

beinc increased by the thinning away of the part which conceals the

The

as it were,

is,

under the mesial beam, separated

beam

the flexibility of the upper

free portion of the tnrbinated alse.

extremity of the mesial process of the premaxillary

bifid posterior

and the mesial beam

line as the hinder angle of the fissure,

formed by the turbinated

started off the flat arch,

from

II.

is

much

smaller than in the Dodo,

it

passes beneath the coalesced nasals, resting on the upper edge of the inter-olfactory septum, and reaching

about half-way to the frontal border of the nasal


mesial beam

the principal part of the


mesially

Goura, and the frontal aspect

Goura
nasals

it

Dodo,

and

anterior portion of

In Treron, the diploe of the


in

this extremity is

much

is

the coalesced frontals,

extremity of the premaxillary process

elastic

The

inter-olfactory septum.

frontal aspect

and raised in the

superciliary margin,

In Bidunculus, the forehead

beam

mesial mandibular
coalesced nasals

In

is,

is

the increased pneumaticity invades the

wedged

is

between

overhung by the tumid convex segment of the expanded and


is

broader. {lb. Fig. 1

the arrangement of the mandibular hinge

Gonra, Geoj^Jia^s, and other slender-billed Pigeons, the ento-nasal

beam

lanas, the mesial

premaxillary

broader at the hinge, owing

and the posterior angles of the nasal

cliiefly to

Umbs

is

b).

essentially as in

is

Goiira

in

are very narrow posteriorly, hence


ala;.

In Ca-

the greater width of the nasal process of the

reduced to narrow chinks, as in the Dodo ; in

fissures are

Treron and Bidunculus, these angles are also obhterated ; but in


the premaxillary

the

longitudinally than in Treron, but the broad extremity of the

the hinder angles of the nasal fissures are ^videned out, and expose to view the turbinated
is

and

expansion

depressed for a crescentic space, on each side, internal to the

is

flatter

in like manner,

all the lesser Pigeons,

The

cranio-facial line.

tliis

centre. [lb. Fig. 3 b.)

the central elevation of the frontal region

d).

more expanded than

convex transversely, and in the antero-posterior diameter; while in

concave transversely, and depressed longitudinally

is

is

and overflows the extremity of the mesial beam, forming a tumid and abrupt

compact

broader, and forms

reaches further back, separating the nasals

it

apex corresponding to the anterior extremity of the coronal suture. (See Plate X., Fig. 4

its

in the

hinge

at the

the extremity of the nasal process of

all,

concealed mesially by the juncti5n of the nasals, and does not ascend on the frontal

region to separate the nasal bones from each other, as in the Dodo.

The

cranium in the

lateral aspect of the

relative size of the orbit,

poral fossa

and in the great

lesser

Pigeons

differs

from that in the Dodo, in the large

ratio wliich it bears to the temporal

the latter being diminished by the bending

septum intervenes between the cerebral and olfactory

down

fossre

of the mastoid element.


its

complete in Treron, in most other Pigeons

boundary of the optic outlets

it

is

tliinner,

olfactory foramen.

process of the mastoid

interorbital

the septum

is

and

is tliick

and perforate in front of the common anterior

the floor of the cerebral cavity also

In Geophaps, the post-orbital process

The

junction with the coalesced frontals

olfactory groove, wliich terminates in the antorbital foramen

traversed by the

segment of the orbito-tem-

is

is

frequently

membranous behind the

elongated, and nearly meets the post-temporal

in Bidunculus, the strong post-temporal plate is extended forwards

and joins a

slender bar from the post-orbital process, which completes externally the circular temporal outlet.
Interiorly, th(!

Dodo

rostrum of the sphenoid in the lesser Pigeons

is

the pterygoid articular surfaces do not exist in the Bidunculus

reduced in

size

more elongated than

in the

even in Goura, they are

much

necessarily
;

in Geophaps and Goura, the groove on the rostrum leading from the

Eustachian tubes

is

common

well marked, and the lateral venous depressions are also perceptible in

existence of these markings depending on the pneumatic expansion of the rostrum.


prefrontals are

much

inflated in Treron

and Geophaps.

outlet of the

Goura

the

The sphenoid and

op the dodo.

Ch.L]
The

ratio in length of the

by reference

to Plate

genera, the beak


is

it is

but attains

maximum

and in B'ulunculus, only half

species, the core is small, feebly

and depressed in Geophaps; in

relatively large, broad,

its

much

of development in B'ulunculus, where

and by the

and

soft

shortened in Bidunculus, but

its

Treroii it is stronger

extended in certaiu Trerons, but arrives at

covered by a vestige of the cere, which

it is

The

Dodo.

greatest extension in the

its

is

also

is

much

peculiar characters

maxiUa almost disappears, but the very strong basal segment ascends obhquely
and

to join the broad ecto-nasal limb,

fi'om their junction the

palatine tuberosity or plane in other Pigeons,

as

it

zygoma descends

to gain the tympanic.

The

in Bidunculus, replaced by the greatly developed funicular

is,

tendon of the internal pterygoid muscle, wliich


;

negatived by the

is

and the obhquity of the zygoma in Pigeons, have already been described ; in Bidunculus, the

horizontal portion of the

of the core

sharply

The mesial beam

foliated texture of the gnathotheca.

it
oti'

and wedge-shaped

much compressed and more

is

it

Dodo,

length, while in the

its

great breadth gives the necessary strength to the resihent hinge,

required for the movements of this powerful beak

of the maxilla

seen

hooked, and broadly rounded

uncinate than in the Dodo, assuming a pseudo-raptorial character, which, however,


feeble osseous apex,

is

in the ordinary Pigeon they are subequal, but in the stronger-billed fruit-eating

In the slender-billed

twice as long.

apically

X.

upper mandible to the cranium, in various forms of Columlldm,

shorter than the cramuni,

is

99

arises

from a strong tubercle

passes backwards external to the palatine bone,

at the base of the

under surface

covered within by the membrane

it is

of the subocular sinus, and below by that of the palate, forming a sm-face on which the convexity of the

lower jaw gUdes.

The

short lunate nasal

fissui'e

in Bidunculus, forms a striking contrast to its elongation

ia other Pigeons.

The shape

it,

in that of the

the contraction of the mandible

Dodo, are

X, Fig. 3

c,)

and

readily accounted for, by the shortening of the sphenoid

and

of the palatine bone in the typical Pigeons,

the deviations from

is

well seen ui Treron, (Plate

the chief differences consisting, in the absence of the inflected portion of

the palatine process, which in Treron diminishes the wide posterior nasal fissure

sphenoidal plate, iu relation to the abbreviated

sphenoid

and in the

in the shortness of the

curvature of the nasal process,

less

depending perhaps on the compression of the manchble.

In the Bidunculus, the palate bone

much

is

elongated, being attached anteriorly to the union between

the very short lateral stem and the oblique ascending base of the maxiUa, opposite the lower angle of the
nasal fissure

the middle segment corresponding to the nasal process

base of the laclirjinal vacuity

and

and subsides before reaching the sphenoidal


between

it

and the

drawn

is

out, forming the extended

fi-om the great pneumaticity of the bone, the crest is expanded, narrowed,
plate.

The

nasal process

also

by the expansion of the diploe

crest being obliterated

curved triangular lamina, prolonging downwards the nasal conca\aty


inferior angle of the sphenoidal plate,

is

it

but httle apparent, the fossa

the palatine process

and in front towards the termination of the

The

aperture perforates the lower part of the sphenoidal plate.


origin of the powerful internal pterygoid,

is

is

a small

subsides behind at the anterior and


crest

small area afforded

the large pneumatic

by the

palatine, for the

amply compensated by the great development of the tendon

of

that muscle.

The pterygoid bone

is relatively

longest in Bidunculus, but has nearly the same form as in the Dodo,

being destitute of pneumaticity, and of the sphenoidal articular surface

but

articulates, as in

most other Pigeons, with the sphenoid

matic aperture being at the posterior extremity.


varies in the different genera of Pigeons

Caleenas
of the

in Geophaps, the articular surface

bone

is

much expanded, and

tliis

The form

it

is

surface in the

backwards.
2 D

in Geophaps
inflated in

it

has a similar shape,

Goura

&c., the pneu-

of the inferior articular surface of the tympanic

Dodo

on the outer segment

chiefly

much

is

closely resembles that in Treron

much reduced

in size,

and

though that angle

In Bidunculus, we observe the greatest deviation

from the typical form

the inner ridge-like condyle

and elevated outer wall of the

tliick

on

plays

latter,

posterior moiety of the base of the condyle.

jaw

wliile the flattened

is

upper border of the

a trocldear groove, extending externally along the

ginglymoid joint permits the protrusion and retraction of

Tliis

lower jaw, as in Parrots, for the purpose of unhusking fruit or seeds

however,

the tympanic in the Didunculm,

readily distinguished from that in Parrots, by the double mastoid condyle.

jaw varies in strength in the same

Tlie lower

ratio as the

upper ;

more or

it is

The dentary element

wards anteriorly.

inflated in Geopliaps

obUquely forwards and


angular plate

is

and in

all

is

and Trerou.

and Goura,

Bidunmlus

The form

not developed in the lesser Pigeons.


;

Dodo

but

is

the coronoid process

is

but in the huge inert Dodo,

The symphysis

longer than in the more active and volatile forms.


is

in Treron, as in the

more acute and ascending


In Bidunadm,

the dentary element

is

present in Geophaps

is

separation of the opercular

element in the Dodo, indicates the incomplete development of the individual, and
;

slopes very

the external

strongly developed in Didimcu-

The

obHterated in Didunculm and Treron.

condition in the specimen of Geophaps figured

it

occurs in the same

it

may remain unanchylosed

broad and depressed in Geophaps, but

is

Dodo.

very strong, and the core

is

armed, on each

side,

with two small

crenations, supporting corresponding teeth-like processes of the gnathotheca, as in the Odontophorina

the Rasores

and the symphysis

is

tliis

suggested by Mr. Gould


the habitual employment

bud Kves on bulbous

roots

it

cutis.

may

also live

of

tlie

and

seeds, as

and of the lower jaw,

indicates

on hard-coated

the form of the articular surfaces of the tympanic

among

truncate anteriorly as in Parrots, the horny sheath covering the apex

being abraded, in the specimen examined, so as to expose the


It is afiii-med that

is

of the articular surface necessarily varies

The vacuity between the angular, surangular, and dentary elements,

as in the

Dodo

GeopJiaps has nearly the same shape as in the

with that of the coadapted aspect of the tympanic


lus

arched down-

is

equal in length to the upper mandible ; the posterior segment

has a triangular digastric facet, which in

inwards, but in

curved in the

less

different genera, and to the greatest extent in the slender-billed species, in wliich the beak

much

II.

extended in the antero-posterior diameter, and rests

is

the articular element of the lower

on

in a corresponding groove

tlie

[Pakt

OSTEOLOGY

100

fruits

lower mandible for decorticating roots, or unhusking fruits and seeds, after

they have been crushed between the powerful jaws, the lower assisting especially by

its

dental armature

the depth of the impressions for the insertion of the masticatory muscles attests the strength of these actions.

The preceding

my

Colimbine
to

accompanying the unrivalled lithographs of the

VIII, IX, IX*), from the pencil of

(Plates

return

details,

my

esteemed friend Mr. Ford,

sincere thanks,) will, I trust, be sufficient to

affinities of

that extinct form

skull of the
(to

whom I

Dodo

beg

to

remove any doubt regarding the

the additional evidence fiu-nished by \h.efoot remains

be examined.

The evidence regarding the

affinities

of a newly discovered or extinct bird, deducible

from the form and minute configuration of the metatarsus,

is

second in value only to that

furnished by the skuU.

The metatarsus,

absolute

and which

it

is

the

characteristics,

which are

province of the anatomist to eliminate, u'respective of

size.

The importance
general

notwithstanding such variations as occur in the

and species of a common group, certain family

diSierent genera

permanent;

like the head, preserves,

manner by
'

of this enquiry to the ornithologist, has led to

Kessler,^

whose researches

will, I trust,

its

investigation in a

be pubhshed by the Ray

Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou.

Aunee 1841.

Society.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The

variation in shape of the

101

small posterior or accessory metatarsus, which supports

the hind toe, has hitherto been almost overlooked as a guide to classification, and farther
observations are necessary to point out
is

and

characteristic,

Basores

real value

its

in the Cohmhidce, the

form of

bone

this

readily distinguishable from that of the corresponding element in the

although in some other respects, these orders closely approximate.

The number and

relative length of the toes, the

form and proportion of the constituent

phalanges, and especially of the ungual segment, are also important elements for indicating
the habits of birds, both as to progression and prehension.
typically a perching group, stiU
their food chiefly,

the form

strictly

its

members,

as the

Ground Pigeons

((?o?/n), seek

not exclusively, on the ground, and require a corresponding adaptation in

if

of the foot

the relative level of

some of

Although the ColmnUdce are

which

theii"

is

not effected by a change in the shape of the metatarsi, or in

by the assumption

trochlear extremities, in other words,

ambulatory form of the

Basores and

as in the

foot,

Grallce

of the

but chiefly by the

abbreviation of the phalanges of the outer toe, which thus becomes shorter than the inner.

The same change takes


Treronim group,

place in the

Dodo, which

is

just as the Geopliaps is a less terrestrial

a terrestrial representative of the

member

of the ordinary Columbine

subtype.

The decayed and mutilated integuments were

carefully

removed from the remaining

left

foot of Tradescant's specimen by Dr. Kidd, the learned Professor of Anatomy and Medicine

in the University of

Oxford

and we are thus enabled

arrived at from the study of the head,

and

vice versa.

The opinion advanced by Professor Owen,


relic,

has been already mentioned

after

an examination of this interesting osseous

evidently based merely on the absolute size of the

it is

metatarsus, and the figures which he has fm-nished of


refutation, while those given in Plate

to test the validity of the deduction

XL, wiU

its

supposed atSne,

will serve for its

enable the reader to judge of the accuracy of

Mr. Strickland's observations.

By authors, the
but improperly, as

principal metatarsus of birds

we have no

segment of the limb, or of


metatarsal bone

its

is

very generally termed the tarso-metatarsiis,

evidence of the development at any period of the tarsal

fusion with the three elements which coalesce to constitute the

what has been regarded by some

as the tarsal element,

is

simply the

disjunct proximal epiphysis of the metatarsus.

The metatarsus

of the

Dodo

(Plate XI, Fig. 1-6),

which

is five

long, equals or exceeds in size that of the largest Raptorial bird,


of any of the

known Basores

in general

form and proportions,

inches two Unes and a half

and
it

is

much greater than that

resembles most closely the

corresponding bone in Pigeons, especially in the shorter-hmbed arboreal species, as the Treron.

The leading resemblances have already been

stated,'

and an examination of the figures

(Plate XI.) will enable the general reader to verify them.

The
is

great strength of this bone in Pigeons

is

remarkable, and the extended periphery

required to give an increase of surface, for the attachment of the powerful inter-osseous
'

Part

I.

Chap.

1. p.

44.

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

103

muscles which move the toes to and from the axis of the foot
calcaneal process, which

is

is

posterior metatarsus in the

Dodo

known

not greater than in any other

tionally larger than in the

The correspondence

force to the

attained.

length of the metatarsus, and measures one


is

much

hence the firmness of the grasp, so necessary in large-bodied

birds with relatively small tarsi,

-i

while the projection of the

supported by a highly developed buttress, gives

action of the flexor muscles

The

II.

(Plate XI, Fig. 7-10,)

inch six lines

Lopholemus

bird, for in

is

nearly one-third of the

but the relative

Fig. 43,)

(ib.

of this bone

size

propor-

is

it

Dodo.

in the

form and

relative length of the anterior toes,

and of

their con-

stituent phalanges in the Dodo, with those in the foot of Geophaps, one of the most terrestrial

Pigeons,

The ungual phalanx

well seen in Plate XII.

is

contrast in

Fig. 5,

(ib.

5ffl,)

forms a remarkable

shortness and blunted apex, and in the small size of the tubercle for the

its

attachment of the flexor tendon, to the corresponding joint in the typical Baptores.

The supposed

peculiarity in the

and proximal phalanx of the hind


the difference however,

if

toe,"

toe, is

perching

perhaps true as far as the ColumhidcB are concerned

is

The

terrestrial Pigeons,

gi-eater

length of this

and the consequent elongation of the

probably related to the persistent habit of rising occasionally from the ground and

while in the Dodo, which

'

is

not able to

abbreviated and subservient only for support.


of the digits (Plates
seize and hold

VI and

reptiles,

would scarcely enable


coast these

of length of the metatarsus

any, cannot be great in the Solitaire.

phalanx in Geojjhaps and other

hind

Dodo, namely, " the equality

XII), render

it

being so

The bluntness

at least, highly

were such existing in

its

native

big,'

the hinii toe

of the claws,

Dodo

and the slowness of

to such heavy flightless birds,

and

in

is

many

its

Metatarsus.

inches,

Least transverse diameter of the shaft

lines.

trochlea, to the apex of the

.....

U
7

.......

Antero-posterior diameter of the shaft opposite the articular facet for


the posterior metatarsus

Greatest transverse diameter of the upper extremity

.....

5*

Ditto antero-posterior of ditto, including ento-calcaneal process


Projection of ento-calcaneal process

Width

of the inferior extremity

...........
........

PosTEKiOE Metatarsus.

Length

Breadth of the trochlea

Width

of the lower extremity, including the styloid process

pace

from the great and sudden

Dimensions of the Metatarsi of the Bodo.

iiitercondyloid tubercle

could

parts of the

above the water-edge.

