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CHAPTER 5

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 IDEAL MODELS

5.3 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS
5.4 Cycle analysis with constant ideal gas
working fluid

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Processes in ICE

intake

compression

combustion

expansion

Exhaust

combustion
expansion

compression

exhaust

intake

Pressure-volume diagram of firing spark-ignition engine, rc=8.4, 3500 rpm

pi=0.4 atm, pe = 1 atm
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With models for each of these processes, a simulation

of a complete engine cycle can be built up which can be
analyzed to provide information on engine performance.
Each cycle discussed in this chapter is a consecutive
sequence of process through which we can follow the
state of the working fluid as the engine executes a
complete operating cycle

5.2 IDEAL MODELS ()

We consider a set of models which provide useful insights into
performance and efficiency of engines. Each cycle describes the
approximation made for the engine combustion process.
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Start of compression stroke volume above piston filled with
fuel/air mixture

Pressure

TDC

BDC

Volume

compressed and
pressure rises

Pressure

TDC

Volume

BDC

End of compression stroke volume in cylinder at a minimum

Pressure

TDC

Volume

BDC

Then have an
instantaneous
introduction of heat,
which increases
pressure again

COMBUSTION

Pressure

TDC

Volume

BDC

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

Pressure

Power Stroke

TDC

BDC

Volume
Pressure forces piston down,
creating torque on crank shaft

Pressure

Piston reaches bottom

exhaust valve opens,
burned fuel/air expelled

TDC

Volume

BDC

(unthrottled)

(throttled)

(supercharged)

Figure 5.1 Pressure-volume diagram of ideal cycles. Unthrottled operation: (a)

constant-volume combustion; (b) constant-pressure combustion; (c) limited-pressure
combustion. (d) throttled constant-volume cycle; (e) supercharged constant-volume
cycle.
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Fresh Charge
Metering
System
Partially opened
or throttled

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Sets of assumptions which simplify each of these processes to a form convenient for
analysis are given in table 5.1

Table 5.1 Ideal models of engine processes

Process
Assumptions
Compression (1-2)
1. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic)
Combustion (2-3)
2. Combustion occurs at
(a) Constant volume
(b) Constant pressure
(c) Part at constant volume and part at constant pressure
(called limited pressure)
3. Combustion is complete (
)
Expansion (3-4)
1. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic)
Intake (6-7-1)
2. Valve events occur at top and bottom center
3. No change in cylinder volume as pressure difference across
open valves drop to zero
4. Inlet and exhaust pressure are constant
5. Negligible velocity12 effects

5.3 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS

Thermodynamic relations are very useful from which
important operating parameters and properties (T, p,
u, v, h) of working fluid can be calculated. The overall
operating parameters of greatest interest which can
be determined from a thermodynamic analysis of the
engine operating cycle are:

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indicated fuel conversion efficiency

(5.1)
indicated mean effective pressure (imep)
(5.2)
where

= work per cycle

= sum of compression stroke work (WC)
and expansion stroke work (WE)

(5.3)
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1) Compression stroke (1 - 2)
(5.4)
Since the process is adiabatic and reversible
(5.5)
And the compression work is
(5.6)
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2) Combustion process (2 - 3 or 2 - 3a - 3b)

2.1 Constant-volume cycle
(5.7 a, b)

and

(5.7 c, d)

and

2.3 Limited - pressure cycle (has two parts of assumed

processes)
and

(5.7 e, f)

and

(5.7 g, h)
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3) Expansion stroke (3 - 4)
3.1 Constant-volume cycle
and

(5.8 a, b)

Expansion work
(5.9)

and

and
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(5.10 a, b, c)

Expansion work

(5.11)

3.3 Limited - pressure cycle

and

and

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(5.12 a, b, c)

Expansion work

(5.13)
Indicated fuel conversion efficiency

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When the exhaust valve opens at point 4, cylinder pressure is

above the exhaust manifold pressure and a blowdown process
occurs. In the ideal exhaust process model, this blowdown
occurs with piston stationary at BC. During this blowdown
process, the gas which remains inside cylinder expands
isentropically, and escapes from the cylinder. The residual mass
fraction at point 6 is given by

