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You can gauge the strength of MAN Roland from your newspaper. The probability is
high that it was printed on one of our rotary offset machines. We are the world’s number
one in web offset printing and a leading supplier of sheet-fed offset printing
machinery. For books, advertising and packaging – international companies trust
our printing technology. What’s more, the MAN Group is strong in other futureoriented competence fields focusing on commercial vehicles, mechanical engineering
and services. So much pooled innovative strength does not go unrewarded. In
2003 the value of MAN shares almost doubled. In 2004 the upward trend continued.
Isn’t it good to know that sustained action yields long-lasting success?

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ISBN 2-9524129-4-4
ISBN 978-2-952412-94-0

90000

MAN Roland is strategic partner of the World Association of Newspapers (WAN).

MAN Roland Druckmaschinen AG –
9 782952 412940

World Press Trends 2007

www.man-roland.com

30/05/07

hiel,pflaume,schmidt,

wpt_cover2007

WORLD PRESS TRENDS
2007 EDITION

7, rue Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 75005 Paris, France
Tel: (33) 1 47 42 85 00 Fax: (33) 1 47 42 49 48
E-mail: contact_us@wan.asso.fr
http://www.wan-press.org
© World Association of Newspapers / ZenithOptimedia, 2007
Data provided by contributors,
ZenithOptimedia, London, and gathered from other sources
Processed by Tatiana Repkova and Benjamin Thalman
Database support Stéphane Karges
Cover pages by Juan Carlos Cedillo
Graphic design and layout of inner pages by iver, s.r.o., Bratislava, Slovakia
ISBN 2-9524129-4-4
EAN 9782952412940

In 1998 WAN adopted the UNESCO definition of newspapers in order to further
standardise and thus facilitate international comparisons. According to the
definition which is used in this survey, daily newspapers are those published at least
four times a week, non-daily newspapers are those published three times a week or
less, and Sunday newspapers are those published only on Sundays.

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

CONTENTS
Preface ...........................................................................................i
CHAPTER I: OVERALL STATISTICS
Titles and circulations .................................................................2
Advertising ..................................................................................6
Online editions ..........................................................................12
Dailies
Paid-for dailies ........................................................................14
Free dailies ...............................................................................51
Paid-for & free dailies .............................................................60
Non-dailies
Paid-for non-dailies .................................................................78
Free non-dailies .......................................................................94
Paid-for & free non-dailies ...................................................101
Sundays
Paid-for Sundays ...................................................................113
Free Sundays ..........................................................................121
Paid-for & free Sundays ........................................................122
Printing ....................................................................................129
Distribution .............................................................................133
CHAPTER II: COUNTRY REPORTS
Tables in country reports .........................................................136
1. Afghanistan .........................................................................139
2. Albania ................................................................................141
3. Algeria .................................................................................143
4. American Samoa .................................................................145
5. Andorra ...............................................................................146
6. Angola .................................................................................147
7. Anguilla ...............................................................................149
8. Antarctica ............................................................................150
9. Antigua and Barbuda .........................................................151
10. Argentina ..........................................................................152
11. Armenia .............................................................................156
12. Aruba .................................................................................161
13. Australia ............................................................................162
14. Austria ...............................................................................169
15. Azerbaijan .........................................................................176
16. Bahamas, The ....................................................................179
17. Bahrain ..............................................................................180
18. Bangladesh ........................................................................182
19. Barbados ............................................................................184
20. Belarus ...............................................................................185
21. Belgium ..............................................................................188
22. Belize .................................................................................192
23. Benin ..................................................................................193
24. Bermuda ............................................................................195
25. Bhutan ...............................................................................197
26. Bolivia ................................................................................198
27. Bosnia and Herzegovina ...................................................200
28. Botswana ...........................................................................202
29. Brazil ..................................................................................204
30. British Virgin Islands .........................................................210
31. Brunei ................................................................................211
32. Bulgaria .............................................................................213
33. Burkina Faso ......................................................................219
34. Burundi ..............................................................................220
35. Cambodia ...........................................................................222
36. Cameroon ..........................................................................224
37. Canada ...............................................................................226
38. Cape Verde ........................................................................231
39. Cayman Islands ..................................................................232
40. Central African Republic ..................................................233
41. Chad ...................................................................................235
42. Chile ...................................................................................236
43. China ..................................................................................242

44. Christmas Island ................................................................249
45. Colombia ...........................................................................250
46. Comoros .............................................................................253
47. Congo, Democratic Republic ............................................254
48. Congo, Republic ................................................................256
49. Cook Islands ......................................................................258
50. Costa Rica ..........................................................................259
51. Croatia ...............................................................................263
52. Cuba ...................................................................................269
53. Cyprus ................................................................................271
54. Czech Republic ..................................................................274
55. Denmark ............................................................................281
56. Djibouti ..............................................................................287
57. Dominica ............................................................................288
58. Dominican Republic ..........................................................289
59. East Timor ..........................................................................290
50. Ecuador ..............................................................................293
61. Egypt ..................................................................................298
62. Equatorial Guinea .............................................................301
63. Eritrea ................................................................................302
64. Estonia ...............................................................................303
65. Ethiopia .............................................................................308
66. Falkland Islands .................................................................310
67. Faroe Islands ......................................................................311
68. Fiji .......................................................................................312
69. Finland ...............................................................................314
70. France ................................................................................319
71. French Guiana ...................................................................325
72. French Polynesia ...............................................................326
73. Gabon ................................................................................327
74. Gambia, The ......................................................................329
75. Georgia ..............................................................................330
76. Germany ............................................................................334
77. Ghana ................................................................................340
78. Gibraltar ............................................................................342
79. Greece ................................................................................343
80. Greenland ..........................................................................348
81. Grenada .............................................................................349
82. Guadeloupe .......................................................................350
83. Guam .................................................................................351
84. Guatemala .........................................................................352
85. Guinea ...............................................................................354
86. Guinea-Bissau ....................................................................356
87. Guyana ...............................................................................357
88. Haiti ...................................................................................358
89. Honduras ...........................................................................359
90. Hong Kong ........................................................................360
91. Hungary .............................................................................363
92. Iceland ...............................................................................368
93. India ...................................................................................372
94. Indonesia ...........................................................................379
95. Iran .....................................................................................383
96. Iraq .....................................................................................387
97. Ireland ................................................................................390
98. Israel ...................................................................................397
99. Italy ....................................................................................401
100. Ivory Coast .......................................................................407
101. Jamaica ............................................................................409
102. Japan ................................................................................410
103. Jordan ..............................................................................418
104. Kazakhstan ......................................................................421
105. Kenya ...............................................................................424
106. Kiribati .............................................................................427
107. Korea, North ...................................................................428
108. Korea, Republic of ..........................................................430
109. Kuwait .............................................................................436
110. Kyrgyzstan .......................................................................439
111. Laos ..................................................................................442

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

CONTENTS
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.

Latvia ...............................................................................445
Lebanon ...........................................................................449
Lesotho ............................................................................453
Liberia ..............................................................................454
Libya .................................................................................455
Liechtenstein ...................................................................457
Lithuania ..........................................................................458
Luxembourg ....................................................................462
Macau ..............................................................................467
Macedonia .......................................................................469
Madagascar .....................................................................472
Malawi .............................................................................473
Malaysia ...........................................................................475
Maldives ...........................................................................480
Mali ..................................................................................481
Malta ................................................................................483
Man, Isle of ......................................................................484
Marshall Islands ...............................................................485
Martinique .......................................................................486
Mauritania .......................................................................487
Mauritius .........................................................................489
Mayotte ...........................................................................490
Mexico .............................................................................491
Micronesia .......................................................................495
Moldova ...........................................................................496
Monaco ............................................................................501
Mongolia .........................................................................502
Montenegro ....................................................................506
Montserrat .......................................................................509
Morocco ...........................................................................510
Mozambique ...................................................................514
Myanmar .........................................................................517
Namibia ...........................................................................520
Nauru ...............................................................................522
Nepal ................................................................................523
Netherlands Antilles .......................................................525
Netherlands, The .............................................................526
New Caledonia ................................................................532
New Zealand ...................................................................533
Nicaragua ........................................................................537
Niger ................................................................................538
Nigeria .............................................................................540
Niue ..................................................................................542
Norfolk Island ..................................................................543
Northern Mariana Islands ...............................................544
Norway ............................................................................545
Oman ...............................................................................550
Pakistan ...........................................................................553
Palau ................................................................................555
Palestinian Authority ......................................................556
Panama ............................................................................559
Papua New Guinea .........................................................561
Paraguay ..........................................................................562
Peru ..................................................................................564
Philippines .......................................................................573
Pitcairn Islands ................................................................575
Poland ..............................................................................576
Portugal ...........................................................................585
Puerto Rico ......................................................................592
Qatar ................................................................................594
Reunion ...........................................................................597
Romania ...........................................................................598
Russia ...............................................................................603
Rwanda ............................................................................610
Saint Helena ....................................................................612
Saint Kitts and Nevis .......................................................613
Saint Lucia .......................................................................614
Saint Pierre and Miquelon .............................................615

180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.
221.
222.
223.
224.
225.
226.
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .................................616
Salvador, El ......................................................................617
Samoa ..............................................................................618
San Marino ......................................................................619
Sao Tome and Principe ...................................................620
Saudi Arabia ....................................................................621
Senegal ............................................................................624
Serbia ...............................................................................626
Seychelles .........................................................................630
Sierra Leone ....................................................................631
Singapore ........................................................................633
Slovakia ............................................................................637
Slovenia ...........................................................................642
Solomon Islands ..............................................................645
Somalia ............................................................................646
South Africa ....................................................................648
Spain ................................................................................654
Sri Lanka ..........................................................................658
Sudan ...............................................................................662
Suriname ..........................................................................664
Swaziland ........................................................................665
Sweden ............................................................................667
Switzerland ......................................................................674
Syria .................................................................................679
Taiwan .............................................................................681
Tajikistan ..........................................................................686
Tanzania ..........................................................................688
Thailand ...........................................................................692
Togo .................................................................................696
Tonga ...............................................................................697
Trinidad and Tobago .......................................................698
Tunisia ..............................................................................700
Turkey ..............................................................................703
Turkmenistan ...................................................................708
Turks and Caicos Islands .................................................710
Tuvalu ..............................................................................711
Uganda ............................................................................712
Ukraine ............................................................................715
United Arab Emirates .....................................................724
United Kingdom .............................................................728
United States of America ...............................................736
Uruguay ...........................................................................744
Uzbekistan .......................................................................747
Vanuatu ...........................................................................749
Vatican .............................................................................750
Venezuela ........................................................................751
Vietnam ...........................................................................754
Virgin Islands (U.S.) .........................................................758
Wallis and Futuna ...........................................................759
Western Sahara ...............................................................760
Yemen ..............................................................................762
Zambia .............................................................................765
Zimbabwe ........................................................................767

CHAPTER III: QUICK REFERENCE
Number of journalists and employees ..................................770
VAT rates ..................................................................................771
Other taxes ..............................................................................772
Transport & telecommmunications tariff reductions ...........773
Total amount of direct subsidies ............................................774
Ownership regulations ...........................................................775
Currency exchange rates ........................................................776
CONTACTS...............................................................................781

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

PREFACE
Preface by World Association of Newspapers
World Press Trends 2007 is the most complete overview in 2006. The total number of paid-for and free daily
of newspaper markets worldwide since the first edition titles altogether increased by almost 20 per cent over the
published in 1987.
last five years, and by more than 4 per cent year-on-year
in 2006. None of these figures take into account
This edition of World Press Trends contains reports on dynamically growing numbers of registered titles in
every country and territory in the world where India, thousands of which cannot be included in this
newspapers are published. In addition to the 232 survey because relevant specific information about them
country reports, WPT includes a wealth of summaries is not available.
that provide a detailed global picture of the newspaper
world.
The total circulation of paid-for dailies in the world
increased by 9.5 per cent over five years, and by 2.3 per
More than 1.4 billion people now read a newspaper cent year-on-year in 2006. The total circulation of paiddaily. The number of daily newspaper titles and their for and free dailies altogether increased by almost 15 per
circulation has been steadily growing over last five years. cent over five years, and by 4.6 percent year-on-year in
Paid-for daily titles surpassed 10,000 as early as in 2003 2006.
and grew continuously to above 11,000 in 2006. Global
advertising expenditure in newspapers increased by The figures about numbers of daily newspaper titles
almost 16 per cent over last five years, and by 3.8 per represent 192 countries, compared to 148 in the
cent in 2006 compared to the previous year.
previous edition of World Press Trends; figures on
circulation are available for 183 countries, compared to
The world absolute leaders in the newspaper industry 70 in the previous edition. The range and depth of the
are:
latest research over last five years was facilitated by evergrowing amount and scope of information available on
❒ India leading in the number of paid-for daily the Internet. Applicable pieces of data had been
newspaper titles since 2003 when it surpassed the evaluated for their credibility before they were put in
United States of America;
this book with attribution to ‘public sources’, or used as
background information for ‘WAN assessment’ based on
❒ The United States of America leading in the number simple arithmetic calculations, or ‘WAN estimate’
of free daily newspaper titles and advertising revenues; derived from general industry knowledge about
particular markets.
❒ China leading in paid-for daily circulation and in the
number of top 100 dailies;
The book is compiled with the assistance of a wide
variety of contributors, ranging from newspaper
❒ Spain leading in free daily circulation.
associations to individual analysts. Each contributor is
motivated to ensure that the data on his or her country
In relative categories, the leaders are:
is as comprehensive and accurate as possible. Without
the commitment of these dedicated contributors, from
❒ San Marino, a country with 24,000 adults, the leader all over the globe, the book would be impossible to
in number of titles per adult population where two produce.
daily newspapers are published;
We extend our thanks to all who contributed to the
❒ Aruba with 931 paid-for daily newspaper copies sold compilation of World Press Trends. You will find a list of
per thousand adults;
our key contributors on the last page of this book under
the heading ‘Contacts’.
❒ Iceland, number one in paid-for and free daily
circulation per adult population, due to its more than The book also contains a wealth of data from
800 free copies per thousand adults.
ZenithOptimedia, whose forecasts allow us not only to
look back at the trends in the world’s press, but also give
The total number of paid-for daily titles increased by us a glimpse of what is in store for the newspaper
almost 18 per cent over last five years, and by 3.5 percent business in future years.

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

i

CHAPTER I

OVERALL STATISTICS

TITLES & CIRCULATIONS
PAID-FOR DAILIES: TITLES & CIRCULATION
No. dailies titles
Africa
America, North
America, South
Asia
Australia & Oceania
Europe
Total

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

342
1,952
926
4,051
89
2,164
9,524

360
1,954
1,013
4,825
88
2,201
10,441

381
1,956
1,030
4,766
87
2,262
10,482

394
1,950
1,042
5,071
88
2,287
10,832

399
1,937
1,041
5,424
89
2,317
11,207

16.67
-0.77
12.42
33.89
0.00
7.07
17.67

1.27
-0.67
-0.10
6.96
1.14
1.31
3.46

8,553
69,400
13,283
296,692
3,889
96,190
488,007

8,577
68,725
13,310
307,865
3,,853
94,080
496,410

8,594
67,171
13,485
317,181
3,797
93,377
503,605

8,650
65,846
14,099
328,637
3,877
94,069
515,178

1.05
-5.26
1.99
18.78
-0.46
-4.12
9.48

0.65
-1.97
4.55
3.61
2.11
0.74
2.30

Circulation of dailies (000)
Africa
8,560
America, North
69,499
America, South
13,824
Asia
276,676
Australia & Oceania
3,895
Europe
98,112
Total
470,566

This table includes figures from countries and territories for which we have at least one year data on number of titles or circulation.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Number of titles: Africa: 47
America, North: 27
America, South: 13
Asia: 46
Australia & Oceania: 13
Europe: 46
Total: 192

Circulation: Africa: 43
America, North: 14
America, South: 11
Asia: 46
Australia & Oceania: 12
Europe: 43
Total: 169

We have estimated some figures for countries and territories that do not have a complete set of data for all five years.

PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION PER TITLE
2002
Average circulation per title (000)
Africa
25.9
America, North
35.6
America, South
15.7
Asia
73.1
Australia & Oceania
44.8
Europe
57.3
Total
53.8

2003

2004

2005

2006

24.6
35.5
14.0
65.1
45.2
56.2
50.8

23.3
35.2
14.0
68.4
45.3
53.4
51.6

22.6
34.5
14.1
66.0
44.2
52.5
50.6

22.4
34.0
14.8
63.7
44.6
52.8
50.0

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05
-13.51
-4.49
-5.73
-12.86
-0.45
-7.85
-7.06

-0.88
-1.45
4.96
-3.48
0.90
0.57
-1.19

This table only includes figures from countries and territories for which we have information on both number of titles and circulation.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Africa: 43
America, North: 26
America, South: 11
Asia: 44
Australia & Oceania: 13
Europe: 43
Total: 180
We have estimated some figures for countries and territories that do not have a complete set of data for all five years.

2

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

TITLES & CIRCULATIONS
FREE DAILIES: TITLES & CIRCULATION
No. dailies titles
Africa
America, North
America, South
Asia
Australia & Oceania
Europe
Total

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05

1
27
8
7
2
39
84

1
36
8
9
2
47
103

1
37
10
17
2
66
133

1
63
10
20
2
89
185

1
81
16
25
3
161
287

0.00
200.00
100.00
257.14
50.00
312.82
241.67

0.00
28.57
60.00
25.00
50.00
80.90
55.14

65
3,488
802
2,543
180
10,023
17,101

65
3,833
524
4,412
180
11,471
20,485

65
5,320
552
5,411
180
16,245
27,773

65
6,241
977
6,406
271
26,720
40,680

0.00
147.86
20.62
393.15
50.56
199.25
194.76

0.00
17.31
76.99
18.39
50.56
64.48
46.47

Circulation of dailies (000)
Africa
65
America, North
2,518
America, South
810
Asia
1,299
Australia & Oceania
180
Europe
8,929
Total
13,801

This table includes figures from countries and territories for which we have at least one year data on number of titles and circulation.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Africa: 1
America, North: 4
America, South: 5
Asia: 10
Australia & Oceania: 1
Europe: 30
Total: 51

FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION PER TITLE
2002
Average circulation per title (000)
Africa
65.0
America, North
93.3
America, South
101.3
Asia
185.6
Australia & Oceania
90.0
Europe
228.9
Total
164.3

2003

2004

2005

2006

65.0
96.9
100.3
282.6
90.0
213.3
166.0

65.0
103.6
52.4
259.5
90.0
173.8
154.0

65.0
84.4
55.2
270.6
90.0
182.5
150.1

65.0
77.0
61.1
256.2
90.3
166.0
141.7

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05
0.00
-17.47
-39.68
38.04
0.33
-27.48
-13.76

0.00
-8.77
10.69
-5.32
0.33
-9.04
-5.60

This table includes figures from countries and territories for which we have at least one year data on number of titles and circulation.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Africa: 1
America, North: 4
America, South: 5
Asia: 10
Australia & Oceania: 1
Europe: 30
Total: 51

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

3

TITLES & CIRCULATIONS
PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: TITLES & CIRCULATION
No. dailies titles
Africa
America, North
America, South
Asia
Australia & Oceania
Europe
Total

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

343
1,979
934
4,058
91
2,203
9,608

361
1,990
1,021
4,834
90
2,248
10,544

382
1,993
1,040
4,783
89
2,328
10,615

395
2,013
1,052
5,091
90
2,376
11,017

400
2,018
1,057
5,449
92
2,478
11,494

16.62
1.97
13.17
34.28
1.10
12.48
19.63

1.27
0.25
0.48
7.03
2.22
4.29
4.33

8,618
72,888
14,085
299,235
4,069
106,213
505,108

8,642
72,558
13,834
312,277
4,033
105,551
516,895

8,659
72,491
14,037
322,592
3,977
109,622
531,378

8,715
72,087
15,076
335,043
4,148
120,789
555,858

1.04
0.10
3.02
20.53
1.79
12.84
14.76

0.65
-0.56
7.40
3.86
4.30
10.19
4.61

Circulation of dailies (000)
Africa
8,625
America, North
72,017
America, South
14,634
Asia
277,975
Australia & Oceania
4,075
Europe
107,041
Total
484,367

This table includes figures from countries and territories for which we have at least one year data on number of titles
or circulation of paid-for or free dailies.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Number of titles: Africa: 47
Circulation: Africa: 43
America, North: 27
America, North: 26
America, South: 13
America, South: 11
Asia: 46
Asia: 46
Australia & Oceania: 13
Australia & Oceania: 12
Europe: 46
Europe: 45
Total: 192
Total: 183
We have estimated some figures for countries and territories that do not have a complete set of data for all five years.

PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION PER TITLE
2002
Average circulation per title (000)
Africa
26.0
America, North
36.4
America, South
16.5
Asia
73.0
Australia & Oceania
45.8
Europe
61.1
Total
54.7

2003

2004

2005

2006

24.7
36.6
14.7
65.2
46.2
60.3
51.9

23.4
36.4
14.4
68.9
46.4
57.8
52.9

22.7
36.0
14.6
66.6
45.2
58.5
52.3

22.5
35.7
15.6
64.4
46.1
62.5
52.4

Change (%)
2006/02
2006/05
-13.46
-1.92
-5.45
-11.78
0.66
2.29
-4.20

-0.88
-0.83
6.85
-3.30
1.99
6.84
0.19

Note: This table includes figures from countries and territories for which we have information on both number of titles
and circulation for both paid-for and free dailies.
The number of such countries and territories in each region is as follows:
Africa: 43
America, North: 26
America, South: 11
Asia: 45
Australia & Oceania: 12
Europe: 43
Total: 180
We have estimated some figures for countries and territories that do not have a complete set of data for all five years.

4

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

TITLES & CIRCULATIONS
NUMBER OF DAILY NEWSPAPER TITLES
(worldwide)
12,000

10,000

84

103

133

10,441

10,482

2003

2004

185
10,832

287
11,207

9,524
8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0

2002

Paid-for dailies

2005

2006

Free dailies

DAILY NEWSPAPER CIRCULATION
(000 copies, worldwide)
600,000

500,000

13,801
470,566

27,773

40,680

17,101

20,485
496,410

503,605

515,178

488,007

2003

2004

2005

2006

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

0

2002

Paid-for dailies

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

Free dailies

5

ADVERTISING
NEWSPAPER AD EXPENDITURE AND NEWSPAPERS’ SHARE OF THE MARKET

ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE SHARES
News- Magapapers zines

TV

2002 (%)
News MagaRadio Cinema Outdoor Internet papers zines

TV

2006*(%)
2009*(%)
NewsRadio Cinema Outdoor Internet papers

Africa
Egypt

55.1

7.1

37.6

0.2

-

0.0

0.0

48.8

5.5

39.6

5.7

0.3

0.1

0.0

50.0

Kenya (1)

36.4

3.4

24.6

34.7

0.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nigeria (1)

49.5

1.2

33.0

4.8

-

11.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

South Africa

27.0

12.5

43.2

12.5

0.7

3.7

0.4

26.6

10.3

45.8

12.0

1.2

3.6

0.7

26.8

Canada

43.6

7.3

28.8

14.3

-

3.6

2.3

36.2

6.7

31.4

14.0

-

3.7

7.9

32.6

Costa Rica (1) (2)

29.1

5.9

49.6

15.4

-

-

-

36.5

10.9

32.0

14.5

-

6.2

-

-

Honduras (1)

31.6

0.6

65.7

2.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

America, North

Mexico

15.9

9.6

60.2

14.4

-

0.0

0.0

12.3

11.9

64.4

11.3

-

0.0

0.0

13.7

Panama

27.3

0.0

68.5

4.2

-

0.0

0.0

22.8

5.7

68.4

3.0

-

0.0

0.0

23.4

Puerto Rico

27.7

2.8

60.3

6.5

0.6

2.0

0.0

31.8

3.1

56.2

6.4

0.5

1.9

0.1

30.7

United States

30.3

14.0

34.5

13.0

0.2

3.3

4.8

29.5

14.2

33.4

11.9

0.3

3.6

7.1

27.6

Argentina

39.7

5.0

41.9

4.4

1.7

6.5

0.7

34.7

6.5

47.3

2.9

1.5

6.3

0.9

34.8

Bolivia (3)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.5

-

33.5

13.3

-

-

-

-

Brazil

20.1

9.5

60.8

4.6

-

5.1

0.0

16.2

8.8

64.5

4.4

-

4.4

1.7

16.1

Chile

30.0

4.2

49.6

9.5

0.4

6.4

0.0

29.9

3.2

49.2

7.5

0.4

8.9

1.0

29.6

Colombia

22.8

6.2

60.8

10.2

-

0.0

0.0

27.0

8.5

53.0

11.5

-

0.0

0.0

29.9

Ecuador (2)

14.7

2.9

72.4

10.0

-

-

-

15.3

3.4

71.6

9.7

-

-

-

-

Peru

31.9

2.7

42.6

11.2

-

11.7

0.0

22.5

2.2

48.7

11.8

2.6

12.2

0.0

18.2

Uruguay

14.0

0.0

50.0

14.0

1.0

20.0

1.0

10.5

1.2

54.5

11.7

1.9

18.5

1.8

11.0

Venezuela

24.5

2.6

59.7

4.9

3.8

4.5

0.0

23.4

2.4

54.8

6.2

5.2

8.1

0.0

23.3

Bahrain (1)

40.3

9.8

47.2

1.2

-

0.3

1.2

69.0

7.7

13.9

-

1.7

7.7

0.0

71.5

Cambodia

5.6

-

85.1

-

-

9.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

China

37.1

3.0

45.5

4.3

-

10.0

0.0

31.9

3.3

44.0

5.0

-

15.8

0.0

30.8

Hong Kong

45.9

11.8

30.9

4.8

0.2

5.9

0.5

39.1

12.8

35.9

3.7

0.0

7.8

0.7

37.8

India

39.2

8.0

41.9

2.9

0.7

7.0

0.4

42.2

3.6

44.2

2.0

1.5

5.6

0.8

40.5

of America
America, South

Asia

Indonesia

26.8

4.0

64.2

3.2

0.1

1.8

0.0

25.5

3.9

63.8

3.2

0.0

3.6

0.0

26.7

Israel

50.3

6.7

28.9

7.4

0.4

5.2

1.1

42.0

6.5

29.9

6.5

0.5

6.2

8.5

39.2

Japan

25.5

9.6

46.0

4.4

-

12.5

2.0

22.8

8.7

45.0

3.9

-

11.2

8.4

21.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

70.9

5.5

20.0

-

-

3.6

-

-

Korea, Republic Of 47.9

4.2

31.3

3.0

-

11.2

2.4

42.2

4.4

33.1

2.8

-

9.3

8.2

37.7

Kuwait

14.0

2.9

1.1

-

12.1

0.0

73.9

9.5

4.4

1.3

-

10.9

0.0

75.7

Jordan (3)

* Forecast

6

69.9

Continued on the following page

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

ADVERTISING
ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE SHARES - continued
2002 (%)
News- Magapapers zines

TV

2006*(%)

News MagaRadio Cinema Outdoor Internet papers zines

TV

2009*(%)
NewsRadio Cinema Outdoor Internet papers

Laos

19.1

15.7

42.0

10.0

0.9

12.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lebanon (2)