Length from the groove, on the middle

much

and the shortness

improbable that the

isle

to catch littoral fishes or Crustacea,

would be inaccessible

rise of the shore

it,

flic

5i

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The

same width (seven

shaft of the metatarsus has neaxly the

greatly towards each extremity

The

external.

and

chiefly inwards,

shaft is triangularly pyramidal in its

diameter below

103

buttress, wliich is based

the calcaneal ridge

The
it

is

great development of the calcaneal

one of the characteristics of that bone in Pigeons.

is

is

transversely oblong or suboval.

and convex transversely.

straight longitudinally,

In

and inner portion

its

upper

elongated obovate concavity, between the prominent lateral metatarsal elements


convex, and placed on a plane anterior to the inner, which

The median element forms the


proximal extremity ; into

it

floor of the concavity,

open the anterior

antero-posterior diameter, and indicate, as


dinally oval form, but the internal

tibialis anticu-s,

internal

is

in

which

is
is

in the rest of its

third, it presents a mesial


;

more expanded

the outer of which

is

most

transversely, but less tumid.

deepest beneath the overhanging edge of the

orifices of the short canals, wliich perforate the

aU other

birds, its

compound

origin

bone in the

both have a longitu-

double the size of the external, the upper angle of which

The rough elongated and prominent

concealed.

more concave than the

hence triangular above, with the base in front, and the apes corresponding to

below, the section

The

anterior surface of the shaft is concave vertically in its upper


is

middle third, but expands


is

two upper thuds, but compressed in the autero-posterior

on the stem of the metatarsus,

section of the shaft

extent

margin

the mesial ridge (calcaneal buttress), to which the lateral surfaces incline posteriorly, sub-

siding inferiorly towards the articular facet for the posterior metatarsus.

The

in its

lines)

so that the inner

is

partially

oval tubercle which gives insertion to the tendon of the

M.

commences one line beneath the lower border of the inner foramen, and extends along the

margin of the concanty, presenting a deep groove on

its

upper angle. Below, the anterior surface of

the external metatarsal element slopes slightly backwards towards the broad outer border ; while that of the

inner elements

The

is

more rapidly rounded

off centrally

towards the inner edge.

external third of the anterior surface, wliich twists on itself above, where

the concavity,

is

it

forms the outer wall of

thus separated from the inner two-thirds, by a raised inter-muscular

from the inner margin of the external inter-osseous foramen to that of a

line,

weU marked

which descends

groove,

commencing

about half an inch above the oval aperture, or short oblique canal, that transmits, as usual, the tendon of
the 31. adductor annularis }

tliis

muscle

arises

from the surface indicated.

One Hue

external to the inter-

muscular ridge, a medullary foramen, directed downwards, perforates the shaft below
distinct

its

centre.

Three

muscular impressions are met with internally ; the outer descends from between the lower angles of

the inter-osseous foramina, gradually increasing in breadth beneath the centre of the shaft, towards the middle
trochlea, half an inch above
inferior impression,

which

it

from wMcli the

external area, separated from

appears beyond the

it

terminates,

same

to the Extensor medii.

31. adductor indicis arises, extends

by an oblique sinuous

centre, being replaced

obliquely inwards from the

and gives origin

tubercle,

by a

line,

from the

which becomes

shglit groove

its

The

internal

tibialis tubercle as

and

low as the

fainter as it ascends,

and

dis-

upper and inner boundary descends

and reaches the inner margin towards

its centre.

The

anterior

surface of the inner metatarsal element, above this oblique line, gives attaclunent to the 31. extensor jiollicis
it is

deeply pitted above on each side of a raised subcentral hne, and below exhibits two or three faint

gi-ooves parallel to its lower boundary.

small medullary foramen occm's nearly on a level with the lower angle of the posterior metatarsal

and oue

facet,

indicis,

line external to the

which are deeply

The

boundary between the surfaces

for the 31.

as

ill

The

extensor medii

and adductor

pitted, especially below.

external border, wliich

is

uncovered by muscle,

is

nan-ow below, but increases in breadth as

ascends, and turns round the convex outer metatarsal element so


'

M.

inter-osseous muscles are

named

in relation to the

English works on anatomy.

2e

median

it

as to appear anteriorly; its anterior

line of the

body, not to the axis df the

foot,

OSTEOLOGY

104
edge

is faint,

the posterior

is

Abductor annularis ; below,

it

becomes

II.

defines centrally the outer limit of the surface for the origin of the

faint,

and converges towards the

anterior.

internal border extends as a prominent naiTow ridge along the inner element in its upper third

The
it

and

sharper,

[Pabt

then turns round towards the posterior aspect, subsiding from the antero-posterior expansion of the centre

of the shaft, the anterior surface being broadly rounded off internally.
triangular internal surface of the metatarsus has its base above,

The

trochlea; in

upper third,

its

and extends below

presents a deep pyramidal excavation for the origin of the

it

poUicis, which also arises from the

surface, extending beneath

flat

to the inner

M. flexor

the fossa as far as the articular facet for

This facet

the posterior metatarsus, situated at the junction of the middle and lower tliirds of the shaft.

beyond the inner edge, and

projects

The

external surface

is flat,

covered by a transverse crescentic tract of synovial cartilage.

is

and separated from the inner by the roimded edge of the calcaneal buttress,

which subsides towards the metatarsal articular

nal trochlea, half an inch above which


external border,

The tendon
and

An

facet.

the external inter-osseous canal, and, becoming

orifice of

of

it

terminates

between

tliis

A second

edge, and behind to a rough ridge.

M.

abductor annularis.

in front to a small oval tubercle

more strongly marked inter-muscular

oblique outer aspect nine lines below the preceding, about two lines internal to
terior border of the subsiding calcaneal ridge,

articular facet, opposite

which

it

becomes

faint

which

it

crosses as

it

it,

troclilea,

on the outer

commences on the

line

and

close to the pos-

runs obUquely inwards towards the

about two lines lower down,

exter-

and the posterior edge of the broad

tliis line,

muscle passes over a groove on the outer sm'face of the peduncle of the external

bound down by an oblique annular ligament, attached

is

intermuscular line descends from the posterior

more prominent, sweeps outwards towards the

an elongated tract of nearly luiiform width, for the origin of the

is

brevis

it

passes into a thick rough

sigmoidal ridge, which terminates four lines above the inner trochlea, and gives attachment to the strong

ligament connecting the metatarsi.

and the

Between

metatarsus.

An

oblique sinus extending to the inner margin,

this inter-muscular line

increases in breadth as

it

and that previously mentioned,

it

gives origin to the

M.

abductor indicis,^ the tendon of which

trochlear notch, resting in a shallow groove,

bounded

surface of the peduncle of the inner trochlea,


its

is

descends from the subsidence of the calcaneal buttress

outer surface, extending as high as the ecto-calcaneal process; the lower

wards;

lies

between

tliis

ridge

and lodges the projecting lower angle of the upper extremity of the posterior

ai'ticular facet,

internally

a sub-triangular space which


;

the upper part

lies

on the

is

deeply concave, and looks back-

is

directed towards the inner inter-

by the outer edge of the elevated posterior

and externally by a rough elongated impression

parallel to

inner bomidai-y.

The upper
surface,

which

behind in

its

extremity, viewed from

is

above, presents in front the transversely reniform tibial articular

broad and rounded internally, narrower externally

concavity

the isthmus

is

semicircular non-articular tract lies

raised into the prominent hemispherical intercondyloid tubercle,

separating the iimer large and deep subcircular condyloid fossa, from the shallow and smaller external one

whose anterior edge

bevelled downwards, and iatemally terminates in a slight pit at the base of the inter-

is

The

condyloid eminence, for the insertion of the external semilunar cartilage.


acute angle projects outwards, and

M. peronevs

brevis

anterior to

which occurs the oval

it, is

its

posterior

and external sub-

upper surface, which slopes backwards, gives attaclmient to the

a broad shallow notch lined by synovial

membrane, immediately beneath

slightly elevated impression for the insertion of the external lateral ligament.

The

anterior angle presents a small transversely elongated tubercle beneath the edge of the condyloid fossa.

The

posterior

backwards
'

and internal angle presents an oblong subvertical surface directed obHquely outwards and

its

lower and inner angle

This muscle

is

is

tilted

upwards, a sharp ridge descending from

not mentioned by Cuvier, Meckel, Owen, &c., although

it

it

probably exists in

on the

floor of

all birds.

of the dodo.

Ch. L]
the fossa for the
tarsal
it

M. flexor

brevis poUicis

this surface gives

attachment to the hgament of the great tibio-meta-

sesamoid fibro-cartilage, wliich some have regarded, but improperly, as a tarsal element.
a narrow triangular tract, with the base above

is

105

the apex

roughened

is

Anterior to

for the insertion of

internal lateral

hgament, and

internal angle

the obhque oval prominent tubercle, for the insertion of a hgamentous band, binding

is

the tendon of the

M.

is

prolonged into the ridge-hke inner border.

extensor communis digitormn

internaUv,

the

Beneath the anterior and

down

attached to a short rough ridge, along

it is

the inner margin of the anterior concavity, separated fi'om the preceding by a groove leading upwards and

outwards, and impressing the anterior edge of the internal condyloid fossa, as

into the intercondyloid

it rises

tubercle.

The smooth roimded upper border

of the calcaneal ridge [ento-calcaneal process) projects backwards

from the centre of the posterior border, aud


angle of the ridge

is

raised in the middle into a slight convexity.

is

with the base above, extending inwards and overhanging the internal muscular
protrudes beyond the edge of the buttress

by a sharp ridge from the inner muscular


is

fossa

posterior

line

gastrocnenmm.

a curved oblong concavity, separated

The

ecto-calcaneal

and two-thirds wide) projecting backwards, nearly

and the external edge

internal process

is

while the apex

M.

probably lodges an Haversian gland.

it

formed by a short, thick plate (one

midway between the

fossa,

gives attachment to the tendon of the

it

Beneath the upper margin of the ento-calcaneal process, internaUy,

process

The

expanded and flattened into an irregularly triangular rough plate (calcaneal tuberosity),

its

fi'ee

extremity

expanded and broadlv

is

grooved ; from the inner hp of the furrow, an osseous bridge passes inwards to join the calcaneal ridge,
converting the space between these processes into a canal [calcaneal canal ),

and seven

lines

and

a half long

The deep groove

ecto-calcaneal furrow,

tendon of the

is

M. flexor

ratus posteriorly.

below,

on the calcaneal

short triangular groove

digitorum.

posterior

contracts shghtly,

it

ridge.

to

it,

and

Tliis canal transmits

its

tliree lines in

inferior orifice is

the tendon of the

iiuUcis perforatus anteriorly,

The deep channel

for the

and to that of the M. flexor

it

gives passage to the

indicis perforans et perfo-

tendon of the Flexor perforan-s pollicis,i\iiTovis the outer surface

overhung by the projecting outer hp of

is

M. flexor perforans

between the calcaneal process and the outer hp of the

closed in the recent state by a fibro-cartilaginous bridge;

of the ecto-calcaneal process, aud

diameter above,

prolonged into a

groove, from

its

which a

fibro-cartilagmous bridge extends, in the recent state, to a short faint ridge on the posterior surface of

the external and outer angle of the proximal extremity; the groove

External to the ridge just mentioned,

is

is

thus

converted into a canal.

a short and shallow groove hned with sjTiovial cartilage, over wliich

plays the tendon of the Peroneus medius (Cuv.), as

These grooves diminish in height from

it

proceeds to join the perforated tendon of the middle toe.

witliin outwards.

In the recent

state a

broad shaUow groove

extends from the outer border of the calcaneal tuberosity to the shghtly projecting edge of the external
wall of the canal for the tendon of

\}s\%

perforating flexor of the hind toe;

its floor is

formed externaUy by

the fibro-cartilaginous roof of that canal, centrally by the groove on the ecto-calcaneal process, and internally

by the

fibro-cartilaginous roof of the canal transmitting ikm perforated tendons of the inner toe

verted by the attaclunent of the fascia to

its

tendon of the Flexor medii perforatus, and posteriorly, that of the Flexor medii perforans
of the Flexor annularis perforatus, the former being internal,

Viewed from below, the

con-

and the

et perforatn-s,

and

latter external.

form a

seen from before, the inferior surfaces of the two inner troclilese

in the

same curve, while that of the outer

is

lie

elevated four lines above the external margin of the middle one, and

nearly on the same transverse plane as the internal inter-trochlear notch.

trochlea,

it is

inferior extremity presents the trochleae arranged transversely, so as to

small segment of a large circle

is

margins into a canal, which transmits most anteriorly the

and the abbreviation of the corresponding

toe, renders the foot

The

elevation of the outer

more adapted

for progression.

The

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

106
internal trochlea, which

is

II.

intermediate in size between the middle and external ones, the former being the

apex of a right triangular stem, which

at the

and is placed obliquely

laro-er, has its axis directed inwards,

proiects inwards, beyond a line cb'awn perpendicularly from the inner margin of the central part of the
shaft

its inferior

and internal margin

convex transversely,

but

grooved ;

slightly

is

about a line above the plane of the middle trochlea

The outer

in front

it is

elongated backwards and inwards, rendering

is

grooved ; the inner condyle

troclilea is deeply

but the external, below and beliind

circular fossa impressing the stem.

and

is

and internal angle

posterior

The middle

deeply concave behind.


anteriorly,

its

the groove expands, at


trochlea anteriorly

is

termination in

its

fi-ont,

into a sub-

more abruptly defined than the

is

The

behind, the narrow outer condyle projects greatly.

it

the most prominent

inner,

sides of the troclilea are

impressed wdth deep pits for the insertion of the strong lateral ligaments.

The metatarsus

Lopholamus, &c., has nearly the same form as that in the Dodo
(

Gourinm),

relatively longer

it is

In Treron

(Plate

and more

hemus

{ib.

M.

adductor anmdaris

relatively larger,

is

Treron, the troclileBe are nearly in the

edge

in

is

and the

all these,

areas

M.

smaller,

therefore concave

and the

tibialis tubercle

same curve, so
is

also in

in Treron

(i5.

is

more remote from

M. M.

and

In Lopho-

The

internal

than in the Dodo. In

it

distinctly in Carpo-

more elevated than the

and Carpopluiga, a

elongated upwards at

Fig. 34, 40), not straight as in the

sculpturing of the ecto-calcaneal process


for the perforated

tendons

lodging the tendon of the

outer.

The outer

adductor and abductor annularis,

is

of the inner

M.

is

is

below

it

Dodo

into

In

it.

the sharp posterior edge of the calcaneal buttress

In Coliimba (Plate XII. Fig.


of the foot, between the arboreal

the Dodo, that

it is

7),

all

expanded extremity
also projects

In LopJiolamm

converted

adductor annularis

its

Dodo

the same as in the


toe

Httle

{ib.

the typical arboreal


;

its

upper edge

is

more than in the Dodo,

Fig. 41) and Carpophaga, the

in Treron {ib. Fig. 35), the groove

In LopJwlmmus, the groove

a canal.

converted into a canal by an osseous bridge, leaving

an aperture leading directly from the anterior to the posterior surface.

is

Dodo.

as in the

Lopholamus, and stiU more

perceptibly

and thus gives the M. gastrocnemius increased leverage.

is slightly

In Treron and Carpophaga,

notched.

which represents a group intermediate, in habits and in the structure

and ground Pigeons, the form of the metatarsus so much resembles that in

difUcult to specify the slight differences wliich exist.

The outer

border, uncovered by

broad Kke that in the Dodo, and twines round the outer metatarsal element, so as to appear on

the anterior surface beneath the proximal extremity

M. M.

also not visible fi'om before.

M. 31. abductor annularis and abductor indicis, are thus increased,


In LopMamus, the large articular facet for the posterior metatarsal is placed

Pigeons, the ento-calcaneal process

muscle,

and

which give origin to the

nearly in the centre of the shaft

it

narrowed and flattened beneath

is

extensor polUcis, so as to look almost directly inwards

is relatively

however, the inner trochlea

especially that for the latter.

above

of the ground Pigeons

slender.

forming a ridge separating the surfaces for the

acute,

arboreal species as Treron,

many

but in

38-42) and Carpophaga, the muscular surfaces are nearly

Fig.

inter-osseous foramen

pliaija

XI. Fig. 32-36), the inner metatarsal element

the proximal extremity for the origin of the

the surface for the

bmbed

in the smaller Pigeons, and especially in the shorter

this

causes a diminution of the surfaces for the

abductor annularis and abductor indicis, especially that for the latter.

ento-calcaneal process is straight

the form of the ecto-calcaneal process

is

The upper border

as in the

of the

Dodo, but the ridge

separating the groove for the tendon of the 31. flexor perforans pollicis from that for the tendon of the

Peroneus medius,
trochlea

is less

This bone

is

more developed, and has a tendency

to convert the former into a canal.

The inner

depressed than in the Dodo, the relative levels of the puUies being nearly as in Treron, &c.

may be

readily procured, for comparison with the figures of the metatarsus of the

Dodo.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

In Diduncuhis

X. Fig. 9-9

(Plate

107

and Phajjs (Plate XI. Fig. 20-24),

e),

the

metatarsus

is

elongated and slender, being of equal length in both, ffhile they closely resemble each other in form and

proportion

M. M.

in each, the flattened outer border

border, which

is

M.

area for the

poUicis

is

relatively larger

is

straight iu both

is

is also

inner

in Bidunculus, the groove for the tendon of the

The

trochlea.

