CHAPTER 5
IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 IDEAL MODELS
5.3 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS
5.4 Cycle analysis with constant ideal gas
working fluid
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Processes in ICE
intake
compression
combustion
expansion
Exhaust
combustion
expansion
compression
exhaust
intake
Pressurevolume diagram of firing sparkignition engine, rc=8.4, 3500 rpm
pi=0.4 atm, pe = 1 atm
2
With models for each of these processes, a simulation
of a complete engine cycle can be built up which can be
analyzed to provide information on engine performance.
Each cycle discussed in this chapter is a consecutive
sequence of process through which we can follow the
state of the working fluid as the engine executes a
complete operating cycle
5.2 IDEAL MODELS ()
We consider a set of models which provide useful insights into
performance and efficiency of engines. Each cycle describes the
approximation made for the engine combustion process.
3
Bottom Dead Center
Start of compression stroke volume above piston filled with
fuel/air mixture
Pressure
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
TDC
BDC
Volume
Piston travels up, fuel/air
compressed and
pressure rises
Pressure
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
TDC
Volume
BDC
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
End of compression stroke volume in cylinder at a minimum
Pressure
Top Dead Center
TDC
Volume
BDC
Then have an
instantaneous
introduction of heat,
which increases
pressure again
COMBUSTION
Pressure
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
TDC
Volume
BDC
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
Pressure
Power Stroke
TDC
BDC
Volume
Pressure forces piston down,
creating torque on crank shaft
PV Diagram  Gas Engine
Pressure
Piston reaches bottom
dead center again,
exhaust valve opens,
burned fuel/air expelled
TDC
Volume
BDC
(unthrottled)
(throttled)
(supercharged)
Figure 5.1 Pressurevolume diagram of ideal cycles. Unthrottled operation: (a)
constantvolume combustion; (b) constantpressure combustion; (c) limitedpressure
combustion. (d) throttled constantvolume cycle; (e) supercharged constantvolume
cycle.
10
11
Fresh Charge
Metering
System
Partially opened
or throttled
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Sets of assumptions which simplify each of these processes to a form convenient for
analysis are given in table 5.1
Table 5.1 Ideal models of engine processes
Process
Assumptions
Compression (12)
1. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic)
Combustion (23)
1. Adiabatic
2. Combustion occurs at
(a) Constant volume
(b) Constant pressure
(c) Part at constant volume and part at constant pressure
(called limited pressure)
3. Combustion is complete (
)
Expansion (34)
1. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic)
Exhaust (456) and 1. Adiabatic
Intake (671)
2. Valve events occur at top and bottom center
3. No change in cylinder volume as pressure difference across
open valves drop to zero
4. Inlet and exhaust pressure are constant
5. Negligible velocity12 effects
5.3 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS
Thermodynamic relations are very useful from which
important operating parameters and properties (T, p,
u, v, h) of working fluid can be calculated. The overall
operating parameters of greatest interest which can
be determined from a thermodynamic analysis of the
engine operating cycle are:
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indicated fuel conversion efficiency
(5.1)
indicated mean effective pressure (imep)
(5.2)
where
= work per cycle
= sum of compression stroke work (WC)
and expansion stroke work (WE)
(5.3)
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1) Compression stroke (1  2)
(5.4)
Since the process is adiabatic and reversible
(5.5)
And the compression work is
(5.6)
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2) Combustion process (2  3 or 2  3a  3b)
2.1 Constantvolume cycle
(5.7 a, b)
and
2.2 Constantpressure cycle
(5.7 c, d)
and
2.3 Limited  pressure cycle (has two parts of assumed
processes)
and
(5.7 e, f)
and
(5.7 g, h)
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3) Expansion stroke (3  4)
3.1 Constantvolume cycle
and
(5.8 a, b)
Expansion work
(5.9)
3.2 Constantpressure cycle
and
and
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(5.10 a, b, c)
Expansion work
(5.11)
3.3 Limited  pressure cycle
and
and
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(5.12 a, b, c)
Expansion work
(5.13)
Indicated fuel conversion efficiency
19
Constant volume cycle
Constant pressure cycle
Limited pressure cycle
20
When the exhaust valve opens at point 4, cylinder pressure is
above the exhaust manifold pressure and a blowdown process
occurs. In the ideal exhaust process model, this blowdown
occurs with piston stationary at BC. During this blowdown
process, the gas which remains inside cylinder expands
isentropically, and escapes from the cylinder. The residual mass
fraction at point 6 is given by
which is the residual gas at state 6.
(m4> m5)
21
The mixture temperature at the end of the intake stroke
and at the start of the compression stroke (point 1) can
be determined using the first Law of the open system
Figure 5.2 Definition of system boundary for
thermodynamic analysis of ideal cycle processes.