8.7

6.0

74.5

3.7

-

7.1

-

24.0

7.1

39.6

7.9

1.6

19.8

-

-

Malaysia

63.0

4.6

26.5

4.1

0.3

1.4

0.0

57.5

3.2

32.3

3.8

0.4

2.8

0.0

56.2

Myanmar

8.8

26.3

50.9

-

1.8

12.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Oman

72.1

7.0

20.9

-

-

0.0

0.0

79.5

2.6

17.9

-

-

0.0

0.0

83.8

Pakistan

33.4

8.8

47.6

2.7

0.5

6.9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Philippines

9.2

2.5

70.8

17.5

-

0.0

0.0

5.1

1.1

76.7

17.0

-

0.0

0.0

3.2

Qatar

88.6

1.6

9.8

-

-

-

-

93.0

0.5

4.8

1.0

-

0.8

-

95.5

Saudi Arabia
/Pan-Arab

21.9

11.1

63.0

1.5

-

2.5

0.0

24.5

5.3

64.3

0.6

-

3.3

2.0

30.5

Singapore

41.0

3.9

41.3

7.7

0.8

5.3

0.0

39.1

5.1

38.3

9.7

0.7

7.1

0.0

40.2

Sri Lanka

25.0

-

40

25.0

-

10.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Taiwan

22.3

12.6

58.2

5.5

-

0.0

1.5

29.6

11.6

37.3

7.5

-

6.3

7.7

26.4

Thailand

25.9

5.4

55.0

9.1

0.9

3.5

0.2

23.9

6.7

55.1

7.6

1.7

4.8

0.2

21.7

Turkey

33.5

4.3

48.4

5.0

0.8

7.7

0.2

31.0

3.4

56.6

3.0

1.2

4.1

0.6

31.9

United Arab Emirates 63.0

15.7

9.0

5.2

-

7.0

0.0

78.2

12.5

2.4

0.1

0.8

4.4

1.7

78.9

Vietnam

0.0

55.5

1.3

-

13.6

0.0

16.3

7.5

70.2

0.2

0.0

5.6

0.1

15.0

29.6

Australia & Oceania
Australia

38.3

10.1

36.4

9.0

0.7

3.3

2.1

36.5

7.4

34.7

8.6

0.8

3.8

8.2

33.9

New Zealand

40.1

11.1

33.0

13.0

0.5

2.4

0.0

38.0

12.0

30.0

12.0

0.5

3.5

4.0

36.8

Austria

36.7

23.1

24.5

7.9

0.5

7.3

0.0

39.1

19.2

24.1

8.1

0.6

7.5

1.4

40.8

Belgium

19.9

13.9

44.5

10.7

1.2

9.4

0.6

25.9

10.5

39.0

12.1

1.1

8.4

3.1

23.6

Bosnia
& Herzegovina (2)

6.0

-

65.0

4.0

-

25

-

6.7

2.1

89.5

0.3

0.0

1.3

0.0

-

Bulgaria

17.5

11.7

58.5

-

-

12.3

0.0

12.8

8.4

67.0

3.5

-

7.4

0.9

9.0

Croatia (2)

13.3

11.4

68.3

-

-

6.9

-

14.3

10.7

68.2

-

-

6.6

0.2

-

Czech Republic

20.0

20.0

47.9

5.2

0.2

6.0

0.7

19.1

19.7

49.0

5.5

0.4

4.1

2.3

18.1

Denmark

44.7

3.1

15.6

2.1

0.7

3.1

3.9

36.3

2.9

20.3

1.5

0.5

3.0

5.9

31.9

Estonia

45.2

13.3

24.0

9.7

-

5.4

2.4

42.6

11.0

27.5

7.7

-

6.1

5.1

38.2

Finland

55.1

17.0

19.1

4.2

0.2

3.0

1.4

53.4

16.1

19.9

3.8

0.1

3.0

3.7

51.2

France

16.6

32.2

30.6

7.5

0.8

11.4

1.0

15.0

30.8

32.0

7.8

0.8

10.5

3.1

14.1

Germany

41.7

24.7

23.5

3.5

1.0

4.2

1.4

40.3

23.7

23.9

4.0

0.8

4.7

2.6

39.1

Europe

Greece

11.4

30.8

36.7

4.1

0.8

16.3

0.0

15.6

36.6

31.0

4.3

0.7

11.8

0.0

16.8

Hungary

12.4

12.2

63.9

4.5

0.3

6.7

0.0

10.2

10.7

63.8

6.1

0.2

7.3

1.8

9.8

Iceland

58.2

7.3

30.5

-

0.4

3.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ireland

60.7

2.3

20.0

6.3

0.9

9.5

0.4

59.6

2.6

20.2

7.3

0.6

7.9

1.8

58.0

Italy

21.1

14.4

53.4

5.1

0.8

3.9

1.3

19.0

13.7

54.5

6.2

0.8

3.7

2.0

18.8

Latvia

34.8

11.6

33.6

12.6

0.7

5.4

1.2

27.9

13.7

36.8

11.5

0.7

6.6

2.8

24.0

Lithuania

16.1

6.0

71.4

2.2

-

4.2

0.0

14.7

5.8

72.0

2.2

0.0

4.3

0.9

13.8

Luxembourg

62.3

10.3

7.0

13.6

-

6.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Netherlands

43.5

24.0

21.5

6.2

0.2

3.7

0.9

39.0

21.3

24.8

7.1

0.2

4.2

3.4

37.4

Norway

44.3

12.0

33.3

4.8

0.9

2.8

1.9

42.1

10.3

27.0

4.9

0.8

3.9

11.0

37.4

Poland

10.7

12.5

63.6

7.0

0.4

5.4

0.3

15.8

14.5

50.8

9.2

1.4

6.9

1.4

14.7

Portugal

8.6

17.5

53.7

6.5

0.8

12.4

0.6

7.8

15.9

55.6

6.0

0.7

13.1

0.9

7.3

Romania

15.9

9.6

59.8

4.8

0.4

9.6

0.0

9.2

10.7

64.3

6.4

0.7

7.4

1.4

9.4

Russia

22.4

11.8

41.6

5.2

0.4

18.1

0.5

25.2

0.0

49.0

5.6

0.4

18.2

1.7

18.9

Slovakia

8.5

10.2

70.4

6.9

0.1

4.0

0.0

6.3

7.6

76.6

5.5

0.1

3.3

0.6

5.0

Slovenia

15.1

15.0

64.7

-

-

5.2

0.0

20.6

10.2

55.4

5.5

0.4

7.0

0.9

20.6

Spain

28.2

12.9

40.3

8.9

0.8

7.5

1.3

24.6

11.3

45.6

9.0

0.6

6.6

2.2

22.8

Sweden

48.9

14.0

21.8

3.0

0.5

5.0

6.7

44.6

12.4

22.7

2.9

0.4

5.6

11.4

41.3

Switzerland

48.6

17.9

13.8

3.4

1.0

14.9

0.5

35.5

22.9

23.3

3.8

1.5

11.6

1.4

36.6

Ukraine (2)

12.5

18.0

53.1

5.0

-

17.5

0.6

5.3

9.6

29.8

3.5

-

51.7

0.1

-

United Kingdom

39.8

15.5

30.6

4.1

1.5

6.8

1.7

33.5

13.1

27.0

3.6

1.3

7.8

13.5

30.0

Source: ZenithOptimedia
‘Newspapers’ include ‘Magazines’ in Bosnia & Herzegovina, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka
‘Outdoor’ includes ‘Other Media’ in China, Denmark, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Philippines, Russia, and the United States of America
* Forecast
(1) 2002 figures actually refer to 2001
(2) 2006 figures actually refer to 2005
(3) 2006 figures actually refer to 2003

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

7

2 2005 America.2 2003 2006 2005 2006 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 2006 2005 2006 2002 2006 2004 2006 2005 2005 2005 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .3 52.1 60.9 51. South Peru Uruguay 2003 2002 47.2 64.6 47.1 43.4 51.ADVERTISING CONTRIBUTION OF ADVERTISING AND COPY SALES TO PAID-FOR DAILY NEWSPAPERS’ REVENUES (%) 8 Contribution to revenues Advertising Sales Advertising Country Year Africa South Africa Sales Year 2002 49 51 48.7 33.1 57.6 2004 2003 Asia Armenia East Timor Japan Lebanon Mongolia Turkey 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2002 4.8 42. North Canada United States of America 2002 2002 78.7 42.3 76.9 42.8 35.3 32.2 51.9 53 1.1 62 46.6 98.9 57.1 1.9 39.9 98.4 61.6 60.6 48.4 54.5 37.1 37.6 21.9 44.5 46.2 22.4 64.1 95.8 50 37.3 57.7 23.9 39 51.8 51.6 60.9 38 53.8 35.4 79 42.4 39.5 53.5 62.1 37.8 49.4 77.3 66.2 13.2 2003 Europe Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands.2 50.9 59.9 62.5 4.8 20.2 38.4 98.4 53.1 40.2 52.7 40.9 56.6 38.1 87.5 51.9 41.5 48.9 42. The Slovakia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2006 2003 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2002 2005 2002 55.4 39.2 57.2 44.1 58.9 50.8 86.1 48.4 52.8 61.6 1.9 2002 2003 2003 2005 2003 2006 Australia & Oceania Australia 2003 64.6 46.1 61 48.5 95.1 42.9 12.8 45.2 50 62.9 62.8 2005 2004 America.6 21 57.1 47 98.2 61.3 59.4 1.1 57.7 67.8 55.5 44.2 79.5 46.6 54.8 38.5 53.1 49.6 35.1 57.8 42.7 47.5 55.4 45.8 48.

7 84.6 42 1 4.2 5. The Romania Russia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom 56 90 86.5 20 14.8 7.1 61.5 53 90 33 1.5 9 13.5 19.7 58.3 88 65 94 79.8 88.2 38.5 - 12.7 29.3 44.2 3.8 1.4 57 1. INSERTS AND ONLINE TO TOTAL ADVERTISING REVENUE (%) using most recent available figures Country Display Classified Inserts Online Africa South Africa 81.1 7.9 95.5 47 6 1.3 41.9 4 - 3.6 America.7 26 6 20.1 6 4 - Australia & Oceania Australia 41.9 5.1 34. CLASSIFIED.6 90.8 5.9 15.8 7 6.5 70. South Argentina Brazil Colombia Peru Uruguay 97.8 75.7 74.7 0.3 70.4 7.1 4.6 5.2 3 3.1 79.5 52.2 88.6 92.7 2.5 America.8 1 - Asia Indonesia Israel Japan Korea.2 57 68. Republic of Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Turkey 67 96.8 36 25.5 2.7 3 5 4 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 9 .2 6.2 24.9 16 21.7 11.9 0. North Canada Costa Rica 65.ADVERTISING CONTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY.5 99.4 3 5.4 12 6 6.5 29.5 90 86.3 - - Europe Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Moldova Netherlands.3 87 78 78.6 72 85.9 25.4 92.7 1 0.

58 60.8 151.36 923.21 2.18 45 477. Republic of Saudi Arabia Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Arab Emirates Vietnam 10 7.78 80.78 25.00 100.55 29.25 227.34 30.25 677.88 29.21 6.82 0.83 4.88 142.63 7.5 538.5 5.72 6.19 0.41 30.92 112.07 67.8 12.8 10.04 7.00 53.19 0.38 7.95 12.61 17.56 72.01 31.89 140.27 140.02 7.61 29.56 56.00 29.59 9.478.25 2.67 74.112.68 1.07 1.26 364.4 12.31 53.57 12.74 115.06 359.25 6.49 92.95 551.84 25.73 40 106.00 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 90.93 421.81 95.22 12.49 0.5 2.22 1 601.25 299. current prices) 10 Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 4.39 28.65 20.6 111.56 8.29 54.5 0.64 27.06 212.68 36 91.11 662.19 276.46 46.4 6.02 674.4 220.92 109.99 2.17 5.61 4.99 334.35 11.15 93.3 - 14.46 1.8 2.33 73.79 11.4 214.67 3.76 - 153.6 0.37 151.22 40.5 95.020 226.53 625.53 3. South Argentina Brazil Chile Uruguay 3.25 258.00 41.758 226.62 157.12 11.090.53 5.40 39.72 11.6 7.2 14.3 17.73 1.11 137.21 8.92 1.87 24.67 1.82 1 241.063.48 67.65 81.16 34.00 25.72 718.54 347.25 2.21 24.24 20.77 93.43 20.4 0.69 55 4.88 415.250 169.05 1.1 147.76 58.490 490.70 14. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom 10.55 40.54 34 0.25 33.93 473.04 36.54 0.122.97 22.55 143.25 40.82 69.90 50.4 9.84 6.98 28.28 42.9 256.75 0.5 18 84.93 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .94 45.24 318.11 77 6.07 0.07 3.58 861.00 America.3 3.64 35 68.67 12.53 0.29 1.36 10 5.3 28.31 26.676.19 0.688 464.9 0.00 1.81 0.75 47.25 226.25 - 220.40 372.5 415 28.52 7.08 196.39 3.15 3.02 19.21 18 58.93 662.67 13.11 2.01 15.86 188.66 14.58 66.35 40.8 8.00 100.549.05 170.02 27.9 7.00 Europe Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands.70 1.85 4.37 6.4 1.25 0.86 747.04 1.50 Asia Hong Kong India Indonesia Israel Japan Korea.4 19.39 43.76 4.99 341.06 - 40.86 2.75 0.9 25.54 142.79 8.91 36.53 55.51 68 3.59 22.28 0.5 387.22 630.98 1.57 1.49 18.25 4.11 4.21 44.33 13.4 8.01 13.69 0.99 1.2 7.9 12.03 1.17 1 30 116.992 661.3 15.56 America.19 20 161.52 782.ADVERTISING INTERNET ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE (in USD million.33 297.03 80 127.60 529.41 53.71 1.1 0.00 122.03 9. North Canada Puerto Rico United States of America 112.98 7.63 127.956.49 363.01 501.75 868.25 111.9 0.81 148.94 173.75 31.44 88.25 3.19 32.55 8.01 2.18 34.00 15.02 129.46 - 9.9 0.35 38.95 81.88 121.87 1.22 12.46 40 6.51 23.

84 Hungary 69.00 20.55 Poland 53.00 Vietnam 25.00 40.00 Lithuania 92.89 Japan 36.44 Uruguay 12.25 Estonia 74.29 Brazil 14.00 80.95 Portugal 60.53 France 41.88 Italy 40.00 100.75 Israel 28.35 South Africa 7.04 Latvia 26.00 120.78 Belgium 54.01 Australia 40.40 Ukraine 122. The 29.25 India 40.00 Finland 25.39 Korea.22 Saudi Arabia New Zealand 100.00 Denmark 15.ADVERTISING CHANGE IN INTERNET ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE 2006/05 (%) (current prices) 0.00 60.93 Switzerland 38.00 Canada 42.25 Thailand 13.00 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 11 .00 Romania 100.90 Germany 29. Republic of 20.21 Taiwan 40.66 Austria 14.01 Sweden 31.55 Turkey 88.76 Ireland 81.50 Hong Kong 9.00 6.56 Chile Puerto Rico 140.95 0.35 Netherlands.49 United States of America 25.31 Bulgaria 40.43 Czech Republic 33.00 United Kingdom 39.58 Norway 50.67 Argentina 15.00 Indonesia 24.82 Spain 29.00 140.00 United Arab Emirates 58.

00 -1.00 14 17 15 5 8 29 11 49 40 259 15 3 3 91 14 5 3 35 81 41 100 77 10 14 17 13 5 8 32 10 49 41 264 2 3 91 14 3 6 35 78 45 23 100 71 100 15 17 12 8 32 11 48 43 384 3 3 94 14 6 7 12 35 78 42 12 24 12 6 100 69 - 16 18 31 10 9 35 12 53 384 24 4 3 94 16 6 10 35 77 42 32 23 11 11 7 59 70 579 - 17 20 35 12 13 38 12 52 382 25 3 3 94 16 6 29 78 45 16 25 11 8 53 75 - 21.00 - - 22 12 12 372 - 3.25 11.52 19.00 0.00 83.000.00 14.00 0.ONLINE EDITIONS NUMBER OF DAILY NEWSPAPER WEBSITES (ONLINE EDITIONS) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 America.00 37.00 -2.11 12.03 9.00 -17.44 8.17 0.343 1 66 6 1.17 -25.14 -3.674 0.52 4.17 7.76 -47.00 3. North Bermuda Canada Costa Rica United States of America 1 54 5 1.00 8.79 6.00 4.29 20.30 14.43 17.65 133.89 -0.33 140.30 7. Republic of Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Singapore Turkey 5 2 24 104 6 14 5 6 - 5 26 28 107 6 1 6 - 4 32 102 6 5 1 6 - 10 265 5 6 27 11 6 - 120.50 31.14 - Australia & Oceania Australia Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Netherlands.00 44.29 -10.51 - Asia Armenia Azerbaijan East Timor Indonesia Japan Korea.57 0.33 40.00 29.14 -50.00 -17.70 0.600 1 99 7 1.60 - 6.62 America.00 0. South Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Peru Uruguay 3 126 38 3 15 122 46 31 - 121 46 41 - 128 49 12 49 - - 5.00 62.00 - 10.49 0.12 47.90 20.520 1 72 5 1.00 0.70 9.296 1 63 6 1.50 40.14 1.00 0. The Norway Poland Portugal Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 12 Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .09 6.00 0.

ONLINE EDITIONS CHANGE IN NUMBER OF DAILY NEWSPAPER WEBSITES. 2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 13 .

092 1.100 2.405 1.559 1.168 1.200 2. Republic of The Wall Street Journal English United States of America Nikkan Sports Japanese Japan Yangtze Evening Post Chinese China Guangzhou Daily Chinese China Yukan Fuji Japanese Japan Daily Mirror English United Kingdom Dainik Bhaskar Hindi India Nanfang City News Chinese China Sankei Sports Japanese Japan Malayala Manorama Malayalam India Information Times Chinese China Ananda Bazar Patrika Bengali India Yangcheng Evening News Chinese China Hokkaido Shimbun Japanese Japan Thai Rath Thai Thailand The Hindu English India The New York Times English United States of America Chutian Metro Daily Chinese China The Hindustan Times English India Al-Ahram (Pyramids) Arabic Egypt Yanzhao Metro Daily Chinese China Sports Nippon Japanese Japan Gujarat Samachar Gujarati India Qilu Evening News Chinese China Xinming Evening News Chinese China Hochi Shimbun Japanese Japan Daily Sports Japanese Japan Hindustan Hindi India Eenadu Telugu India Mathrubhumi Malayalam India Rajasthan Patrika Hindi India The Daily Telegraph English United Kingdom 10.309 1.042 2. Republic of China China China Italy United States of America United Kingdom Thailand Turkey Italy Philippines Russia Philippines China China 900 896 891 891 874 864 862 852 850 850 849 831 830 813 800 800 800 800 800 800 788 782 780 775 775 769 766 750 743 724 723 717 717 708 705 700 699 690 680 679 673 654 650 635 630 620 613 601 600 600 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .425 2.073 3.600 1.758 2.295 2.273 2.100 1.550 1.542 2.770 2.DAILIES TOP 100 PAID-FOR DAILIES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 14 Title Language Country Yomiuri Shimbun The Asahi Shimbun Mainichi Shimbun BILD Cankao Xiaoxi The Sun The Nikkei People s Daily Chunichi Shimbun The Times of India Tokyo Sports The Chosun Ilbo The Daily Mail USA Today Japanese Japanese Japanese German Chinese English Japanese Chinese Japanese English Japanese Korean English English Circulation (000) Japan Japan Japan Germany China United Kingdom Japan China Japan India Japan Korea.137 1. The Japan Japan United States of America Poland Korea.025 8.023 1.920 1.050 1.400 1.140 1.111 2. Republic of Sankei Shimbun Japanese Japan Dainik Jagran Hindi India Dong-A Ilbo Korean Korea.768 1.966 3.209 1.142 1.088 3. Republic of United Kingdom United States of America Joong Ang Ilbo Korean Korea.300 1.234 1.163 3.050 1.051 1.368 1.074 1.191 2.380 2.716 3.200 1.210 1.013 999 986 985 948 936 901 Title Language Country 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Daily News 21st Century Qiangjiang Evening News Kronen Zeitung Chunichi Sports Punjab Kesari Modern Express The Los Angeles Times Thai Chinese Chinese German Japanese Hindi Chinese English 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Nanfang Daily Metro Express Nishinippon Shimbun Daily Sakal Dahe Newspaper AJ Wuhan Evening News Kom Chat Leuk Beijing Evening News Al-Gomhuriya The Maeil Economic Daily Moskovsky Komsomolets Western China City News Ouest France Fakty i Kommentarii Jang Daily Express Daily Star Komsomolskaya Pravda Daily Thanthi Sandesh The Washington Post Chinese Chinese Japanese Marathi Chinese Hindi Chinese Thai Chinese Arabic Korean Russian Chinese French Russian Urdu English English Russian Tamil Gujarati English 81 82 83 84 De Telegraaf Chugoku Shimbun Shizuoka Shimbun New York Daily News Dutch Japanese Japanese English 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Fakt Gazeta Codzienna The Hankook Ilbo Today Evening News Peninsula City News Qingdao Evening News Corriere della Sera New York Post Polish Korean Chinese Chinese Chinese Italian English 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 The Times Khoa Sod Posta La Repubblica Remate Trud Bulgar Morning Post New Express English Thai Turkish Italian Filipino Russian Filipino Chinese Chinese Circulation (000) Thailand China China Austria Japan India China United States of America China China Japan India China India China Thailand China Egypt Korea. Republic of Russia China France Ukraine Pakistan United Kingdom United Kingdom Russia India India United States of America Netherlands.

DAILIES COUNTRIES OF TOP 100 PAID-FOR DAILIES Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 China Japan India United Kingdom United States of America Korea. The Pakistan Poland Turkey Ukraine LANGUAGES OF TOP 100 PAID-FOR DAILIES No. Republic of Thailand Russia Egypt Italy Philippines Austria France Germany Netherlands. top 100 dailies Chinese Japanese English Hindi Korean Russian Thai Arabic Filipino German Gujarati Italian Malayalam Bengali Dutch French Marathi Polish Tamil Telugu Turkish Urdu 25 18 17 6 5 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 . top 100 dailies 25 18 17 7 7 5 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Language No.

00 0.00 0.2 0.166 42.00 0.00 -33.7 1.00 0.00 -20.00 16.098 61 3.00 0.00 5.0 69.00 0.9 18.8 1.00 2 4 4 2 1 100 2 6 18 8 1 10 2 4 3 1 299 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.00 0.00 0.2 1.00 0.732 3.406 1.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.123 825 915 13.4 0.1 4.929 31.4 0.4 2.00 0.6 - 119 19 178 19 178 19 178 - 178 - 49.955 1.33 33.753 11.00 30.9 10.00 0.00 0.00 0. El Trinidad and Tobago United States of America Virgin Islands (U.00 73.390 10.452 1 2 4 4 2 1 100 2 6 18 8 1 10 2 4 3 1 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.3 2. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Comoros Congo.37 0.00 0.6 17.957 6.106 553 102 7.00 0.2 0.984 53.00 -6.00 0.4 America.7 11.437 1 0.00 33.301 169 3. The Barbados Bermuda Canada Cayman Islands Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Salvador.2 3.263 6.0 0.206 6.203 7.00 0.498 396 32.00 5.69 -25.7 0.669 5.00 0.00 0.687 23.00 0.00 0.00 0.978 36 3.00 0.456 1 2 4 4 2 1 100 1 7 18 8 1 9 2 4 3 1 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.401 4.13 0.00 0.0 1.064 3.00 100.3 1.2 0.67 0.0 0.454 19.00 0.3 2.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.186 9.00 0.872 3.669 14.0 18.00 0.00 0.3 0.3 5.00 0.56 12.00 0.00 0.649 76.9 1.2 0.630 674 21.7 3.00 2.0 1.00 22.4 0.00 0.4 9.00 0. The Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 40 5 20 1 5 1 4 5 2 11 5 12 1 2 9 2 20 4 1 3 4 2 8 2 4 23 2 4 1 20 3 1 15 1 9 3 18 25 2 7 1 7 4 3 4 40 4 20 1 5 1 4 5 2 11 4 12 1 2 10 2 20 5 3 4 2 9 4 4 23 5 4 1 22 3 1 18 1 9 4 18 26 2 11 1 8 5 3 4 45 1 20 1 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 13 1 2 10 2 21 5 3 4 2 9 4 4 25 6 4 1 24 3 1 23 1 9 5 18 27 2 15 1 10 5 3 3 47 1 20 1 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 13 4 1 2 11 2 21 5 4 4 12 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 18 28 2 15 1 10 5 3 3 48 1 20 1 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 14 3 1 2 11 2 21 5 6 4 14 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 19 28 2 14 1 10 5 3 3 20.788 4.457 1 2 3 4 2 1 102 1 7 18 8 8 2 6 3 1 3 6 5 4 1 1 5 4 1.242 4.437 1 50 58 220 224 54 26.00 - 178 19 13.00 -11.4 2.0 3.728 944 22.2 8.00 17.5 1.00 100.00 0.00 0.33 0.6 1.67 0.00 0.823 4.58 - 0.2 0.7 16.00 0.107 6.6 1.S.00 0.189 346 7.00 11.2 2.00 0.918 10.668 6.00 -25.2 3.00 0.5 0.00 0.0 2.845 339 28. Democratic Republic of the Congo.titles Adult No.345 852 216.00 25.96 100.0 0.00 42.3 35.11 100.544 1.00 16.00 48 1 20 1 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 14 3 1 2 11 2 21 5 1 6 4 14 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 19 28 2 14 1 10 5 3 3 23.3 4.00 0.725 5.00 0.11 42.00 0.00 0.00 -50.33 0.2 0.9 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.089 28 86 4.00 0.67 0.071 1.33 0.3 0.00 0.012 7.00 0.00 0.8 3.7 6.00 0.2 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.00 7.00 -80.00 20.03 0.56 0.9 2.00 0.6 1.4 3.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. Republic of the Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.5 3.8 3.00 0.7 55.) 2 3 3 2 1 102 1 6 18 9 7 2 6 3 1 299 3 6 5 4 1 1 5 4 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.6 1.1 1.457 1 2 4 4 2 1 100 1 5 18 8 1 10 2 4 3 1 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.86 25.342 10.00 0.00 -1.392 1.00 0.3 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0. North Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas.3 America.86 0.4 0.00 0.172 7.00 50.972 - 40.00 -1.6 2.5 0.265 6.00 0.00 0.931 1.0 1.8 0.00 50. South Argentina Bolivia * or latest available figure Continued on the following page 16 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .00 100.39 0.00 5.00 40.665 2.278 1.843 13.22 0.280 1.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.4 2.00 0.7 0.195 2.3 0.00 0.00 0.313 4.