The upper border

nearly closed. In PJiaps, the outer ridge of the groove for the

In Bidunculus, the

very apparent, as in Colimiha.

groove for the tendon of the

M.

kemus, and in Phaps, where

it

Dodo, but the outer

adductor annularis,

is

The elongation and

of the

M. flexor perforans

XL

it

Fig. 2G-30.

are reproduced in the

the

Dodo

in the

the posterior

breadth and flatness of the outer

Solitaire

Plate XII. Fig. 8), the metatarsus

and the outer margin, which

of the troclilese

lower down.

and the inner margin,

is

is

precisely the

same

shorter and

is

more robust

broad above, passes in the lower

M. M.

as in the

adductor and abductor

Dodo. In Geophaps, Phaps, and

encroaches on the inner inter- osseous foramen, as in the Solitaire, while in

tihialis tubercle

is

more elevated than

like that in the

a narrow ridge separating the surfaces for the

The arrangement

the Dodo,

replaced in Pimps, by a narrow plane as in the SoUtairc.

is

than in the two preceding species


third of the shaft, into

Dodo

placed below the junction of the lower with the upper two -thirds of the bone.

acute in Bidunculus,

Bidunculus, the

troclilea is

and more

relative slenderness of the metatarsus, the great

In Geophaps (Plate

M. flexorperforans polUcis

are arranged exactly as iu the

covered posteriorly by an osseous band, as in Lopho-

is

in Bidunculus,

border, and the position of the articular facet,

annularis.

troclileae

In Phaps, the iimer

narrower.

is

more abbreviated than

is

metatarsal facet in both,

is

than in the arboreal Pigeons.

converted into a canal (Plate X. Pig. 9 d), and that for the tendons of the perforated flexors of

the inner toe,

which

broader than in Columha, and the surfaces for the

still

widest in the centre, and contracts slightly downwards towards the


extensor polUcis

ento-calcaneal process

is

is

abductor annularis and alductor indicis are hence more reduced, from the encroachment of this

In Geophaps,

as

in Bidunculus, the grooves for the perforated tendons of

the inner toe, and the A&si^ flexor tendon of the liind toe, are converted into canals.

In Goura (Plate XI. Fig. 11-15), the metatarsus has nearly the same form
border
in the

is relatively

Dodo,

From

&c.,

narrower.

and

Phaps, but the outer

grooved externally for the tendon of the deep flexor of the hind

is

these details

as in

In Phaps, Geophaps, and Goura, the ecto-calcaneal, however,

we may

therefore conclude, that the metatarsus of the

Dodo

is

thicker than

toe.

famUv

possesses the

characters of that bone in the Columhidce.

In the typical Gallina, the calcaneal buttress

thus more compressed in the antero-posterior diameter

it is,

the short and robust prismatic metatarsus of Pterocles; and

than in the comtmon Cock.


in Pterocles.

The

The

and speedily subsides, and the

feebly developed

is

it is

shaft

is

however, as strongly marked as in Pigeons, in

more apparent in the

external segment of the posterior surface

is

Cracida,

and Megapodida

subconcave transversely, except

ridge which supports the spur also distinguishes the metatarsus in the typical genera of the

GalUncB ; that pecuhar appendage


long ago pointed out

its

is

true nature

not the homologue of the hallux, as has often been supposed.

it is

Swainson

reaUy a portion of the dermo-skeleton, which becomes united to the

metatarsal element of the ento-skeleton, by an extension of the ossific process in the intervening Hgamentous
texture; just as the teeth, which belong to the splanchnic division of the exo-skeleton,

the jaws in several fishes and reptiles.


of

It has the

bii'ds.

metatarsus

The hind

toe is the true hallux,

and

normal number of phalanges, namely, two, and

the outer, or

fifth toe, is

invariably absent in birds. In

transmits the tendon of the 31. flexor digitorum perfoi-ans pierces, as

most
it

become anchylosed

present in the great majority

is

supported by the accessory

of the

Gallince, the tube

which

were, the thickness of the ento-calca-

neal process, and opens below upon, or to the inner side of the calcaneal buttress, which runs

2f

to

is

up

to terminate

OSTEOLOGY

108

[Part

II.

in the tliick pedvmcle forming the ecto- calcaneal process; in Pigeons and Pferocles, the ento-calcaneal

process

thicker,

is

and the tube terminates on the outer side of the buttress, which

lu Pterocles and in

process.

the typical GalUrue, the inner troclilea

all

external; but in the Cracida,

it

In the breadth of the

more depressed.

is

and in the great depression of the

greater equality in size of the troclilese,

continuous with that

is

somewhat more elevated than the

is

inferior

extremity, in the

internal,

beneath the level

of the external one, the metatarsus of Megapodius approaches nearest to that in the terrestrial Pigeons.

The

variation in

form and

relative size of the

by an

of the Gallina converted into a canal

The

giving attachment to the inter-osseous muscles,

surfaces

The groove transmitting the tendon

need not be dwelt upon here.

which the metatarsus of the Dodo

principal point, then, ia

of the 31. adductor annularis

osseous floor, as in certain Pigeons,

both

terrestrial

is

and

many

in

arboreal.

from that in the ordinary GalUrue,

differs

is

the greater development of the calcaneal buttress, which terminates superiorly ia the ento-calcaneal process.

In the iVmerican Vulture [Cathartes Californianns), the metatarsus

and deeply excavated in

rior diameter,

above and below,

is

the

calcaneal process

grooves posteriorly

from

towards the middle of the shaft

its

is

The outer segment

compressed in the antero-poste-

the external trochlea

the section of the shaft, both

of the posterior surface

broad, and imperforate,

depressed,

centre extends

trans-

is

presenting two broad

downwards a moderately developed ridge subsiding


is

more depressed than

In the Vulture {Gffs fulvus) and Eagle {HaUaiitus


triedal,

is

beneath the proximal extremity

therefore transversely oblong.

versely subconcave;

shallow

front,

alblcilla),

and the broad posterior surface presents a shallow groove in

in the

Dodo.

the shaft of the metatarsus

its

The wide,

whole extent.

is

sub-

vertically

concave, external border looks directly outwards iu the Eagle, but in the Vulture has an incUnation forwards

The

and inwards ; and the anterior surface slopes rapidly backwards towards the internal edge.
for

the origin of the

M. M.

adductor indicis and

extensor medii are very small,

The various grooves and tubes

Extensor poUicis occupies the upper half of the anterior surface.


transmission of the, flexor tendons in the

Dodo and

a single, deep, semilunar notch extending


cess, to a

Pigeons, as well as iu the Gallma, are represented by

from the subquadrate

plate, representing the ento-calcaneal pro-

supported by a ridge descending on the posterior surface of the shaft,

more extended downwards basaUy, than

tlian in the

Dodo and

terrestrial Pigeons.

its iiiternal

other Pigeons, or than in Cathartes.

the Vulture and Eagle.

level

The

"While the metatarsus in the

and posterior angle

inter-condyloid tubercle

Dodo

is

minor

is

dissimilarities,

the inner

is

more produced than in

is relatively

it

very small in

approaches the typical Pigeons,

from the con'esponding bone in the Vulture and Eagle, in the form of the shaft

elevation of the external troclilea

little

distinguished from that of the ordinary

Gallina, only by a few and comparatively sHght peculiarities, in wliich

of the complex ecto-calcaneal process,

only a

the external, as in Cathartes, being much lower

In the Eagle, the trochlefe are relatively narrower

placed on the same plane as the middle one, and

Dodo and

it is

at its free flattened extremity.

In the Vulture, the trocMese are more nearly on a

differs

for the

prominent tubercle forming the outer and posterior angle of the proximal articular extremity

this process is not

the

surfaces

wlule that for the

and of the higldy developed calcaneal buttress

it

in the presence

and

in the greater

points of distinction so important as, even overlooking innumerable

to preclude any idea of the affinity of the

Dodo

to these raptorial

forms.

The

metatarsus of the Dodo, in the presence of the calcaneal buttress, resembles that of Cathartes more than
its

homologue in the

ences,

and

is

less

abeiTant raptorial birds

such as not to indicate

afiinity,

but this will not outweigh other important

difl'er-

but simply a general resemblance in mechanical construction.

Ch.

OF THE DODO.

I.]

The

Dodo

posterior metatarsus in the

(Phite

XI. Fig.

109

twisted on itself from beliind forwards, and from witliin outwards

The channel thus formed

diagonal.

formed by a thick oblong

is

grooved for the deep _/ea;(5r tendon;

its

The lower

very sHghtly concave in front, but beliind,

is

broader internally than externally, and also projects back-

is

it

plate,

the Hne of flexure corresponding to

Fig. 9) lodges the fexor tendons of the liind toe.

[ih.

extremity supports the transversely elongated troclilea, which


it is

10),

wards beyond the plane of the stem to a greater extent internally.

The

thin outer margin of the triangular posterior portion of the stem

concave

is

its

lower angle forms

a subquadrate process projecting outwards beyond the trochlea {styloid process), which gives attachment to
the annular ligament

anterior surface

its

fiexor tendon of the inner toe ghding

on

The upper

it.

viewed from before, consists of a semicircular


convex, external border

upper part of

its

roughened

is

fibres of the

M.

plate,

extremity, which articulates with the metatarsus,

forming the anterior wall of the channel

is

its tloick

hgament

in front for the attachment of the strong uiter-osseous

subconcave anterior aspect

gave origin to some

covered by a thin layer of synovial cartilage, the superficial

is

covered by articular cartUage, and the concavity probably

adductor indicis. The floor of the channel

is

wider below than above

the lower untwisted portion of the stem projects obliquely backwards from the articular plate, wliich

when in

pendicular

apposition with the metatarsus

The tendon

bound down immediately above the

is

is

and
per-

the rounded inner margin of the former expands above

into the triangular surface of the floor of the channel.

the posterior surface, and

the

externally to a roughened portion of the outer edge,

and

M.

of the

troclilea

extensor poUicis passes along

by an annular ligament, attached


narrow

internally to a

pit close to the imier

border.

In

all

Pigeons, the shape of the posterior metatarsus

process exists in

(Plate

all

was kindly allowed to


(Plate

X. Pig. 10, 10

is relatively

XI. Pig. 16, 18,

a), wliich

and

attains its

is relatively

In the common Cock, the

more open, but the under or

maximum
shorter,

In

distinctly twisted

tj-pical

is

and from

its

much

greater elongation,

but the essential distinction in

Cailiartes, it is very small,

lower extremity

and the twist

its

the styloid

accessory metatarsal

less distinctly

tliicker,

subppamidal, and not bent on

its

marked than in^

articular surface

Cracidce,
is

placed lower

in the absence

itself;

of the styloid process.

the anterior surface

nearly

is

elevated considerably above the internal trochlea, so that the hind toe

is,

it is

narrow transversely, and shghtly twisted, the anterior surface being broadly con-

Eagle,^ also, the peculiar flexure of the posterior metatarsus almost disappeai's, the bone being nearly

consequently

it

is

the styloid process

readily distniguished
;

metatarsal, the

The
it is

Dodo

from the corresponding bone in the Dodo

and, as in Cathartcs and the Vulture, the lower portion

backwards only to a very shglit extent.

'

flat

as in the

and the lower extremity placed nearly in contact with the inner margin of the metatarsus.

which

is

Gallina, &c., above the plane of the heel.

In the Vulture,
cave,

it

concave, conceaUng from behind the

is less

all, lies

it

and hence the chamiel


In the

trochlear portion projects relatively farther back.

and more

its

LophoUtmus.

in

cui'ved plate is

In Megapodius, the outer margin of the curved plate


;

Dodo

After observing that peculiar character, I

down.

articular surface

as in the

Bldunculus, by removing

thinner,

expanded

same

proved to be a miniature of that in the Dodo. In the arboreal Pigeons,

larger than in the Gour'ma,

Dodo and Pigeons.

precisely the

31, 37, 43).

test the Columliiie affinity of the

In the Gallinm, the posterior metatarsus


the

2.5,

is

deviates

figure furnished

We

is

it

is

also

and

destitute of

shortened, and projects

therefore find, that as in the metatarsus, so also in the accessory

more from the Raptores than from the Gallina, but is

by Mr. Owen, of

In the
flat,

tliis

bone, in

situ, is

really distinct

from both.

mounted

skeleton, in

evidently taken fi-om a badly

placed in an unnatural position, as tbehgaments would retain the accessory metatarsus close to the main one.

[Part

II.

about one third shorter than the inner, which, as in

all

OSTEOLOGY

no
In the Dodo, the hind toe
strictly

ground Pigeons,

is

distinctly longer

than the outer

longer than either of the lateral toes, but

much

joint of the outer toe only

Fig.

is

1,

Museum.'
detail

Fig. 2.

a,

(5,

as

is

it is

shorter than the metatarsus.

from the foot covered with integuments,

The phalanges have the usual form, and hence,

the metatarsal articular surface of the

intermediate joints,

viz.,

{ib.

digit is

not

The ungual

preserved; the others are carefully restored in Plate XII.

to length,

The proximal

and the middle

Fig. 4,)

and

distal

first
{ib.

joint

Fig.

it

is

is

seen in Plate XII.

articular facets of

the second of the outer toe, are also figured.

Hind Toe.

the British

unnecessary to enter into

of each toe
,)

in

one of the

of the dodo.

Ch.I.]
second phalanx

is

Ill

twisted inwards, as also that of the third, which

much arched

is

These

longitudinally.

phalanges decrease distad, progressively, by one third.

The proximal phalanx

of the outer toe

shorter than that of the other digits

is

its

inner edsje

concave than the outer, the distal extremity being twisted inwards, while in the two inner

The second,

wards.

thu'd,

and fouiih joints are much abbreviated, the two

which

are only slightly shorter than the second,

The ungual phalanx

is

little

only slightly compressed laterally

half the length of the

is

longer than the second joint

it is

latter

and the

are nearly equal, and

short, curved, bluntly acuminate,

and

Treroii (Plate

Columha

wliile in

[ih.

the Dodo.

AU

tliird joints of

more abbreviated, and the outer

the ground Pigeons have this character

insessorial foot is carried to its

The arrangement

maximum, but the

more

Dodo ;

its

toe

much

shorter than the outer,

the outer toe aie elongated;

The

in

it,

is

The sesamoid

In Geopliaps

peripheral joints in these

the ambulatory modification of a strictly

persistence of typical characters

affinities.

feebly deve-

shorter than the inner, as in

is

or less marked.

of the tendons in the foot of the Dodo,

but throws no special light on

6, 6 a), the inner toe is

The second and

Pigeons, are relatively less abbreviated than in the

&c.

is

slightly concave vertically.

Fig. 7, 7 a), they are shortened, and hence the lateral toes are nearly equal.

Fig. 8, S a), these phalanges are

[;lb.

and

XII. Fig.

nearly equalled in length by the hallux.

is

and

the lateral surface presents a deep groove, the edges of wliich almost

articular facet is equi-triangular,

In the arboreal Pigeons, as

more

is

bent out-

first.

unite to form a canal towai-ds the apex; the tubercle for the insertion of thejiexor tendon
lo])ed

is

it

precisely the

is

same

highly suggestive.
as in that of

Pigeons

or glenoid fibro-cartilages on the plantar

aspect of the metatarso-phalangeal articulations of the three anterior toes are represented as seen from

above, in Plate XII. Fig. 2, a,

They

b, c.

tumly attached by ligament to the

are

but loosely to the peduncle of the trochlea by the reflected synovial

moulded

to the trochlear surface,

The

the groove into a canal.

membrane;

and posteriorly grooved for the flexor tendons

internal fibro-cartilage

is

phalanx, and

first

anteriorly they

the theca converting

acted on directly by the attachment of

ihe.

flexor tendon of the inner toe to the theca, just as the corresponding sesamoid fibro-cartilage

metatarsal articulation

is

was probably without a

moved by

definite figure.

the portion of the theca attached to

In adcUtion to the strong

The grooved

it slit

lateral

and to

is

open,

is

it is

and ahnost membranous

seen at the top of

slip,

corresponding glenoid ligament

Plate XII.

fig. 3,

and when covered by

lateral

Like those above

ligaments.

and moulded to the trocldear head of the proximal

which

acts

on the

distal phalanx.

At the

last joint,

they

the deep flexor tendon being inserted into the tubercle

beneath the articular facet of the ungual phalanx.

and indurated,

tibio-

ligaments at the phalangeal articulations, there occui's a glenoid fibro-

attached du-ectly the tendinous

gularly-shaped sesamoid bones.

perforated

at the

posterior surface of the external glenoid ligament with

fiimly united to the distal phalanx,

are feebly developed,

slu-unk

in the laind toe, the

on the plantar aspect, wliich blends at the sides with the

cartilage

mentioned, each
joint

the Plantaris

are

In the Dodo, these

fibro-cartilages

varnish, as in the Oxford foot, they very

Those of the outer toe are shewn

in fig. 3,

remain, but are

much resemble

being the upper; the

irre-

last is

absent.

The

celebrated physician and anatomist, Carus,

structure in the ossified tendons of \h& flexor muscles,

when

at Oxford, pointed out to Dr.

and in

the ossified tendons are divided into several pieces, connected by joints
'

pecuhar

"that

(internodia ?), an arrangement

" Ich machte Kidd auf eine besondre Bildmig der verkncicherten Sehnen der Beugemuskeln aulinerksam."*

England
*

Kidd

his Travels-' since published, he states

u.

Sclwttland im JaJire, 1S44, vol.

i.

p.

373.

" Die knochemen Sehnen zerfallen in mehrere Stucken, welche durch Gelenke verbundeu

dergleichen Selinenknoclien mil' niclit bekannt ist."

2 G

siiid.

Eine EiuricLtung, die soust an

OSTEOLOGY OF THE DODO.

112

however, disappears on moistening the

and examining the glenoid hgaments by transmitted

foot,

II.

(Sehnenknochen):" the supposed anomaly,

similar sesamoid bones

had not observed elsewhere in

whicli he

[Paet

light.

similar fibro-cartilagiaQus tliickeniug of a crescentic form, with the concavity directed forwards, exists in

two

the dorsal fibrous capsule of the joint connecting the


the Extensor communis digitorum ghding over

The
in the

and of

relative length of the toes,

Dodo

it.

their individual segments, in the typical Gallince, are nearly as

the joints of each toe, exclusive of the ungual phalanges, decrease gradually in length distad

except in the outer, in which the penultimate


third are occasionally equal.