22
Then
m6u6  m4u4 = peVd  mehe
;Vd = V4V6
;
: average exhausted gas state (averaged specific enthalpy
of exhaust gas)
23
Application of the first Law between points 6 and 1
(Intake process)
6
1
where
mi
Vd
= specific enthalpy of the inlet mixture
and p1 = pi ;
pi = inlet pressure
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In the fourstroke engine cycle, work is done on the
piston during the intake and the exhaust processes.
The work done by the cylinder gases on the piston
during exhaust is
The work done by the cylinder gases on the piston
during intake is
The network to the piston over intake and exhaust
strokes, called pumping work, is
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The pumping mean effective pressure, (pmep)
Wc,ig
(throttled)
(supercharged)
Gross indicated work per cycle
(work applied to piston during compression
and expansion strokes)
Wc,in
Net indicated work per cycle
(work applied to piston per an entire cycle)
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(All W/Vd)
Throttled
Supercharged
The net indicated fuel conversion efficiency is related to
the gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency by
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5.4 Cycle analysis with constant ideal gas working fluid

Working fluid in these ideal cycles is assumed to be
an ideal gas.
Cp and Cv are constant throughout the engine operating
cycle.
5.4.1 Constantvolume cycle
compression work
u = cv T
(1)
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expansion work
(2)
Quantity
can be related to the temperature rise during combustion:
(3)
Indicated fuel conversion efficiency can be expressed as
(4)
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Since 12 and 34 processes are isentropic between
the same volume
Isentropic relation
rc
So
Replacing
into (4), we obtain
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Figure 5.2 Ideal gas constantvolume cycle fuel conversion
efficiency as a function of compression ratio
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32
Dimensionless indicated mean effective pressure
 In terms of
= specific internal energy per unit mass of working fluid
m = mass of working fluid
(5)
(6)
33
And by the definition of rc,
rc
rc
Vd
At state (1): p1V1 = mRT1
34
Then using
(from R = Cp Cv) and
35
It is also useful to compare imep with the maximum
pressure in the cycle,
From the constant volume process (23)
From the isentropic process (12)
(7)
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(8)
Relation of
can be obtained from eq. (3)
Thus, eq. (8) becomes
37
(note that
is known)
Mass fraction of residual gas xr at state 6 (end of exhaust)
: Isentropic expansion from state 4 to 5
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xr can be derived as
Do u remember pe and pi ?!!
pe = exhuast pressure
pi = intake pressure
By similar analysis, T6 can be found by
(a)
Relation between T1 and temperature of fresh mixture
induction Ti is
(b)
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From (a) and (b), we obtain ratio of T1 and Ti
5.4.2 Limited and constant pressure cycle
Compression work
Expansion work
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Combustion
Constant volume 23a
Constant pressure 3a3b
Therefore the relation between amounts of heat converted from
fuel and the increase in temperature,
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where
and
is
Cutoff ratio
For constant volume (Otto) cycle
For constant pressure (Diesel) cycle
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Cutoff ratio is defined as a ratio of volumes after and before
combustion :
Always greater than 1 !
For the same rc
43
Thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle as a function of
compression and cutoff ratios (k=1.4)
44
Dimensionless mean effective pressure
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EXAMPLE 5.1 Many diesel engine can be approximated
by a limitedpressure cycle. In a limitedpressure cycle, a
fraction of the fuel is burnt at constant volume and the
remaining fuel is burnt at constant pressure. Use this
cycle approximation with = cp/cv = 1.3 to analyze the
following problem:
Inlet conditions:
Compression ratio:
Heat added during combustion:
Overall fuel/air ratio:
p1= 1.0 bar, T1= 289 K
15:1
43,000 kJ/kg of fuel
0.045 kg fuel/kg air
Half of the fuel/air ratio is burnt at constant volume, then half at
constant pressure.
Asked: draw a pV diagram and compute the fuel conversion
efficiency of the cycle.
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Analysis:
= 8314/29
;
=
=
= 287 J/(kgK)
= 957 J/(kgK)
= 1244 J/(kgK)
47
Limited pressure cycle (123a3b4)
compression process (12):
isentropic
Heat added during combustion
From the fuel/air ratio =
So heat added due to combustion
= 1852 kJ/kg mixture
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Half of the total heat is burnt at constant volume and at
constant pressure = 1852/2 = 926 kJ/kg mixture
Constant volume combustion (23a):
1 kg mixture
Constant pressure combustion (3a3b):
1 kg mixture
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Per 1 kg mixture
Then
Thus
ANS
The fuel conversion efficiency calculated using equation (5.43)
50
ANS