33 33.9 2.00 0.00 0.4 1.9 3.6 15.29 2.834 177 12 107 7 15 155 8 5 6 15 11 33 4 8 8 6 438 3 27 5 13 8 18 4 30 45 67 2 11 4 28 3 12 8 8 410 3 20 3 10 51 2.213 2.continued Change (%) Country No.867 17.6 4.2 0.00 0.09 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .67 0.50 50.0 2.00 50.67 0.00 0.00 12 8 24 8 410 3 20 954 3 10 51 2.00 0.9 76.33 60.00 -7.699 3.8 2.035 2 10 49 1.4 1.507 0.00 0.936 937.00 0.8 2.08 16.00 20.0 1.00 0.72 19.00 33.646 6.707 50.00 0.5 13.00 6.5 9.00 39.00 8.00 0.354 11.00 60.00 28 2 18 14 28 2.00 4.00 14.887 380 13.3 1.1 0.766 3.6 15.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.043 34.1 11.694 61 6.2 3.620 13 624 204 121 158 3.0 4.00 0.6 6.3 1.537 5.1 29.4 32.00 0.1 12 22 5 294 2 20 1.130 12 107 7 15 183 8 5 6 14 11 34 4 8 8 6 3 27 5 13 9 18 4 25 45 81 2 12 4 28 3 -33.602 3.873 273 8.8 1.1 15.954 18.00 100.5 7.2 Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Cambodia China East Timor Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Korea.69 0.733 30.729 218 172 12 107 5 15 137 7 5 6 14 11 34 3 6 7 6 291 3 5 12 9 4 31 40 62 2 9 4 28 3 10 5 7 400 2 20 954 4 10 49 1.6 0.97 14.730 2.930 758.904 18.00 0.347 1.6 19.27 0.904 507 98.308 176 121 106 5 15 128 7 5 5 13 10 32 2 5 6 5 169 3 5 12 8 13 4 30 35 55 2 9 3 28 3 8 24 5 340 2 20 1.00 0.265 15.00 2.8 0.616 39.00 -3.00 0.00 50.00 0.00 -16.1 4.00 12.4 3.00 -20.130 218 177 12 107 7 15 183 8 5 6 14 11 34 4 8 8 251 6 438 3 27 5 13 9 18 4 25 45 81 2 12 4 28 3 17.08 62.00 20.33 12.0 0.15 7.594 11.00 60.168 678 16.883 18.00 0.4 0.1 Europe Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium 18 2 16 14 28 19 2 16 14 28 21 2 17 14 28 29 2 17 14 28 28 2 18 14 28 55. North Korea.628 3. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestinian Authority Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen * or latest available figure Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 17 .57 47.3 6.6 4.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.722 9.69 10.18 0.3 7.020 174.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.652 677 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.7 3.00 9.8 28.00 0.265 1.00 0.9 0.3 4.525 130 324 141 52.007 2 10 49 1.5 2.8 9.8 8.00 0.715 10.11 0.00 2 48 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 38 16.00 -16.94 40.25 100. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 523 47 39 2 2 5 45 3 13 - 529 54 2 3 5 59 3 13 - 532 56 2 3 4 73 3 12 92 535 56 41 2 3 4 85 3 12 87 532 56 42 17 2 3 4 86 3 12 87 1.072 43.67 28.8 4.0 2.9 4.9 0.1 5.00 0.6 2.00 91.00 4.554 5.5 1.0 4.50 38.00 -25.00 0.6 4.00 532 56 42 17 2 3 4 86 3 12 87 135.071 142 566 3.00 -4.915 15.00 0.6 0.titles Adult No.44 0.718 3.521 3.50 0.482 12.00 7.00 0.00 0.9 14.84 0.00 1.00 0.8 1.00 42.00 0.00 0.56 0.14 0.4 1.5 3.2 1.00 -6.4 1.5 8.913 17.17 0.6 2.00 12.90 0.331 61.635 1.00 0.907 202 130 105 4 15 136 7 5 6 14 10 32 3 6 6 251 5 204 3 5 12 9 4 31 37 73 2 9 4 28 3 5 6 388 2 20 962 2 10 49 1.198 2.00 0.03 0.00 5.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 33.968 109.2 14.4 1.45 0.00 3.218 67 3.752 4.29 0.5 0.50 0.1 7.7 3.06 0.271 8.00 0.33 0.00 18.88 0.9 4.69 - -0.00 0.778 101.00 0.46 0.076 742 58.938 312 2.46 50.9 4.284 203 2.3 Australia & Oceania American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam New Caledonia New Zealand Northern Mariana Islands Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Vanuatu 48 1 3 2 1 1 24 2 2 2 1 1 47 1 3 2 1 1 24 2 2 2 1 1 1 47 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 1 48 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 2 48 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 0.2 0.4 4.33 20.

00 7 60 15 21 86 30 12 2 53 85 370 1 39 30 1 9 91 21 2 21 6 10 4 7 4 29 77 44 16 61 521 3 10 11 8 140 85 91 39 104 1 Adult No.00 0.1 33.8 3.1 2.00 0.322 70.5 8.043 1.8 1.112 24 6.00 0.00 12.81 0.6 12.50 0.0 0.38 0.continued Change (%) Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands.67 32.6 125.0 2.321 49.439 7.05 -50.262.50 0.08 0.4 1.00 0.00 0.563 332 3.037 243 3.276 1.2 20.33 6.00 0.748 374 1.00 -23.22 14.672 3.59 -7.00 -21.0 2.00 0.33 6.00 -7.2 - * or latest available figure 18 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .454 10.00 0.00 25.00 16.38 -3.315 4.09 0.572 12.00 -42. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican No.7 9.00 -1.142 38 4.44 -4.14 2.00 -17.0 4.00 -19.776 32.7 5.00 0.00 50.7 11.00 0.3 1.55 0.0 6.63 3.72 -3.4 12.678 624 8.875 - 2.00 0.9 3.8 6.06 -6.85 0.14 0.00 -1.0 1.4 1.6 4.9 10.1 9.413 1.00 0.288 6.326 40.54 0.751 4.7 3.41 0.11 0.14 0.07 0.717 37.7 71.86 0.11 33.45 -50.6 16.61 6.0 4.4 6.90 48.3 2.350 3.00 75.00 0.5 52.311 17.00 0.2 43.4 7.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.2 14.564 6.94 -2.23 9.67 17.6 2.29 154.titles 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 7 59 12 18 73 30 12 2 54 85 374 1 38 29 2 6 91 24 2 6 7 4 4 36 81 45 14 24 436 3 19 6 132 91 98 101 1 7 62 11 18 65 30 11 2 53 85 372 1 37 28 2 7 91 23 2 6 10 4 5 35 78 47 15 35 472 3 15 6 136 90 97 101 1 7 58 12 18 80 30 11 2 53 85 371 1 37 30 2 7 91 22 2 21 6 11 4 6 35 78 46 16 51 485 3 12 7 136 90 93 101 1 7 60 13 21 84 31 11 2 53 85 368 1 39 38 2 8 91 22 2 21 6 10 4 7 4 35 77 43 15 46 491 3 13 11 8 139 88 91 42 104 1 7 15 21 86 30 12 2 53 85 370 1 39 30 1 9 91 21 2 21 6 10 4 7 4 29 77 44 16 61 521 3 10 11 8 140 85 91 39 104 1 0.00 0.00 15. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 3.8 10.135 8.00 2.00 42.17 19.00 -12.00 -4.00 0.850 79.4 1.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .788 23 4.50 0.97 0.456 13.271 47.968 28 2.

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 19 .

continued (using most recent available figures) 20 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 21 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) .continued 22 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

4 6.05 -50.5 Asia Israel Malaysia Singapore United Arab Emirates 32 - 32 - 10 34 8 10 33 5 10 10 34 11 6.43 0.9 7.25 0.9 48.321 70.2 8.672 8.8 3.4 3.687 0.45 0.00 0.3 4.88 0.6 0.7 11.186 1.07 4.4 12.6 16.03 10.1 2.213 9.6 2.72 -3.0 1.218 2.titles Adult No.25 - 0.14 - 5.6 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 7 7 7 7 48 7 0.00 - 18 13 28 59 86 15 53 370 24 30 1 7 91 21 6 44 61 472 140 83 91 19 6.5 1.2 16 13 58 53 374 23 29 1 91 6 45 24 98 - 16 13 61 53 372 21 28 1 91 6 47 35 457 97 - 17 13 28 57 14 53 371 21 30 2 91 21 6 46 51 468 88 93 29 17 13 28 59 84 16 53 368 23 38 2 6 91 21 6 43 46 470 139 86 91 19 18 13 28 86 15 53 370 24 30 1 7 91 21 6 44 61 472 140 83 91 - 12.38 -6.00 0.454 10.4 0.3 5. The Canada Costa Rica Jamaica Netherlands Antilles United States of America 2 2 2 777 3 2 2 787 3 7 2 2 814 3 57 5 2 2 817 3 6 2 2 833 50.17 -7.8 3.326 47.00 0.9 2.4 Africa Mozambique South Africa Europe Austria Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Romania Russia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 23 .112 37.843 12.280 31.1 11.875 2. North Bahamas.262.037 243 3.413 4.0 2.0 4.00 0.748 374 32.54 4.968 13.67 0.954 2.788 4.135 17.00 2.265 1.6 1.00 10 34 5 11 4.284 3.33 32.8 America.00 1.9 1.8 9.7 4.620 3.751 4.071 18.49 0.2 0.850 79.715 6.4 3.00 0.1 1.978 3.00 0.00 48 7 16.00 2.00 20.35 -21.915 15.938 3.00 -1.35 3.61 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR MORNING DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Change (%) Country No.00 1.9 3.845 169 216.50 0.043 2.2 5.00 0.00 -2.00 7.21 0.00 0.00 0.96 3 57 6 2 2 833 220 26.00 0.439 7.972 13. South Bolivia Chile Ecuador Peru 19 45 19 59 19 55 73 55 84 55 15 85 88.1 1.0 3.89 0.19 19 55 15 85 5.22 154.564 6.271 8.00 - 2 16 11.00 16.00 0.00 3. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* - - 14 2 16 2 - - 0.5 America.00 0.5 5.0 14.

DAILIES PAID-FOR MORNING DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) 24 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

213 9.90 79.81 1 43 1 1 614 220 26.2 0.0 1 1 15 1 - 1 1 16 1 15 - 1 1 16 16 17 2 72 1 1 15 16 2 21 2 75 1 15 15 2 24 2 - 0.5 1. South Chile Ecuador Peru Asia Israel Singapore United Arab Emirates Australia & Oceania New Zealand Europe Belarus Bulgaria Denmark Greece Iceland Ireland Russia Sweden United Kingdom * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 25 .968 3.6 Africa South Africa America.265 1.271 6.6 0.4 3.00 0.25 0.218 5. North Bahamas.00 2 3 1 4.954 0.00 -4.262.00 14.00 0.672 4.687 0. The Canada Jamaica Netherlands Antilles United States of America America.454 243 3.00 0.29 0.1 0.845 169 216.978 1.88 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR EVENING & AFTERNOON DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.972 4.1 1 1 1 692 1 1 1 680 1 1 1 653 1 43 1 1 645 1 1 1 614 0.00 -6.00 - 0.00 -11.9 0.1 0.00 0.938 0. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* - - 4 2 - - - 2 31.4 0.3 1.00 0.00 0.3 0.27 0.1 0.00 - 1 1 15 15 1 2 24 2 75 15.1 3.875 0.5 5.titles Adult No.112 7.4 4.5 17 17 16 16 16 -5.00 1 2 1 12.00 16 3.413 4.00 0.9 2.6 0.00 0.564 47.1 - - 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 - 0.8 - - 1 - 1 1 1 2 1 - 0.071 18.

DAILIES PAID-FOR EVENING & AFTERNOON DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) 26 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

2 19.00 5.918 10.09 0.8 75.263 76.00 0.33 41.406 1.931 1.800 95 22 3 215 25 190 215 45 70 100 22 40 9 100 300 17 28 820 73 115 3 22 20 1.8 5.57 -3.69 25.929 31.628 90 25 115 5 92 54 125 1.9 1.725 5. Democratic Republic of the Congo.392 1.278 1.00 0.5 500.29 -20.5 8.00 0.00 -30.313 4.573 18 199 1.5 4.630 674 21.000 22 3 190 25 212 40 70 20 8 90 350 28 780 70 105 3 20 12 1.7 3.2 6.5 38.2 24.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 9.8 3.206 6.8 37.700 29 7 33 37 18 4.29 0.76 -8.955 40.1 5.753 11.728 944 22.50 0.00 0.7 16.00 30.957 6.09 0.00 0.106 553 7.5 10 3.098 61 3.0 931.00 22.799 10 153 1.064 3.00 0.00 10.800 400 7 200 65 29 8 54 35 40 18 4.845 339 28.00 50.687 23.800 240 2 500 8 160 115 65 30 9 54 40 48 19 4.6 6. Republic of the Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.75 0.00 0.00 -10.71 80.286 85 25 110 5 83 55 125 8 2.280 1.5 195.4 3.00 7.05 0.9 10.00 0.00 71.00 0.56 9.203 14.00 0.800 320 7 200 65 4.2 3.45 12.00 0.16 -9.00 0.00 -33.00 0.6 6.2 1.700 92 20 3 215 25 215 50 70 110 22 40 9 110 300 17 28 820 73 120 3 22 20 1.186 9.3 7 30 34 17 5.137 80 25 102 5 75 56 125 8 3.00 0.6 10.195 2.9 17.57 33.005 10 288 1.166 42.00 -15.00 10.454 215 4 50 70 110 22 40 9 110 300 17 28 820 73 120 3 22 20 1.00 8.012 7.00 4.00 0.823 4.07 0. The Barbados Bermuda Canada Cayman Islands Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Netherlands Antilles * or latest available figure 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* 110 35 11 33 20 65 4 75 100 35 11 33 20 65 4 70 940 41 36 11 33 20 65 4 60 950 41 38 11 33 20 70 5 50 960 41 40 11 33 20 70 5 50 -62.732 3.930 10 281 1.18 11.00 -4.978 36 3.29 20.9 49.44 0.900 22 3 200 25 190 214 40 70 20 8 95 355 16 28 800 70 110 3 20 16 1.0 62.7 4.800 240 2 550 8 160 115 65 4.00 960 41 40 11 33 20 70 5 50 23.8 2.9 169.00 10.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Congo.5 Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 27 .00 0.401 4.00 190 0.573 18 199 1.0 16.11 0.2 116.200 30 50 58 220 224 54 26.88 14.700 92 20 3 215 25 10.1 28.665 4.788 4.00 22.00 0. North Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas.5 13.984 53.1 10.265 6.0 1.00 0.00 0.498 32.504 90 25 120 5 92 54 125 8 2.00 -3.00 -4.00 0.911 10 275 1.7 148.628 90 25 115 5 92 125 -20.90 0.2 6.50 0.301 169 180.00 0.00 0.00 0.668 6.00 1.24 0.17 0.6 6.67 0.35 0.200 22 3 180 25 211 4 40 70 20 6 90 28 760 70 100 3 20 9 1.3 15.342 10.189 346 7.0 50.0 181.00 19.00 0.00 0.73 14.6 5.5 22.22 43. The Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Reunion Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe America.8 214.200 30 28.800 2 450 8 160 65 30 8 54 39 44 19 4.89 4.00 10.107 6.00 12.8 132.3 191.00 0.00 7.9 2.408 88 25 120 5 89 55 125 8 2.63 80.123 825 915 13.22 0.071 1.3 351.00 122.00 0.90 25.2 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.4 177.242 4.6 4.18 12.00 0.00 8 2.00 9 54 40 48 19 4.9 4.00 2.5 1.3 62.390 18.800 240 2 550 8 160 115 65 4.00 11.33 1.00 10.1 51.63 -9.09 0.172 7.7 36.64 3.

780 81 1.7 321. North Korea.000 88.78 25.500 14.175 138 6.519 9.00 26 28 150 1.339 60 4.470 24 57.230 602 1.300 5.730 2.100 120 4.3 4.8 78.00 0.780 81 1.5 15.200 25 55 98.0 362.2 23.80 0.194 6.00 4.4 404.500 6.500 3.0 630.537 5.4 105.00 0.689 740 69.600 530 15 32 130 135 2.39 0.9 31.8 92.400 1.00 0.930 758.33 40.27 7.23 0.97 66.7 83.091 6.046 125 4.071 142 566 3.450 1.4 3.972 - 50.723 17.7 25.665 70.185 16 180 190 580 3 250 158 54.00 11.100 25 50 96.00 1.050 600 130 4.6 39.00 10.904 18.1 57.1 Asia Afghanistan Armenia Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Cambodia China East Timor Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea.00 0.968 109.21 0.680 90 4.890 40 3.397 1.554 24 73.500 380 53 25 230 185 2.800 15 52 550 165 7.602 3.48 21.669 5.397 1.35 -0.33 27.57 - 8.815 70 300 4.97 3.0 119.5 83.003 56 26 28 150 1.567 70.44 12.699 3.9 65.780 81 1.70 -11.972 1.482 12.744 4 24 2.000 88.213 25.00 0.00 3.7 337.500 16.9 25.246 35 65 1.9 232.143 56 3.4 47.00 1.400 1.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) .7 107.2 - America.329 17 -10.06 0.550 15 32 130 135 2.800 15 52 550 165 40 3.867 1.936 937.718 3.020 174.800 15 13 140 155 - 1.1 128.00 0.00 -6.14 8.63 10.345 17 180 191 586 3 250 160 52.766 3.2 * or latest available figure 28 Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .63 -2.00 0.844 4.009 35 60 1.00 3.77 0.429 12 38 120 6.00 2.42 71.9 13.50 0.265 15.25 0.554 507 98.7 58.635 1.600 750 69.089 28 4.00 146.230 1.) 200 185 579 3 250 157 55.364 65 4.750 16 52 165 7.522 600 15 30 140 140 2.9 30.433 45 22 140 1.5 15.887 380 13.872 3.6 56.354 11.11 0.616 39.68 37.300 35 55 3 24 2.2 6.18 6.850 4.600 750 69.16 3.200 217 7.2 105.00 0.072 4.500 7.300 35 55 98.1 53.707 50.00 1.14 -12. El Trinidad and Tobago United States of America Virgin Islands (U.500 13.9 167.00 -25.6 243.4 17.8 210.59 13.866 730 70.441 350 23 215 180 2.6 53.345 852 216.67 10.3 117.168 678 16.00 43.011 125 4.2 27.265 1.00 7.50 14.216 78.744 3 24 2.33 2.continued Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Salvador.7 166.90 0.009 600 130 4.863 1.500 330 65 22 215 169 2.8 241.470 15 30 150 152 2.329 17 3.8 102.287 138 7.6 255.100 120 300 4.000 30 50 85.939 4.79 6.646 6.5 187.4 49.67 30.470 45 24 22 140 1.626 17 180 191 580 3 250 159 53.287 7.S.000 25 50 88.67 0.270 1.5 151.00 53.652 677 6.608 12 50 160 7.186 16 190 190 580 3 250 158 55.00 17.5 51. South Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela 1.863 4.628 94.128 6.544 1.1 10.036 430 55 25 240 185 2.334 9 42 817 120 6.5 33.306 - 26 180 1.300 1.24 1.200 7.789 602 1.00 0.81 -32.818 35 70 1.778 101.190 1.550 43.537 4.521 3.46 4.00 0.83 33.00 0.100 237 6.12 19.300 5.67 23.883 2.230 602 1.00 -9.913 11.043 34.91 -5.00 0.25 0.93 1.650 4. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Oman Pakistan Palestinian Authority Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan 27 180 1.63 -1.70 -16.00 0.657 24 72.843 135.70 8.500 16.198 2.8 73.00 0.29 35.33 0.3 6.284 203 2.400 17.82 -6.036 430 55 25 240 185 2.1 486.752 4.500 217 6.890 40 3.300 5.00 0.050 600 130 4.0 189.90 - 7.00 1.400 13.600 530 15 32 130 135 2.43 0.873 273 8.143 56 17.5 11.500 300 36 20 215 168 2.3 62.733 30.33 52.00 0.03 0.00 16.045 493 120 4.35 0.31 55.00 180 191 586 3 250 160 52.75 12.866 1.076 742 58.0 295.15 -7.

694 61 6.043 1.76 0.290 256 17 2.00 0.4 - * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 29 .71 -1.8 108.8 466.2 178.668 2.66 0.9 48.831 2.593 17.79 -9.1 104.218 67 3.151 23.00 0.22 0.745 356 20 500 115 150 90 75 4.00 -2.356 1.39 7.320 1.6 224.33 -11.6 340.307 1.037 243 3.2 115.301 16.74 -1.661 1.326 40.690 1.600 40 750 30 2.11 1.369 570 1.5 82.00 0.934 22.571 4 1.061 2.185 3.6 42.67 0.603 2.137 1.9 74.55 -2.934 2 40 22 20 26 739 7 51 5 3 4 2.091 5 1.671 2.968 28 2.00 0.300 1.69 25.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) .572 12.7 304.268 276 17 2.301 16.831 387 18 118 130 80 60 4.67 -2.456 13.268 276 17 2.300 1.7 85.88 -7.00 9.5 245.11 -3.14 0.144 1.3 241.667 1.00 0.33 11.25 0.84 35.742 1.4 83.142 38 4.494 70 65 27 2.526 2.120 1.135 8.250 70 74 25 2.00 0.954 18.35 66.056 70 2.321 49.466 348 20 527 115 160 95 98 55 3.153 1.2 3.00 0.95 0.915 15.571 551 512 344 4.970 2 40 22 20 26 721 7 54 5 3 0.87 -12.11 0.322 70.686 21.00 75.652 2.1 107.14 -2.850 6.00 2.204 2.13 8.157 3.439 7.70 1.1 714.00 63.091 5 1.276 1.7 155.03 -36.540 71 772 5.4 30.09 -18.056 70 10.00 65 27 2.5 287.543 5 1.460 64 758 5.0 335.270 4.594 11.18 1.462 621 1.00 -1.70 -9.569 321 20 535 114 140 100 98 55 3.224 7.271 8.0 601.07 -2.54 78.594 18.711 1.350 3.continued Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen 600 27 2.3 Europe Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands.71 7.43 0.9 217.315 4.3 195.526 2.81 0.05 11.8 165.3 15.06 24.711 1.486 100 616 382 95 1.288 6.00 1.25 0.00 0.3 194.970 2 40 22 20 26 739 7 5 3 4 2.433 255 17 2.344 3.885 2 40 22 20 26 729 7 54 5 3 7 2.300 1.4 21.569 321 20 535 114 140 100 98 55 3.105 460 430 4.563 332 3.678 624 8.850 16.00 -1.486 16.307 1.6 197.1 442.50 0.94 -5.600 40 800 30 2.454 10.450 4.24 -11.451 48 800 5.256 1.475 853 597 90 1.54 -2.7 77.51 8.224 7.595 76 591 5.788 23 4.325 257 17 2.912 2.60 -2.3 160.356 1.7 153.338 4.831 2.564 6.00 7 2.20 11.267 3 1.077 571 506 4.349 70 76 2.807 21.717 37.875 - 24.424 100 560 100 1.2 370.00 0.148 480 360 4.10 0.600 35 600 30 2.6 163.50 5.4 1.91 2.095 4 1.2 138.00 5.748 374 1.00 -3.00 0.240 7.54 1.413 1.200 3.00 -1.311 17.00 14.7 203.00 0.389 150 465 350 4. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican 2.243 8.4 287.466 100 558 411 100 1.600 40 1.13 -3.110 3.037 22.970 2 40 22 20 26 721 7 54 5 3 38 16.85 -0.478 90 667 508 90 1.424 100 558 560 100 1.43 -2.00 0.405 1.721 358 18 115 150 85 70 4.126 1.2 27.00 36.5 15.00 -7.00 0.4 4.49 -17.485 70 70 27 2.470 63 742 5.70 -9.255 7.715 3.00 -4.5 Australia & Oceania American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam New Caledonia New Zealand Northern Mariana Islands Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanuatu 2 40 22 20 26 745 7 5 3 2.95 25.110 3.46 -6.507 409.54 -3.52 -0.268 8.64 -12.26 0.00 0.7 447.29 6.8 109.8 297.389 150 465 350 4.331 61.311 2.8 64.271 47.256 1.979 593 1.344 3.4 282.8 89.776 32.262.3 164.8 23.6 152.00 -0.288 1.95 -9.9 163.300 1.524 3.14 -2.525 324 141 184.00 0.600 35 600 30 2.62 -25.24 0.751 4.0 144.600 40 33.451 48 800 5.86 0.292 1.686 21.462 621 1.00 0.10 0.620 13 624 204 121 158 3.95 12.00 800 30 2.672 3.405 3.4 514.240 3.6 301.36 -4.78 -1.381 251 17 2.270 4.13 -10.

329 21.462 4.230 5.800 1. The Philippines Sweden Ukraine Australia Malaysia Egypt Vietnam Venezuela Austria Switzerland Norway Finland Hong Kong Cuba Czech Republic South Africa Colombia Iran Hungary Belgium Saudi Arabia Romania Belarus Bangladesh Argentina Denmark Greece Singapore Algeria Nigeria United Arab Emirates Ireland Israel New Zealand Portugal Chile Sri Lanka Puerto Rico Croatia Bulgaria Guatemala Myanmar Lithuania Ecuador Slovakia Kuwait Slovenia Latvia Morocco Kazakhstan Estonia Salvador.569 5.970 2.451 1.573 4. Republic of Pakistan France Thailand Brazil Italy Turkey Indonesia Canada Korea.110 3.397 1.863 69. North Poland Mexico Taiwan Spain Netherlands.307 1.400 2.890 7.831 3.344 2.356 2.270 2.780 3.300 1.287 1.036 7.000 1.711 1.100 52.600 1.000 40.424 1.000 100.600 2.224 2.000 98.866 4.700 2.200 4.500 4.091 16.200 4.301 2.744 88.268 1.143 4.600 1.800 2.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) 0 China India Japan United States of America Germany United Kingdom Korea.000 60.628 1.526 3. El Dominican Republic Lebanon Tajikistan Ghana Kenya Costa Rica Panama Ivory Coast Macau Nicaragua Oman Honduras Trinidad and Tobago Bahrain Serbia Macedonia Bolivia Uruguay 20.300 7.056 16.686 7.389 1.256 1.050 960 820 800 800 750 721 621 602 600 586 560 558 550 550 535 530 465 430 350 321 300 300 276 250 240 240 217 215 215 199 191 190 185 180 165 160 160 150 150 140 138 135 Continued on the following page 30 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 80.

) Faroe Islands French Guiana Maldives Botswana Mauritania Antigua and Barbuda Congo.000 15. Democratic Republic of the Liberia Barbados Iceland Angola Benin Mali Bahamas.continued 0 Paraguay Syria Zimbabwe Senegal Jordan Tanzania Jamaica Luxembourg Madagascar Mauritius Bosnia and Herzegovina Cyprus Malta Moldova Ethiopia Uganda Sudan Qatar Reunion Cameroon Libya Vatican Martinique Albania Turkmenistan Cambodia Kyrgyzstan Montenegro Zambia Aruba Papua New Guinea Mongolia Congo. The Seychelles Saint Kitts and Nevis East Timor Vanuatu Guadeloupe Cook Islands 5.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) .S. The Palestinian Authority Yemen Fiji Brunei Burkina Faso Guyana Netherlands Antilles Uzbekistan Namibia Armenia Andorra Afghanistan New Caledonia Guinea Swaziland Laos Georgia Malawi Sierra Leone French Polynesia Burundi Gabon Somalia Guam Liechtenstein Bermuda Cayman Islands Mozambique Virgin Islands (U.000 10. Republic of the Haiti American Samoa Northern Mariana Islands Central African Republic Togo Solomon Islands Gibraltar Lesotho Gambia.000 20.000 130 130 125 120 120 115 115 114 110 110 100 100 100 98 92 92 90 81 73 70 70 70 65 65 56 55 55 55 54 54 54 52 50 50 48 48 41 40 40 40 40 40 40 35 33 32 30 30 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 24 22 22 22 20 20 20 20 20 19 18 17 17 17 15 15 11 9 9 8 8 7 7 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 31 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page 32 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

continued WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 33 .DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) .