From the
when the

phalanges of the middle toe, the tendon of

first

is

equal to, or longer than the second, and the second and

Like the metatarsus, the phalanges are

shortness of the accessory metatarsal bone, the hind toe

expanded and the foot

digits are

Megapodida,

m contact with

more robust in the Dodo.

relatively

not on the same plane as the heel,

is

flat sui-face

but in the abberrant Cracidm and

more depressed.

it is

In the Eagle, the hind toe

is

little

longer than the inner, and the latter

shorter but

is

than the outer, the middle being the longest, but slender when compared with the inner.
equal to the proximal joint, which

the ungual

is

relation to

the metatarsi than in the Dodo.

one third of the penultimate, and

The second

developed ungual joint.

which are subequal

as

joint of the middle digit

the penultimate

long as the

it

proximal phalanx of the inner toe

is

the latter

is

more elongated, but the

relatively

The ungual phalanges

other as in the Dodo, &c.

outwards, the liinder being the largest


sharply uncinate

tlu-ee

only one half of the length of the others,

Thus

is

the inner toe

is relatively

which are subequal


however,

is

is

is also

much

the second and

The Vulture thus

exliibits

longer than the lateral toes

is

the

first.

more

which are nearly equal, and


;

but the proximal joint of

tliird joints

is

shorter than the proximal

are also equal,

others,

is

shorter than the outer,

which are nearly equal


is

and each only half

a less raptorial foot than the Eagle.

but the ])halanges of the hind toe are equal.

shorter than the

decrease progressively to the ungual phalanx, which

mal

is

only half the length of the distal phalanges

of the outer, the penultimate

not half as long as the inner toe, which

is

much curved and

larger.

of the liind toe are equal


still

is

the articular surface

middle toe the joints decrease in length, progressively, to the ungual, which,

equal to the ungual

the penultimate phalanx

subangular core

are absent

much

is

twice as long as in the Eagle, but

in the

as long as the penultimate.


is

Dodo

in length the lateral digits,

The phalanges

longer than the penultimate phalanx

phalanx, wliich

the hallux

much exceeds

shorter than the inner toe.

distal seg-

progressively decrease in length and strength from witliin

the laterally compressed,

elongated and concave vertically, and the inferior tubercle

the hallux

in the

proximal, though shortened, have the same ratio to each

the vascular grooves in that of the

In the Vultiu'e, the middle toe

only

longer than the proximal, the intermediate

is

the ungual phalanx being the longest.

latter,

is

nearly equal to the greatly

two inner toes the ante-penultimate segments are much abbreviated, and in the outer, the two

ments are

toe,

stronger, broader, especially posteriorly, and longer in

short, cuboidal

sometimes anchylosed to

wliile in the outer,

and only half

joints are equal,

is

is

The

more robust

In the hind

In Cathartes,

and the middle


In the inner

digit
digit,

the joints of the middle toe

longer than the penultimate

in the outer, the proxi-

longer than the distal phalanx, the tliree intermediate being nearly equal, and about half as long as

The great strength of the claws

Tlie evidence furnished

regarding

the

by the

is still

remarkable in

toes, corroborates that

non-raptorial affinities of the Dodo,

which, however,

it is

equally distinct.

and

tliis

modified raptorial sub-type.

derived from a consideration of the metatarsi,


its

closer

approximation to the GaUince, from

CHAPTER
Osteology of the

(Plates XIII.,

The

II.

Solitaii-e.

XIV., and XV.)

osteological remains of the Solitaire, or supposed

and imperfect, being

either

much

however, exists to indicate with certainty the true

The

Dodo

of Rodriguez, are few in

mutilated, or thickly incrusted with stalagmite


affinities

number

sufficient,

of that extinct bird.

particulars regarding the discovery of these bones, the probable localities in

which

they were found, and the principal inferences derived from the study of them, have already

been

fully described in this

work

(p.

46, supra).

Dimensions of the Cranium of the Solitaire.


inches.
1

Length from the

2.

Greatest breadth in front of the post-orbital processes

occipital condyle to the extremity of the inter-olfactory

3.

Height in the centre

4.

From

.5.

do.

to the anterior

margin of the orbit

6.

the occipital condyle to the optic foramen

7.

the optic foramen to the anterior margin of the orbit

8.

the anterior margin of the temporal notch to that of the orbit

No

allowance

is

made

for the tliickness of the incrustation, so that

from some of these measurements.

.....

the occipital facet to the cranio-facial hne


do.

septum

two

lines at least

must be deducted

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

114
to the olfactory fossee, as

The fragment

would be the case under similar circumstances in the Dodo.

thickly covered with stalagmite as to render a minute description impossible, the deposit

and posterior parts of the upper

anterior

surface,

and the central

thickest

is

II.

so

is

on the

hence appears depressed; an exami-

tract

nation of the interior of the cranium has, however, convinced us, that

appearance

tliis

not due to any

is

depression of the cranial roof.

and contrast of the

careful examination

figures of the

cranium of the

Solitaire with those of the

corresponding part in the Dodo, will prove the family aflinity of these extinct forms, as well as their
specific distinctness.

The cranium

in the Solitaire

pecuhar frontal protuberance


the Dodo,

narrower and longer than in the Dodo, and

is

the inchvidual elements, also, are less ventricose


of the post-orbital processes

a little in front

is

The

forwards to the cranio-facial hne.

known

other

is

Pigeons, in the position of the oKactory

cerebral cavity

greatest breadth, as in

is

much

less

tumid than in

from that of the

differs

which are placed immediately in front of the

the olfactory foramen, on each side, opening directly into the base of

septum thinner, as

inter-orbital

cranium of the Dodo, and

fossae,

anchylosis of the prefrontal with the other elements of the cranium,

The

its

probably decreased in width more rapidly

prefrontal, especially below,

It resembles the

narrower.

it

more excavated, and the

orbits are

in the more common forms of the Colnmhidm ; the

the Dodo, and the rostrum

entirely destitute of the

is

respective fossa.

its

may be regarded

one of the

as

best proofs of the family affinity of the Solitaire and Dodo.

The

occipital facet is vertical as in the

above the foramen

Pigeons

magnum

The minute

Dodo ;

there

is

a caecal excavation of the calcareous incrustation

does this indicate the mesial supra-occipital

orifice

in

t!ie

Dodo and

other

configuration of this aspect, as far as can be judged, closely resembles that in the

Dodo, and the same may be said of the

and

lateral

surface are bent downwards, so as to encroach

inferior facets

but the posterior angles of the upper

on the temporal segments of the orbito-temporal

fossae

hence the temporal notches are less apparent when viewed from above, and the surfaces bearing the

muscular impressions, slope more rapidly downwards than in the Dodo, but to a

common

The prefronto-ethmoidal

Pigeons.

and the evasation of the turbinated

fissure

not so

is

completely

obliterated

would sweep, gently convex, downwards from the vertex

to the cranio-facial line.

The

Dodo

as in the

marked, and more resembling that in Goura.

ala is less

than in the

less extent

The

profile

hne

cranial cavity in its

form corresponds to that in the Dodo.

Although we have ventiu'ed

to

differ

from the

illustrious

belonging to a galHnaceous bu-d, we trust we shall be excused

skuU

of the

Dodo

at

Oxford, has

it

was

less

who regarded

its affinity

figure given

tion between the pecidiar columbhie cere

cranium

tliis

is

it

as

with the

with that bird, and consequently


yet

robust and more depressed than in the Dodo, and that

Judging from the

the cranium.

no doubt on our minds of

Cuvier,

since a careful comparison of

Unfortunately no portion of the upper mandible

with the Columhida.


ture that

left

it

known, but we may

conjec-

was only a httle longer than

by Leguat, the caruncular ridge forming the hne of demarca-

and the feathered skin of the head, was placed

at the

proximal

extremity of the beak, and not on the forehead as in the Dodo.

We may hence
however,

it is

suppose that the Sohtaire

is less

inseparably united in the family

remote from the Treronma than the Dodo, with which,

BidhuB ; the absence

other dissimilarities previously mentioned, estabhsh provisionally


of the beak

wiU

of the frontal protuberance

and the

generic distinction, and the chscovery

settle this question.

Less satisfactory evidence


is

its

is

deducible from the mutilated sternum (Plate XIII. Fig. 5

similarly incrusted with stalagmite.

with the costal margin

It

but the external

is

most perfect on the

lateral

left side,

the

left costal

&

6),

which

process remaining,

processes are removed, and probably, also, a considerable

Ch.

OF THE SOLITAIRE.

II.]

portion posteriorly, including the mesial emarginations

form of the manubrial process


Pigeons; on

differs

The

forwards as in the Gallhue.

there

enough preserved

not

is

bird,

flightless

may

refer to

articular surfaces are

to indicate its size

is

had a well developed

and form

The

anterior

the

edge of the keel

the anterior, probably, precurved angle


;

of

but unfortimately,

This sternal

fragment

is

in

this

grooved, and

deficient

is

and there

keel

is

the deep

a deep depression at

is

four inches and a

and four inches broad.

The absence

of any trace of the mesial fissure in the fragment preserved, and the form of the manubrial

process, distinguish this sternum from that of the typical Gall'mce.

and the small nimiber of

process,

keel,

on the purpose

seen posteriorly, beneath the manubrial process

the root of the costal process, anteriorly, as in Goura, &c.


half long,

The

however, preserved.

apparently tliree in number, with intervening

to have

Mr. Strickland's remarks.^

deeply concave, as in the Galllna, but

pneumatic excavation

is,

horizontal than in Pigeons, and ascends obliquely

less

is

The sternum appears

cellular spaces, as in Goura, &c.

the origin of the keel

from that in the sternum of the GaU'uia, but resembles that in most

contrary, the costal process

tlie

115

costal articular facets, indicate

The presence of the keel

and that of the Eagle or Vulture, &c.

The

great development of the costal

a greater difference between


is

a proof of

its

this

sternum

non-affinity to the

Strutkionid/e.

The

left

satisfactorily

Immerns (Plate XIV. Fig. 1 to 3) in the Parisian

compared with that

in Pigeons,

which

that there

distinctive character

it

Columbine form. It

is

four inches eight Unes long

incrasted

is sufficient,

was probably absent.

The

Solitaire

would give
might

employed

sufficient

as a

nothing to prevent

also incrasted,

" the

weapon

its

being regarded, as belonging to a

little

round mass under the

feathers, as big as a

the leg

Although the wing was wholly inadequate

of the Solitaire in the Andersonian Musemii.

Right femur

(Plate

XIV.

Pig. 4-7.)
inches.

Length from the inter-condyloid notch

to the upper surface of the neck

from the external condyle to the extremity of the great trochanter


Transverse diameter of the shaft
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto

Transverse diameter of the superior extremity


of the lower

ditto

Left femur, with the extremities mutilated


Transverse diameter of the shaft
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto

3.

Length

......
......

of fragment of the right femui', with the extremities mutilated

Transverse diameter of the shaft


Antero-posterior diameter of ditto
^

musket

ball,"

the length of the wing, as indicated by that of the humerus,

running.

Bimeimons of the bones of

2.

and cannot be

the ^Jectoral crest was broken off before the bone became

leverage for this purpose.

assist this large bird in

1.

is

short obtuse process of the rudimentary metacarpal of the thumb, covered with

horn, as in Cliauna, &c., formed

it

Museum

the less to be regretted, since this bone furnishes no

the large pneumatic depression does not necessarily imply the existence of pneumaticity, wliicli

which the

is

is

Part

I.

Chap.

2. p. 54, supra.

2h

for flight,

[Part

OSTEOLOGY

116

(Plate

Left tibia

XV.

Fig. 1-1.)

..66

Length from the inter-condyloid groove to the termination of the fibular


ridge

Transverse diameter of the shaft


7

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto

Breadth of the lower extremity


3

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto

Left metatarsus

(Plate

XV.

Fig. 2-25.)

Probable length from the lower border of the middle trochlea to the

summit

of the iBtcr-condyloid tubercle

Transverse diameter of the shaft


Antero-posterior diameter of ditto, at the upper border of the articular
surface for posterior metatarsal

Transverse diameter of the lower extremity

....

Distance from the upper border of the articular facet for the posterior
metatarsal to the internal inter-trochlear notch

II.

Ch.

OF THE SOLITAIRE.

II.]

As
and a

formerly mentioned, thiee/emora are contained in the Andersonian Miiseimi, two right and one

femur incrusted

left

perfect of the former

vidual

117

mth

stalagmite, in the Parisian Collection (Plate

the right femur

is

{i6.

Fig. 4-7), wliich

XIV.

nearly entire, and belongs to a

is

destitute of the pneumatic foramen, as in all Pigeons, except Goiira.

it is

same bone in Pigeons


Imt

much

it is

not arched forwards as in the

In a

tvjjical Rajotores.

young

The femur,

does not yield any very distinctive character, but that in question resembles very closely in

left

The most

Fig. S-10).

indi-

in general,

femur of the same

left

the

all respects,

size,

mutilated at the extremities, and belonging probably to an adult female, the compact parietes of the

one eighth of an inch externally, and one line and a half internally

shaft were

Crane, of larger

but possessed of pneumaticity,

size,

while the femur of the gigantic

The

only half a Line in thickness.

is

cancellated tissue

extends into the medullary cavity for a short distance at each end, and chiefly along the inner wall
inferiorly

and the

The

perforations.

medullary cavity

lined

is

specimen, also

tliird

of the

by

left

side,

thin
is

than either of the former, and belongs evidently to an adult male

but

in any gallinaceous bird,

allowance

made

is

exactly equal

is

in size

for the thickness of the incrustation.

osseous

lamina,

equally

imperfect,

the coated

to

but

minute

much

is

larger

larger than the corresponding

it is

few and

with

femur

Pig.

{ib.

bone

8-10), when

There can be no reasonable doubt, that these bones

appertain to one and the same species, the diversity in size being attributable to differences in age and sex.

The fragment
Goura

of the left tibia

(Plate

XV.

and judging from analogy, the upper

closely resembles the corresponding

Pig. 1, 1 a)
tliird

removed, so that

is

probably nine inches and a half ; the thickness of the parietes of the shaft

its

is

when

length,

bone in

perfect,

about one Hue.

was

Its distal

articular SOTface corresponds in size to the proximal extremity of the perfect metatarsus {ib. Pig. 3, 3 c).
Its length indicates a bird of great stature,
taller

Like the humerus and femur,

than a Turkey.

importance

distinguishes

and fuUy

Leguat's statement, that the Solitaire

justifies

this

the osseous bridge under which the tendon of the

M.

extensor communis digitoriim passes,

once from the corresponding bone in the Struthionidce.

it at

is

bone furnishes, in general, but few characters of

The

styloid inferior extremity

of ihefbida was probably more elongated dowTiwards than in Goura.

Fortunately

we

Dodo, and thus to

the Parisian Collection,

is

of these extinct birds.

by the cranium.

covered with stalagmite


It differs

the ratio being as seven to

form of the shaft

compare that important bone

are enabled to

test the evidence afforded

supporting buttress

five

from that

nevertheless,

in the

Dodo,

it

in the form of the ecto-calcaneal process


;

size

in the

3-3

d), in

Fig.

enables us to estabhsh the family affinity

and

relative sleuderness,

and in the great development of

this

Museum

Fig.

and although much mutUated

The proximal extremity

We

2-2

^),

and belonging to an immature individual, points out

Solitaire,

in the expansion of

more

distinctly the

by an examination of the

wliich exactly resembles the Parisian

at the extremities,

of a right metatarsus

are enabled to state

bone in the Dodo and


{jh.

its

in the calcaneal tube opening on the outer

in the presence of the articular facet for the accessory metatarsus

metatarsus iu the Andersonian

specimen in form and

homologue

but the metatarsus of the Solitaire resembles that of the Dodo, in the

minute configuration between

wise unattainable.

[ib.

right metatarsus

iu its greater length

the distal extremity, and in the relative levels of the trochlcBe.

left

its

The

in the projection of the ento-calcaneal process,

surface of the buttress

differences in

the metatarsus, with

{ih.

it

supplies information other-

Fig. 4), found with the preceding,

distinctly the relation of the

calcaneal

tube to the

buttress.

'^t posterior metatarsal must have had the same dimensions


conjecture, that

be

less robust,

it

as that in the

possessed the characteristic form of that bone in the Columbida.

and more elongated than in the Dodo.

Dodo, and we may

The

toes

safely

would, perhaps,

[Part

OSTEOLOGY.

118
The metatarsus

II.

of the Solitaire differs from that of the Dodo, not only in the greater elongation and

antero-posterior expansion of the central portion of the shaft, but also in the greater breadth and transverse
flatness of the external border, or surface

uncovered by muscle, which does not curve round the upper part

of the tumid external metatarsal pillar, as in the Dodo, but encroaches on and flattens that element, so that
this

margin

is

upper moiety

concave vertically in the Solitaire;

its

anterior

The concavity beneath the proximal extremity


central

and external elements

is

is
is

the Dodo,

it

is

deeper, and its floor angular

but the inner

pillar is

convex in

sUglitly

rounded

is

more convex and tumid than

for the attaclmient of the Tibialis anticus is in contact with the internal

The

imier impressed.

raised, the

slightly

shorter and less distinct

and the tendon

is

it

the outer

M.

groove for the tendon of the

adductor

transmitted tlirough a canal, formed posteriorly

by an osseous band, connecting the adjacent posterior edges of the peduncles of the two external
a small oval foramen remaining above

indicis, is imperceptible,

and adductor

and

for the transmission of vessels,

it

The Une

bridge connecting them anteriorly.


pollicis

its

off.

the outer wall formed by the

and extends on both walls of the concavity, a deep groove bisecting

inter-osseous foramen,

annularis

is

only slightly concave

in the Dodo. The rounded surface

se'Tnent

in

wliile

and posterior edges are acute, but the anterior in the Dodo

aU birds, by the

in front, as in

of demarcation between the surfaces for the

and the iimer

M.

limit of that for the

troclileae,

M. M.

extensor

extensor medii meets

the outer at the lower extremity of the median concavity.