(m4> m5)
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The mixture temperature at the end of the intake stroke

and at the start of the compression stroke (point 1) can
be determined using the first Law of the open system

Figure 5.2 Definition of system boundary for

thermodynamic analysis of ideal cycle processes.
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Then

m6u6 - m4u4 = peVd - mehe

;Vd = V4-V6

;
: average exhausted gas state (averaged specific enthalpy
of exhaust gas)
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Application of the first Law between points 6 and 1

(Intake process)
6
1

where

mi
Vd
= specific enthalpy of the inlet mixture
and p1 = pi ;

pi = inlet pressure

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In the four-stroke engine cycle, work is done on the

piston during the intake and the exhaust processes.
The work done by the cylinder gases on the piston
during exhaust is

during intake is

The network to the piston over intake and exhaust

strokes, called pumping work, is
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Wc,ig

(throttled)

(supercharged)

Gross indicated work per cycle

(work applied to piston during compression

Wc,in

Net indicated work per cycle

(work applied to piston per an entire cycle)

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(All W/Vd)

Throttled
Supercharged
The net indicated fuel conversion efficiency is related to
the gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency by

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-

an ideal gas.

cycle.

compression work
u = cv T
(1)

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expansion work
(2)

Quantity

(3)

(4)
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Since 1-2 and 3-4 processes are isentropic between

the same volume
Isentropic relation

rc

So

Replacing

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Figure 5.2 Ideal gas constant-volume cycle fuel conversion

efficiency as a function of compression ratio
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Dimensionless indicated mean effective pressure

- In terms of
= specific internal energy per unit mass of working fluid

(5)

(6)
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rc

rc

Vd

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Then using

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It is also useful to compare imep with the maximum

pressure in the cycle,
From the constant volume process (2-3)

(7)
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(8)
Relation of

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(note that

is known)

Mass fraction of residual gas xr at state 6 (end of exhaust)

: Isentropic expansion from state 4 to 5

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xr can be derived as
Do u remember pe and pi ?!!
pe = exhuast pressure
pi = intake pressure

By similar analysis, T6 can be found by

(a)
Relation between T1 and temperature of fresh mixture
induction Ti is
(b)
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5.4.2 Limited and constant pressure cycle

Compression work

Expansion work

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Combustion
Constant volume 2-3a

Therefore the relation between amounts of heat converted from

fuel and the increase in temperature,

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where
and

is

Cutoff ratio

For constant volume (Otto) cycle

For constant pressure (Diesel) cycle

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combustion :

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Thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle as a function of

compression and cutoff ratios (k=1.4)
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EXAMPLE 5.1 Many diesel engine can be approximated

by a limited-pressure cycle. In a limited-pressure cycle, a
fraction of the fuel is burnt at constant volume and the
remaining fuel is burnt at constant pressure. Use this
cycle approximation with = cp/cv = 1.3 to analyze the
following problem:
Inlet conditions:
Compression ratio:
Overall fuel/air ratio:

p1= 1.0 bar, T1= 289 K

15:1
43,000 kJ/kg of fuel
0.045 kg fuel/kg air

Half of the fuel/air ratio is burnt at constant volume, then half at

constant pressure.
Asked: draw a p-V diagram and compute the fuel conversion
efficiency of the cycle.
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Analysis:

= 8314/29
;

=
=

= 287 J/(kgK)
= 957 J/(kgK)
= 1244 J/(kgK)

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Limited pressure cycle (1-2-3a-3b-4)

compression process (1-2):

isentropic

From the fuel/air ratio =
So heat added due to combustion

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Half of the total heat is burnt at constant volume and at

constant pressure = 1852/2 = 926 kJ/kg mixture
Constant volume combustion (2-3a):

1 kg mixture

1 kg mixture
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Per 1 kg mixture

Then

Thus

ANS

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ANS