135 7.280 1.126 1.0 Africa Mozambique America.00 30.18 - 139 570 470 5.48 23 199 56 18 45.88 -2.095 460 63 500 115 3.00 17 11.8 138.153 1.091 477 1.361 2.340 6.260 2.280 1.268 467 54 118 3.00 0.321 70.9 107.43 1.260 2.866 2.055 2.224 21.90 5.11 -3. South Bolivia Chile Ecuador Asia Singapore Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Austria Belarus Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom * or latest available figure 34 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .466 1.1 514.07 0.344 1.875 340.7 304.62 -25.75 -0.845 169 216.123 23 199 56 18 45.454 10.0 - 524 525 526 2.240 21.8 194.78 19.13 1.3 2.255 22.137 1.460 64 645 527 115 4.571 2.451 48 691 535 114 4.564 6.077 2.54 - 2.260 1.80 -2.7 297. The Costa Rica Jamaica Netherlands Antilles United States of America America.843 12.9 368.441 27.00 -1.404 2.424 1.784 2.356 1.462 2.218 178.915 15.5 239.4 - - 139 567 - 569 - 570 470 - 0.835 2.071 23.1 370.8 - - - 653 - - - 653 3.262.94 2.224 21.594 - 2.441 220 3.243 454 53 115 4.64 - 9.620 3.39 24.979 2.280 1.59 -2.326 47.5 209.13 -1.5 18 288 17 46.265 200.8 46.1 168.1 144.8 163.213 9.95 -9.71 -2.14 -11.970 503 - -4.462 2.424 1.930 20 275 18 46.369 2.37 2.748 374 32.887 23 153 56 18 46.6 197.543 474 1.78 -30.90 2.486 1.142 4.4 106. North Bahamas.972 104.25 1.7 51.715 8.DAILIES PAID-FOR MORNING DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* - - 16 17 17 - 0.87 2.340 2.037 243 3.405 1.5 30.788 4.7 83.711 1.055 192 2.617 20 281 17 46.186 1.970 503 16.52 0.7 156.10 0.59 -1.784 2.751 4.742 881 2.260 1.593 1.413 1.5 62.144 1.5 211.63 -0.52 -0.451 48 691 535 114 4.00 7.271 8.5 28.091 477 1.344 - 10.356 1.4 195.86 -1.486 473 192 2.711 1.

DAILIES PAID-FOR MORNING DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 35 .

8 48.7 - 40 - 33 - 33 - 32 60 - -3.142 4.50 -5.9 74.218 67.413 1.490 27 213 779 109 743 - -32.25 0.680 40 852 65 660 786 3.00 0.0 31.39 218 3.9 174.6 6.875 1.7 40 825 22 - 40 834 18 3.1 33.54 -3.206 40 409 846 113 768 3.50 -47.90 7.845 169 216.67 0.6 - - - 356 - - - 356 3.92 -7.92 -3.3 56.271 4.490 15.3 32.972 77.2 72.739 16 59 12 7.4 98.26 - 27 213 65 779 18 109 743 3.213 9.0 - 215 214 203 218 - 7.071 2.00 -19. North Bahamas. The Jamaica Netherlands Antilles United States of America America.454 243 3.888 41.262.DAILIES PAID-FOR EVENING & AFTERNOON DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* 12 12 8. South Chile Ecuador Asia Singapore Australia & Oceania New Zealand Europe Belarus Denmark Estonia Greece Iceland Ireland Sweden United Kingdom * or latest available figure PAID-FOR EVENING & AFTERNOON DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) 36 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .58 - -32.62 6.9 America.222 17 59 12 6.888 220 1.265 109.569 13 12 8.03 - 32 60 12.564 47.255 15 12 7.62 17 59 12 6.0 71.00 -4.

0 213.873.88 -5.670.0 754.71 -12.905.0 23.0 137.83 8.28 3.9 184.9 145.6 231.0 - 602.488.92 -2.1 155.85 12.0 214.0 94.4 140.20 24.4 9.60 -1.520.7 1.0 718.0 156.0 455.4 506.14 -1. North Canada Costa Rica 1.0 1.189.0 818.08 - 6.79 232.7 1.644.81 -2.0 439.0 198.0 445.134.0 743.0 96.43 -3.3 - - -63.0 391.0 154.0 1.251.0 219.0 227.0 80. South Bolivia Chile Uruguay - 248.0 21.93 -3.0 75.5 746.0 1.0 438.751.0 21.02 -4.2 236.0 2.0 490.0 494.216.01 -6.1 - 386.669.0 670.0 - 10.0 60.0 1.0 456.040.7 1.0 189.0 327.0 33.227.0 55.0 950.8 188.0 1.0 474.384.0 807.871.0 - 1.0 75.0 64.0 1.0 1.0 70.868.3 1.184.0 54.457.10 -3.215.0 761.0 5.0 1.0 2.0 1.26 -6.0 22.0 473.53 -3.0 35.0 1.6 59.0 2.0 41.52 -2.877.0 750.0 729.333.0 1.46 -9.0 6.38 -14.0 16.0 205.89 -1.6 1.0 1.507.0 753.0 544.0 700.0 226.0 218.70 -26.0 759.7 5.0 - 340.32 1.013.32 - 10.71 -7.67 2.2 10.9 1.73 America.0 73.515.0 182.9 -39.50 - America.164.0 444. The Norway Poland Portugal Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 37 .DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 36.0 221.83 -2.2 1.0 738.0 2.74 1.0 5.0 2.214.0 1.0 241.46 -2.5 448.0 - 294.74 - 0.9 51.679.8 469.987.8 1.0 230.0 145.36 -4.0 1.0 501.89 1.95 3.5 710.0 12.0 844.505.0 14.8 447.0 5.0 - - 13.67 -0.636.0 99.13 -3.875.0 1.1 47.0 -3.262.070.0 - 218.0 513.0 163.0 1.0 71.9 228.0 52.0 70.2 1.0 1.826.0 78.445.68 -9.941.45 -1.37 1.07 4.0 2.0 767.0 427.0 2.0 56.0 24.346.85 -3.0 34.0 759.0 1.0 736.0 11.53 - Asia East Timor India Indonesia Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Singapore Sri Lanka Turkey Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Austria Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Netherlands.696.291.535.0 783.0 224.0 10.0 81.11 -2.0 2.60 1.410.49 7.752.38 0.45 -22.325.0 34.520.0 1.0 909.6 11.0 34.9 235.0 440.0 696.1 193.0 - 1.

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) (using most recent available figures) 38 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: CHANGE IN ANNUAL COPY SALES (number of copies). 2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 39 .

0 31. forint) Ireland (Ireland.0 48.0 1.547.0 7.410.0 755.89 5.619.6 1.375. peso) Brazil (Brazil.0 19.0 30.0 657.5 77.504.374.0 2.267.45 -1.3 70.448.036.3 5.9 14.0 1.59 -1.0 475.0 140.0 134.0 2.0 44. pound) Malaysia (Malaysia. North Canada (Canada.0 1.10 14. euro) Latvia (Latvia.000.0 1.3 142.0 7.0 37.0 570.0 771.0 25.0 0.0 60.692.9 5.340.0 2.611.301.5 1.0 4.049.0 4.868. rand) 1. krone) Estonia (Estonia.19 29.0 2.051.0 2529. ringgit) Mongolia (Mongolia.420.919. lat) Lithuania (Lithuania.0 6.0 115.750.0 628.750.0 688. zloty) Romania (Romanian leu) Serbia (Serbian dinar) Slovakia (Slovakia.0 2.0 645.375. euro) Hungary (Hungary. pound) 40 30.700. euro) Sweden (Sweden.0 138.006.000. dollar) Europe Austria (Austria.476.0 2.8 1.0 754.426.9 69.622.73 -0. nuevo sol) Uruguay (Uruguay.98 18. yen) Lebanon (Lebanon.0 486.0 1.381.572.418.0 560.0 65.039.79 74.0 35.0 142. peso) India (India. euro) Belgium (Belgium.49 3.887.0 330.413.939.11 135.000.0 2.718.72 20.0 4.937. South Argentina (Argentina.0 3.222. kroon) Finland (Finland.196.96 3.52 - 30.37 1.0 - - - America.0 27.0 39.135.0 280.1 3. koruna) Spain (Spain.100.0 8.0 419.326.455.0 164. real) Colombia (Colombia.0 57.0 224.000.0 7.0 8.06 5.46 6.502.88 2. euro) Germany (Germany.26 - 25.0 484.0 532.0 10.0 1.6 110.64 33.0 654.0 537.0 1.0 4.0 29.0 8.0 2.8 - 3.309. colon) United States of America (United States of America.0 22.0 2.3 7.930. peso) Peru (Peru.908.0 383.4 547.0 27.36 32.1 0.308. dollar) Costa Rica (Costa Rica.502.0 4.0 325.0 65.564.0 58.0 44.0 46.6 118.0 546.00 0. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.0 6.3 308. lev) Czech Republic (Czech Republic.0 675.0 511.11 16.7 352.0 2659.594.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in national currencies.0 519.77 4.0 73. euro) Bulgaria (Bulgaria.406.0 32.0 2.565.2 2.249.286.213.0 24.006.50 1.28 30. peso) 1.8 210.036.500.0 1. euro) Italy (Italy.4 411.7 87.0 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .388.408.69 -1. rupiah) Israel (Israel.164.0 25. yuan) East Timor (Uruguay.4 820.0 182.500.794.519.138.703.0 901.586.0 378.0 1.322. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.3 47. millions.971.102. euro) Greece (Greece.55 2.9 2.713. dollar) 2510.8 11.0 6.83 - Asia Armenia (Armenia.296.0 1488.4 1.455.0 26.4 1.0 64.600.0 1.0 8.1 123.5 1440. euro) Macedonia (Macedonia.36 - 6. new shekel) Japan (Japan.0 459.75 12.25 -4.0 1.2 1.0 1.274.506.382. rupee) Indonesia (Indonesia. litas) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.09 8.351.406.789. denar) Netherlands.0 2.1 26.2 18. dram) China (China.86 11.4 12.264.152. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.0 - 2. euro) France (France.0 45.121.0 5.7 13.408.401. euro) Poland (Poland.605.0 46.0 744.0 47.0 68.357.500.1 32.76 9.25 68.023.926.1 56.2 7.0 1.2 1704. The (Netherlands.077.0 252.448.848.40 4.684.0 2. koruna) Denmark (Denmark.434.1 67.0 2.338.0 2.750. rupee) Turkey (Turkish new lira) Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.0 2611.31 35.315.627.000.68 America.0 574.0 2.0 2.8 1. tugrik) Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka.0 1.0 5.0 2.9 - 193.0 279.664.000.0 44.000.

543.8 19.7 1.7 747.729.6 1.931.77 Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands.45 -6.3 166.8 19.9 221.5 536.0 2.0 3.8 16.8 6.6 397.037.8 25.080.50 1.792.9 713.5 - 875.6 34.3 38.273.0 52.88 39.939.43 - 23.40 3.0 46.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD.0 2.005.345.0 1.9 48.40 33.5 240.64 2.18 20.2 26.74 111.5 448.0 17.331.0 234.2 6.1 643. The Poland Romania Serbia Slovakia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 507.2 4.979.2 25.3 615.854.5 4.69 -1.7 9.5 24.703.4 461.6 86.1 16. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 149.4 772.6 819.1 1.102.3 65.6 1.5 790.446.1 359.7 248.4 30.806.5 16.7 6.5 365.1 51.74 124.12 -0.3 1.8 528.3 87.0 14.4 - 1081.3 665.6 18.0 1.0 12.1 85.196.1 619.44 -2.68 48.611.53 49.46 11.9 1.2 543.008.85 43.6 226.3 345.6 5.3 20.2 30.8 1.4 51.66 71.1 190.8 5.2 17.9 470.122.4 - 71.8 13.8 3.76 151.0 1.1 222.1 1.68 366.5 625.0 26.6 176.9 929.6 75.5 184.49 3.9 37.3 628.8 1.860.0 332.9 4.24 54.132.6 444.0 5.463.373.2 6.4 701.4 19.8 607.588.738.2 648.3 5.8 47.552. million.47 15.1 374.96 5.6 108.5 22.58 -6.2 - 195.598.2 630.1 2.5 56.87 6.6 300.57 46.09 - America.6 23.8 1.0 646.3 4.20 62.0 151.2 1.5 27.197.009.9 3.7 434.8 11.3 15.6 46.1 1.1 284.4 13.4 165.49 4.657.9 - - - 1.4 1.3 138.6 546.735.9 324.756.4 1.8 14.333.077.5 682.1 14.0 175.800.5 305.558. South Argentina Brazil Colombia Peru Uruguay WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 41 .2 596.0 224.9 1.80 57.501.3 224.7 2.4 55.1 11.7 821.048.6 817.595.775.8 626.9 600.8 1.157.51 - Asia Armenia China India Indonesia Israel Japan Lebanon Malaysia Sri Lanka Turkey 0.9 37.784.77 4.8 172.627. North Canada Costa Rica United States of America America.6 111.719.5 1.7 496.1 833.4 2.5 44.67 - 12.3 705.450.01 Australia & Oceania Australia 1.1 60.6 298.8 46.8 1.6 204.8 3.0 1.408.90 91.37 1.4 62.7 44.3 46.

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD. current prices) 42 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . million.

2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 43 .DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: CHANGE IN ADVERTISING REVENUES (current prices).

0 902.0 3.0 455.75 1.4 18.94 5. peso) Japan (Japan.0 16.910.567.200. The (Netherlands. North Canada (Canada.0 1. euro) Slovakia (Slovakia.0 2.0 789.179.9 1.0 383.7 6.0 205.263. yen) Lebanon (Lebanon.0 1. euro) France (France.0 1.4 837.000.0 2.8 20.300. millions.048.0 1.8 299.80 -27.0 1. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.0 4.129.7 253.0 1. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.81 5.80 3.3 1.0 - 2.0 390.0 248.5 - - 64.5 - - - 649.3 0.73 -1.0 1.0 824.1 - - - - 209. euro) Portugal (Portugal.7 - 2.10 48.260.320.0 254.5 66.0 551.0 1. kroon) Finland (Finland.8 1.7 312.289. lat) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.32 9.025.000.0 285.893. dollar) United States of America (United States of America.140.0 - 1.0 64.257.286. euro) Croatia (Croatia.1 1.866. euro) Italy (Italy.144.9 1.501.0 65.0 2.96 20.98 -2.1 6.0 - 2.000.0 7.096.0 0.1 906. koruna) Spain (Spain.0 1.0 302.013.0 125.592.891.0 4.286. South Ecuador (United States of America.243.0 - - - - America. euro) Latvia (Latvia.0 3.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (in national currencies.6 1.718.0 470.94 7.560.0 4.418. denar) Netherlands.058. tugrik) Turkey (Turkish new lira) Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.93 -0.3 240.0 16.88 America.275. nuevo sol) Uruguay (Uruguay.668.0 1.49 3.54 17.053.832.0 4.851.00 3. koruna) Denmark (Denmark.537.0 722.797. rand) Tanzania (Tanzania.0 58.0 113.76 3.824.162.0 1.0 3.1 241.6 259. dollar) 674. dollar) New Zealand (New Zealand.0 240. shilling) 1.0 4.0 4.0 235.159.377. kuna) Czech Republic (Czech Republic.92 10.4 914.5 322.0 1. euro) Macedonia (Macedonia.053.0 342.90 22.0 70.0 3.421.0 183.0 1.0 184. euro) Germany (Germany.0 7.300.0 1.970.3 18.530.46 - 0.0 3.534.0 286.0 1.265. dollar) Europe Belgium (Belgium. dram) East Timor (Uruguay.0 314.0 745.6 17.53 18.7 2.0 211.70 28.6 6.074. forint) Iceland (Iceland.0 16.0 230.0 1.789.7 33. euro) Greece (Greece.7 4. pound) 44 600.796.0 2.0 189. pound) Mongolia (Mongolia.53 278.200. euro) Hungary (Hungary.000.0 1.24 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .406. peso) Asia Armenia (Armenia.0 413. dollar) Peru (Peru.0 1.719. krone) Estonia (Estonia.0 20.0 452.0 60.0 3.0 - 15.0 439.3 259.160.974.0 7.068.7 2.636.256.025.722.0 56.2 468. krona) Ireland (Ireland.100.0 2.0 114.947.3 1.0 16.9 885. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.830.0 6.8 319.0 3.0 6. euro) Sweden (Sweden.9 3.116.

10 49.2 14.3 134.2 - - - - 9.0 4901.1 6.5 216.67 -0.013.46 262.4 225.5 - - - 1.00 3.0 11.30 86.4 168.1 10.4 178.3 6.61 97.32 9.84 40.4 48.6 1.5 38.9 568.5 615.2 233.9 3.1 - - - - 429.28 -26.0 6.926.8 8.3 - 313.3 493.3 378.578.5 - 377.4 39.788.5 26.147.8 115.3 2.9 2.1 702.5 1.3 4.1 1.3 17.8 206.391.1 37.7 20.8 954.575.8 17.1 - - 64.3 170.19 62.3 402.8 2.623.2 451.2 236.75 40.0 157.4 1.0 25.1 11.4 847.106.57 57.4 140.8 5017.4 7.58 46.128.072.1 1.6 253.1 22.5 142.5 8.6 34.3 2. North Canada United States of America America.51 - 724.7 133.6 - -5.907.3 51.157.6 174.520.3 385.1 680.9 159.1 35.24 - America.076.5 3672.8 28.182.0 78.9 392.7 166.5 20.3 156.132.9 30.407.7 1. South Ecuador Peru Uruguay Asia Armenia Japan Lebanon Mongolia Turkey Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands.830.303.1 3.1 690.77 3.41 36.9 398.6 158.94 14.DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (in USD.0 652.2 361.974.7 558.2 4434.6 42.1 199.9 2.1 19.0 - 53.77 3.5 1.832.8 336.2 131.7 47.0 30.125.10 10.3 351.2 6.7 496.7 27.7 324.0 573.94 -2.8 16.8 189.3 1.085.1 1.056.340. The Portugal Slovakia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 45 .3 2.3 10.6 2.2 17.8 3.2 256.6 26.3 17.4 22.0 516.0 2.591.6 1.37 60.0 1.74 6.2 291.1 159.9 408. million) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 155.4 789.4 955.36 - 0.

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (in USD. million) (using most recent available figures) 46 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR DAILIES: CHANGE IN SALES REVENUES (current prices). 2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 47 .

1 42 54 52.1 45 48.9 75.9 70 33 52 77.5 11.5 42.7 3 50 96 53.4 74 53.8 66.9 54.5 57.3 65.4 64 51.8 69.3 50.1 43.6 56 49.9 56.7 15.2 40 48 23.6 41.7 71.3 37.8 62.2 46 50.1 84 74.5 68.1 32 49 55.9 10.7 82.7 35.6 75 46 29.8 61.8 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 60 50.8 28 33.2 84 76.5 41.7 92 53.5 30 52.2 54.9 74.6 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .1 30 47.6 24 50 55.9 72.9 44.2 29 21 39.3 91.5 73. South Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Uruguay Venezuela 45 47 75.3 64.4 11.3 60 51.1 66.1 58.8 10.3 34.9 31.9 80 39.4 77 51.5 68.3 Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Montenegro Netherlands.5 71.7 21.3 31.9 23 40.1 84 61 76.9 82.7 41.5 83 65.4 25.8 10 29.9 37.2 63.5 36 46 47 80.3 33 49.7 30.5 70.2 82.9 84 80.7 65 54. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom 72.7 59.5 14 42.5 64.3 92.7 60 45 80 90 52.7 21.2 53.6 41.2 8 29.5 30.DAILIES DAILY NEWSPAPER REACH (%) (using most recent available figures) Country 48 All adults Men Women Main household shopper Africa Namibia South Africa Tanzania Uganda 14 25.3 88.5 31.5 68.9 83 69.2 60 39 44 73.7 51.6 50.7 56.4 35.2 50.6 22.6 33.7 24 36 72.7 63 52 38 24 48 Asia Armenia China Hong Kong India Indonesia Israel Japan Korea.7 2 - 20.8 68.8 - 26 - America.8 64. North Costa Rica Mexico United States of America 90.4 79 30.2 65.7 48 51.3 73.7 34.7 56.8 64.7 55.9 10 29.9 44.9 26 46 44.9 92.3 59 53.9 54 57.9 47.7 39 86 49.7 35.5 82 43.4 89.2 74.5 49.3 83 47.1 33.8 84 77.9 56.6 28. Republic of Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Turkey 14 60.2 25 30.5 11.8 45.6 82 53.6 45 - America.9 84.

98 - 30 15 48 40 8 39.57 -22.1 46 20 18 45 17 29 37 50 41 23 28 20 9.70 -56.51 2.7 42 -14.04 -8.29 -2.45 - 0.00 -2.70 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 19 20 - 29.79 -47.3 40 30 16 30 47 - 43 18 19 48 36 40.83 - -32.33 3.61 -4.00 -46.00 Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark Finland Germany Greece Ireland Malta Netherlands.00 0.65 - America.DAILIES DAILY NEWSPAPER CONSUMPTION (minutes/day) (using most recent available figures) Countries Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 37 40 39 41 42 13. South Brazil Chile Colombia 115 210 112 224 114 30 222 115 30 - 112 30 201 -2. The Norway Poland Russia Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 49 .44 America.29 40.67 13.53 38 31 - - 4.00 2.4 15 29 39 - 54 43 19 28 43.00 - Asia China India Israel Japan Korea.00 0. North Canada Costa Rica United States of America 47 46 27 49 46 25 48 27 - 49 - 33 24 - -29.9 30 15 28 49 - 41 15 39 30 41.11 0.61 0.7 17 29 38 22 36. Republic of Lebanon Malaysia Taiwan Turkey 56 37 21 30 62 27 41 68 21 - 53 34 102 22 45 49 26 22 46 48 44 31 29.

167 0.75 0.19 39.4 16. lat) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.88 0. franc) Ukraine (Ukraine. euro) Italy (Italy.25 100 916.4 - 0.03 1 670 3.21 1.29 1.2 0.97 - 10 0.96 0. pound) * Price maximum 50 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .68 1.930 60 400 1.3 0.9 0.DAILIES COVER PRICES OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS (price minimum. krone) Poland (Poland. ringgit) Mongolia (Mongolia.8 - 0. dollar) Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka. peso) 0.71 1.5 61.65 6 5 6.5 150 600 12.22 1. dollar) Peru (Peru.02 1 0. The (Netherlands. peso) Georgia (Georgia.5 1.000 1.6 1. lev) Croatia (Croatia.6 - 1.2 5.39 5 200 0.04 1. using most recent available figures) Country Africa Mozambique (Mozambique.6 0.75 3. metical) South Africa (South Africa.84 48.35 0.41 - America.800 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.43 0. dollar) 0.22 3.09 0.52 0. shilling) National currency Single copy Subscription Single copy USD Subscription 12.24 0.27 77.5 1 8 0. won) Lebanon (Lebanon.55 22.22 2.53 0. kuna) Cyprus (Cyprus.26 0.8 1.25 670 2. peso) United States of America (United States of America.49 1.11 1.47 1. rupiah) Japan (Japan. North Bermuda (Bermuda.2 1. dollar) Europe Albania (Albania.11 0. forint) Iceland (Iceland. krona) Switzerland (Switzerland.49 1.19 3.5 1.12 0.47 0.65 390 0. dram) Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani manat) East Timor (Uruguay.52 0.85 9 1. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.5 69 220 0.98 0.3 6. boliviano) Brazil (Brazil.5 - 0. pound) Czech Republic (Czech Republic.05 1. dollar) New Zealand (New Zealand.4 6 0. zloty) Portugal (Portugal.69 28.37 1.74 8 0. yen) Korea.94 1. dollar) Costa Rica (Costa Rica. tugrik) Singapore (Singapore.73 0.4 1 200 0.6 0. koruna) Denmark (Denmark.85 3.23 0.5 3.5 0.4 5 10 2.45 0.27 1. euro) Macedonia (Macedonia.8 100 2 0.9 1.71 0.44 16.87 0.11 0.5 America.15 0.82 1 0.29 - Asia Armenia (Armenia. rupee) Turkey (Turkish new lira) Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.83 0.4 0.55 0. dollar) Canada (Canada.26 0.2 255 0.26 0.29 0.85 97 4 0.25 0.75 590. shilling) Uganda (Uganda.02 0.38 1. Leu) Netherlands.83 0.31 0.5 0. kroon) Finland (Finland.47 - 0. lek) Austria (Austria.05 1.3 1.000 2.45 15.5 3.000 50 8. rand) Tanzania (Tanzania. krona) Ireland (Ireland. koruna) Slovenia (Slovenia.74 0. euro) Norway (Norway.9 1 0. euro) Sweden (Sweden.95 0.93 1.000 1.86 0.7 5 1. Republic of (Korea.52 3.26 1. South Bolivia (Bolivia.8 4. euro) Serbia (Serbian dinar) Slovakia (Slovakia.4 0.43 0. euro) Hungary (Hungary. euro) Latvia (Latvia. euro) Germany (Germany.5 0.03 0. denar) Moldova (Moldova.000 1. Republic of. krone) Estonia (Estonia.2 2.14 3.13 1.75 1.16 1.26 0.5 * 25 9 95 0. lari) Indonesia (Indonesia. euro) Belgium (Belgium.38 0.18 0.9 1. euro) Greece (Greece.06 1.44 2. real) Chile (Chile.5 25 13 284 0.86 0. tolar) Spain (Spain.25 0.54 1.75 1.67 0. euro) Bulgaria (Bulgaria.25 49 - 0.3 0.5 1.13 1.67 0.65 0.77 - 100 1.375.57 1.5 4.88 2.12 2. euro) France (France. colon) Mexico (Mexico.53 45 2.88 0.5 6 0. nuevo sol) Uruguay (Uruguay. pound) Malaysia (Malaysia. peso) Ecuador (United States of America.11 0.4 0.000 7.5 0.

top 20 free dailies 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 51 .050 997 970 914 900 850 840 780 766 739 700 638 636 603 600 511 500 500 500 COUNTRIES OF TOP 20 FREE DAILIES Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Italy Spain France Korea.DAILIES TOP 20 FREE DAILIES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Title Language Country Metro Leggo 20 Minutos Que! ADN Metro Metro City E Polis Metro Directo 20 Minutes The Daily Focus Metro Metro Headline Daily Metro. Novaya Gorodskaya Gazeta (Moscow) Metro am7 Direct Soir Metro English Italian Spanish Spanish Spanish English / French Italian Italian Italian Spanish French Korean English French Chinese Russian Polish Korean French Korean / English United Kingdom Italy Spain Spain Spain Canada Italy Italy Italy Spain France Korea. Republic of France Korea.134 1. Republic of Canada Hong Kong Poland Russia United Kingdom United States of America WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 No. Republic of United States of America France Hong Kong Russia Poland Korea. Republic of Circulation (000) 1.