The inner border


a

plane with a

flat

instead of being thin and ridge-like in


posterior edge, the anterior is

sliarp

and terminates below

slopes very slightly outwards,

upper and middle

tumid

its

upper

rounded

tliird,

ofi'

as in the

a rough projection situated

at

the bone, corresponding to a minute one in the

thii'ds of

inner part of the anterior aspect

is

broadly rounded

off

Dodo,

this plane

junction of the

at the

Dodo

replaced by

is

young individuals

in

beneath which, the

These surfaces

towards the internal surface.

are separated by a prolongation of the posterior margin of the replacing plane, which descends to the meta-

convex posteriorly

tarsal facet, describing a curve

the convexity of the anterior surface, at


it

a little above the articular facet.

in the

iii-st

of the inner edge,

the anterior margin of the plane

and afterwards converging

The inner edge beneath

Dodo, and more extended inwards.

regai-d to the shaft as in the

parallel to,

Dodo. The

this facet is

is

relative position

is

probably more convex.

From

articular facet.

is

much narrower than

Dodo, and passes more directly into the groove lodging the tendon, which, however,

The

defined than in the Dodo.

attachment

to

faint ridge

The

the flattening of the outer border and the

less projection of the calcaneal buttress, the surface for the Abductor indicis

distinctly

with

narrower, from the replacement

is

and more elongated, extending to within an inch of the metatarsal

edge of the calcaneal buttress

meeting

less concave, being thinner than

The medullary foramina have the same

fossa for the M.JJexor brevis jjollicis

prolonged down on

to the posterior,

which bounds

tliis

is

in the

deeper and more

impression internally, and gives

the inter-muscular ligament from wliich the Plexor brevis jjoUicis arises, subsides before

reaching the articular facet.

The

gi-eater elongation

of the outer

and antero-posterior expansion of the central part of the

and inner borders are the most characteristic and

the Sohtaire and that of the Dodo.

In

all

essential differences

other respects they agree very closely

shaft,

and the breadth

between the metatarsus of


;

the dimensions, even, of

the troclileaj and of the upper extremity, and the absolute height of the posterior metatarsal articular facet are
alike in both.

Those points

in

wldch the metatarsus of the Sohtaire

differs

from that in the Dodo,

are, in

some measui-e, repeated in Phaps, which has nearly the same relation to Geophaps that the Solitaire has to the
Dodo, in the proportionate lengths of the metatarsi.

The metatarsus examined

similar to those found in the bones of birds dying in menageries, the

exhibits

compact osseous

marks

tissue

is

of disease

opened out

along the lower moiety of the outer border, and in a circular space one inch beneath the proximal extremity,

Ch.

OP THE SOLITAIEE.

II.]

so that the bone

lower node
are

more

more acted on by atmosplieric agencies

is

removed (Plate XV. Fig. 2

is

distinct

a,

The

2U).

119

at these places

orifices

The

than usual, and give the surface a granular aspect.

immature specimen

[ib.

Fig. 4) are nearly one Hue thick

and a small piece of the

of the minute periosteal Haversian canals


parietes of the shaft in the

the medullary canal

divided, as usual, into

is

three compartments by two thin partitions, which diverge as they pass from the anterior to the posterior wall

the cancellated tissue extends farther towards the middle of the shaft, in the narrow lateral,

than in the wide central division.

We have

now

Dodo

ascertained that the cranium of the Solitaire resembles that of the

in

numerous

important poiats, differing in such respects only, as would justify us in regarding these birds as specifically

The

distinct.

metatarsus, also,

and proportion

as

confined to distinct localities,

The marked

genus.

principally distinguished

is

from that in the Dodo, by such variations

might occur in species of the same genus. But

we

are warranted

dissimilarity in external

caruncular ridge in the

in a small family, the

from analogy, in regarding each

form between the Dodo and

in size

of wliich are

forming the type of a

as

Solitaire,

members

and the position of the

together with the shorter beak, fully justify the establishment of another genus

latter,

{Pezophajjs) in the Bidina, to include this lost form.

That the Dodo and SoHtaire belong

to the

same extinct

sub-family of the Columbidte, characterized chiefly by the peculiar structure of the cranium and rudimentary

we

condition of the wings, no one will,

dence
nill

trust, doubt,

who has

and impartiallv examined the

carefully

evi-

the discovery of the osseous remains of the other extinct birds, supposed to beloncj to this group,

enable us more strictly to define

Columlce.

We regard the

Dodo, and

boundaries, and

its

its affine

nine sub-type, but having no immediate

which are more

its

aUiances with the other sub-families of the Order

the SoHtaire, as terrestrial

affinity

fliightless

modifications of the Trero-

with the other ground Pigeons, as Goura, Calcenas, &c.,

directly allied to the ordinary Columhina.

For the reception of that modification

sub-type, represented by the B'uhincidus,

of the Treronine

we

propose to establish the sub-family Gnathodontina, in the hope that other members of the group remain to be
discovered in the Polynesian Islands.
Toria,

which

raptorial
affines

diti'ers

form of the upper gnathotheca.

probably

group of

The Gnathodontime are connected

birds,

to the TreronincB by the sub-genus

from the typical Treron in the abbreviation of the mandibles, and in the pseudo-

exist, or

The Bidnncnlus

is

have become extinct like the Dodo and

ha\ang no direct

affinity either

essentially a perching bird,

Solitaire.

The Pigeons form

with the Insessores or Gallince.

The

Gallina, then, approach the Pigeons through Pterocles,

From

when

present,

is

terrestrial

a perfectly isolated

rasorial

approaches the Pigeons in the structure of the cranium, and in the form of the metatarsus
tute of the peculiar columbine cere, and the liind toe,

but

genus Pterocles
but

it is

desti-

rudimentary and elevated.

The

but no fusion of these groups

is

thus effected.

other considerations, the Prince of Canino and Col. Sykes had, also, previously recognised the ap-

proximation of Pterocles to the Columbida. The pecuhar cere, and the great development of the nasal scales,
are characteristic of the Columhida,
are nourished.

milky

fluid,

and probably have some

relation to the

ened mucous membrane of the crop of the parents, and pom'ed into
rating ingesta, and the

mode

analogous to the lacteal secretion in Mammalia,

young of

its cavity,

is

where

certain species tlu-ust their beaks into the throat

the food thus provided.

in

which the nestlings

elaborated by the thickit

mixes with the mace-

of the parent, to obtain

Part II.

Postscry^t to

When

work was on the eve of publication, we received the Bulletin de

this

I' Academie Imp. de

Petersboiirg, vol.

St.

vii.

No.

la Classe phys. math, de

3, containing an abstract of a paper by Professor J. F.

Brandt, entitled " Untersuchungen iiber die Verwandtschaften, die systematische Stellung, die geograpliische

Verbreitung und die Vertilgung des Dodo, nebst Bemerkungcn

den Nachbarinseln desselben

friiher

Dec.,17, 1847, contains the author's views of the

He

siderably from our own.

1.

The Dodo, taken

affinities

eim Vaterlande des Dodo, oder auf


This memoir, which was

of the Dodo, wliich,

it

will

be seen,

read
con-

differ

comparison of a cast of the Copenhagen Dodo-head

states that after a diligent

with the osteological series in the Petersbui'g

"

iiber die

vorhandenen grossen Wadvogel."

Museum, he had

arrived at the following conclusions

regard either to the anatomy, or to the outer form of the head and foot,

strictly, in

was not a Raptorial Bird, not even an anomalous one, although the

last

opinion has been adopted by several

modern English and French naturalists of liigh reputation.


" 2. The great difference in the form of its skull and beak from those of the Ostrich, equally forbids us
to include

it,

as

the texture of

was formerly done, in that family of

its

plumage,

its

strong and

(in

birds, although

it

approached them in

general form) not very dissimilar

feet,

its

short wings,

and the mode of scutu-

lation of the tarsi.

"

3.

Neither can the

Dodo be included among

differences of its cranial structure,

the Gallinaceous birds, on account of the very important

and other discrepancies of outward form

although the form of

its

tarsus

and the organization of its toes come very near to those of many Gallinae.
" 4. The Dodo agrees in the form of the majority of its cranial bones, and even in the shape of the
beak, with the prevailing type of the Pigeons, as I had perceived, in
in the
its

summer

of 1846.

Yet, considering the

diti'erent

form of the

common with my
frontal, vertical,

colleague

and

v.

Hamel,

occipital facets of

cranium, and the different shape and size of the lachi'ymal bone,^ the palate bone, upper mandible, and

maxillary continuation of the nasal, as well as the diversity of the wings, toes, and plumage, 1
refer it to the Pigeons, either

"

5.

The Dodo, a bird provided with divided

Waders, among which

appears, from

it

to forms in this order), to

am

unable to

unmediately, or even as an aberrant form.

its

many

toes

and cursorial

best classed in the order of

feet, is

peculiaiities (most of wliich,

however, are quite referable

be an anomalous link connecting several groups, a

Unk

which, for the reasons

above given, inclines towards the Ostriches, and especially also towards the Pigeons.

"

a.

In regard to the cranial structm-e it approaches, among the Waders, most nearly to the Plovers, a

group which also points, the most cleaily of aU Waders, to the type of the Pigeon's
'

Prefrontal of this Treatise.

'

"The

treatise

typical

on the Dodo.

and great

similarity of the skull in

One may

t^ie

Pigeons and Plovers

is

skull.^ It inclines, it is true,

placed in juxtaposition in

accordingly regard the Plovers as Pigeon-forms, developed

among

my

the Waders, and

POSTSCRIPT.
in a few points,
as the

more

directly to the Pigeons

121

than the Plovers do, yet these points, taken

with other groups of Waders.

Moreover the Dodo, as already shown,

of several of the cranial bones,

points of connection with different

"

The

b.

resembles Chauna

"

it

which

differs

from the Pigeons in the form

exist also in the Ckaradrii,

and occur

as

birds.

Grus pavonina, Chionis, and Scolopax


lower part, Chionis ; in

its

ntsticola, since, in regard to outline,

great

its

amount of

arcliing generally,

it

it

in the very broad superior extremities of the laclirymal bone, trending towards the

agrees with Scolopax rusticola.

The form

c.

Wading

in the arching of

Kke Gnis pavonina

forehead,

differences, nearly all of

such

as well as

form of the frontal region of the Dodo's skull indicates a combination of the

reniiu'kable

frontal structure in Chauna,

is

strictly, are

Pigeons have in common, not, indeed, with the Ckamdni, but wholly with the Porphp-io,

of the crown and occiput of the

Dodo reminds

us of Forpliyrio,

Grm pavonina,

the

GaUincB, &c., but not of the Pigeons.

"

The

d.

elevated upper mandible of the Dodo, in which

from the Charadrii and Pigeons,

cUffers

it

refers us to Ciconia, Tantalus, Ibis.

"

The broad maxillary continuation

e.

of the nasal bone in the

Dodo, points to Ciconia and Porphyria.

"f. The palatines of the Dodo, wliich do not slope outwards at the inner margin of their anterior
extremity, are formed as in the Griiince, Scolopacince, and Charadriince, but not as in the Pigeons.

" g. The bones

Wading
"

The naked

h.

The beak

i.

forehead, cheeks, and gular region refer to

among

the

Tantalus, Grus leucofferanus, and so to

and many Gallinm, much more than to the Vultures, and not
of the

Dodo,

beak of a Charadrius,

colossal

agree best with those ol Hamatopus,

Birds.

Ciconia, Mi/cteria,

"

Dodo

of the feet and toes in the

with the Vulture, as

in

its

general form,

as of a Pigeon.

On

as correctly regarded to

the other hand,

greatly therefrom in

it differs

may be

its

at all to the Pigeons.

it

be a slightly modiiied

seems inadmissible to connect this bird

short hooked extremity, only sUghtly emarginate at

the lower edge.

"

The

k.

nostrils, placed far forwards,

and resembling perpendicular

many

those of Chionis, in part also with those of

fissures,

show a resemblance with

Pigeons, but hardly with those of

many Vultures

(nicht

aber bios mit denen mancher Geier).

" The Dodo may

also

group of Waders, so that


cated

as

be placed before the Dove-like Charadrii, as an anomalous form and a peculiar


its affinity

to Cranes, Storks,

Woodcocks,

Ibises,

I have done in a special table, which exhibits the single famdies of the Pigeons,

Ostriches, and

Waders, arranged according to

nections of the

Dodo

to the Ostriches

In a note appended

" In order

and Pigeons are shown by dotted

to this paper. Professor

to establish

my

more exactly

In the same

their relations of affinity.

Brandt thus

past, present,

relates the progress of his researches

and

future,

whoUy independent,

opinion, with

beg to make the following obser-

Already in May, 1846, when Dr. Hamel had laid before the Academy a cast of the Copenhagen

Dodo's head (Bull. Phys. Math.


skuUs of other birds in the

vol. v. p.

Museum

311), I invited him to join

of the

Academy.

It

and requested

Mm to

make

it

known

greatly allied in the structure of their beaks


as they pronounced the

Dodo

to

to the

be actually a Pigeon."

in comparing the cast with the

communicated

BerKn Academy

a relation which

me

soon resulted that the Dodo was no Vulture,

Ostrich, or GaUine, but rather a Pigeon-hke bird. I soon after briefly


tenstein,

Galliuce,

table, also, the con-

lines."

reference to Messrs. Strickland's and Melville's researches on the Dodo, I


vations.

and Water-hens may be indi-

this result to

M. Lich-

or the Natural History Society.

was unobserved by Strickland and

Melville,

It

inasmuch

POSTSCRIPT.

122

was only in the autumn of 1847, that I had an opportunity of following up the observations in question

more

accurately, but

a cursorial

bii-d

especially as

continued researches arrived at the conclusion that the

Dodo was

better placed as

in the vicinity of the Plovers, which are very like the Pigeon in the form of their skulls

many

already arrived

my

others of

its

wading

characters were also noticed in various

and communicated to

at,

several

friends

(v.

This result was

birds.

Baer, Kutorga, v. Middenderf, &c.) before

I learnt Mr. Strickland's opinion."

The preceding remarks on the


comment, were

it

affinities

of the Dodo, by Professor Brandt, would scarcely require any

not for the distinguished reputation of the Author as a Zoologist.

granted, that with

all

the materials extant for the decision of

tliis

question, at our

It will readily

be

command, we have more

ample means of instituting the requisite comparisons, than the learned Professor, who had only a rough
cast of the imperfect

head

at

Copenhagen.

The

superficial resemblances, in the contour of the skull,

and

in the covering of the upper mandible, between Pigeons and Plovers, have been long kno^vn to naturalists

and were thus indicated by Swainson, in 1836


the Plovers
is

short,

" Their heads

with the basal

are tliick,

lialf

soft,

and

(Classification of Birds, vol. 2. p. 175),

their eyes large, dark,

and placed

far

but the outer half becomes abruptly thick

and

notched, so as closely to resemble that of the Pigeon family, which in the Rasorial
represent the great order of Waders."

We

were

weU acquainted

when speaking

back in the head ; the


is

of

bill

often obsoletely

circle,

appears to

with these superficial analogies; but,

both from actual observation of the marked and essential differences in the structure of the cranium and
foot in Pigeons, fi'om that of the corresponding parts in Plovers,

and

also

from a more correct interpreta-

tion of external characters, which, if rightly understood, are as valuable as those furnished by anatomical

investigation,

we were

led to reject the hypothesis of any direct affinity existing between these families.

Professor Brandt seems in

tliis

instance to have mistaken analogy for affinity, and in his anxiety to discover

method

a link connecting dissevered groups, has wandered from the true

of investigation.

The

figures

here given of the skull, and of the metatarsi, and the accurate representations of the integuments of

the head

and

foot,

will

now

enable our continental brethren to

decide this interesting question for themselves

make

and -it only remains

vations on the family characters of the skull in Pigeons, p. 97, su^ra.

the necessary comparisons, and to

to call their attention to the obser-

APPENDIX,

and German passages

Literal Translations of the Latin, French, Butch,


1.

Page

taken more by hand, or kUled them with


Parrots are also

common

there,

and other

birds, besides a large kind, bigger than our swans, with large heads, half

The

tail consists

These birds want wings, in place of which are three or four blackish

Are Tortoises which frequent the

they crawl very

Fig. 3. Is a

curled feathers

Another reason

bii'd,

and catch crawfish a foot

called

by us Walckvogel, the

in length,

for

Their stomachs,

name was

that

we had an

size that

they load a

size of

a Swan.

distributing their

game

but eat

The rump

is

round, covered with two or three

We

it

to each ship,

and we

As soon

half raw.

took a number of these

and other birds, which were captured by our companions when they

country to seek for inhabitants, but

we took and

eat.

they have no wings, but in place of them three or four black feathers.

sailed the next

from among those who had been there before.

kill

for the

swimming, of such

which they

the country, in quest of a deep and potable river where the ships could

us to

them Walckvogel,

flavour.

land, deprived of paddles for

stiffly,

birds, together with Turtle-doves

sufficiently,

called

were boiled, the tougher and more uneatable they became.

" Declaration de ce qu'avons veu," &c.

9.

Fig. 1.
;

We

of a few slender, curved feathers, of a grey colour.

abundance of Tm-tle-doves, of a much sweeter and more agreeable

man

Ch. I,

men sometimes captured 150 in half a day, and might easily have
if we had not been overloaded with the burden of them.
Grey

however, and breasts were well tasted and easy to masticate.

Page

I.,

sticks,

covered with skin like a hood.

is

this reason, that the longer they

2.

Part

products, feeds vast numbers of bu-ds, such as Turtle-doves,

fertile in terrestrial

which occur in such plenty, that three of our

feathers.

relating to the Dodo, in

"Insula dicta praeterquam," &c.

9.