00 50.00 0.968 2.00 166.189 28.043 1.00 100.168 3.301 216.1 1.9 0.00 3 16.2 0.150.00 - 6 4 3 2 1 13.00 200.454 10.972 0.00 200.00 0.350 32.9 0.00 0.262.271 47.2 0.450.265 18.00 47.00 100.3 0.1 0.271 8.00 300.00 800.037 243 3.06 25 3 3 50 26.715 3.850 79.00 300.3 * or latest available figure 52 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .00 0.00 4.00 1 4 1 1 1 4 12 1 2 8 4 3 1 2 3 10 1 1 3 3 3 2 3 31 1 28 6 7 2 12 61 6.00 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.4 0.563 13.00 300.00 2 3 1 1 9 1 2 2 2 2 937.1 8.788 4.00 100.67 200.072 1.5 2.90 48.00 0.00 - 100.00 100.2 0.2 America.521 39.2 Asia China Hong Kong Israel Japan Korea. South Argentina Brazil Chile Ecuador Venezuela 4 3 1 - 4 3 1 - 6 3 1 - 6 3 1 - 6 4 3 2 1 50.0 0.titles Adult No.321 49.00 0.2 Europe Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Netherlands.00 0.00 100.00 0.652 5.DAILIES FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) No.5 0.6 0.00 50.968 109.00 100.00 50.7 0.00 0.4 0.326 40.1 0. North Canada Dominican Republic Mexico United States of America 2 4 1 20 3 4 1 28 3 3 2 29 24 3 2 34 25 3 3 50 1.635 13.142 4.17 0.620 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 Australia & Oceania Australia 2 2 2 2 3 50.00 150.74 100.2 0.00 50. Republic of Malaysia Philippines Singapore Taiwan United Arab Emirates 1 1 1 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 1 1 2 - 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 9 1 2 2 2 2 200.1 0.00 100.00 0.6 0.135 8.2 0.00 0.0 America.00 100.482 12.0 0.00 100.315 37.00 0.00 0.00 0.012 1. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Africa Botswana 1 1 1 1 1 0.2 0.112 6.2 0.1 0.7 0.00 100.00 75.00 50.00 75.1 0.311 17.00 50.9 0.00 600.00 50.00 100.5 0.954 0.0 0.915 15.284 58.628 0.00 0.439 7.751 4.00 100.00 0.00 0.930 4.0 0.00 -25.00 0.00 1.2 0.7 0.4 1.678 8.00 0.9 0.00 50.564 6.00 0.2 0.978 6.875 16.00 1 1.322 70.2 0.00 - 0.00 100.0 0.1 0.5 0.669 135. The Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 5 2 2 4 2 4 6 1 1 1 5 2 3 2 1 1 5 2 2 9 2 4 6 1 2 1 1 5 2 7 3 1 1 5 2 2 2 2 15 3 3 8 1 1 1 2 6 1 2 8 3 1 2 3 5 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 23 3 4 8 1 4 1 1 1 4 12 1 2 8 4 3 1 2 3 10 1 1 3 3 3 2 3 31 1 28 6 7 2 12 300.00 21.00 0.071 6.00 0.4 0.213 9.1 0.00 0.748 1.413 1.

DAILIES FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 53 .

DAILIES FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) 54 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

00 8.388 61 6.00 500.962 1.0 7.020 100 50 10 1.652 5.43 185.65 9.33 86.312 667 365 80 2.150 803 294 1.216 180 84 3.56 271 16.447 143 115 450 - 150 323 82 2.322 70.44 106.29 115.166 210 2.07 167.67 28.553 365 90 3.92 43.00 144.00 158.563 13.92 57.50 64.81 47.8 132.00 -4.00 32.4 12.720 596 750 820 5 330 220 200 581 170 1.09 44.77 20.9 52.44 19.259 214 320 100 2.8 81.210 230 215 370 200 101 302.005 751 298 1.454 10.8 38.91 24.311 17.56 50.168 3.3 50.321 49.3 150 176 200 373 174 936 88 322 86 2.7 113.216 180 84 3.715 3. North Canada Dominican Republic Mexico United States of America Europe Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Netherlands.22 53.116 163 235 324 202 165 4.968 2.972 63.1 51.96 48.02 29.5 158.072 1.915 15.00 100.28 3.461 235 340 187 127 3.439 7.109 897 221 30 435 3.1 36.20 4.116 163 235 324 202 165 4.5 17.142 4.4 70.42 42.280 10 940 518 200 1.88 136.8 50.620 16.388 338.9 2.088 2.01 5 658 28 226 187 1.413 1.6 98.954 0.00 0.3 23.00 65 1.02 98.326 40.0 184.00 1.1 Asia China Hong Kong Israel Japan Korea.49 222.00 -15.37 - 2.978 6.135 150 4.00 229.183 580 770 837 150 200 200 530 165 1.5 14.628 15.3 11.281 326 187 1.9 50.3 39.962 1.118 150 83 3.750 103 101 60 938 1.037 243 3.113 58 200 2.90 340. The Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 55 .38 600 1.707 365 220 3.09 702.92 0.71 8.521 39.87 319.90 329.48 5.721 1.1 2.8 124.0 17.00 466.51 523.271 47.8 46.67 131.05 0.3 5.564 6.0 95.678 8.949 274.166 210 2.943 672 619 890 5 200 218 470 656 42 194 1.3 3.2 15.135 150 4.930 4.2 456 486 50 1.112 6.265 18.748 1.14 - 100.301 216.30 0.26 47.071 6.350 32.9 39.99 56.03 51.96 -10.669 135.315 37.189 28.446 765 821 1.78 9.DAILIES FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa Botswana 65 65 65 65 65 0.21 42.8 25.83 0.788 4. South Argentina Brazil Chile Ecuador Venezuela 481 234 95 - 451 251 100 - 188 216 120 - 202 200 150 - 207 340 210 140 80 -56.2 10.00 3.2 0.00 55.10 38.3 831.206 5 658 28 226 187 1.113 58 200 2.3 59.6 205.41 444.00 -6.3 52.94 126.213 9.7 Australia & Oceania Australia 180 180 180 180 271 50.012 64.030 198 320 97 2.67 - 207 340 210 140 80 13.2 America.906 145 115 531 100 60 300 1.750 103 101 60 938 1.875 82.635 13. Republic of Malaysia Philippines Singapore Taiwan United Arab Emirates 302 77 400 140 100 280 - 308 80 1.9 America.2 49.088 2.526 660 466 50 2.080 150 115 250 100 65 600 1.210 230 215 370 200 101 937.281 326 187 1.135 8.00 102.195 1.262.10 3.33 160.90 48.3 478.482 12.8 18.49 14.3 36.284 58.850 79.3 42.707 365 220 3.62 134.195 1.8 32.968 109.34 -24.23 1.751 4.949 26.312 1.043 1.2 1.271 8.

DAILIES FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) 56 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 57 .

0 1005.817.00 11.4 2. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 America.0 146.0 1.81 185.8 1.709.4 65.0 1. koruna) Estonia (Estonia.5 15.4 116.2 13. forint) Latvia (Latvia.0 254.0 892.159.08 833.0 1.7 114.9 1.033.6 0.3 17.68 30.00 - Europe Czech Republic (Czech Republic.0 45.88 20.96 - 275.2 85.17 - 254.2 24.6 1643.2 125.03 816. euro) Greece (Greece. euro) Hungary (Hungary.7 1.3 26.178.0 1090.355.0 76.26 14.1 100.460.9 50.2 - - 21.50 75. zloty) Spain (Spain.236.0 939. euro) Poland (Poland.7 23.0 5.7 20.8 142.2 841.33 14.0 3.0 260.0 9.0 0.94 43. lat) Lithuania (Lithuania.35 - Europe Czech Republic Estonia France Greece Hungary Latvia Lithuania Netherlands.895.2 74.0 23.593.4 10.0 1.59 115.0 53.230.900.09 60. kroon) France (France.362.00 12. ringgit) 38.0 96. millions.0 96.83 7.0 1. pound) FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (USD.8 97.8 - 466.1 60.5 28.16 -7.16 -2.8 167.0 1.0 126.2 99.535. euro) Sweden (Sweden.0 920.0 - - - 7.0 4.62 7.504.240.DAILIES FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies.8 40.04 Asia Malaysia 10.5 157.0 - 290.8 114.62 73.6 1.1 4. The (Netherlands.9 1.6 1.3 8. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 America.5 2.0 93. krona) United Kingdom (United Kingdom. litas) Netherlands. The Poland Spain Sweden United Kingdom 58 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .6 - - - 236.00 110.0 1.101.4 2.0 922.3 1.0 5.9 203.230.0 4. South Argentina (Argentina. South Argentina 12.0 77.168.2 1.141.26 Asia Malaysia (Malaysia.1 50.0 942. million.0 1.0 232. peso) 37.67 14.1 16.1 181.8 - - 62.

2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 59 .DAILIES FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD. current prices) FREE DAILIES: CHANGE IN ADVERTISING REVENUES (current prices). million.

630 674 21.454 19.8 3.00 20.67 0.00 0.064 3.2 8.00 0.67 0.0 18.) 2 3 3 2 1 104 1 6 18 13 7 2 6 3 1 300 3 6 5 4 1 1 5 4 1.3 2.00 33.00 0.00 0.0 0.984 53.00 0.81 100.00 30.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 4.00 0.00 -80.263 6.00 0.00 0.00 17.00 0.39 0.4 America.00 0.172 7.00 -50.33 0.487 1 0.9 1.00 20.487 1 50 58 220 224 54 26.6 1.978 36 3.4 2.313 4.19 100.725 5.00 0.0 2.843 135.00 0.5 1.7 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 22.4 2.2 0.00 0.00 0.00 -15.00 0.3 0.00 20.3 1.00 0.00 0.123 825 915 13.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.33 0.7 0.3 5.00 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.3 2.2 0. North Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas.00 2.649 76.00 0.206 6.8 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.931 1.00 2 4 4 2 1 125 2 6 18 11 1 10 2 4 3 1 300 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.19 184 19 536 13.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.089 28 86 4.00 50.00 0.107 6.4 0.189 346 7.242 4.00 0.9 2. Republic of the Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.38 42.00 0.00 16.2 3.6 2.5 3.753 11.687 23.00 -33.732 3.00 100.544 1.484 1 2 4 4 2 1 103 1 7 18 11 1 9 2 4 3 1 2 (1) 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.5 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.6 55.00 0.098 61 3.498 396 32.0 1.2 2.00 0.00 0.278 1.07 0.00 0.00 0.301 169 3.0 America.4 0.9 10.00 0.9 - 123 19 523 182 19 529 184 19 532 184 535 184 536 49. The Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 40 5 20 2 5 1 4 5 2 11 5 12 1 2 9 2 20 4 1 3 4 2 8 2 4 23 2 4 1 20 3 1 15 1 9 3 18 25 2 7 1 7 4 3 4 40 4 20 2 5 1 4 5 2 11 4 12 1 2 10 2 20 5 3 4 2 9 4 4 23 5 4 1 22 3 1 18 1 9 4 18 26 2 11 1 8 5 3 4 45 1 20 2 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 13 1 2 10 2 21 5 3 4 2 9 4 4 25 6 4 1 24 3 1 23 1 9 5 18 27 2 15 1 10 5 3 3 47 1 20 2 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 13 4 1 2 11 2 21 5 4 4 12 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 18 28 2 15 1 10 5 3 3 48 1 20 2 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 14 3 1 2 11 2 21 5 6 4 14 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 19 28 2 14 1 10 5 3 3 20.929 31.00 0.4 0.00 -25.11 100.00 0.00 0.1 1. South Argentina Bolivia Brazil * or latest available figure * (1) Free dailies only 60 Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .33 0.0 69.00 0.186 9.6 17.7 1.788 4.00 0.00 0.0 0.00 5.342 10.6 1. El Trinidad and Tobago United States of America Virgin Islands (U.00 7.00 0.00 0.482 13.00 0.56 12.0 0.00 0.4 2.728 944 22.00 0.957 6.7 3.823 4.669 5.8 3.4 0.6 2.872 3.0 1.280 1.00 0.33 33.00 0.00 0.195 2.00 0.00 0.3 4.166 42.00 0.955 1.13 0.2 3.7 11.00 25.7 16.3 0.486 1 2 4 4 2 1 124 1 5 18 11 1 10 2 4 3 1 2 (1) 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.972 - 40.00 0.titles Adult No.49 0.00 48 1 20 2 5 1 4 6 1 11 4 14 3 1 2 11 2 21 5 1 6 4 14 2 12 4 4 27 2 4 1 26 3 1 26 1 10 6 19 28 2 14 1 10 5 3 3 23.668 6.7 0.00 0.00 0.00 -20.3 35.68 0.486 1 2 4 4 2 1 125 2 6 18 11 1 10 2 4 3 1 3 (1) 3 6 7 4 1 1 5 4 1.345 852 216.2 0.1 4.406 1.3 4.00 0.00 5.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.00 0. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Comoros Congo.203 7.477 1 2 3 4 2 1 105 1 7 18 12 8 2 6 3 1 1 (1) 3 6 5 4 1 1 5 4 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.392 1.845 339 28.69 -25.2 0.4 3.00 50.4 9.071 1.S.5 0.401 4.0 0.8 0.86 25.390 10.00 16.6 1.8 2.9 1.265 6.3 0.00 0.2 1.00 0.56 0.918 10.00 0.00 0.669 14. Democratic Republic of the Congo.106 553 102 7.00 0.00 73.86 0.0 1.2 4.00 0.012 7.00 100.9 18.00 0. The Barbados Bermuda Canada Cayman Islands Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Salvador.00 0.00 0.59 2.665 2.00 11.00 42.00 0.

00 -7.22 0.18 0.3 1.00 1.15 59 42 19 2 3 4 86 3 12 88 12.537 5.6 4. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 50 39 1 2 2 5 45 3 13 - 57 1 2 3 5 59 3 13 - 59 1 2 3 4 73 3 12 92 59 41 1 2 3 4 85 3 12 87 59 42 19 2 3 4 86 3 12 88 18.50 50.00 38.076 742 58.85 16.347 1.07 0.00 0.00 100.27 0.00 22.020 174.5 7.00 50.616 39.907 202 130 106 4 15 139 7 5 6 14 10 33 3 6 6 251 5 204 3 1 (1) 5 12 11 4 31 37 73 2 9 4 28 3 5 6 388 2 20 963 2 10 50 1.14 0.1 29.168 678 16.14 0.8 4.00 0.84 0.00 28.525 130 324 141 52.883 18.33 0.913 17.00 0.00 0.5 1.602 3.84 14.00 0.00 0.00 7.00 29.0 4.00 3.00 60.733 30.00 1.00 39.1 11.4 2.0 0.00 0.331 61.17 0.67 0.620 13 624 204 121 158 3.00 20.887 380 13.00 0.594 11.867 17.00 7.00 0.67 0.938 312 2.265 1.218 67 3.0 3.5 2.1 4.00 91.8 1.00 48.5 0.8 3.00 0.00 -12.00 0.56 50.6 1.308 176 121 107 5 15 129 7 5 5 13 10 33 2 5 6 5 169 3 1 (1) 5 12 10 13 4 30 35 55 2 9 3 28 3 8 24 5 340 2 20 1.00 33.00 0.652 677 6.072 43.4 0.44 1.00 12 8 24 8 410 3 20 955 3 10 54 2.00 0.834 177 13 108 7 15 164 8 5 6 15 11 34 4 8 8 6 438 3 28 5 13 9 18 4 31 45 67 2 12 4 28 3 12 8 8 410 3 20 2 (1) 3 10 54 2.2 0.33 20.93 40.00 0.00 20.730 2.00 -25.7 3.00 0.00 0.071 142 566 3.00 28 3 22 15 29 7 2.936 937.8 4.904 18.694 61 6.628 4.00 0.904 507 98.8 0.0 2.6 3. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestinian Authority Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen * or latest available figure (1) Free dailies only Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 61 .554 5.00 22.1 5.00 0.00 0.4 1.00 -6.1 15.00 0.22 7.2 0.4 49.00 0.9 4.507 0.29 2.3 7.00 0.800.00 0.1 76.4 3.00 0.635 1.00 -20.00 14.69 - 0.00 55.130 218 177 13 108 7 15 192 8 5 6 14 11 35 4 8 8 251 6 438 3 29 5 13 11 18 4 27 45 81 2 14 4 28 3 17.00 0.9 2.707 50.646 6.3 6.1 2.69 10.00 50.7 3.699 3.035 2 10 50 1. North Korea.2 1.00 8.6 19.00 0.9 0.00 -10.00 0.5 1.titles Adult No.45 0.5 9.00 0.00 2 51 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 38 16.90 0.41 7.46 0.968 109.00 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .00 62.00 17.00 0.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 8.778 101.722 9.8 28.46 50.752 4.2 0.5 3.14 0.29 0.06 100.4 1.3 4.9 4.00 -3.57 0.00 16.00 0.57 47.00 0.521 3.33 10.3 Australia & Oceania American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam New Caledonia New Zealand Northern Mariana Islands Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Vanuatu 50 1 3 2 1 1 24 2 2 2 1 1 49 1 3 2 1 1 24 2 2 2 1 1 1 49 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 1 50 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 2 51 1 3 2 1 1 23 2 2 2 1 1 2.00 60.6 7.007 2 10 50 1.00 0.043 34.00 20.2 14.4 4.5 9.288 10.continued Change (%) Country No.00 0.715 3.1 Europe Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 2 17 14 29 7 19 2 17 14 29 7 21 3 19 14 29 7 29 3 18 14 29 7 28 3 22 15 29 7 55.00 3.33 60.00 6.915 15.271 8.00 0.6 4.5 13.8 9.800.9 0.00 0.1 7.2 3.873 273 8.8 8.00 0.00 0.3 12 22 5 294 2 20 1.00 0.3 1.4 1.354 11.1 14.00 0.265 15.3 2.2 3.6 15.954 18.90 0.00 0.1 Chile Colombia Ecuador French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Cambodia China East Timor Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Korea.69 1.8 15.00 2.0 2.00 0.213 2.56 33.6 0.198 2.00 0.2 1.718 3.130 13 108 7 15 192 8 5 6 14 11 35 4 8 8 6 3 29 5 13 11 18 4 27 45 81 2 14 4 28 3 -33.00 -4.94 0.00 0.00 0.284 203 2.729 218 172 12 108 5 15 145 7 5 6 14 11 35 3 6 7 6 291 3 1 (1) 5 12 11 4 32 40 62 2 10 4 28 3 10 5 7 400 2 20 955 4 10 52 1.00 2.11 0.00 2.766 3.0 4.00 0.930 758.

4 52.69 3.35 0.563 332 3.33 0.38 0.00 2.00 0.788 23 4.27 8.09 5.titles 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 59 12 18 74 33 12 2 56 88 374 1 39 30 3 6 96 24 2 6 7 4 4 38 81 47 14 24 436 3 19 6 136 93 102 107 1 62 11 18 66 35 11 2 55 88 372 1 39 29 3 7 96 23 2 6 10 4 5 37 78 49 15 35 472 3 15 6 145 92 101 107 1 58 12 18 81 35 11 2 55 92 371 1 40 31 3 7 96 22 2 21 6 13 4 6 37 78 48 18 51 485 3 12 7 151 93 96 109 1 60 13 21 86 37 12 2 55 93 368 1 42 39 4 11 96 23 2 22 6 12 4 7 4 37 77 46 17 48 493 3 13 11 8 162 91 95 42 112 1 16 21 90 42 13 2 55 93 374 1 42 31 3 12 101 22 2 22 6 13 4 7 4 32 77 47 18 64 552 3 11 11 8 168 91 98 41 116 1 33.751 4.00 0.00 5.3 2.51 0.2 3.63 0.454 10.4 - * or latest available figure 62 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .88 33.672 3.276 1.4 33.00 4.4 8.00 3.15 -3.00 0.4 3.67 26.439 7.00 0.3 43.315 4.456 13.4 1. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 6.0 1. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican No.33 11.6 4.33 23.00 8.00 -15.00 85.00 100.262.33 0.0 0.00 1.7 2.17 5.0 2.0 15.564 6.271 47.00 23.33 0.5 2.037 243 3.21 -8.7 4.61 0.043 1.9 48.57 0.00 75.67 21.33 16.92 8.continued Change (%) Country Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands.00 -20.776 32.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .79 5.97 0.00 9.16 -2.748 374 1.00 0.5 12.57 166.112 24 6.00 3.135 8.6 7.68 0.717 37.413 1.5 11.350 3.572 12.326 40.00 0.21 -4.6 12.850 79.53 -2.00 -15.62 27.4 20.2 71.9 5.41 0.3 3.1 12.7 1.00 -42.33 0.1 11.875 - 9.5 9.00 0.33 0.00 0.0 8.08 0.0 16.7 2.5 1.71 0.70 0.3 12.79 -4.0 125.678 624 8.00 0.00 7.142 38 4.51 -25.322 70.00 -13.51 8.00 0.7 10.11 33.38 3.3 9.311 17.00 -1.00 28.0 4.968 28 2.65 13.94 0.0 2.00 60 16 21 90 42 13 2 55 93 374 1 42 31 3 12 101 22 2 22 6 13 4 7 4 32 77 47 18 64 552 3 11 11 8 168 91 98 41 116 1 Adult No.321 49.

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 63 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .continued (using most recent available figures) 64 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 65 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) .continued 66 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

9 2.00 0.0 1.01 -11.18 11.2 6.420 30 180 191 586 0.1 75.750 29 200 185 579 3 250 157 56.600 670 -4.00 0.301 169 3.00 0.700 92 20 3 215 25 190 215 50 70 110 22 40 9 110 300 17 28 820 73 120 3 22 20 1.570 812 1.900 22 3 200 25 214 40 70 20 8 95 355 16 28 800 70 110 3 20 16 1. El Trinidad and Tobago United States of America Virgin Islands (U.550 150 (1) 1.203 14.5 8.522 816 120 (1) 1.69 25.63 -0.1 28.9 1.186 9.09 0.00 0.00 0.8 5.00 0.242 4.278 17 50 58 220 224 54 26.5 1.11 605.00 50. The Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Reunion Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 110 35 76 33 20 65 4 75 10 3.823 4.0 189.137 80 25 102 5 75 56 125 100 35 76 33 20 65 4 70 8 3.668 6.3 62.789 802 1.00 4.347 17 8 54 39 44 19 6.098 61 3.00 1.00 19.286 85 25 110 5 83 55 125 940 41 36 76 33 20 65 4 60 8 2.8 2.590 10 281 1.280 18 199 1.00 0.00 -1.800 605 2 550 8 160 115 65 4.00 7.342 10.5 587.544 1.972 - 180.50 1.123 825 915 13.96 8.00 8.25 3.3 191.24 1.071 109.00 0.5 195.800 486 320 7 200 65 4.00 5.800 95 (1) 1.206 6.75 0.811.00 0.00 10.00 0.00 22.00 0.5 97.00 0.00 10.09 0.972 234 1.2 177.00 0.58 247.8 214.00 30.2 10. Democratic Republic of the Congo.494 7.931 1.732 3.420 30 180 191 586 28 250 160 56.1 4.669 5.1 4.363 138 6.00 1.00 122.352 10 153 1.57 -3.00 250 160 56.00 24.0 62.00 10.918 10.2 116. North Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas.44 0.396 6.00 0.401 4.26 0.00 22.00 9 54 40 48 19 6.6 6.18 12.8 73.955 1.00 0.8 75.00 0.00 0.265 6.7 4.390 10.23 346.6 6.24 0.7 America.665 40.722 9.00 0.2 3.263 76.064 3.09 0.498 32.45 -10.73 14.49 71.00 3.29 0.25 12.00 0.166 42.628 90 25 115 5 92 125 -62.3 15.578 10 275 1.00 0.00 0.8 37.630 674 21.13 80.91 -0.1 51.278 17 28.90 25.11 0.408 88 25 120 5 89 55 125 950 41 38 76 33 20 70 5 50 8 2.67 1.50 0.6 6.392 1.0 16.600 670 13.978 36 3.470 251 100 (1) 1.5 13.95 3.7 3.88 14.406 1.5 50.687 23.3 America.8 500.4 3.843 135.00 0.8 3.278 1.107 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.2 6.0 9.071 1.00 0.6 55.00 0.572 6.29 20.189 346 7.872 3.00 0.02 11.S.788 4.00 0.00 960 41 40 76 33 20 70 5 50 8 2.00 80.22 43.712 16 7 33 37 18 5.800 95 22 3 215 25 190 215 45 70 100 22 40 9 100 300 17 28 820 73 115 3 22 20 1.200 22 3 180 25 211 4 40 70 20 6 90 28 760 70 100 3 20 9 1.67 0.195 2.5 22.9 232.728 944 22.16 -9.3 23.579 6.00 -4.7 36. South Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador 1.172 7.461 10 288 1.000 22 3 190 25 212 40 70 20 8 90 350 28 780 70 105 3 20 12 1.8 102.213 2.00 0.0 181.07 0.482 12.700 92 20 3 215 25 190 215 4 50 70 110 22 40 9 110 300 17 28 820 73 120 3 22 20 1.800 605 2 550 8 160 115 65 4.280 1.570 812 1.5 4.00 0.0 50.00 0.7 156.725 5.17 0.5 187.6 4.2 24.00 10.504 90 25 120 5 92 54 125 960 41 40 76 33 20 70 5 50 8 2. Republic of the Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.00 0.77 6.106 553 7.00 7.00 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country Africa 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Congo.35 0.657 17 9 54 40 48 19 6.8 259.280 18 199 1.50 0.33 41.9 * or latest available figure (1) Free dailies only Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* 57.984 53.0 931.9 49.22 0.67 0.845 339 28.00 12.89 4.00 -3.9 17.63 -9.00 0.05 0.9 66.00 4.33 -20.497 16 8 54 35 40 18 5.957 6.00 10.) 7 30 34 17 5.76 15.753 11.313 4.4 - Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 67 .90 0.00 -33.454 19.800 466 400 7 200 65 50 (1) 29 190 190 580 3 250 158 57.7 16.00 0.800 365 2 450 8 160 65 80 (1) 30 180 190 580 3 250 158 57.00 -30.00 -6.29 -20.00 -15.26 7.494 138 7.21 0.929 31.5 4.00 11.1 5.9 10.00 1.012 7.345 852 216.57 33.089 107. The Barbados Bermuda Canada Cayman Islands Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis3 Salvador.00 0.800 605 2 500 8 160 115 65 90 (1) 30 180 191 580 3 250 159 56.6 5.628 90 25 115 5 92 54 125 23.2 10.00 1.3 351.6 18.56 9.8 132.03 3 0.2 1.00 0.00 2.11 0.

00 964.70 -16.694 61 6.600 930 69.300 1.2 105.150 2 40 22 20 26 739 7 5 3 4 3.77 0.63 -2.276 1.594 11.00 14.49 -0.00 0.657 24 308 72.9 87.00 28.995 81 1.00 0.00 0.014 1.500 400 300 36 20 215 168 2.29 8.100 237 6.1 160.00 4.0 295.866 730 70.00 3.83 33.600 40 26 28 150 1.6 435.968 109.3 164.57 0.09 2.753 12 50 160 7.27 7.00 0.650 4.890 40 3.31 55.678 624 8.287 1.600 40 24 22 140 1.14 0.00 0.241 2 40 22 20 26 721 7 54 5 3 1.8 228.500 17.8 64.16 3.542 125 4.11 0.218 67 3.300 1.500 19.650 100 558 747 100 2.17 21.22 0.700.751 24.450 15 32 130 135 2.890 76 2.114 2 40 22 20 26 739 7 51 5 3 4 3.496 125 4.904 18.1 104.79 0.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) .4 485.3 Europe Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic 2.46 12.7 434.474 9 42 817 120 6.044 4 24 3.873 273 8.3 30.184 120 300 4.866 1.00 0.6 203.354 11.48 13.00 -1.00 0.54 12.2 3.072 4.030 15 52 550 165 40 3.79 2.300 5.4 189.246 35 115 65 1.9 31.00 4.470 24 302 57.143 56 901 30 2.711.334 78.9 13.184 120 4.500 3.867 74 30 2.00 5.00 0.10 0.954 18.15 -7.5 11.00 0.3 6.335 1.6 243.00 9.895.265 15.8 92.143 56 901 30 2.400 7.892 70 300 4.00 10.699 3.265 1.480 0.474 1.300 35 55 600 (1) 3 24 3.5 47.400 15 32 130 135 2.00 146.723 17.521 3.799 31.014 1.43 0.500 19.00 0.300 35 55 99. Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Oman Pakistan Palestinian Authority Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen * or latest available figure 68 Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .616 39.00 7 3.500 217 6.672 3.1 53.70 8.9 243.554 507 98.32 12.650 100 747 100 2.044 3 24 3.325 493 120 4.55 0.718 3.600 35 22 140 1.00 0.580 380 53 25 230 185 2.63 10.4 83.00 -25.863 4.00 4.400 217 7.54 65 32 3.883 2.353 1.1 73.065 2 40 22 20 26 729 7 54 5 3 7 3.241 2 40 22 20 26 721 7 54 5 3 38 16.684 100 558 411 100 2.00 35.9 167.507 1.6 255.3 319.00 0.00 7.1 10.288 6.500 16.419 60 4.00 0.00 -3.25 0.4 3.230 1.1 1.3 15.1 486.537 4.271 8.33 0.7 542.00 0.620 13 624 204 121 158 3.33 15 32 130 135 2.689 890 69.799 2.74 0.48 -6.331 61.02 0.867 1.537 5.13 11.00 0.939 4.2 6.00 -4.41 71.33 7.00 11.8 78.347 350 23 215 180 2.67 23.470 45 660 30 2.2 27.913 11.500 1.7 25.652 677 6.043 34.11 48.4 21.00 0.0 374.763 90 4.446 65 4.863 1.646 6.915 15.300 5.020 174.397 1.335 1.600 40 3.190 1.300 1.6 56.00 17.14 -12.81 -32.1 107.433 45 600 30 2.67 10.420 600 130 4.continued Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* 15 13 140 155 - 15 30 150 152 2.030 15 52 550 165 7.00 0.000 30 50 85.5 15.78 25.600 930 69.6 42.56 0.525 324 141 184.8 Country French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Asia Afghanistan Armenia Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Cambodia China East Timor Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea.93 4.6 4.17 11.00 81.246 430 55 25 240 185 3.33 27.635 1.4 17.715 3.216 88.844 4.50 43.704 24 323 73.733 30.000 25 50 88.100 25 50 96.887 380 13.00 2.35 0.936 937.678 90 667 508 90 1.400 15 30 140 140 2.68 37.009 35 100 60 1.90 53.14 8.284 203 2.5 33.2 461.200 25 55 99.00 0.900 16 52 165 7.00 0.2 27 180 1.850 4.397 1.7 83.00 26 28 150 1.75 0.602 3.67 30.1 128.895 81 1.2 631.5 51.600 40 17.00 0.995 81 1. North Korea.259 600 130 4.550 43.730 2.5 Australia & Oceania American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam New Caledonia New Zealand Northern Mariana Islands Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanuatu 180 2 40 22 20 26 745 7 5 3 3.168 678 16.6 224.270 1.0 153.10 -7.861 70 32 2.47 66.5 15.707 50.778 101.930 758.300 1.33 52.076 742 58.29 3.06 25.69 -2.69 -0.665 70.300 5.00 0.5 187.00 -3.420 600 130 4.752 4.2 195.7 30.216 88.9 25.00 0.39 7.3 117.00 0.567 70.212 65 32 3.50 14.003 56 815 30 2.300 1.12 22.7 166.00 26.00 16.766 3.35 0.5 83.628 105.306 600 27 2.00 75.00 2.600 7.33 40.80 0.90 - 0.00 0.447 330 65 22 215 169 2.1 524.480 142 566 3.246 430 55 25 240 185 3.651 853 597 90 1.198 2.9 68.572 12 38 120 6.5 15.818 35 115 70 1.600 6.57 50.7 119.706 100 616 382 95 1.9 39.890 40 3.8 165.600 35 26 180 1.

381 334 17 2.350 3.322 70.254 5 1.28 31.02 -2.270 5.33 -5.319 424 20 636 114 200 100 98 55 4.721 3.775 250 965 10.00 73.3 - * or latest available figure (1) Free dailies only WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 69 .439 7.continued Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands.271 47.76 -1.4 357.095 4 1.524 3.79 -10.8 108.444 70 87.371 571 506 5.555 1.32 63.21 30.4 714.338 5.18 1.871 358 18 115 150 85 70 5.748 374 1.454 10.444 70 Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* 4.511 18.025 356 20 500 115 160 90 75 5.364 19.491 1.11 -3.135 (1) 150 (1) 465 350 9.267 3 1.790 163 742 8.142 38 4.564 6.315 4.254 5 1.135 435 (1) 460 430 7.510 3.7 300.2 27.74 7.87 0.00 -0.44 71.850 79.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) .262.836 387 18 118 130 80 60 5.9 88.450 4.087 23.08 8.8 128.85 160.775 250 965 10.08 0.23 -0.26 0.070 70 1.60 18.511 18.311 17.04 -7.0 301.87 -9.00 -0.3 14.56 11.4 304.425 9.8 242.510 3.80 295.39 53.334 1.769 2.87 -8.424 9.875 - 766.4 334.646 4.343 18.800 251 885 8.266 791 1.06 4.001 2.375 70 1.65 5.869 551 512 344 5.456 13.802 21.486 448 20 577 115 170 95 98 55 5.12 -1.34 -3.413 1.8 215.8 1.65 66.89 11.87 17.576 1.911 251 17 2.00 -4.80 89.2 385.2 178.381 334 17 2.3 23.36 0.00 -5.90 48.105 17.85 25.00 3.41 5.434 9.491 1.946 298 17 2.806 255 17 2.112 6.183 4.2 217.860 168 772 7.576 1.497 793 1.340 4.319 424 20 636 114 200 100 98 55 4.743 947 1.743 947 1.408 9.906 257 17 2.00 10.3 231. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican 1.74 12.028.324 3.850 17.148 480 360 6.39 -0.00 0.7 113.34 0.3 624.91 9.268 21.40 9.06 48.135 150 465 350 9.067 22.41 54.8 176.4 4.251 3.572 12.67 8.072 4.78 4.5 447.98 0.321 49.062 2.7 203.072 4.543 5 1.721 3.4 561.380 1.424 9.717 37.917 162 591 7.968 28 2.021 2.60 -5.1 292.135 8.776 32.0 198.442 9.65 8.09 -18.9 87.486 1.193 22.563 332 3.270 5.20 0.326 40.276 1.571 4 1.1 554.043 1.7 214.788 23 4.007 2.92 1.700 70 3.905 4.226 1.186 70 1.00 63.2 601.802 21.264 3.368 3.06 19.04 21.72 38.74 69.405 4.769 2.037 243 3.69 9.

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) (1) Free dailies only 70 Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) .continued WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 71 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page 72 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) .continued (1) Free dailies only WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 73 .

0 73.51 83.750.164.0 6.0 3. ringgit) Mongolia (Mongolia.049.0 1.0 8. pound) 74 1.0 11.0 2.2 18.700.620.000.0 57.786.0 164.627.410.0 546. euro) Macedonia (Macedonia.0 4.6 118.121. euro) Italy (Italy.0 1. rupee) Turkey (Turkish new lira) 30.29 74. krone) Estonia (Estonia.2 1.0 330.0 8.86 30. peso) Peru (Peru.510.0 2.0 65.406.0 6.000. euro) Greece (Greece.1 123. zloty) Romania (Romanian leu) Serbia (Serbian dinar) Slovakia (Slovakia.0 48.0 252.8 2.006.0 1.0 1.0 25.1 26.7 87.4 411.5 1.88 57.0 645. nuevo sol) Uruguay (Uruguay.90 34.919.0 142.0 182.301. tugrik) Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka.0 771.36 41.0 7.5 8.381. kroon) Finland (Finland. peso) Brazil (Brazil.0 1. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.11 25.576.253.65 79.102.500.861.036.338.0 459. peso) India (India.0 2.0 537.443.45 6.3 49.868.8 1.0 1.572.31 45.455.0 49.1 67.586.502.713.2 3.9 5.0 484.45 8.00 12. euro) Poland (Poland.14 16.0 44.0 53.0 820.0 9.0 - - - America.315. euro) Sweden (Sweden.7 - 190.11 135.375.32 America.79 - 14.13 21.000.790.0 27.318.476.3 70.72 - Asia Armenia (Armenia.0 3.0 49.37 33.0 134.382.0 10.0 2.0 - 2.0 486. dram) China (China.0 2.0 2. euro) Hungary (Hungary.3 146.152.0 2.294.415. North Canada (Canada.519.0 755. rand) 1.0 1.510.196.135.5 2.594.0 25.0 65.0 2.7 352.275.296.222. rupiah) Israel (Israel.0 2.82 9.0 - 4.1 56.186. colon) United States of America (United States of America.0 401. euro) Germany (Germany.70 2.4 12.404.0 2.0 901.0 4.000.547.0 570.611.4 2.0 8.006.3 5. euro) Belgium (Belgium.02 - 25.0 9.29 12.0 2.0 1.413.0 325.930.0 4.0 19.502.76 9.0 31. denar) Netherlands.051. euro) France (France. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.0 - 2.401. peso) 1.0 0.089.0 757.0 115. forint) Ireland (Ireland.0 3.0 768.4 1.0 60.7 110.0 9.852. koruna) Denmark (Denmark.59 -1.88 2.46 4.8 210.510.77 11.485.488.684.999.434.28 30.448.73 -0. dollar) 2.8 1. euro) Bulgaria (Bulgaria.0 2.0 44.8 11.0 46.332.0 138.9 69.0 44.10 5.0 688.2 32.704.213.0 26.0 22.0 52.0 768.0 2.0 4.326.0 217.0 39.000.908. The (Netherlands.0 574.500.25 -4.0 27.0 2.286. dollar) Costa Rica (Costa Rica.0 519. South Argentina (Argentina. real) Colombia (Colombia.0 744.155.971.274.000.0 24.0 Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.86 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .0 4.0 2.600.522.6 1. new shekel) Japan (Japan.0 37.3 8.500.0 754.0 224. lat) Lithuania (Lithuania. koruna) Spain (Spain.0 2.7 14.848. euro) Latvia (Latvia.413.0 1.926.25 -1.435.633.4 1.0 2.182.6 475.0 2. rupee) Indonesia (Indonesia.31 1.000.926.0 383.410. millions.3 308. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.0 279.8 64.659.608. dollar) Europe Austria (Austria.692.0 1. yuan) East Timor (Uruguay.1 0.840.0 1.619.0 5.0 3.0 30.0 68.0 704.794. pound) Malaysia (Malaysia.436.750.308.4 547.678.100. litas) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.448.0 6. lev) Czech Republic (Czech Republic.0 532.45 - 30.244.5 77.176.0 419.0 29. yen) Lebanon (Lebanon.0 2.565.0 - 3.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies.750.529.1 3.605.49 3.0 32.0 58.50 3.0 511.0 280.0 613.418.937.0 15.

275.979.77 11.72 1.9 32.29 - Asia Armenia China India Indonesia Israel Japan Lebanon Malaysia Sri Lanka Turkey 0.7 1.2 1.6 234. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 149.3 65.792.0 682.1 197.009.045.2 648.1 166.931.6 23.77 Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands.70 48.3 673.2 - 71.4 19.595.1 14.588.089.577.687.58 -6.0 28.73 -0.6 204.5 46.6 75.3 20.735.5 - 896.238.048.2 6.8 1.98 22.4 868.6 1.8 13.1 948.155.373.0 3.7 9.5 345.8 46.76 151.1 294.0 1.122.5 405.8 4.40 3.258.8 6. North Canada Costa Rica United States of America America.7 44.0 3.1 619.6 298.0 53.6 615.0 2.2 6.157.1 1.9 37.196.24 66.7 747.6 546.4 14.4 86.45 11.979.244.5 27.1 85.32 378.9 1.5 625.8 2.4 461.1 60.1 14.91 77.4 397.6 960.6 - 1105.9 16. The Poland Romania Serbia Slovakia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 507.01 Australia & Oceania Australia 1.7 444.657.8 1.2 543.DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (USD.0 151.9 245.0 184.4 2.67 43.1 222.6 34.3 87.1 2.3 49.8 642.0 1.7 2.9 - - - 1.8 19.1 16.0 11.4 30.8 300.598.102.3 224.4 62.81 9.204.1 470.333.260.5 5.5 448.1 5.8 5.7 248.9 37.1 48.4 - 192.4 13.8 3.5 4.197.0 1.729. South Argentina Brazil Colombia Peru Uruguay WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 75 .0 17.5 1.3 38.435.15 39.2 26.9 6.9 2.5 269.37 138.806.3 791.552.719.9 1.2 630.14 6.501.627.7 6.754.8 11.5 549.186.331.5 46.44 -2.5 56.49 3.6 18.1 643.8 49.860.0 234.0 332.5 25.3 335.4 1.0 5.82 - 20.08 143.3 251.2 613.3 153.784.558.7 507.273.5 790.3 15.8 19.40 49.8 1.4 701.008.88 57.1 374.85 2.1 646.14 - America.1 1.2 6.6 819.1 1.005.7 11.55 4.6 600.6 197.1 359.4 713.9 5.00 111.5 22.67 64.6 1.8 3.90 105.53 60.7 607.8 25.0 271.25 -6.2 665.57 53. million.605.336.5 12.34 - 23.8 172.2 17.8 16.18 30.0 108.4 1.7 305.1 2.5 434.0 2.0 48.4 55.756.50 3.0 52.2 25.8 578.5 165.7 946.4 51.6 111.138.

current prices) (using most recent available figures) 76 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD. million.

2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 77 .DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE DAILIES: CHANGE IN ADVERTISING REVENUES (current prices).

0 8.186 51 6.7 12.29 0.563 36 1 3 2.4 124.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.929 31.20 0.2 9.0 12. North Korea.67 0.278 1.00 0.00 0.904 1.00 66.1 1.1 2.3 10.098 3.72 166.8 14.1 10.071 142 5.67 0.665 2.28 0.00 -10.6 0.78 0.704 2 10 3 7 42 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 8 2 6.1 21.7 America.00 0.57 0.00 0.00 -6.00 0.00 0.55 0.05 0.50 0.659 2 10 3 8 32 3 7 2 5 2 5 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.00 -4.2 1.00 0. titles/adult population (million) 2006* Africa Angola Botswana Cape Verde Chad Comoros Congo.2 22.213 9.9 50.14 24.9 15.7 104.67 0.00 0.0 18.00 10.00 25.680 42.8 2.00 0.00 -3.687 21.00 -4.179 396 32.37 -35.8 57.845 125 4 7 48 1 977 3 53.020 174.00 28.00 0.913 17.74 -11.130 2 46.4 166.00 0.0 4.3 4.00 -0.00 0.544 32 1 1 3 5.9 71.3 5.00 0. The Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Mauritius Mayotte Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Saint Helena Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Tanzania Uganda Western Sahara Zambia Zimbabwe 7 4 5 4 250 20 10 3 95 7 15 12 1 11 61 2 23 2 57 110 20 7 1 6 18 8 4 5 4 220 20 9 3 95 8 15 12 1 509 14 60 2 25 11 45 110 23 8 2 6 17 16 9 4 5 4 213 20 1 3 70 9 3 95 9 15 12 1 21 12 59 2 27 19 38 122 27 9 2 7 14 16 10 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 60 9 3 95 10 15 20 12 1 27 12 59 2 28 25 30 70 27 2 7 13 16 11 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 53 9 3 95 10 14 15 12 1 27 15 59 2 30 31 30 71 25 2 7 13 57.00 0.955 1.00 0.189 43 60 346 339 28.00 46 11 3 977 3 23 53.00 0.29 45.7 9.554 5.1 1.00 -20. North Anguilla Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Martinique Mexico Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Turks and Caicos Islands United States of America 2 10 3 7 22 3 7 2 3 2 5 11 2 5 6 1 8 2 6.45 0.972 181.7 18.0 58.652 677 5.00 0.00 0.301 8 28 119 6 86 15 216.472 32 1 3 2.883 90 23 7 4.00 145.00 0.933 131 2 7 46 3 3 90 23 7 135 2 7 12.635 3.9 2.732 944 109 22.649 76.707 4.1 2.106 6 7.00 0.464 32 1 3 29 2.00 16.161 12 1 3 27 2.394 0.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* (000) No.753 11.1 Asia Armenia Azerbaijan Bhutan China East Timor Hong Kong India Indonesia Israel Jordan Korea.9 0.86 -6.8 1.00 0.00 0.00 14.45 -3.823 1.00 0.616 39.00 0. South Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Falkland Islands French Guiana 27 2.00 0.00 0.313 4.4 6.931 1.1 46.699 2 10 3 7 29 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 8 2 6.322 289 7 5.14 0.45 25.394 937.titles Adult population * or latest available figure Continued on the following page 78 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .00 0.20 200.2 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 50.9 3.5 10.058 105 2 7 43 11 1 1.9 0.00 0.887 380 18.00 0.012 261 5.5 37.00 0.41 0.4 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.883 349 90 23 7 4.0 18.4 Country No.67 -27.2 1.0 142.98 2 10 3 8 32 3 7 2 5 2 5 11 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.00 0.3 6.6 1.00 16 11 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 53 9 3 95 10 14 15 12 1 509 27 15 59 2 30 31 30 71 25 9 2 7 13 6.00 0.00 0.394 11 174 54 19 3.00 7. Republic of Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Macau 41 1 1.3 10.00 -11.3 0.843 135.00 1.5 11.1 5. Democratic Republic of the Congo.00 3.00 0.3 1.692 2 10 3 8 28 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.5 0.968 3.6 421.2 1.3 29.544 32 1 1 3 17.0 1.00 0.00 0.00 14.602 2.00 -47.5 America.00 25.67 0.7 133.00 0.8 333.5 83.482 12.984 315 2.4 2.084 4 23 49.00 0.17 200.123 825 915 13. Republic of the Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.814 331 7 4.67 -25.758 115 2 7 47 1 964 3 23 52.4 3.7 0.107 6.00 0.00 29 2.6 4.280 6.182 349 90 7 4.4 250.172 7.00 0.064 14.00 0.933 135 2 7 2.00 12.00 0.11 0.43 1.00 -41.43 -7.00 0.1 3.00 0.930 758.5 55.00 42.00 25.725 19.450.

00 - 2 147 1.6 74.00 0.069 74 115 483 79 104 233 132 95 1 47 4 146 27 14 211 12 53 65 315 11 9 4 2 76 2 40 89 11 17 25.00 0.748 374 1.00 0.83 -0.0 Europe Albania Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Man.9 2.00 0.112 180 79 109 100 528 5.00 25.00 0.00 -44.2 72.00 0.00 0.44 0. Isle of Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands.00 0.12 1.585 1.5 27.5 1.14 24.90 1.6 187.00 155 1 2 3 2 3 1 4 5 3 5 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 16.continued Change (%) Country No.043 17.80 -52.00 0.6 105.0 500.585 741 2 20 25 155 988 2 22 36 147 1.25 -0.00 0.00 0.28 -1.1 1.142 38 4.6 24.11 1.0 91.2 40.00 84.089 164 74 113 467 80 101 180 132 96 1 27 4 148 27 15 12 111 64 9 4 2 120 2 20 86 15 18 17 25.00 0.5 11.56 0.5 125.70 33.559 2 21 - 3 21 - 50.4 15.3 34.284 2.00 100.559 3 37 21 36 13.00 26.1 31.00 0.00 0.135 8.326 40.717 7.00 0.1 104.1 5.4 17.12 20.218 16 324 74 8 - 9.6 3.456 13.00 0.1 14.6 0.00 5.00 0.80 620. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Malaysia Mongolia Nepal Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Turkmenistan Yemen 2 174 551 2 37 8 2 158 1.0 37.33 0.00 -46.0 0.33 0.8 16.6 21.29 8.620 13 624 121 65 37 69 10 158 3.347 101.00 0.850 79.968 2.5 46.00 0. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovenia Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 79 .350 3.00 0.4 0.68 3.507 0.92 10.00 -44.271 47.00 65.27 32.4 0.74 14.112 1.454 10.00 -0.037 243 3.923 25 75 121 480 79 106 167 127 70 1 47 4 146 25 12 201 12 53 64 10 9 4 2 2 42 84 17 14 24.2 2.564 6.00 0.563 332 63 3.00 25.5 6.2 114.5 34.751 4.67 8.64 107.0 330.9 11.7 33.00 100.076 3.00 - 50.875 30.8 4.00 0.4 6.265 11.0 53.00 1.00 0.915 6.8 10.00 0.00 61.68 21.2 23.694 6.00 0.4 3.321 70.1 Australia & Oceania Australia Christmas Island Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Pitcairn Islands Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Wallis and Futuna 95 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 9 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 116 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 9 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 135 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 5 3 9 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 155 1 2 3 2 3 1 4 5 3 9 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 5 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 0.00 0.00 0.265 15.00 0.413 1.672 3.6 3.788 4.0 1.112 180 79 109 100 528 2.0 58.33 13.0 41.354 3.99 4.66 1.0 35.70 6.56 81 100 180 132 100 1 27 4 147 28 16 211 13 111 81 315 9 9 5 2 120 2 20 40 142 18 29 17 26.776 32.0 19.17 0.4 3.686 178 78 111 212 531 81 100 100 1 27 4 147 28 16 13 111 81 9 5 2 2 20 142 18 29 26.44 0.0 - 77 123 181 75 1 50 4 146 23 14 195 12 98 61 10 4 2 78 2 46 77 11 14 20.572 27 12.2 27.678 8.311 17.00 0.79 -10.titles Adult No.8 15.33 -9.262.3 153.00 0.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .00 0.00 0.19 -18.00 0.42 63.

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page 80 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

continued (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 81 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per milion) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page 82 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per milion) (using most recent available figures) .continued WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 83 .

072 21.00 -3.31 -35.00 0.972 3.729 80 93 4 26 1.265 21.196 91 - 56 35 91.888 7.0 94.2 220.284 2.47 -3.309 5.00 -1.8 15 101.744 77.898 10 21.42 59. South Bolivia Ecuador Asia Armenia Bhutan China India Indonesia Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Turkmenistan Australia & Oceania Australia Kiribati New Zealand Europe Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Netherlands.067 5.933 194 24 856 530 80 876 285 450 197 305 380 537 5.00 0.672 3.04 -25.3 156.3 21.043 101.30 -17.33 59.0 73.6 29.280 6.0 77.08 133.0 4 68 456 4 67 433 4 65 474 4 61 4 39 0.554 1.8 94.3 5.7 274.265 15.5 12.553 75 93 5.135 8.64 -11.572 13.055 325 897 729 87 590 298 479 235 401 490 6.042 367 23 897 538 80 890 444 280 347 317 395 517 3.062 580 59 208 4 923 2.2 53.0 America.75 32.875 550 7.062 560 6.52 -5.07 474 4 39 16.14 - 0.476 400 2.190 540 7.72 722 2.850 7.179 11.33 -4.598 80 - 4 26 1.107 0.33 16.911 722 566 61 209 4 934 2.410 5.470 545 1.776 32.3 13.196 95 1.454 243 3.33 17.060 229 4 945 1.6 America.6 13. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure 84 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .2 120.8 2.142 38 4.17 25.553 75 - 33.652 758.271 47.744 91.887 13.788 4.321 70.12 20.4 232.332 70 84 3 1.40 - 56 35 96.394 937.00 -36.18 0.4 182.05 33.5 32.967 99 1.876 156 21 887 554 89 12 293 441 291 350 386 541 6.3 9.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa Chad Mozambique South Africa Tanzania Uganda 3 1.064 14.1 103.937 5.22 111.326 40.5 61.6 66.1 105.687 21.180 580 59 208 4 923 2.350 3.0 3.6 7.166 86 307 59 15 96.87 1.550 5.843 9.00 -2.186 216.2 560.751 4.2 138.5 172.9 370.44 0.9 25.00 -2.055 325 23 897 729 87 12 890 285 590 298 479 235 401 490 6.28 -0.262.8 95.625 -92.43 38.311 17.067 69.7 29.72 2.888 6.620 65 3.563 3.400 548 91 595 361 395 321 381 392 597 6. North Costa Rica United States of America 168 21.37 -7.302 307 2.1 - - 19 - - 53 - - 19 53 5.309 400 95 - 133.081 892 2.005 101 306 59 15 98.280 31.071 3.21 -39.608 300 120 524 1.218 28.59 7.3 123.6 5.53 7.92 -9.03 -4.85 0.937 5.417 12 20.86 -2.617 400 69 450 2.00 35.442 341 4 947 1.302 - 15 102.41 -99.3 49.617 400 69 402 2.70 12 20.968 374 1.707 2.1 2.875 108.04 - -5.90 1.564 6.49 -4.65 0.625 3.3 213.563 336 4 937 1.1 84.40 49.678 8.50 8.82 -6.7 249.6 6.913 204 23 1.00 -42.00 2.740 57.662 59.00 4.2 21.88 6.48 0.413 1.200 20.076 3.25 - 4 26 1.354 3.020 174.265 75 90 4 1.3 57.93 33.617 400 450 2.

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 85 .

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) 86 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

0 20.0 24.84 -6.0 88.2 40.0 30.00 92.0 12.3 46.0 32.0 39.0 28.6 - 0.0 20.0 36.0 21.0 81.2 87.50 -18.2 38.0 51.0 28.0 30.00 7.7 41.0 50. North Costa Rica - - - 0.2 46.0 23.0 - 28.0 35.4 3.0 292.8 12.33 7.0 15.0 328.0 14.0 37.0 334.0 18.0 - 28.04 8.0 40.4 - 83.3 292.6 38.0 81.0 - -17.0 30.00 - 1.5 319.0 20.0 115.33 0.00 - 5.1 1.0 - - - - 0.0 44.24 - America.4 44.0 12.0 1.0 1.0 -40.42 7.41 76.6 0.0 3.0 12.0 338.81 1.0 18. South Bolivia - - 1.19 1.0 46.84 0.0 19.0 5.0 173.2 20.0 22.43 -0.0 99.0 1.82 - Asia East Timor Indonesia Lebanon Mongolia Singapore Sri Lanka Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Macedonia Moldova Norway Poland Portugal Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 87 .6 1.0 68.0 - 83.57 27.06 0.0 17.9 46.5 37.1 54.9 54.0 - 16.0 38.0 3.15 21.0 13.4 62.00 -13.00 -0.0 - 292.0 16.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 34.9 19.7 17.0 3.22 14.0 87.00 -40.9 51.0 4.4 - 341.0 37.0 10.0 3.00 America.6 - - 0.0 3.0 36.0 5.67 - 0.0 22.0 5.0 46.0 29.0 30.00 13.

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) (using most recent available figures) 88 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 89 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: CHANGE IN ANNUAL COPY SALES (number of copies).