This island, besides being very

of which

A.

as

We

day for

lie

They returned

in safety.

first visited

in great joy,

this harbour, supplying each ship

with a pUot

cooked this bird, which was so tough that we could not boil

we reached

the harbour, the Admiral sent us with several

we foimd none, only

Tiu-tle-doves

and other birds

men

it

into the

in great abundance,

which

IdUed, for as there was no one to scare them, they had no fear of us, but kept their places and allowed

them.

In short,

a country abounding in fish

it is

and

birds,

insomuch that

it

exceeded aU the others

visited during the voyage.

Fig. 3.

of them, and
flavom-

Date-tree, the leaves of which are so large that a

when one bores a

but when one keeps

Fig. 4.

They

Is a bird

are very tame,

hole in

it

them and puts

three or four days,

shelter himself

becomes

soui".

wine

It is called

which we called Rahos Forcados, on account of their

and when

their

we proved with

those which

we

breasts.

They catch and

captured, for

we

called Indian

mild and sweet

Palm-wine.
tails

which are shaped

like sheers.

The beak

is

long,

eat flying-fish, also the intestines of fish

when we were

they seized and devom'ed the entrails and bowels of their comrades.
Fig. 5. Is a bird which

from the rain under one

like dry wine, of a

wings are stretched they are nearly a fathom in length.

and the birds are nearly black, with white


birds, as

it

man may

in a pipe, there issues

and

dressing them, and threw away the entrails,

They were very tough when cooked.

Crow, more than twice as big as the Parroquets, of two or three

colours.

2k

APPENDIX.

124
Pig.

Is a wild tree,

6.

on which we pLieed (as a memorial in case that ships should arrive) a tablet adorned

with the arms of Holland, Zealand, and Amsterdam, so that others arriving here, might see that the Dutch had

been there.
Fig. 7. This

is

many

Many

a Palm-tree.

marked A, a good cure

of these trees were felled by qui- companions, and they cut out the

for pains in the limbs.

two or three

It is

and sweet

long, white within,

feet

some

bud

ate as

as seven or eight of them.

They

Marmot.

Fig. 8. Is a Bat, with a liead like a

here in great numbers, and hang in flocks to the trees

fly

they sometimes fight and bite each other.

Here the smith

Fig. 9.

up a

set

forge,

and vn-ought

his ii-on

he also repaired some of the iron-work of

the ships.

we

Fig. 10. Ai'e huts which

work

we might

so that

Fig. 11.

Here our

and

built there of trees

leaves, for those

chaplain,

and the other

the smith and cooper at their

Phdippe Pierre Delphois, a sincere and plain-spoken man, preached a very severe

One

sermon, without sparing any one, twice diu'iag our stay in the island.
dinner,

who aided

start at the first opportunity.

after.

Here was Laurent

crew attended

half of the

it

before

Madagascar man) baptized, along with one or two of our

(a

own men.
Fig. 12.
at

3.

one haul,

Page

11.

Here we applied om'selves

all

"

Eodem quoquc

In the same island are found

Pigeons and Parrots, which were

4.

many

fat

foreign kind of Cock.

as

This foreign

theii"

Galliis

bii-d

ships which sailed from Holland in April, 1598, five

and from which the

While staying
saw a

head of this chapter


difl'erent in

the beak too was not

flat,

bluish spot between the yellow and the black.

and

in place of a tail

were four or

They

said that

form

The hind

five crisp curled feathers of a

is

in sight

for its

head was

large, covered

and curved, and in the lower was a

part of the

grey colour.

voyage which

copied.

was covered with few and short

it

longish black quills.

came

but thick and oblong, of a yellowish

colour next the head, with the extremity black, the upper mandible hooked

five

more

in the island, they noticed various kinds of

figure rudely dra^vn in a Journal of that

figm-c at the

was as large or larger than a Swan, but veiy

though with a membrane resembling a hood

no wings, but, in place of them, four or

birds, preferred the

their troubles.

peregriuus" kc.

Of those eight

return,

same place furnished an abundance of

the

and well flavoured, our crew, neglecting the larger

and among them a very strange one, of which

they published after

as

But

adapted for food.

of a mountainous island for which they gladly steered.


birds,

two barrels and a half

The men named them WalcMoclcen or

birds twice the size of Swans.

ill

and tender kinds, by feeding on which they solaced themselves in

Page 12. " Cap. IV. GalUnaceim

to wit,

loco," &c.

WalckuegeU, the flesh of which was not

delicate

and took an incredible quantity,

to fishing,

of difl'erent colours.

Its legs

feathers,

body was very

fat

and had

and

thick,

were thick rather than long,

the upper part as far as the knee covered with black feathers, the lower part and the feet yellowish

the feet were

divided into four toes, the three longer ones directed forwEirds, and the fourth, which was shorter, turned backwards,

and

all

of

them furnished with black

claws.

The

sailors called this bird in their

disgusting bird, partly because after a long boiling


indigestible, (except the breast

flesh did

more

delicate

and said that they could readily dispense with

and

savotu-y

They

it.

own

tongue, TFalgh-vof/el, that

it is

flavour,) partly because they could

therefore

no wonder that they despised

said further that in its stomach certain stones

were found, two of which I saw in the house of that accomplished man, Christian Porretus
forms, one

fall

they were of

and rounded, the other uneven and angular, the former an inch in length, which

the feet of the bird, the latter larger and heavier, and both of a greyish colour.

picked up by the bird on the sea-shore and then devoured

is,

not become more tender, but remained hard and

and stomach which they found of no despicable

get plenty of Tm-tle-doves which they found


this bird

its

and not formed

It is

in its stomach.

difl'erent

I have figured at

probable that they w-ere

APPENDIX.
5.

Page 13. " Op het

laut

125

onthouden," &c.

In this country occur Tortoises, TFalUchvogeU, Flamingos, Geese, Ducks, Field-hens, large and small Indian

Crows, Doves, some of which have red


Parrots with long
6.

(by eating which

tails

many

of the crew were

made

sick), grey

and green

some of which were there caught.

tails,

Page 16. " Verumenimverb, concinnata," &c.

down

After I had wi-itten

the history of this bird as well as I

could, I

happened to see

in the house of

Peter Pawius, Professor of Medicine ia the University of Leyden, a leg cut off at the knee, and recently brought

from Mauritius.
its

was not very long, but rather exceeded

It

thickness, however,

scales,

which

was

inches fi-om the knee to the bend of the foot

foui-

great, being nearly four inches in circumference,

were wider and yellow, but smaller and dusky behind.

in front

and

furnished with single broad scales, while the lower part was wholly caDous.
thick a leg

was barely two

was covered with numerous

The

part of the toes was also

toes were rather short for' so

middle one was not much over two inches, while that of the next to

for the length of the largest or

it

The upper

inches, of the hind one an inch

and

The claws of

a half.

were

all

tliick,

it

hard, black, less than an

inch long, but the claw of the hind toe was longer than the rest, and exceeded an inch.

7.

"On

Page 17.

"

They
called

y trouve encore," &c.

Men

vinter ooc sekeren," &c.

which some name Dodaersen, and others Bronten.

find there certain birds

them Walgh-vorjMn, because they were

large as a Swan, with small grey feathers, without wings or


beliiud fom- or five feathers

and

8.

more prominent than the

" Alle den

9.

They

are as

sides only small winglets,

and

large thick feet, with a large clumsy beak

as the

They

fist.

are tolerable eating, but the

tijt

dat

liier

lagen," &c.

the while they were here, they lived on Tortoises, Dodos, Pigeons, Tui-tle-doves, grey Parrots and other

and smoked

it,

and found

it

The

flesh of the

Land

Tortoises

was very weU

tasted.

They

very serviceable, as were the Dodos which they salted.

Page 18. "Es hat auch daselbst," &c.


There are

also

many

Birds, as Turtle-doves,

birds in size like Swans, with large heads.


in place of

them about

they are grey


daily caught

men

and

eat

5 or 6

call

them

many

They

of them.

wont to

For not only


the other

these,

but in general

all

their hands,

but were obliged to take good care that these

legs with their beaks, which are very strong, thick

I'isle

years old.

The

and hooked

for they

Maurice," &c.

I have seen in Mauritius birds bigger than a Swan,' without feathers on

down

the bh-ds there are so tame that they

bite desperately hard.

10. Page 32. " J'ay veu dans

black

In colour

they occm' there in great plenty, insomuch that the Dutch

wild Pigeons and Parrots with sticks, and caught them by hand.

Walckwgel with

them on the arms or

skin like a monk's cowl on the head, and no wings, but

bkewise in place of a taU are 4 or 5 curled feathers.

Totersten or TTalckvogel

also captured the Totersten or

birds did not bite

grey Parrots, 'Rabos forcados, Pield-hens, Partridges, and other

They have a

yellow feathers

killed the Turtle-doves as well as

are

They have

on their

arrived here

temps," &c.

le

game, which they caught by hand in the woods.


salted

first

the best part.

is

Page 17. " Pendant tout

AH

rest.

hai-ing

tail,

and have commonly in the stomach a stone as large

eyes,

stomach

Those who

able to procui-e plenty of others which were better.

the hinder part

is

round, the

rump adorned with

In place of wings they have feathers

figure of this bird

" bird of disgust."

is

like these last,

iu the second navigation of the

Dutch

the body, which

curled feathers as

many

in

is

black and curved, without webs.

to the East Indies, in the

covered with a

number

as the bird

is

They have no

29th day of the year 1598.

They

tall it

APPENDIX.

126
beak

tontnies, the

cm-ving a

is large,

has a cry like a o-osUng, and

It

is

They

stone the size of a hen's egg.

knUs the youn"' one, a grey stone

"De

Page 24.

Of

Dronte

aliis

seems

like a

membrane

lay on grass

which they

In size

The eyes

hood.

collect,

We

found in the gizzard.

Among

pygmy among them

like a

to eat as the

white, the size of a hal^enny

call

Flamingos and Ducks of which we have just

it is

for its

the

same

colour.

The gape

strong and black.


breast,

is

between an Ostrich and a Turkey, from which

you regard the rump, the

in respect of the shortness of its legs.

are large

and black

is

fat,

quills,

legs

The bird

eatable,

if

one

fat is excellent

The head

and

are
is

it

is large,

the neck cm-ved, prominent, and fat

is

On

yellow, thick, but very short

is

called

partly differs in form

and the plumage

tail,

five

and both

The body

quills, it is

with

so that

the beak remarkably

black, the upper yellowish,

each side, in place of

clumsy, covered with

hideous, enormously wide, as though formed for gluttony.

is fat,

furnished

curved plumes of

the toes are four, stout, long, scaly, and the claws

slow and stupid, easUy taken by the hunters.

Their

flesh,

especially that of the

so abundant that three or four Brontes have sometimes sufficed to feed a hundred

If not well boiled, or old, they are

seamen.

forests

The

In this island a bird of wonderful

wings, of a yellowish grey, and behind the rump, in place of

Tlie

which they place a white

reckoned that which by some

is

black ebony.

round, and clothed with gi-ey feathers in the manner of Ostriches.


\vith small feathered

side of

them Oiseaux de Nazaret.^

long and strong, of a bluish white, except the ends, of which the lower
pointed and hooked.

by the

roll,

and make their nests in the

the islands of the East Indies

partly agrees, especially with the African Ostrich, if

anA

legs are long, scaly, with only three toes on each foot.

Dodaers," &c.

the Dronte or Dodaers.

form, called Dronte, abounds.

is

is

and by our countrymen, Mauritius, most famous

Cerue,

it

tlieir

and nerves.

to give ease to the muscles

II.

by no means so savoury

egg which

lay one

They only

spoken.

downwards

little

more

difficult

of digestion,

and when

salted, are stored

among

the

ship's provisions.

Pebbles of various foijn and


there, as the vulgar

size,

and the saUors

of a grey colour, are found in the stomach of these birds, not however formed
believe,

but swallowed on the sea shore

as

appeared that these birds agree with the nature of the Ostrich, since they swallow

though by
all

this

proof also

it

kinds of hard substances

without digesting them.

Page 25.

11.

No.
the

5 is the

Dutch

have

first

5 ist ein kopif," &c.

head of a foreign Bird which Clusius names Gallm peregrinus, Nierenberg Cygnus
said to have taken to

TFalglmogel, from the disgust which they are

discovered this

two winglets,

Perhaps

in 17 S.

"Num.

like the

this

bii'd

in the island of Mauritius

Emeu and

and

it

is

its

hard

flesh.

cucullatus,

and

The Dutch seem

stated to have no wings, but in place of

to

them

the Penguins.

name has been given them from having been found

in the isle of Nazareth,

which

is

higher up than that of Mauritius,

APPENDIX,

B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE BIDING


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Fishes, Insects, &c.

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Voyages

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354.

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Bomare

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Clerc de).

10

2.

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1801-1805

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1773. (roTpe?) MuLLER (P. L. S.)

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).

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Oiseau de Nazare, et sur

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les

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la petite Isle

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ineptus)

1784. (Bronte)

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Leske (N. G.)

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vol. 3. pp. 1, 4. pi.

aucta, reformata.

1789. (Tolpel)

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70. Sup.

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J.

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pi. 25.

4to. Argentorati, 1783, pp. 132, 163.

M.)

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Leipzig, 1784.

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vol. 1. p.

728.

universelle et portative. 4to.Paris,1788,pp.l88,386.

Versuch einer Anleitung zur Kenntniss und Geschichte der Thiere und

akademische Vorlesnngen entworfen.

Bechstein

2 vols. 8vo. Jena, 1788-89.

Gemeinnutzige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands.

4 vols.

1789-95.
1790. (Bronte) YvnKy:. (C. v.)
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fiir

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and B. Nazaremis) Gmelin

Gottingeu,

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p.

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Miueralien,

8vo.

Metz, 1803

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(J.)

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1781-1785;

London, 1825,

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W.

J.).

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Nutz

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17901823

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Shaw (George).

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Donndorff

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143

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Bechstein

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vol. 2.

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pi. 71.

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(J. P.)

Tableau elementaii-e de I'Histoire NatureUe des Animaux.

1 vol. Svo. Paris,

251.

Stewart
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p. 233.

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(C.)

edition. 2 vols. Svo.

first

BoRY

Edinburgh, 1817;

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from their

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vol. 3. p. 19.

35.

pi.

Cuvier (George).

vi., p.

*1804. (Dodo)

Blumenbach

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Omithologische Beytrage zur

A.)

1795

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London, 1790-1813

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(J.

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An.

vols. Svo.

166.

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1796.

Miscellany, or coloured figures of Natural Objects drawn

Natui-alist's

and described immediately from Nature. 34

Vincent

4to.

London, 1801,

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B. G. M.)

(J.

Edinburgh, 1801

vols. Svo.

vol. 1.

219.

Mauritius, or the Isle of France, and the neighbouring Islands

discovery to the present time.

St.

vol. 1. p.

les

p.

144.*

quatre principales lies des Mers d'Afrique.

3 vols. Svo. Paris, 1804, vol. 2. p. 303.

*1806. (Dronte)

Dumeril

(Constant).

Svo. Paris, 1806, p. 56.

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Rees (Abraham).

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Shaw (George).

1809

vol. 1. p.

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213.

Article

in "

Didus

The New Cyclopsedia or Universal

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69.

pi.

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Prodromus Systematis Mammalium

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ct

Avium,

additis terminis

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1817

Cuvier (George).
vol. 1. p.

Le Eegue Ammal

463.Nouvelle edition.

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36

edition.

*1819.

(Dronte)

vols. Svo. Pai-is,

Dumont

vol. 13. p.

18161819
Article

(C.)

Temminck

se trouvent en

Europe

*1833. (Didus)

v. 9. p.

Deonte

1829

vol. 1. p.

497.

Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire NatureUe. Nouvelle

S.)

589;

v.

23. p. 431.

in "Dictionnaire des Sciences

natureUes."

Svo.

Paris;

1821-1824

Manuel

d' Ornithologie,

ou Tableau systematique des Oiseaux qui

precede d'une Analyse du Systeme general d' Ornithologie. 2nde edition, 4 vols.

1820-1840

(C. J.)

pt. 1. p. cxiv.

*1823. (Hooded Dodo and Nazarene Dodo)


chester,

W.

(C.

519.

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Svo. Paris,

Sonnini

distribue d'apres son organization. 4 vols. Svo. Paris,

5 vols. Svo. Paris,

vol. 8. pp.

Vigors (N. A.)

Latham

372, 375.

pi.

(John).

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Win-

135.

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Bu-ds; in the "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London." vol. 14. p. 484.

APPENDIX.
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Dumont

131

Oisead de NAZAREin

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Stephens

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F.)

(J.

continued by /. F. Stephens. 14 vols. 8vo. London, 1800-1826

Gray (John Edward).


Duncan (John Shute).

*1827. {Didns ineptui)

On

*1828. {Didiis hieptua)

Dodo, Bidns

justiiied in believing that the

neighbouring islands, untO a recent period

Esteup

*1828. {Bidm ineptus)

Staek

*1828. (Bidus ineptus)


p.

tlie

1828

summary review

308.

40.

pi.

of the authorities ou which naturalists are

was a bird existing

in

the Isle of France, or

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Ornithologien eUer Naturhistorie of de maerkveerdigste

Elements of Natural History.

(John).

vol. 14. p.

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173.

p.

Dodo

ineptus, Linn.,

Haandbog

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Fugle.

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494.

vol. 35. p.

2 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1828

vol. 1.

330.

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Lesson

Griffith

*1829. (Bodo)

Manuel d'Ornithologie ou

(R. P.)

2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1828

d'oiseaux.

Baron Cuvier

The Animal Kingdom arranged

(Edward).

with additional descriptions by E.

description des gem-es et des priucipales especes

vol 2. p. 210.

16

Griffith.

in conformity with its organization,

London, 1827-1835;

vols. 8vo.

by

vol. 8.

pp. 299, 443.