9 6.3 0.1 12.84 -10. tugrik) Australia & Oceania New Zealand (New Zealand.4 13.47 42.6 16.0 113.88 -23.1 11.4 - -0.0 688.9 14. euro) Iceland (Iceland.5 124.5 303.7 22.3 29.1 8.8 - 123.3 319.4 11.7 64.1 213.0 201. euro) Latvia (Latvia.5 7.21 5.90 18.3 55. pound) PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (USD. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.0 0.8 94. millions.95 -22.2 131.0 7.9 162.2 228.8 97.0 - - - - 300.003.3 271.3 161.4 - - - - Asia Armenia Mongolia 0.0 226.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (national currencies.0 23.8 6.3 8.24 -4.8 252.1 16.91 - Australia & Oceania New Zealand Europe Croatia Czech Republic Estonia Finland Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Netherlands.8 0.4 - 7. shilling) 842.4 21.3 1.89 7.0 51.4 9.1 218.0 26.0 3.0 20.0 1.0 150.1 10. koruna) Estonia (Estonia.9 15.0 194.058.3 - 215.0 193.0 23.0 139.0 279. dram) Mongolia (Mongolia.6 28.0 86.0 129. dollar) Europe Croatia (Croatia.6 29.6 16.80 - 5.237.8 48.80 6.5 1. kuna) Czech Republic (Czech Republic.5 2.0 153.3 - - - - - 6.0 299. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.1 9.0 55.89 - Asia Armenia (Armenia.1 14.0 84. lat) Netherlands.0 149. krona) Ireland (Ireland.3 11.6 337.1 221.0 - - - - - 11.0 120.0 112.5 13.0 - 1.4 24.6 11.7 402.2 238. euro) Portugal (Portugal.0 49.7 132.5 8.0 115. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 80.9 68.0 299.6 82.6 15.0 8.0 52.9 68.9 8.0 1. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.0 - 1.24 1. kroon) Finland (Finland.47 5. The (Netherlands.0 103.5 - 181. euro) Sweden (Sweden.24 -4.5 2. euro) Germany (Germany.0 8.374. euro) Greece (Greece.55 219.3 131.6 29.19 - 11. The Portugal Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 90 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . rand) Tanzania (Tanzania.5 122.0 55.7 6.0 78.4 197.4 - 53.0 17.64 -23. million.7 196.125.3 8.171.2 16.

current prices) (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: CHANGE IN SALES REVENUES (current prices). 2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 91 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: SALES REVENUES (in USD. million.

78 18.139.0 -18.0 17.0 468.8 27.2 1.0 5.0 85.0 1.00 - PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD.0 7. euro) Netherlands.0 2. euro) Sweden (Sweden. dram) India (India. euro) Latvia (Latvia.29 96. euro) Germany (Germany. new shekel) Lebanon (Lebanon.3 8. rand) 823.0 4.5 644.0 2.65 68.5 7.18 Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.0 450.96 7.0 - - - America.00 0. litas) Luxembourg (Luxembourg. lev) Estonia (Estonia.73 - 27.0 2. lat) Lithuania (Lithuania.0 550.0 22.000. kroon) Finland (Finland. dollar) 222.0 - 55.236.327.000.0 286.0 268.0 40.8 7.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies.29 127.5 550.5 3.693. million.0 5.0 310.0 49.0 55. pound) 14.90 3. millions.17 16.14 22.75 26.5 216.268.0 377.900.5 134.87 Europe Bulgaria (Bulgaria.2 2.0 7.0 240. current prices) (using most recent available figures) 92 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . euro) Greece (Greece. rupee) Indonesia (Indonesia.1 598.0 56.0 321. rupiah) Israel (Israel. South Argentina (Argentina.4 131.8 616.0 450.27 257.0 2.30 0.0 250.1 26.3 238. pound) 54.0 393.1 580. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.0 337.58 14.4 8. euro) Iceland (Iceland.0 500.0 52.264.00 Asia Armenia (Armenia.0 49.9 10.5 3.0 24.0 40.0 975.0 490.0 31.0 27.00 18.5 30.388.0 11.0 13.6 144.0 177.0 105.0 236.0 2. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.82 11.2 50.8 - - 1.57 -0.0 332. krona) Ireland (Ireland.0 1.0 225.2 6.0 69.0 144.4 5.4 6.4 7.242.1 200. euro) France (France.0 51. The (Netherlands.3 58. peso) 0.047.8 252.18 -18.5 115.3 223. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.98 119.0 56.0 236.37 -14.0 2.

The Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 7.57 -0.0 1.3 283.7 185.0 4.3 70.1 6.1 9.1 25.8 10.170. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 78.7 37.7 10.1 29.795.0 - - - America.3 252.4 3.1 7.44 Australia & Oceania Australia 120.3 11.5 57.0 2.3 980.6 8.8 33.4 - 104.0 6.3 865.4 67. 2006/05 (%) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 93 .8 0.0 33.9 22.4 5.88 Asia Armenia India Indonesia Israel Lebanon 0.29 98.3 208.56 151.1 10.8 29.803.8 72.3 16.5 316.0 33.4 0.4 48.7 236.14 3.0 5.12 22.8 12.39 - PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: CHANGE IN ADVERTISING REVENUES (current prices).3 52.0 66.64 56.0 13.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD. South Argentina 0.91 14.6 161. million.8 491.2 252.3 61.0 296.4 11.9 29.1 42.71 55.3 18.8 10.5 7.94 10.30 0.2 128.3 - - 0.8 176.0 0.3 2.14 -19.3 6.45 - 29.29 123.5 13.0 0.6 1.0 14.35 189.1 218.9 46.0 8.3 2.9 2.5 36.3 -17.4 0.0 5.7 2.5 2.9 8.120.3 10.51 68.69 376.19 Europe Bulgaria Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands.4 50.1 9.96 7.1 0.9 7.800.0 257.00 -4.8 585.5 11.5 134.6 32.00 18.5 9.82 13.3 3.

98 292 1 99 16.3 1.58 1.63 0.62 0.3 12.5 20.350 33 11 40 8 5 6 2 1 518 2 3 430 60 54 12 652 6.00 -6. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Africa South Africa - - 185 120 128 - 6.33 - 2 1 3.00 18.00 0.3 15.00 -1.32 -75.3 19.0 30.NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.4 60.6 Australia & Oceania Australia Marshall Islands New Zealand Europe Austria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Germany Hungary Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Man.312 20 10 4 10 1 555 2 13 40 550 90 75 100 300 7 1 1.915 3. South Bolivia Chile Ecuador 4 - 5 - 11 1 - - 2 2 - - 11 2 2 5.564 40.751 4.00 3.90 10.4 34.8 26.037 243 3.4 5.00 2.00 -76.00 -60.9 7.288 33 12 7 5 8 2 1 518 1 8 269 54 41 521 111 75 100 285 2 1 1.687 4.8 0.00 0.0 America.262.563 63 13.887 0.142 38 70.16 0.788 10.6 0.81 -3.213 9.29 -14.350 11 40 8 6 1 2 3 430 60 54 12 652 80. North Costa Rica Mexico 1 - - 3 - 2 - - -33.00 2 2.218 17.9 38.00 -66. Isle of Netherlands.2 0.00 0.0 1.67 0.8 75 75 278 8 1 1.678 8.1 0.33 -4.271 47.37 0.3 13.09 135 75 100 266 2 1 1.306 11 40 7 7 1 5 9 298 56 43 645 135 100 266 2 1 1.1 3.4 11.00 33. The Poland Portugal Russia Slovenia Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom * or latest available figure 94 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .748 374 1.1 1.67 128 31.55 21.875 19.0 America.292 33 13 7 7 1 528 2 10 107 42 574 85 75 100 280 3 1 1.6 27.14 25.titles Adult No.00 14.717 7.29 0.186 28.00 -10.3 45.071 1.843 12.350 32.30 7.135 8.2 Asia Lebanon 3 4 4 2 2 -33.67 44.968 2.3 4.413 1.7 243 1 111 257 1 113 290 1 107 303 1 101 292 1 99 20.33 0.9 0.1 0.301 0.00 0.00 100.92 35.112 1.00 0.00 -40.311 79.90 1.8 16.620 37 3.

NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 95 .

NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) 96 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

687 132.81 56.242 110 7.562 3.9 1342.600 52 250 402 257 1.271 47.362 8.0 76. North United States of America 28.00 19.5 214.34 38.319 3.875 32.662 2.9 America.500 138 86.03 -4.3 16.2 445.0 492.898 121 6.6 Europe Croatia Denmark Estonia Germany Iceland Ireland Latvia Luxembourg Netherlands.484 24.006 1.678 4.05 0.591 23.172 2.000 52 423 294 17.000 88 85.2 America.528 600 1.9 2048.900 51 263 332 19.135 8.39 -0.717 7.788 243 3.90 1.83 27.49 -33.071 2.674 100 1.57 -3.908 4.19 389.730 9.212 31.562 22.800 61 271 296 18.843 9.406 1.62 268.00 2.972 124.66 7.048 216. South Bolivia Ecuador Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 97 .052 4.2 6.44 -2.413 1.07 -60.657 106 1.72 121 9.4 252.739 2.NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa South Africa 3.51 -67.908 4.920 298 3.72 -0.6 209.706 600 1.916 25.635 15.65 5.172 2.591 23.9 349.400 52 250 412 172 17.51 0.500 4.212 20.2 114.400 250 412 172 519 3.42 -6.350 32.430 4.0 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 2.631 -0.218 912.262.7 4 - 6 - 13 - - 54 - - 13 54 5.992 1.039 42 86.01 4.603 24.93 0.8 1220.650 10.039 42 86.65 -48.400 37 85.15 15.61 13.311 1.256 8.691 24.564 40.419 2.917 28.125 27.920 519 3.706 600 1.013 28.048 -6.484 3.968 374 13.9 817.620 3.951 29.631 16.3 459.142 70.378 129 88.3 36. The Poland Portugal Slovenia Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 7.

NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) 98 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 99 .

65 Europe Estonia (Estonia.1 1.5 16.11 Europe Estonia Finland Iceland Latvia Luxembourg 0. euro) Iceland (Iceland. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 37. millions. kroon) Finland (Finland. dollar) 591.0 0.0 679. million.0 17.2 4.0 4.2 419.1 17.3 4.5 64.47 - 100 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .9 - - - Australia & Oceania Australia 321.6 68.5 5. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa (South Africa.7 85.5 129.0 697.4 63.0 173.4 5.21 -33. rand) 395.16 1.0 486.8 52. krona) Latvia (Latvia.5 2.5 509.1 6.0 56.0 61.1 63.40 1.2 102.0 141.3 524.0 66.0 - 69. lat) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.47 - FREE NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (USD.0 646.6 518.3 23.0 - 86. euro) 13.0 829.2 68.0 693.85 1.26 -12.5 6.6 1.NON-DAILIES FREE NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies.4 81.0 662.8 1.94 2.3 0.0 - - - Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.1 4.

00 -11.8 57.107 6.161 12 1 3 32 2.00 0.00 0.1 46.5 37.74 7.7 104.00 0.482 12.0 4.00 9.00 0.00 0.45 -3.00 7.00 0.00 0.67 0.904 1.67 0.00 0.123 825 915 13.602 2.278 1.00 0.4 18.00 -47.8 14.00 0.2 1.00 0. North Anguilla Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Martinique Mexico Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Turks and Caicos Islands United States of America 2 10 3 7 22 3 7 2 3 2 5 12 2 5 6 1 8 2 6.8 333.5 10.00 0.00 0.635 3.86 -6.3 1.1 3.00 -4.4 2.00 30.616 39.00 -3.00 0.00 0.00 0.4 124.68 0.394 937.0 142.382 349 90 23 7 4.91 25.5 83.00 0.9 8.3 29.7 58.5 11.00 25.1 1.00 14.00 0.9 50.8 1.67 0.67 -27.098 3.0 1.929 31.9 3.50 0.00 0.4 3.699 2 10 3 7 29 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 8 2 6.00 0.394 11 174 54 19 3.4 2.7 133.00 0.8 0.382 90 23 7 135 4 7 - 12.67 -25.0 18.00 0.56 0.55 0.9 0.00 10.0 12.186 51 6.00 0.554 5.3 10.862 349 90 7 4.05 0. South Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Falkland Islands French Guiana 31 2.7 America.391 90 23 7 4.680 42.1 6.189 43 60 346 339 28.00 - -4.823 1.7 9.00 0.179 396 32.00 0. The Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Mauritius Mayotte Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Saint Helena Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Tanzania Uganda Western Sahara Zambia Zimbabwe 7 4 5 4 250 20 10 3 95 7 15 12 1 11 61 2 23 2 57 110 20 7 1 6 18 8 4 5 4 220 20 9 3 95 8 15 12 1 509 14 60 2 25 11 45 110 23 8 2 6 17 16 9 4 5 4 213 20 1 3 70 9 3 95 9 15 12 1 21 12 59 2 27 19 38 307 27 9 2 7 14 16 10 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 60 9 3 95 10 15 20 12 1 27 12 59 2 28 25 30 190 27 2 7 13 16 11 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 53 9 3 95 10 14 15 12 1 27 15 59 2 30 31 30 199 25 2 7 13 57.8 18.00 0.00 0.00 0.4 0.98 2 10 3 8 34 3 7 2 5 2 5 12 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.00 0.00 100.00 25.00 40 2.058 105 5 7 2 43 11 1 1.14 24.4 6.4 2.3 4.284 18.00 0. Republic of the Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia.3 1.5 55.1 Asia Armenia Azerbaijan Bhutan China East Timor Hong Kong India Indonesia Israel Jordan Korea.843 135.00 4.3 6.00 18.titles Adult No.28 0.2 - * or latest available figure Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 101 .012 261 5.687 21. Democratic Republic of the Congo.968 3.106 6 7.00 -41.00 25.00 12.563 36 1 3 2.20 200.887 380 13.00 0.930 758.732 944 109 22.20 0.2 22.3 0.5 1.913 17.17 200.00 - 46 11 3 977 3 23 6.00 -6.084 4 23 331 7 4.313 4. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Africa Angola Botswana Cape Verde Chad Comoros Congo.2 0.14 0.00 0.00 28.725 19.9 0.00 0.7 0.6 4.933 135 4 7 2 2.0 8.00 0.00 0.704 2 10 3 7 42 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 8 2 6.464 32 1 3 40 2.3 5.544 34 3 1 3 5.57 -20.064 14.00 0.00 42.6 421.00 16 11 4 5 5 147 20 1 3 53 9 3 95 10 14 15 12 1 509 27 15 59 2 30 31 30 199 25 9 2 7 13 6.00 0.972 181.172 7.544 34 3 1 3 17.3 21.00 0.649 76.00 50.00 0.8 2.38 0.280 6.1 1.2 9.00 0.78 0.1 10.00 -10.9 2.00 0.931 1.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.00 0.4 250.933 131 4 7 - 46 3 3 6.301 8 28 119 6 86 15 216.29 54.43 1.1 5.692 2 10 3 8 31 3 7 2 4 2 5 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.00 0.665 2.758 115 6 7 2 47 1 964 3 23 3.984 315 2.55 0.3 10.394 0.00 0.00 0.6 1.00 16.472 33 1 3 2.9 15.652 677 5. Republic of Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Macau Malaysia 41 1 1.7 12.33 0.00 0.00 -0.72 183.37 80.071 142 6.4 166.41 0.74 -5.00 145.00 3.955 1.00 0.00 0.707 4.00 0.130 2 289 7 5.659 2 10 3 8 34 3 7 2 5 2 5 2 4 6 1 9 2 6.2 1.00 0.845 125 8 7 - 48 1 977 3 5.450. North Korea.753 11.020 174.00 -20.5 America.00 0.00 66.213 9.

180 2.5 6.3 22.69 33.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .12 0.5 25.00 0.717 7.1 Australia & Oceania Australia Christmas Island Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Pitcairn Islands Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Wallis and Futuna 338 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 120 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 373 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 122 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 425 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 5 3 116 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 458 1 2 3 2 3 2 4 5 3 110 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 292 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 104 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 -13.2 54.00 0.915 6.620 13 624 121 65 37 69 10 158 3.00 0.265 11.00 0.continued Change (%) Country No.317 12 234 25 53 71 17 9 4 3 2 570 84 19 24 24.00 0.3 98.542 240 133 109 112 1.454 10.0 19.85 18.90 1.564 6.45 0.585 1.15 2.00 0.5 125.1 7.00 25.00 0.00 0.030 79 196 167 202 170 301 54 5 146 1.42 53.180 5.67 4.35 0.9 2.8 46.5 46.00 0. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* Mongolia Nepal Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Turkmenistan Yemen 174 551 2 37 8 158 1.09 54.8 37.335 14 215 22 98 65 20 4 3 78 2 601 77 13 27 20.572 27 12.142 38 4.585 741 2 20 25 155 988 2 22 36 147 1.4 131.057 79 189 233 207 195 281 50 5 146 1.80 -47.1 1.6 0.135 8.00 0.33 -4.2 2.076 3.751 4.00 0.043 17.4 15.00 0.85 2.00 0.456 13.315 14 244 24 53 72 320 19 11 4 3 76 2 558 89 12 25 25.968 2.64 0.8 16.788 4.00 0.00 65.9 60.354 3.00 -0.6 74.00 0.4 6.25 25.92 -25.311 17.9 1.850 79.68 3.923 25 115 121 1.04 -6.6 Europe Albania Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Man.350 3.563 332 63 3.61 0.00 25.326 40.6 153.112 1.262.0 27.694 6.38 6.08 36.00 100.672 3.6 41.8 17.678 8.0 19.6 33.00 0.titles Adult No.776 32.271 47.4 3.00 292 1 2 3 2 3 2 4 5 3 104 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 16.347 101. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovenia Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom * or latest available figure 102 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .0 500.25 10.56 1.8 24.00 -36.6 3.6 17.0 - 77 198 181 150 279 58 5 146 1.00 -13.6 34.0 335.3 187.65 -9.00 0.56 9.92 -1.92 14.00 - 50.1 34.00 0.265 15.0 32.507 72.24 0.00 0.22 14.00 0.86 860.68 3.00 84.52 26.176 81 235 200 267 29 5 147 1.00 - 147 1.00 0.52 2.748 374 1.4 40.218 16 324 74 8 - 17.0 91.00 15.30 -50.176 116 115 1.34 81 235 180 207 200 267 29 5 147 1.333 15 23 151 71 16 4 3 120 2 20 86 20 27 17 25.559 3 37 21 36 2.4 0.8 4.378 16 244 24 151 89 320 15 11 5 3 120 2 20 558 142 20 32 17 26.00 0.542 240 133 109 112 1.1 58. Isle of Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands.00 100.00 18.037 243 3.33 0.00 0.2 40.378 16 24 151 89 15 5 3 2 20 142 20 32 26.00 0.321 70.00 0.35 -6.19 18.00 0.00 -5.6 24.559 2 21 - 3 21 - 50.0 56.00 0.0 15.00 0.358 218 115 113 988 80 212 180 207 196 286 29 5 148 1.17 0.875 30.5 3.00 0.29 9.3 45.00 0.984 234 121 111 212 1.2 116.413 1.00 0.1 47.5 139.

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 103 .

continued (using most recent available figures) 104 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES .

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) Continued on the following page WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 105 .

continued 106 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: NUMBER OF TITLES / ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) .

280 30.3 2061.788 4.98 -6.309 490 11.550 5.90 1.7 29.9 61.4 503.265 15.751 4.186 216.599 3.33 17.400 811 423 595 20.85 0.205 450 495 3.05 33.213 80 93 4 26 4.6 73.765 75 93 5.00 23.043 101.875 317 600 1.563 3.476 400 2.454 243 3.067 5.33 59.00 4.96 15.650 80 - 4 26 5.147 1.69 -38.2 349.04 - -5.7 249.309 5.098 250 4 923 88.071 5.6 6.744 91.92 -7.744 77.985 550 15.0 308.37 91.00 0. South Bolivia Ecuador Asia Armenia Bhutan China India Indonesia Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Turkmenistan Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 107 .183 560 12.067 69.72 722 2.8 692.190 540 14.076 3.887 13.387 2.166 86 307 59 15 96.142 38 4.608 300 120 524 1.9 25.354 3.196 95 1.979 892 2.2 138.33 201.2 220.185 235 600 2.185 235 600 2.670 0.308 597 31.321 70.0 Australia & Oceania Australia Kiribati New Zealand 4 2.33 19.394 937.8 94.695 75 90 4 6.5 579.57 -5.147 940 337 890 444 1.07 40.020 174.6 1249.620 65 3.183 580 9.450 7.5 286.972 3.933 194 76 856 953 374 876 18.88 -48.342 2.91 8.968 374 1.564 6.46 -4.18 0.875 4 2.3 77.063 474 4 937 88.712 545 1.740 57.554 1.309 400 95 - 133.7 156.213 49.6 America.38 -23.135 8.73 0.271 47.13 2.2 593.998 517 3.023 50.77 49.3 21.3 615.5 7.676 156 82 887 825 385 12 18.528 29.727 474 4 2.064 14.617 400 450 2.7 Europe Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Netherlands.273 722 566 8.5 32.141 259 12 890 18.098 250 4 923 88.8 15 101.8 2.93 -11.63 0.967 441 391 2.6 351.22 251.205 590 817 4.455 325 75 1.850 1.00 -1.31 7.875 108.642 367 75 1.5 829.60 59.302 - 15 102.311 17.77 3.455 325 1.410 5.31 -18.302 307 2.53 1.718 10.262.413 1.815 10 49.765 75 - 33.670 16.6 218.5 11.2 120.077 541 30.572 13.687 21.707 2.060 317 4 945 86.00 15.172 4 2.53 -2.00 -25.461 246 4 934 87.406 1.107 0.4 305.44 0.450 6.1 America.2 1363.218 912.100.14 - 0.326 40.00 -2.864 537 30.87 0.542 12 47.179 11.813 204 74 1.652 758.40 - 56 35 96.776 32.61 -46.5 66.141 259 590 817 4.6 5.662 59.04 -17.00 -1.5 13.717 7.672 3.3 181.41 -38.617 400 69 450 2.25 - 4 26 5.147 1.265 21.00 -0.08 133.843 9.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa Chad Mozambique South Africa Tanzania Uganda 3 4.15 32.47 7.806 433 4 2. The Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom 2.7 4 - 6 - 32 - - 107 - - 32 107 5.280 31.9 3.33 -4.9 105.81 0.528 29.284 2.196 91 - 56 35 91.3 213.70 20.00 -3.910 580 9.561 8.00 21.696 15.678 8.309 490 11.1 84.1 103.617 400 69 402 2.172 4 2.832 70 84 3 5.005 101 306 59 15 98.673 -92.8 219.86 -4.820 470 4 947 90.3 25.018 395 427 1.967 99 1.84 0.77 12 47.350 3. North Costa Rica United States of America 168 50.673 3.

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) 108 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: AVERAGE CIRCULATION/ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 109 .

29 133.0 2.5 550.0 27.0 9.00 - Africa South Africa (South Africa.218.0 13. euro) Netherlands.0 2.0 2.8 27. krona) Ireland (Ireland.7 30.0 22.10 5.0 225.6 3.7 6.7 144.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom. rupiah) Israel (Israel.0 450.33 257.8 252.264.693. new shekel) Lebanon (Lebanon.0 550.0 468.96 10.0 56.268. euro) Iceland (Iceland.900. rand) 110 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .0 490.0 105.0 177.42 -0.0 - - - America.8 616. euro) Greece (Greece.5 357.0 24.00 22. dram) India (India. euro) Latvia (Latvia.000. euro) France (France.4 147. rupee) Indonesia (Indonesia.30 0.0 11.4 9.00 Asia Armenia (Armenia.92 20.0 236.00 0.2 1.98 119.0 2.0 7.00 26.17 4.1 598.0 500.00 18.0 1. lat) Lithuania (Lithuania.3 127.047.3 223.0 105. millions.8 7.1 7.0 161.074.1 373. euro) Sweden (Sweden.18 Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.0 450.5 128.0 31.65 0.0 -18.0 932. peso) 0.58 14.0 1.0 5.71 Europe Bulgaria (Bulgaria.95 -14. pound) 54. euro) Germany (Germany. pound) 14.000.0 7.242.0 49. The (Netherlands. krona) Ukraine (Ukraine.0 112.0 9.016.0 52.801.0 250. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1.5 9. dollar) 813.9 10.1 580.461.0 - 55.29 96. lev) Estonia (Estonia.0 40.0 121.18 -18.0 240.90 2.73 - 27.0 2.0 310.014.3 8. litas) Luxembourg (Luxembourg.0 393.7 8.0 40. kroon) Finland (Finland.5 644.0 236.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 85.388.2 2.8 - - 1.1 26.5 134.4 7. South Argentina (Argentina.5 6.0 268.0 17.156.2 50.0 1.0 332.0 124.0 32.0 2.3 238.236.

77 63.3 1.11 Europe Bulgaria Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands.96 -97.0 14.0 5.3 16.4 50.0 66.4 11.3 6.6 7.0 0.12 22.0 0.7 8.120.NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (USD.45 - 29.4 0.1 9.0 33.1 10.1 25.3 18.0 4.9 29.30 0.1 1.3 85.2 68. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 37.8 10.23 376.00 18.91 14.8 86.795.1 5.56 -93.7 236.4 10.3 10.8 12.8 - 52.5 252.2 102.39 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 111 .8 52.29 -12.5 7.71 1.9 22.7 1.7 37.8 33.3 2.0 2.8 252.29 98.9 - - - America.2 185.0 1.0 0.3 524.4 3.9 8.40 68.88 Asia Armenia India Indonesia Israel Lebanon 0.3 865. The Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 7.5 64.0 8.3 2.0 - 48.6 1.3 980.8 491.5 5.280.9 7.47 -0.8 29.5 36.00 -4.4 0.1 5.0 518.26 13.170.0 33.800.1 29.5 11.3 161.0 296.44 Australia & Oceania Australia 321.4 81.1 42.5 13.3 2.5 316.4 - 104.3 4.8 585.7 10. South Argentina 0.16 1.6 32. million.35 189.3 - - 0.5 2.1 63.803.5 9.1 - 61.14 1.3 - -19.1 218.5 129.

2005/04 (%) 112 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .NON-DAILIES PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: ADVERTISING REVENUES (in USD. million. current prices) (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR & FREE NON-DAILIES: CHANGES IN ADVERTISING REVENUES (current prices).

03 0.326 47.350 17.265 15.563 332 13.9 1.25 -14.67 16.1 0. South Chile 1 2 2 3 3 200.18 50.00 0. The Romania Slovenia Switzerland United Kingdom 1 32 7 4 3 6 6 3 5 21 157 5 1 32 17 5 3 10 6 4 4 22 186 5 3 32 7 5 3 10 6 2 4 2 4 22 183 4 33 6 4 6 10 3 6 2 4 2 4 23 3 34 6 4 3 10 7 2 5 2 5 21 200.672 3.2 0.3 3.0 0.2 America.00 3 12.972 1.7 0.00 25.850 1.0 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 11 2 10 2 10 2 11 3 13 3 18.18 0.887 13.8 0.67 0.978 3.71 8.titles Adult No.66 -3.00 0.788 4.00 25.00 0.262.67 66.00 -8.687 0.4 0.9 21.322 70.1 0.020 2.3 0.00 0.8 0.4 1 913 917 915 28 914 27 1 907 -0.186 28.9 0.4 1.875 27.00 -50.301 216.751 49.0 4.00 - 0.00 - 7 5 33 7 15 758.00 66.29 0.57 -0.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.1 1.620 3.4 Africa South Africa America.5 2.00 0.00 13 3 16.1 1.00 6.218 0.284 3.3 0.1 0.213 0.00 16.7 2. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 7 8 7 12 13 85.2 Asia India Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka 7 14 7 15 32 7 - 34 7 - 33 7 - 5 7 - 0.67 0.77 27 1 1 907 26.3 1.037 3.354 0.454 10.33 13 31.678 8.9 Europe Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Macedonia Malta Netherlands.00 -25. North Canada Costa Rica Mexico United States of America * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 113 .70 183 5 3 34 6 4 3 10 3 7 2 5 2 5 21 6.0 1.00 0.00 3.717 6.00 18.