*1829. (Bodo)

Thompson

(J.

Contributions towards the Natural History of the

V.)

Dodo (Bidus

ineptus), a bird

which appears to have become extinct towards the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century
Loudon's " Magazine of Natural History." vol. 2. p. 443.
*1830. (Bodo)

Blainville

Museum

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BoiE

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Didus

Art.

(F.)

4to. Leipzig

ed.

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le

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du

257.

vol. 3. p.

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u.

545.

2nd

Principles of Geology.

On

in " Nouvelles Annales

in

1-4.

Zoologia specialis.

12mo. London, 1834;

*1833. (Bodo) KsiGRT (Charles).


p.

in

vol. 24. p.

*1833. (Zoc?o) Ltell (Charles).

3rd

Memoire sur

(H. D. de).

d'Histoire Naturelle." vol. 4. p.

ed.

3 vols.

8vo. London,

1833;

v.

157.

2, p.

60.

v. 3. p.

the Dodo, in the "

Penny Magazine."

8vo.

London, 1833-1846

vol. 2.

209.

*1835. (Bodo)

SwAiNSON (W.)

Treatise on the

Geography and

Classification of Animals, in Lardner's " Cabinet

Cyclopfedia." p. 112.

*1836. (Bodo)

WiEGMANN

V. 2. p.

*1836. (Bronte)

(A. F. A.)

Kaup

Das

(J. J.)

BtiCKLAND (WUliam).
Beonn

(H. G.)

pi.

44.

f.

"Revue Zoologique par la

130.

Svols. 8vo. and atlas 4to. Stuttgart,

(J.

E.)

The
de).

fiir

die Gebirgs-

1835-1837; pp.834,

article

Dodo

*1842. (Drortfe) Reinhardt

in the

"Penny

Cyclopaedia." vol. 9. p. 47.

Nouvelle Classification des Oiseaux de Proie, ou Rapaces

in the

Societe Cuvierienne." 1839. p. 193.

Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum.

1841. (Drow/f) Eeinhaedt (Cand.) in Froricp's "Notizen."

tf.

3 vols. 8vo.

7.

ineptus)

Geay

f.

Lethaea Geognostica, oder Abbildungen u. Beschreibungen der

Broderip (William John).


La Fresnaye (M.
(Bidus

*1840. (Bodo)

Naturgeschichte." 1836;

Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology.

vol. 2. p. 17. pi. 1.

*1837. (Bodo)

*1839.

fiir

233.

formationenbezeichnendsten Versteinerungen.

1171.

" ^^>aM's Archiv

Hauptformen systematisch beschrieben.

Thiei-reich in seinen

vol. 2. p.

2 vols. 8vo. London, 1836

*1837. (Bidus)

in

271.

Darmstadt, 1835, 1836

*1836. (Bodo)

Ueber den Dodo

(Cand.)

Noiere

Oplysning

om

Xroyer's " Naturhistorisk Tidskrift." Svo. Kiobenhavn

12mo. London, 1840.

p. 99.

1841. No. 364.


det
;

Kiobenhavn fimdne Drontehoved

vol. 4. p, 71.

in

APPENDIX.

1.32

Owen

*1842. (Dodo)

p. 143.

*1843. (Bidus ineptus)

Notice of Savery's picture at the

(Richard).

Lehmann

iiber

Penny Cyclopaedia."

vol. 23.

den Didus ineptus. 8vo. Kopenhagen; 1843.

vol. 21. p. 1.

Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Car.;

Strickland (H. E.)

*1844. (Dodo)

Ein Nachtrag

).

in the "

Hague

Report on the recent progress and present state of Ornithology in "Reports

of the British Association for the Advancement of Science" for 1844, p. 213.

*1S45. (Didus ineptus)

Owen

Descriptive and illustrated Catalogue of the fossil organic remains of

(R.)

malia and Aves contained in the

*1845. (Didus)

Hamel

Museum

of the Royal College of Surgeons. 4to. London, 1845, p. 339.

Ueber Dinomis und

(J.)

Mam-

Didti^, zwei ausgestorbene

Vogelgattungen

in "Bulletin de la

Classe physico-mathematique de I'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Petersboui-g." vol. 4. p. 49.

*1846. (Didus ineptus)

London."

Owen

Observations on the Dodo, in " Transactions of the Zoological Society of

(R.)

331, 335.

vol. 3. pp.

Proceedings

*1846. (Didus ineptus) Carvs (C. G.)

England

u.

of the Zoological Society, part 14. p. 51.

Schottland im Jahre 1844, vol. l.p.

King of Saxony's Jom-ney tlu-ough England


Svo. London,

*1846. (Dodo)

1846;

Hamel

Imp.

p.

Sc. St. Pe'tersb." vol. 5. p.

Hamel

*1847. (Dodo)

(J.)

C.

The

Davison.)

187.

Sur un Crane de Dodo au Musee de Copenhague

(J.)

375. (English)

Scotland in the year 1844. (Trans, by S.

arid

314. Instit.

no. 709. p.

in " Bull. Classe phys. math. Ac.

252. Edinb. New

Phil. Journ. v. 43. p. 405.

Tradescant der Aeltere, 1618 in Russland. 4to. Petersburg. 1847

p. 169.

Recueil

des Actes de la Seance publique de I'Academie Imperiale de St. Petersbourg.

Strickland (H.

*1847. (Dodo)

On

E.)

the history of the

of the British Association" for 1847, Sections, p.

*1847. (Do-do)

Forbes (Edward).

The

Dodo and

other allied species of Birds, in " Reports

79.Athenaeum,

1847, pp. 747, 769.


in the " Literary Gazette,"

Dodo, an ornithological Romance

fate of the

July 3, 1847, p. 493.

*1847. (Bidus ineptus)

Sundevall
1847

Svo. Stockholm

1847. (Dodo)

Canino

(C.

L. Bonaparte, Prince of).

Yenezia, Settembre, 1847.

*1848. (Dodo)
'^\

Brandt

Arsberattelse

AUgemeine

Zoologiens Framsteg under aren 1843 och 1844.

On

the Dodo.

Zeitung, Sept. 24, 1847

Untersuchungen

(J. F.)

om

183.

p.

(C. J.)

Riunione
;

degli Scienziati Italiani in

Beilage, p. 2131.

Verwandschaften, die systematische SteUung, die geo-

iiber die

graphische Verbreituug und die Vertilgung des Dodo, nebst Bemerkungen iiber die im Vaterlande des
oder auf den Nachbarinseln desselben friiher vorhandenen grossen Wadvogel.

Dodo

phys. math, de

*1848. (Dronte)

1'

Acad. Imp. de

Fitzingek (L.

J.)

St.

Bulletin de la Classe

vol. 7. p. 38.

Mittheilungen iiber eine Original-Abbildung des Dronte, (Didus ineptus,

Linne) von Roland Savery in der


fiir

Petersbom-g.

k. k.

Gemalde-Gallerie im Belvedere zu

Wien

in

Wiegmanns " Archiv

Natiu-geschichte," 1848. p. 79.

*1848, (Dodo)

Hamel

(J.)

Der Dodo,

die Einsiedler,

und

die erdiehtete Nazarvogel.

Svo. Petersburg, 1848.

Bulletin physico-mathematique de I'Academie des Sciences de St. Petersboiu-g. vol. 7. No. 5, 6.

*1848. (Dodo)

Strickland

Affmities,

(H. E.) and

Rodriguez, and Bom-bon.

4to.

II.

*1691. (Solitaire)

Melville

and Osteology of the Dodo,

Leguat
(EugKsh)

12mo. London, 1708.

The Dodo and

its

Kindi-ed, or the History,

and other extinct Birds of the Islands Mauritius,

London, 1848.

THE SOLITAIRE OF RODRIGUEZ.

(Francois).

ed. 2. 1720.

(A. G.)

Solitaire,

Voyages

et

new Voyage

Avantures de Francois Leguat. 2

to the

vols.

12mo. London, 1708

East Indies, by Francis Leguat and his companions.

APPENDIX.
*1770.

(Solitaire)

Buffon (G. L. Le

vol. 1. p.

28

485.Ed.

vols. 8vo. Paris,

*1781. {Eiusiedler)

*1785. {Solitary Bodo)

1801-1805

p.

(JDidiis solitariiis)

Nature.

*1790. (Didifs

*1808. (Didiis

Zoologie universelle at portative.

Bechstein

Grant

(C.

8vo. Paris,

*1827.

depiiis

Dumont

deux

1790-1823

trois regnes

de

la

166.

vol. 1. p.

vols.

4to.

Ausgabe des Linneischen

xiii.

vol. 2. p. 20.

Joliann Latham's allgemeine Uebersicht der Vogel.

Article

Didus

in

4to.

4 vols. 4to.

of France, and the neighbouring

Isle

London, 1801

"The New

117.

p.

Cyclopaedia or Universal Dictionary of

Vol. 10. pt. 2.

Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire

S.)

vol. 31. p.

Nouvelle edition.

Naturelle.

36

vols.

376.

general History of Bii-ds.

(C.)

10

vols. 4to.

Winchester, 1821-1824

siecles.

Solitaire

Art.

in " Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles."

Ann. des

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pendant
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On

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bones of the

3. p.

Eevue

Sept. 103, 104, 109, lib.

30.

de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de I'He Maurice

Zool. Soc. pt. 2. p. 111.

la

Telfair

Vol. 49. p. 451.

Sur quelques ossemens qui paraissent appartenir a une espece perdue seidement

(G.)

*1832. (Bodo)

*1833. (Bodo)

374.

Cuvier

BuU.

4to. Paris, 1788, p. 567.

The History of Mauritius, or the

(John).

(Solitaire)

*1830. (Bronte)

London, 1781-1785

765.

Rees (Abraham).

SoNNiNi N.
1816-1819
Bodo) Latham

vol. 8. p.

1795

M.).

(J.

vol. 2. p.

(Charles).

(Solitaire)

*1823. (Solitary

4to.

vols.

Omithologische Beytrage zur

A.)

(J.

Arts, Sciences, and Literature."

*1819.

Tableau encyclopedique et methodique des

their first discovei-y to the present time.

solitarius)

2 vols. 8vo. Berlin

Index Ornithologicus sive Systema Omithologise.

(John).

Donndorf

Nm-nberg, 1792-1812

from

2.

728.

vol. 1. p.

2 vols. 8vo. Leipzig,

solitarius)

Islands,

f.

Caroli a ZiKree Systema Natures, editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata.

(J. P.)

Latham

solitariiis)

(Solitaire)

33.

1770-1783;

edition par C. S. Smmini,

p. 662.

Natursystems.

*1S01.

pi.

9 vols. 4to. Paris,

77.NouveUe

general Synopsis of Birds.

3 vols. 4to. Pai-is,

Ornitliologie.

London, 1790,

*1795. (Bidits

Bonnaterre (L'Abbe).

solitariiis)

*1795. (Bidiis

343.

vol. 2. p.

Gemeinnutzige Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs.

1788-1793

* 1788. (Solitaire) ^Ay (P. A. P.)


solitariiis)

1771-1786

vol. 4. p.

(John).

Gmelin

3 vols. 8vo. Lipsiae,

Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux.

162.

L.\tham

vol. 3. p. 3.

*1790. (Didus

Clerc de).

vols. fol. Paris,

Borowski (G. H.)

1781, 1782; vol.1,

*1788.

10

2.

133

Dodo found

Phd. Mag.

ser. 2. v. 1. p.

in Rodriguez, in

461.

"Proceedings of Zoological

Society of London," part 1. p. 31.

*1844.

(Solitaire)

Strickland (H. E.)

On

the evidence of the former existence of Struthious Birds, distinct

from the Dodo, in the islands near Mauritius; in "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,''
part 12. p. 77.

III.

*1613. (A great fowl)

Tatton

BREVIPENNATE BIRDS IN BOURBON.


(J.)

Voyage of

Castleton in Purchas's, Pilgrimage, ed. 1625, vol. 1. p. 333.

Prevost, Histoire generale des Voyages, vol. 2.

p.

120.

Harris's

Voyages,

vol.

1.

p.

115.

Grant's

Mauritius, p. 164.

*1618. (Bod-eerseu)

Bontekoe van Hoorn

Indische Eeyse.
p. 5

1656

4to.

Utrecht, 1649, p. 6

Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrij^inge van de Oost-

(\V. Y.)

Haerlem, 1646,
1651.

p.

Rotterdam, 1647, p.

Journael van

Amsterdam, 1648,

p. 5

1650,

de acht-jarige avontuerlijcke Eeyse van Willem

APPENDIX.

134
Ysbrantsz Bontekoe van

No

date.

Hoom, gedaen nae

Oost-Indien.

Amsterdam, by

4to.

(French) in Theoenot's Relations de divers Voyages curieux.

Paris,

Hulsm, Vier und zwanzigste ScMffart. 4to. Franefort, 1648. p. 7.


Carre (M.) Voyages des Indes Orientales. 2 vols. 12mo.
*1668. {Oiseau Solitaire)

*1669.

Gillis Joosten

1663,

vol. 1.

Paris,

Zamjman.

(German)

1699;

in

vol. 1. p. 12.

Prevost, Hist. gen. des Voyages, vol. 9. p. 3.

{Solitaire et Oiseau bleu)

^D.

MS. Journal

B. (Sieur).

in Library of Zoological Society.

Proceedings

of

Zool. Soc. pt. 12. p. 77.

*1819. {Oiseau
*1829.

bleu)

France

*1844.

Rees

(Dronte am Solitaire)

(Solitaire

et

(A.)

Cyclopaedia, art. " Bourbon."

Billiard

de Bourbon, pendant

and Oiseau

bleu)

Birds distinct from the

Voyage aux Colonies

(A.)
les

annees 1817, 1818, 1819,

Strickland
Dodo

of London," part 12. p. 78.

Orientales,

in the

(H. E.)

On

et

ou

lettres ecrites

1820. 8vo. Paris, 1829,

des Isles de

p. 261.

the evidence of the former existence of Struthious

islands near Mauritius

in " Proceedings of the Zoological Society

LIST OF PLATES.

Plate

I.

Frontispiece.

Fac-sLmile of Roland Savery's

figiu-e

of the

Dodo

in his picture of the Fall of

Adam,

in

the Royal Gallery at BerUu.

Plate

II.

p.

9. Fac-simile

plate

De Bry
Plate

III.* p. 46.
p.

Bry, and other editors of

Van Neck's Voyage,

Van Neck.

The Dodo,

Fac-simile Roland Savery's


the Dodo
View the Island Rodriguez, looking South.
48. Fac-simile
the Frontispiece
Leguat's Voyage.
View Port Mathurin, Rodriguez, looking West.

III. p. 30.

Plate

De

of

picture of

by

in the Belvedere at Vienna.

of

of

r\'.,

and IV.', are examples of various applications of Anastatic Printing. Plate

executed by tracing the original, line for

line,

executed in the same

way

zinc,

and piinted from as

as Plate II., except that its details are copied

and IV.*, are examples of a new

art to

II. is a fac-simile

with a steel pen, lithographic ink, and tracing paper.

by the Anastatic process, to a plate of

in

This

of

Plates II., III., III.*,

consists

Amsterdam, 1601.

of

of

TV'.* p. 50.

ferred,

fol.

at Fig. 2, is also introduced

into the ornamental title-page of his India OrientaKs, Pars V.

Plate

Plate IV.

of Plate 2 of the French edition of

copied by

is

in

ordinary ziucogi'aphy or lithography.

by the eye instead of being traced.

is

then trans-

Plate IV.

to a plate of zinc,

These drawings, when printed, bear a close resemblance to lithographs, and enable an

is

Plates III., III.*

which I have given the name of Fapt/rograpky, (See Athencewm, Feb. 12, 1848.)

drawing on paper with lithographic chalk, and in transferring the drawings, so made,

Anastatic process.

of an engraving

The drawing

artist or

It

by the

a traveller by

merely using lithographic chalk instead of a lead pencil, to print and publish his original sketches (without redrawing or
reversing), at any interval of time.

For Plate III.* and IV.* I

am

indebted to E. Higgin, Esq., of Liverpool,

drawings by post to Oxford, where they were transferred and printed by Mr. P. H. Delamotte.

H. E.

who

sent the

.S.

Plate V.
Fig. 1. Side view of the

head of the Dodo, with the dried

skin,

from the unique specimen

in the

Ashmolean Museum

at Oxford.

Fig. 3. Side view of the

British

head of the Dodo, restored

Museum.

The

chiefly

from the celebrated picture, presented by Edwards to the

great development of the

cere,

the tubidar nostril opening forwards, the form

and abrupt termination of the horny sheaths which have disappeared

and the camncular

folds at the base of the

in Fig. 1, the extent of the gape,

upper gnathotheca, on the forehead, and extending from the

angle of the mouth, are well exhibited.

Plate VI.
Front, side, and back views of the leg of the

Dodo,

in the British

for that valuable work, the " Genera of Birds,"

obligingly

aUowed us the use

of them.

Museum.

These two plates were executed

by Messrs. G. R. Gray, and D. W. Mitchell, who have

LIST OF PLATES.

136

Plate VIL
Fig. 1.

Didunculm

strigirostris,

one-third of natural

size,

Gould's " Birds of

(reduced from the figure in Mr.

Australia.")
Fig. 2.

Head

show the extension of the

of ditto, natural size, to

cere round the eye, the nostril opening downwards,

the great curvature of the upper, and the teeth on the lower

homy

sheath, with the abrupt termination

of both.
Fig. 3.

Head

The

of Treron abyssinica.

peculiar columbine cere and pouting of the nasal scale, the oblique orifice

of the nostril inclined forwards and upwards, and the abnipt tei-mination of the horny sheaths are shown.
Pig. 4.

Head

show the great development of wattles

of VerrvUa carunculata, to

in a

member

of the Columbidce.

Fig. 5. Front view of left leg of Treron abyssinica.

Fig. 5 a. Side view of ditto.


Fig. 6. Front view of ditto of Geopkaps scripta.
Fig. 6 a. Side view of ditto.

In the former the inner toe

is

shorter, in the latter longer, than the outer.

PL.iTE VIII.

Dodo.

Side view of the skuU of the

Plate IX.
Fig. 1.

Upper view of

Fig. 2.

Lower view

Fig. 1.

Back view

Fig. 2.

Upper view

Kg.

Lower view of

skull of the

Dodo.

of ditto.

Plate LX.*

3.

of skull of the

Dodo.

of lower jaw.
ditto.

F'ig. 4.

Inner view of ditto, partly in outline, as

Fig.

Cii-cle

5.

of sclerotic bones in the

it

Dodo, with

could not be viewed directly by the

artist.

the sclerotic coat of the eye-ball.

Plate X.
Fig. 1. Side view of skidl of Biduti cuius strigirostris.
Fig. 1 a.

Back new of

Fig. 1

b.

Upper view

of ditto.

Fig. 1

c.

Lower view

of ditto.

ditto.

Fig. 2. Side view of skull of the

Fig. 2 a.

Back view

Dodo, reduced

Fig. 3. Side, Fig. 3 a. back, 3

Fig. 5. ditto.

h a.

Fig. 4. ditto.

a.

4
<S

b.
i.
b.

upper, and 3

and 4
and

c.

Goura

5 c.

Geophaps Smithii.

forms the inter-orbital protuberance.

Fig. 7. Outer view of tympanic bone of Didiincidus strigirostris.

b.

Lower view

of ditto.

Fig. 8. Ai-ticular surface of lower jaw, of

Didunculm

strigirostris.

Fig. 9. Front view of metatarsus of Didunculus strigirostris.


Fig. 9 a.

Back view

of ditto.

Steursii.

show the great development of the

Fig. 7 a. Inner view of ditto.


Fig. 7

more accurate comparison.

lower views of skull of Trero7i rhlorigaster.

c.

Fig. 6. Section of skull of Treron chlorigaster, to

Dodo

to one-third for

of ditto, similarly reduced.

frontal

diploe,

which

in the

LIST OF PLATES.
Fig

b.

Inner view of metatarsus of Diduncuhis

Fig. 9

c.

Outer view of

Fig. 9

d.

View of upper extremity of

Fig. 9

e.

Fig. 10.

Fig. 10

137

strigirostris.

ditto.

ditto.

lower extremity of ditto.

Back view
a.

of posterior metatarsal of ditto.

Front view of

ditto.

Plate XI.
Fig.

1.

Front

new of metatarsus

of the

Dodo.

Fig.

2.

Back view of

Fig.

3.

Inner view of the metatarsus, and of posterior metatarsal of

Fig.

4.

Outer view of the metatarsus of the Dodo.

Fig.

5.

View

Fig.

6.

View of lower

Fig.

7.

Back view

Fig.

8.

Front view of

Fig.

9.

ditto.

Pig. 10.

of upper extremity of ditto.


extremity' of ditto.

of posterior metatarsal of the

Oblique view of

Upper view

Dodo.

ditto.
ditto.

of ditto.

Fig. 11. Front view of metatarsus of

Fig. 13.

ditto.

Back view of

Goura coronala.

ditto.

Fig. 13. Inner riew of ditto.


Fig. 14.

View

Fig. 15.

View of lower extremity

Fig. 16.

Back view

of upper extremity of ditto.


of ditto.

of posterior metatarsal of ditto.

Fig. 17. Front view of ditto.


Fig. 18 and 19. Front and back views of posterior metatai-sal of
Fig. 20 to 24. Corresponding views of metatarsus of
Fig. 25.
Fig.

Back view

Pimps

Didunmlus

strigirostris.

picata.

of posterior metatarsal of ditto.

26 to 31. Corresponding views of metatarsi of

Geop/ia2)s scripta.

Fig. 32 to 37.

of Treron chlorigaster.

Fig. 38 to 43.

of hyplwikemAm antarctiais.

Plate XII.
Fig. 1.

Front view of metatarsus and toes of the Dodo.

Fig. 1 a.

Back view

Fig. 1

Inner view of

5.

of ditto.
ditto.

Fig. 2. Posterior articular facets of proximal phalanges

Fig. 3.

Back view of outer

Fig. 4. Proximal, and 4

toe of the

Dodo,

to

a, distal articular facets

Fig. 5 o. Articular surface of ditto.


Fig. 6. Front view of foot of Treron chlorigaster.
Fig. 6 a.

Hind

toe of

ditto.

Fig. 7 a.

Hind

toe of

ditto.

Fig. 8. Front view of foot of Oeopliaps SmitJdi.


Fig. 8 a.

Hind

toe of

ditto.

a, h, c,

glenoid fibro-eartilages of three front toes.


;

a,

the upper.

of second phalanx of outer toe of the

Fig. 5. Side view of imgual phalanx of outer toe of the

Fig. 7. Front view of foot of Coluniba wnas.

show the glenoid ligaments

Dodo.

Dodo.

LIST OF PLATES.

138

Plate XIII.
Fig. 1.

Upper view of cranium

Fig. 2.

Lower

do.

Fig. 3. Side

Back

Fig. 4.

of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection.

do.

do.
do.

Fig. 5. Front view of fragment of sternum.


Fig. 6. Side view of

do.

Plate XIV.
Front view of humerus of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection.

Fig.

1.

Fig.

2.

Back view

Fig.

3.

View

Fig.

4.

Front view of femur of

do.

Fig.

5.

Back view

do.

Fig.

G.

View of upper extremity

Fig.

7.

View of lower

of

do.

do.

of lower extremity of

of

do.

do.

of

in

Andersonian Museum.

do.
do.

do.

Fig.

8.

Front view of femur of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection.

Fig.

9.

View

of upper extremity of

do.

Fig. 10.

View

of lower

do.

do.

Plate XV.
Fig

1.

Front view of fragment of tibia of Solitaire, in Andersonian Museum.

Fig. 1 a.

View

of lower extremity of

do.

Fig. 2. Front view of metatarsus of

do.

Fig. 2 a.

Back

do.

Fig. 2

Outer

do.

do.

do.

do.

b.

Fig. 3. Outer view of

do.

Fig. 3 a. Anterior view of upper part of


Fig. 3

lower part of

b.

Fig. 3

c.

View

Fig. 4.

do.

of upper extremity of

lower

Fig. 3 d.

in Parisian CoDection.

do.

do.

do.

do.

Back view of fragment

of metatarsus of ditto, in the Andersonian

*4* All the bones are figured of the natural

Museum,

to

show the

size.

WOOD ENGRAVINGS.
Page 12. Clusius's
18.

figure of the

Van den Broecke's

19.

Dodo.

ditto.

figure of a brevipennate bird.


Sir

Thomas Herbert's

figure of

21.

of

24. Piso's figure of the


28.

'

'

Dodo.'

Hen.'

Dodo.

Deduced copy of the celebrated painting of the

49. Leguat's figure of the Solitaire.


63, and Title. Bontekoe's figure of the

Dodo.

Dodo

in the British

Museum.

calcaneal canal.

INDEX,
Page.

Dodo,

Pase.

35

Didunculus, Gould's opinion respecting, ....

Anterior facet of Dodo's skull,

86

JDidus iiieptua, see

Auks remote from

35

Bldm
Bidm

Affinities of the

Berlin, picture of

Biditia,

Dodo

30

at,

Bibliography of Bidina,
Billiard, his

Bird,

137

account of Bourbon,

Buwrnis of

New

75,97,108,112
61

21

Dodars, etymology

described by Cauche,

21

Dodo,

by Leguat,

55

Van Neck's

36

one brought alive to HoUand,

11

40, 54

Clusius's account

12

57, 63

Heemskerk's account

notice

>

of,

historical evidences respecting,

leg

Carre,

58

MateHef 's account

Sieur D. B.,

58

Van

Billiard,

60

Verhuffen's account

60

Van den Broecke's

Grant's Mauritius,

120

of,

Carre, voyage of,

58

Piso's account

89

head

Cerebral cavity of the Dodo,


origin of the name,

Chi-onological succession of organized beings, ....

Clusius's account of the

Dodo

of,

extinction

69

leg

25, 38

26
27

of,

by E. Savery,

of,

of,

by

J.

28,

51, 52

51

Col., his visit to Rodi'iguez,

Didbia destroyed by human agency,

39, 98,

31

general appearance,

33
35

its affinity to

106
2

36, 65

Pigeons, ... 39, 41, 54, 65, 72, 106

external characters

127

of,

31

Museum,

opinions respecting,

law of Nature,

in British

affinities of,

58

of,

its

of,

64
31

Savery,

anatomical evidence respecting,

Mammals

Didimculus described,

Museum,

of,

27

painting

bibliography

32
25

28

paintings

species, a

23

of,

pictorial evidence respecting,

87

his researches,

23

negative evidence respecting,

64

characters in Birds and

in Gottorf

Cranial vertebrae, opinions respecting,


its

22
'

of,

in Hubert's collection,

Constellation of the Solitaire,

Cranium, constancy of

21

its fate,
of,

Harry's notice

ColumbidtE, see Pigeons.

18

19

of,

'

13

.....

of,

Tradescant's specimen

leg

17

figure of,

Lestrange's account

57

17

of,

of,

of,

Cauche's account

21

of,

16
17

der Hagen's account

18

Cauche, voyage

13

of,

of,

38

Castleton, voyage of,

13

of,

seen by Clusius,

Herbert's account

Ill

Carus, his visit to Oxford,

of,

57

of,

of,

Bontekoe,

den, voyage

Cuninghame, Mr.,

account

West-Zanen's account

of, in

15

of,

57

Broderip, his opinion on the Dodo,

Death of

other groups,

Zealand,

by Herbert,

Brandt, J. F., his opinion on the Dodo,

D. B., voyage

Dodo &

Differences between

60

figured

Bourbon, visited by Castleton

Dawkins,

31

Dodo,

Distribution, geographical, of organic groups, ....

Bontekoe, voyage

Ceme,

as the

19

Blyth, on the habits of Columhida,

Van

same

soUtariiis, see Solitaire.

by Van den Broecke, ....

Blain^iUe, his opinion on the Dodo,

Broecke,

Dodo.

nazaremts, the

figui'ed

unknown,

40, 65, 97

41

of,

internal characters of,

43, 72

pecuUar characters

44,

of,

97

INDEX.

140

Page.

Page.

Dodo, Bontekoe's notice


colour of its plumage
osteology of

from

Dronte, see

Columbidae,

46

of,

account of the picture in the British

negative, of the

Dodo,

27

pictorial, of the

Dodo,

29

Dodo

Man, agency

of,

of the Solitaire,

46

Mauritius,

of brevipennate birds in Bourbon,

57

Flacourt's account of Madagascar,

Foot of Dodo, osteology

of,

osteology

Solitaii-e,

first

of,

Gama, Vasoo

de, not the discoverer of

" Geans " of Leguat,

13

61

17

100

by Van der Hagen,

17

115

by Verhuli'en,

17

by Van den Broecke,

18

by Herbert,

19

by Cauche,

21

by Harry

26

by Leguat

27

colonized by the Dutch,

27

25, 33, 45

in,

Gould, his opinion on the Dodo,

MelviJle, Dr.,

37
40, 65, 97

Didunciilus,

on the Osteology of the Dodo and


67

Solitau'e,

Hague, picture of Dodo

at,

29

Nazareth, island

Hagen, Van

of,

17

Neck, C. Van, voyage

64

New

Hamel, Dr.,

his treatise

Harmansen, voyage
Harry, voyage

a,

13

of,

Heemskerk, voyage
Hen,

on the Dodo,

of,

of,

Herbert's ligure

Herbert, voyage

of,

of,

Higgin, Mr., his

Humming
Hyde,

his notice of the Tradescantian

Imperfection cannot be asserted of any organism,

Indian Ocean, islands

map

Inferior facet of

of,

of,

Dodo's skuU,

its

fauna to that of the

61

Mauritian islands,

59

Oiseaux bleus of Bourbon described,

13

Olearius, his notice of a

21

Organs of certain species permanently undeveloped,

19

Osteology of the

Dodo,

of,

Zealand, analogy of

Owen,

71

Professor, his account of R. Savery's picture,


his opinion

Oxford, state of science

Dodo

picture of

34

Palatine bones of Dodo,

on the Dodo,

in, in

Pezophaps, proposed generic

London,

29

38, 65, 70

32

1755,

93

at

31

Penguins remote from Bidin/g,

Dodo

at,

Picture of

33

113

Solitaire,

23

79

25

Dodo's head,

Dodo

25

leg,

Birds, confined to America,

21, 64

...

of,

26

50

visit to llodriguez,

Hubert, his notice of a Dodo's

50

his aUusion to the Solitaire,

106

of Pigeons,

37

voyage

101

Metatarsus of Dodo,

Gray, J. E., his opinion on the Dodo,

der,

27

by the French,

GnaUiodoH, see Bidunculus.


Gottorf Museum, Dodo's head

13

by West-Zanen,

55

Geographical distribution of organic groups,

by Matelief,

60, 64

Oelinottes, Leguat's account of,

17

by Heemskerk,

95

61

37

Mamitius,

90

by Van Neck,

visited

Forges, see Hubert.

Fresnaye, La, his opinion on the Dodo,

61

discovered by Mascaregnas,

61

28

Dodo,

lower, of

Matelief, voyage of,

in Madagascar,

23

at,

Mandible, upper, of Dodo,

31

of,

22

in hastening the death of species,

anatomical, of the Dodo,

summary

Dodo

Madagascar, supposed brevipennate birds in

28

Evidences, historical, of the Dodo,

64

a better astronomer than ornithologist,

London, picture of

Museum,

79

Leguat, voyage

Llhwyd, his notice of the Tradescantian Dodo, ...

16

of,

87

homologies,

Lestrange, his account of a living

Dodo.

Ms

its

Lateral facet of Dodo's skuU,

Le Monnier,

100

its foot,

etymology

Edwards,

otlier

44, 97

52

his visit to Kodriguez,

Lachrymal bone,

76, 108, 112

from Easores,

osteology of

KeUy, Capt.,

113
76

fi-om Insessores,

69

Introduction to Part II

71
75, 108,

from Vultmidse,

Introduction to Part 1

64

cranium,

its

its difl'erences

87

Interorbital septum, its homologies,

57, 63

of,

name

35
for Solitaire,

54
28

INDEX.

141

Page.

Picture of

Dodo

at the

29

Hague,

BerUn,

30

Vienna,

30

Oxford,

31

Pigeons, their affinity to the Dodo,

some

species lay one

39, 41, 54, 65, 72

97, 106, 111

of,

Pingre, his visit to Rodriguez,

64

Dodo,

23

Piso, his account of the

in

them,

the Dodo,

osteology

Sternum of

of,

113
64

by human agency,

114

Solitaire,

Stnithious birds remote from Bidhice,

35

40

Succession, chronological, of organized beings,

Representation in Zoology,

46

Superior facet of Dodo's skuU,

Rodi'iguez visited by Leguat,

46

Tarsus absent in Birds,

50

Tatton, his account of Bourbon,

51

TeKair, Mr., his researches,

51

Toes of Dodo,

bones found

in,

nsited by Col. Dawkins,

Tradescant, his notice of a stuffed Dodo,

31

Treron,

Savery R., his pictures of the Dodo,

29, 64

Translations of foreign extracts,

39, 69

Tympanic bone of Dodo,

69, 76

Types of structure in

unimportant in

classification,

Skull of the Dodo, osteology

of,

113

Solitaire, osteology of,

Soldt, Paul van, his Journal,


Solitaire of

Bourbon, Tatton's account

of,

Bontekoe's accoimt
Carre's account

of,

of,

Sieur D. B.'s account


BiUiard's account

of,

...

of,

negative evidence respecting,

Solitaire of Rodriguez, evidences respecting,

Leguat's account
Herbert's allusion

of,

to,

negative eridence respecting,

its affinity

Van Neck,

57
51

23
89, 41

to Didus,

123
94
34, 69

creation,

see Neck.

17

64

Verhuffen, voyage

57

Verkens, journalist of Verhuffen's voyage,

57

Vertebrse, cranial, opinions respecting,

58

Vienna, picture of

58

Vigors, his opinion on the Dodo,

60

Votiron patra of Madagascar,

60

Vidtures remote from Bidiius

46

Walcks'ogel, a

name

for

47

West-Zanen, voyage

of,

50

WiUughby,

51

83

102, 109

64

Size,

...

101

Savery, J., his picture of the Dodo,

Pingi'e,

119
64

of,

Reinhardt, his opinion on the Dodo,

by Mr. Higgin,

54,

intended for a constellation,

Species, extinction

112

for

52, 65
affinities of, to

Solitary Thrush, a constellation,

76, 108,

Zoological

52

76

Rasores remote from DidhuB,

to

where to seek

94

112

Mu-

Society,

Pteiygoid bone of Dodo,


41, 108

52, 53

25

Posterior facet of Dodo's skull,

Raptores remote from Bidinee,

Andersonian

given

122

Plovers remote from Pigeons,

Museum,

seum,

54

egg

comparative osteology

Page.

Solitaire of Rodriguez, bones of, in Paris

of,

Dodo

64
87
30, 64

at,

36
61
41, 108,

Dodos,

his notice of the Tradescantian

112
13

Dodo,

23

ERE AT A.
Page

4, folio,

/or

iv.

read 4.

30, line 32, /or Bellvedere, read Belvedere.


38,

44,

57,
70,

26, /or 1845, read 1846.


^./o'' tarso-metarsal, read tarso-metatarsal.

27,/or 1674,

rertf/

1647.

6, /or posterior, reorf superior.

70, 74, 81, /or lacryraal, read lachrymal.

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