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES/ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) 114 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

3 35 2.753 2.450 479 4.454 10.354 12.77 -33.1 240.782 22.484 389 25.233 4.687 56.33 1.369 838 14.81 43.262.830 236 430 1.270 2.23 -14.282 3.55 0.175 -1.908 58.27 -1.957 1.54 -2.9 19.308 3.751 49. The Romania Slovenia Switzerland United Kingdom Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 115 .875 350.238 30 758 297 213 813 14.9 311 314 320 406 3.029 - 1.395 1.261 690 288 814 14.1 - - - - 16 - - 16 12.672 8.90 1.10 - 35 3.60 490.048 - 3.200 1.5 46.4 270.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa South Africa 1.830 236 430 1.94 1.16 -14.79 2.08 -4.485 40 365 848 968 15.067 - 3.3 20.192 1.00 6.484 389 16.220 30 725 361 213 869 12.9 308 4.708 1.29 -9.8 54.00 17.948 57.780 2.9 40.948 14.959 1.265 15.8 373.782 31.030 - -3.788 4.850 1.1 53. North Canada United States of America 2.2 54.987 55.98 4.0 42.5 86.326 47.282 3.175 26.449 1.60 -0.495 2.1 137.563 13.7 245.978 216.89 -9.16 2.284 3.33 -0.322 70.350 17.98 3.972 107.341 354 4.374 2.062 720 2.868 227 440 1.906 53.037 3.71 -3.030 720 2.341 531 4.19 3.315 47 388 1.254 354 4.465 1.948 6. South Chile Asia Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Macedonia Netherlands.200 1.87 -10.165 24 420 1.887 13.96 -2.9 315.467 2.220 725 361 213 869 12.944 58.218 209.01 - 0.213 1.717 6.470 1.620 3.45 -4.2 America.264 4.2 124.5 America.6 120.238 4.831 318 4.35 21.906 53.

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION/ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) 116 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

63 2.33 -5.00 25.6 - 295 - 77 - 81 - - 5.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) Countries Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 1.09 -10.26 7.36 535.22 44.8 - - Asia India Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka 8.19 - America.8 20 72 44 763 19 219 1.00 Europe Czech Republic France Greece Hungary Ireland Netherlands.4 21 66 34 42 746 27 218 10 33 38 42 719 19 223 12.29 27. South Chile - - - - 0.00 -33.14 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 117 .6 1 125 56 37 - - - - - - Australia & Oceania New Zealand 16 16 17 16 20 25.00 22. North Mexico 138 - - - - - - America.00 - -29.7 22 63.67 1. The Switzerland United Kingdom 15 220 2 18 44 50 759 17 220 1.4 36 45 - 26.

2006/05 (%) 118 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: CHANGE IN ANNUAL COPY SALES (number of copies).

196 4.196 4.34 126.09 944.61 - -27.1 101 683. koruna) Greece (Greece.3 221 1.5 225 40 206 713.77 9.993 118 - 27.8 39.03 113.20 5. current prices) Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa Tanzania 0.369.250 4.25 1. dollar) New Zealand (New Zealand.3 - -24. dollar) 4.3 29.01 - -31.157 - - - - Asia Lebanon (Lebanon.157 - - - - 0. North United States of America (United States of America.74 28.48 6.7 - - - - - - - 183.45 147. North United States of America 4.100 - - - - - - - 282 21.41 -1.9 32.32 1. pound) 1. forint) Ireland (Ireland.74 49.46 225 149.297. euro) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.17 - Africa Tanzania (Tanzania. dollar) Europe Czech Republic (Czech Republic. millions.3 53.12 12.1 21.5 - 84.79 174 56.38 19.17 - Asia Lebanon Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Czech Republic Greece Hungary Ireland United Kingdom WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 119 .38 254.16 63.48 1.64 9. shilling) Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.32 - - - - - - America.21 65.8 174 56.4 69 632.120.4 753.01 71. million. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 320 - - - - - - America.49 8. pound) PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: SALES REVENUES (USD.250 4.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: SALES REVENUES (national currencies. euro) Hungary (Hungary.64 13.8 - -17.7 323 180 119.58 -1.

48 577.49 8.8 639 387 69 94. millions.26 115. South Argentina 120 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .43 4.96 - 259.68 331.27 61.09 7.69 187.59 214.61 - 75.64 7.85 2.05 - America.15 4. euro) Hungary (Hungary.84 3.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: ADVERTISING REVENUES (national currencies. pound) PAID-FOR SUNDAYS: ADVERTISING REVENUES (USD.94 278.85 225.3 - 286 - - - - Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.7 - 135.45 58.2 779 168 387 122.04 - -3.5 8.00 - 1.84 Asia Israel Malaysia Sri Lanka 27. forint) Ireland (Ireland.76 634.06 269.62 - 240.32 7.14 22.78 Asia Israel (Israel.05 - Europe Czech Republic (Czech Republic.54 -5. dollar) 301 331 379 434 411 36.19 58.54 160 5.87 17.44 287. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 America.30 74 122.89 - 75. current prices) Country Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 - - - 2. rupee) 130.35 29.43 10.700 215.09 10.02 88.47 188. koruna) Greece (Greece.46 - - - - Australia & Oceania Australia 163. dollar) - - 329 379 435 - 14.3 309. South Australia (Australia.61 2.44 105.90 -6. euro) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.99 17.15 166.6 704 134 239 - 287.37 245 663.77 148. new shekel) Malaysia (Malaysia.7 120 901 233 401 181 128 1.73 Europe Czech Republic Greece Hungary Ireland United Kingdom 2.073 196 365 174 150 1.19 50.1 221. ringgit) Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka.65 729. million.45 62.

788 47.SUNDAYS FREE SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country Europe Belgium Germany United Kingdom No. titles 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* - - 1 190 - 1 201 9 2 239 8 - 100.500 432 8.77 535 19.91 -11.715 70.875 0.715 70. titles Adult population * or latest available figure FREE SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country Europe Belgium Germany United Kingdom 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* (000) No.63 10.4 275.788 47.49 2.000 259 512 19.500 432 - 4.4 0.875 61.2 No.00 18. titles/adult population (copies per 000) 2006* - 479 475 18.2 3.5 9. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 8.11 2 239 8 Adult No.0 * or latest available figure WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 121 .000 390 535 19.

262.1 0.00 25.00 0.9 21.2 Asia India Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka 7 14 7 15 32 7 - 34 7 - 33 7 - 5 7 - 0.0 Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 11 2 10 2 10 2 11 3 13 3 18.00 25.875 0. North Canada Costa Rica Mexico United States of America * or latest available figure 122 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .563 332 13.33 13 31.3 3.9 1. The Romania Slovenia Switzerland United Kingdom 1 32 7 4 3 6 6 3 5 21 157 5 1 32 17 5 3 10 6 4 4 22 1 186 5 3 32 197 5 3 10 6 2 4 2 4 22 1 183 4 33 207 4 6 10 3 6 2 4 2 4 32 2 3 34 245 4 3 10 7 2 5 2 5 29 200.00 18.00 - 0.5 0.978 3.620 3.00 0.67 16.00 0.00 16.00 13 3 16.66 -3.57 -0.265 15.3 1.00 -9.350 17.3 0.67 0. South Chile 1 2 2 3 3 200.715 6.672 3. titles Adult No.0 1.67 66.354 0.18 0.00 - 7 5 33 7 15 758.751 49.717 6.1 0.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES Change (%) Country No.972 1.7 2.77 27 1 1 907 26.218 0.10 100.020 2.037 3.4 1.400.67 0.0 0.3 0.18 50.36 0.678 8.4 1 913 917 915 28 914 27 1 907 -0.213 0.00 38.788 4.9 0.2 America.850 1.00 3 12.71 8.454 10.00 -50.284 3.00 0.03 18.25 3.887 13.2 27.00 -25.1 1.7 3.9 Europe Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Macedonia Malta Netherlands.322 70.00 6.186 28.4 0.687 0.8 0.2 0.6 Africa South Africa America.301 216.00 0.00 3.5 2.326 47.38 2 183 5 3 34 245 4 3 10 3 7 2 5 2 5 29 8.8 0. titles/adult population population (million) (000) 2006* 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006* 7 8 7 12 13 85.1 1.0 4.00 66.

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: NUMBER OF TITLES/ADULT POPULATION (titles per million) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 123 .

18 490.165 24 420 1.948 57.71 -3.29 -9.454 10.067 - 3.238 22.5 America.218 209.620 3.330 236 430 1.449 1.87 -10.633 512 2.54 -2.220 725 361 213 869 13.9 40.831 318 4.49 -33.98 4.00 17.788 4.1 - - - - 16 - - 16 12.906 53. South Chile Asia Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand Europe Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Macedonia Netherlands.330 236 430 1.7 245.9 315.1 137.5 86.369 838 14.175 26.233 4.90 1.96 -2.782 31.8 329.01 - 0.944 58.284 3.350 17.484 389 25.282 23.341 354 4.780 2.60 2.715 6.238 30 758 297 213 813 14.3 20.048 - 3.341 531 4.261 690 288 814 14.708 1.220 30 725 361 213 869 13.9 19.55 0.6 120.959 1.63 535 2.308 22.5 46.495 2.875 61. North Canada United States of America 2.485 40 365 848 968 15.906 53.887 13.465 1.81 43.946 475 2.908 58.753 2.19 3.192 1.751 49.10 - 35 3.326 47.16 420.987 55.957 1.94 1.037 3.4 350.395 1.175 -1.33 1.470 1.27 -1.79 2.380 8.4 279.6 53.270 2.2 America.062 720 2.354 12.0 42.45 -4.264 4.9 311 314 320 406 3.850 1.978 216.200 1.450 479 4.282 23.563 13.02 3.322 70.9 308 4.262.SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) Change (%) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Average circulation (000) 2006* Africa South Africa 1.3 35 2.717 6.672 8.265 15.33 -0.782 22.2 124.644 535 354 4.315 47 388 1.972 107.868 227 440 1.2 54.93 4.89 -8.00 6.029 - 1.030 - -3.23 -11.08 -4.213 1.200 1. The Romania Slovenia Switzerland United Kingdom Adult Average circulation/ population adult population (000) (copies per 000) 2006* * or latest available figure 124 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .030 720 2.687 56.8 373.380 14.1 240.484 389 16.35 21.

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION (000) (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 125 .

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: AVERAGE CIRCULATION / ADULT POPULATION (copies per thousand) (using most recent available figures) 126 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

6 - 295 - 77 - 81 - - 5.19 - America.67 1. The Switzerland United Kingdom 15 220 2 18 44 50 759 17 220 1.14 - WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 127 .SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) Countries Change (%) 2006/02 2006/05 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa Tanzania 1.00 Europe Belgium Czech Republic France Greece Hungary Ireland Netherlands.7 22 63.29 27. North Mexico 138 - - - - - - America.6 1 125 56 37 - - - - - - Australia & Oceania New Zealand 16 16 17 16 20 25.00 - 3.09 -10.26 7.36 535.59 -29.22 44.4 21 66 34 42 746 25.00 -33. South Chile - - - - 0.63 2.33 -5.4 36 45 - 26.00 25.8 20 72 44 763 19 219 1.00 22.8 - - Asia India Lebanon Malaysia Singapore Sri Lanka 8.1 27 218 10 33 38 42 719 26 19 223 12.

SUNDAYS PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: ANNUAL COPY SALES (millions of copies) (using most recent available figures) PAID-FOR & FREE SUNDAYS: CHANGES IN ANNUAL COPY SALES (number of copies) 2006/05 (%) 128 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

rupee) Turkey (Turkish new lira) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 129 .230 1. real) Ecuador (United States of America. peso) Indonesia (Indonesia.200 5.150 544 635 544 America. dollar) Uruguay (Uruguay. zloty) Russia (Russia.390.200. lat) Luxembourg (Luxembourg. peso) Brazil (Brazil. dram) Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani (old) manat) China (China. tugrik) Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka.590.000 9. dollar) 6.700 490 570 560 510 585 327 520 30. koruna) Spain (Spain. euro) Estonia (Estonia.000 2. peso) United States of America (United States of America. metical) Uganda (Uganda. ruble) Slovakia (Slovakia.000 972.000 1.000 2.750 522 890 America. hryvnia) United Kingdom (United Kingdom.950 375 483 556 613 538 700 638 731 584 650 552 759 636 571 560 740 625 548 682 Africa Mozambique (Mozambique.400 2. kroon) Finland (Finland.363 360. Republic of (Korea. euro) Ukraine (Ukraine.000 4. pound) 527 7. denar) Moldova (Moldova.571 1. North Mexico (Mexico. shilling) Asia Armenia (Armenia. peso) 1. won) Lebanon (Lebanon. ringgit) Mongolia (Mongolia. euro) France (France.226 22.850 15. dollar) 985 1. euro) Latvia (Latvia. dollar) New Zealand (New Zealand. euro) Greece (Greece. pound) Malaysia (Malaysia.PRINTING NEWSPRINT COSTS (average per ton) (using most recent available figures) Country National currency USD 12.222 535 794 Europe Belgium (Belgium. rupiah) Korea. South Argentina (Argentina.360 515 1.600 508 617 649 497 472.000 500 2. euro) Macedonia (Macedonia.000. euro) Italy (Italy. euro) Poland (Poland. euro) Ireland (Ireland. Republic of. Leu) Netherlands.000 34. yuan) East Timor (Uruguay. The (Netherlands.000 986 823 502 551 103 603 778 778 623 326 355 685 Australia & Oceania Australia (Australia.345 649 10.465.

South Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Uruguay 114 42 4 76 4 38 79 - 128 - 138 22 - Asia Indonesia Japan Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Singapore Sri Lanka Turkey 465 106 11 9 22 55 533 110 12 61 66 567 108 13 34 62 13 34 67 14 81 - - - - 355 16 28 28 11 17 29 11 54 61 30 3 4 82 31 6 2 39 81 42 19 6 91 119 16 28 11 67 35 10 61 53 3 82 30 5 7 36 78 63 40 12 137 - 17 28 11 85 35 41 199 61 3 18 87 24 5 36 78 56 39 147 - 17 28 13 90 37 41 201 61 79 45 4 18 87 27 5 36 77 59 43 11 139 150 - 32 15 92 41 42 34 3 19 88 31 30 78 66 50 11 149 65 - Australia & Oceania Australia Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands. The Norway Poland Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 130 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . North Costa Rica Mexico 6 45 7 - 7 - 5 - 6 - America.PRINTING FOUR-COLOUR NEWSPAPERS: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Country 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Africa South Africa 18 - - - - America.

PRINTING FOUR-COLOUR NEWSPAPERS: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 131 .

417 17 5 120 44 1 - America. South Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Peru Uruguay 3 108 2 9 5 1 45 26 94 12 3 6 1 - Asia Armenia Indonesia Japan Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Singapore Sri Lanka Turkey 1 218 107 13 25 51 7 27 81 5 349 3 1 9 39 2 3 - 1 10 - Australia & Oceania Australia New Zealand 4 25 351 1 - Europe Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Netherlands. North Canada Costa Rica Mexico United States of America 132 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The Norway Poland Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom 9 1 6 16 39 29 12 7 53 7 2 1 6 25 60 1 5 14 25 18 8 20 62 14 2 2 25 43 119 18 64 5 3 12 38 97 2 5 5 78 1 49 3 1 112 66 92 12 90 43 6 8 2 1 55 8 22 41 - Africa South Africa America.PRINTING FORMATS OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS: NUMBER OF TITLES (using most recent available figures) Country Broadsheets Tabloids Others 13 5 - 85 180 1.

DISTRIBUTION
TYPE OF NEWSPAPER SALES (%)
(using most recent available figures)
Country

Single copy
Subscriptions
sales
(home and postal
deliveries)

Home
deliveries

Postal
deliveries

Office
Bulk (sponsored)
Free
deliveries
deliveries
distribution

Other

Africa
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda

78.0
99.0
98.0

-

13.0
0.6
2.0

-

5.0
-

2.0
0.4
-

-

2.0
-

America, North
Costa Rica
United States of America

69.0
16.8

31.0
74.7

31.0
74.0

0.7

-

-

-

8.5

America, South
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
Uruguay

40.0
44.8
61.8
70.1
100.0

38.2
-

60.0
55.2
17.3
-

-

9.0
-

2.0
-

0.6
-

1.0
-

Asia
Armenia
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Lebanon
Malaysia
Mongolia
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Turkey

85.0
5.1
6.0
85.0
70.0
21.0
56.7
60.0
80.0

94.4
20.0

94.3
90.8
15.0
30.0
43.3
35.0
-

0.1
3.2
79.0
5.0
-

-

-

-

15.0
0.5
-

Europe
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Luxembourg
Macedonia
Netherlands, The
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Ukraine

14.0
50.1
48.5
93.0
80.0
68.4
15.6
40.0
13.0
68.0
35.6
97.0
37.6
13.6
91.0
91.0
41.9
9.9
97.0
8.0
23.0
78.4
41.9
65.0
72.0
20.0
10.0
82.0

65.1
15.0
7.0
29.0
84.4
60.0
88.0
64.4
61.7
1.0
9.0
58.1
18.7
4.5
35.0
10.9
75.0
16.0

20.0
29.0
79.0
69.0
8.0
1.0
86.4
90.1
0.2
71.0
90.0
1.0

47.8
21.0
18.0
20.0
2.0
61.7
9.0
70.2
3.0
0.1
77.0
13.0
4.0
15.0

35.0
2.6
0.2
6.9
1.0

5.0
2.6
0.7
8.0
1.8
5.1
-

14.2
1.7
1.5
5.0
0.8
5.0
4.9
5.0
1.0

1.7
0.4
1.8
1.2
0.2
-

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

133

DISTRIBUTION
NEWSPAPER DISTRIBUTION COSTS (% of cover price)
(using most recent available figures)
Country

134

Single copy
sales

Home
deliveries

Postal
deliveries

America, North
Mexico

25

70

-

America, South
Chile
Ecuador
Uruguay

36
6
40

14
-

-

Asia
Armenia
Lebanon
Malaysia
Mongolia
Sri Lanka
Turkey

30
30
20
30
12
13

30
20
-

45
70
-

Australia & Oceania
Australia

32

32

-

Europe
Belgium
Croatia
Czech Republic
Estonia
Finland
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Luxembourg
Macedonia
Netherlands, The
Poland
Slovakia
Sweden
Switzerland
Ukraine

31
31
35
32
26
38
29
26
28
38
15
33
32
40
20
45
36

31
24
40
29
35
35
26
26
33
45
-

28
40
35
18
41
14
15
15
38
30
20

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

CHAPTER II

COUNTRY REPORTS

Tables in country reports
Country reports only include available data, so some of the following tables are not presented in all country
reports. Tables without order numbers are specific only for one or a few countries.
All data are presented in current prices.
1.

2.

COMMENTARY
(General economic situation • Performance of
newspapers vs. other media • Performance of
different types of newspapers • Newspaper
launches / closures • Advertising • Circulation
• Readership • Online/Digital Publishing
• Ownership • Media/Press Laws • Copyright
• Distribution • Postal Issues • Taxes • State
Support • Environment • Other Factors)

4.b

4.c

4.d

POPULATION

2.a
2.b

Population by age and sex
Population by social class and sex
Social classes are defined as follows, unless
otherwise notified:
A = Upper middle class - higher managerial,
administrative or professional
B = Middle class - intermediate managerial,
administrative or professional
C1 = Lower middle class - supervisory
or clerical, and junior managerial,
administrative or professional
C2 = Skilled working class - Skilled manual
workers
D = Working class - Semi and unskilled manual
workers
E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence - State
pensioners or widows (no other earners)
2.ca Households (occupancy)
2.cb Households (children)
2.d Housewives (co-habiting persons)
3.
3.a

3.b

NUMBER OF TITLES AND CIRCULATION
Number of titles
Dailies = newspapers published at least four
days a week
Non-dailies = newspapers published three days
a week or less (with the exception of papers
published on Sundays only)
Sundays = newspapers published on Sundays
only
Circulation
For definition of dailies, non-dailies, and
Sundays, please see table 3.a

4.

SALES

4.a

Total number of copies sold or distributed
annually
For definition of dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays, please see table 3.a

136

Sales revenues
For definition of dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays, please see table 3.a
Type of newspaper sales (%)
Including data for all types of paid-for daily
newspapers, unless otherwise notified
Cover prices
Single copy: a range of cover prices of daily
newspapers on weekdays
Subscription: the price of subscription divided
by number of editions in a subscription period

5.

NEWSPAPER REACH, READERSHIP
AND MEDIA CONSUMPTION

5.a

Newspaper reach (%)
A percentage of people who read a daily
newspaper, unless otherwise notified
Age structure of readership
Readership of daily newspapers, unless
otherwise notified
Media consumption (minutes per day)
Data on all adults and all newspapers (dailies,
non-dailies, and Sundays), unless otherwise
notified

5.b

5.c

6.

ONLINE / DIGITAL PUBLISHING

6.a

Online editions
This refers only to webpages with editorial
content. For definition of dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays, please see notes to table 3.a
Online readership
Page impression (IF ABC definition) = a file, or
a combination of files, sent to a user as a result
of that user’s request being received by the
server; application of another unit of measurement or another period is indicated
in footnotes below tables

6.b

7.

ADVERTISING

7.aa
7.ab
7.ac
7.ba

Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product per capita
Ad spend as a % of GDP
Advertising expenditure per medium
Data 2006-2009 represent forecast, unless
otherwise notified
‘Others’ represent transport, direct mail, video
etc., or a combination of any of those media if
only available as a total figure
7.bb Advertising expenditure per medium (%)
Data 2006-2009 represent forecast, unless
otherwise notified

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

7.c

7.d

7.e

7.f

7.g

8.
8.a

‘Others’ represent transport, direct mail, video
etc., or a combination of any of those media if
only available as a total figure
Advertising revenues
For definition of dailies, non-dailies, and
Sundays, please see table 3.a
Daily newspaper advertising expenditure National / Retail / Classified /
Digital (U.S. only)
Advertising volume sold
(pages & page equivalents)
Data for all newspapers (dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays), unless otherwise notified
Contribution of display, classified and insert
advertising to total advertising revenue (%)
Data for dailies, unless otherwise notified
Classified advertising is that sold by line, word,
or column inch, and semi-display
advertisements on classified pages
Top newspaper advertising categories
Data for dailies, unless otherwise notified
Top advertising categories
in national newspapers (U.K. only)
Top advertising categories
in regional newspapers (U.K. only)
Top newspaper advertisers
Data for all newspapers (dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays), unless otherwise notified
Top national newspaper advertisers (U.K. only)
Top regional newspaper advertisers (U.K. only)

9.

EMPLOYMENT AND SALARIES

9.a

Employment
Data for all newspapers (dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays), unless otherwise notified
Salaries
Data for all newspapers (dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays), unless otherwise notified
Including salaries and employers’ contributions

PUBLISHERS AND NEWSPAPERS

13. SUBSIDIES
13.a Subsidies generally
13.b Direct subsidies

Top publishing companies
Top national publishing companies (U.K. only)
Top regional publishing companies (U.K. only)
Top owners
8.ba Top paid-for dailies
Formats:
Broadsheet = a page of minimum dimensions
of 53x33 cm (21x13 inches)
Tabloid = a page approximately half the size of
a broadsheet newspaper
Berliner = a page 47x31.5 cm
Rheinisch = a page 51x35 cm
Nordic = a page 57x40 cm
Belgian = a page 52x36.5 cm
Top national paid-for dailies (U.K. only)
Top regional paid-for dailies (U.K. only)
8.bb Top free dailies
For formats, please see table 8.ba
Top national free dailies (U.K. only)
Top regional free dailies (U.K. only)

9.b

10. PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION
10.a Newspaper colour capability and formats
Data for all newspapers (dailies, non-dailies,
and Sundays), unless otherwise notified
For formats, please see table 8.ba
10.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover
price
10.bb Average distribution costs per copy
10.c Newsprint costs
Newsprint consumption

11. RESEARCH
(Circulation • Readership • Methodology)
Conducted by independent organisations not
operated by the newspapers themselves
12. TAXES
(Standard VAT • VAT on : single copy sales,
subscription sales, advertising, newsprint,
composition, plant • Other taxes: tax
on profits, tax concessions)

14. DISCOUNTS
(Post • Railroad • Telephone • Telegraph
• Telex • Other)
15. OWNERSHIP
15.a Ownership laws and rules
15.b Cross-media ownership restrictions

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

137

AFGHANISTAN
Media Market Description
General economic situation
Real GDP growth exceeded 8% in 2006. Afghanistan is
highly dependent on foreign aid, agriculture, and trade
with neighboring countries. Expanding poppy
cultivation and a growing opium trade generate roughly
USD3 billion in illicit economic activity and looms as
one of the most serious policy concerns for Kabul.
Inflation rate was estimated at 16.3% in 2005.
Performance of newspapers vs. other media
In 2006, there were approximately 50 private radio
stations, five news agencies, and eight television
networks, though not all were independently owned and
operated. The government owned most of the electronic
news media. Radio is the most popular medium in the
country.
Performance of different types of newspapers
In 2006, there were approximately 400 publications.
The government owned at least 35 of them. Many
newspapers were published only sporadically, and many
were affiliated with different provincial authorities.

Currently, the Mideast Edition is command-sponsored
and distributed at no charge to downrange troops. Stars
and Stripes is printed in Kabul and distributed in Kabul,
Kandahar, and Bagram. (The newspaper is also printed
in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait and Iraq.)
Newspaper launches / closures
A third independent, four-page daily newspaper Siasat
was launched in the western Herat province. The price
of the paper has been set at five afghanis per copy.
The dailies Rooz and Pagah are the other newspapers
published from Herat. About 30 publications, including
dailies, weeklies, and monthlies are published from the
province.
Online / Digital Publishing
There were no government restrictions on the Internet
or reports that the government monitored e-mail or
Internet chatrooms. Internet access was unavailable to
most citizens, and computer literacy and ownership rates
were miniscule, although Internet cafes were increasingly
popular.

Cumbersome licensing procedures restricted operations
of publishing houses.
Media / Press Laws
The law prohibits information that could insult “the
Stars and Stripes is a daily newspaper published for the sacred religion of Islam and other religions.” The foreign
U.S. military, Department of Defense civilians, media were covered under the freedom of speech law;
contractors, and their families. Unique among the many however, they were restricted from commenting
military publications, Stars and Stripes operates as a First negatively on Islam and from publishing materials that
Amendment newspaper, free of control and censorship. were considered a threat to the president.
Under the 2004 media law, new newspapers and printers
had to get a license from the information ministry and
foreign investment in the media was strictly limited.
There was concern within the media community that
a draft media law under consideration in parliament at
year's end would place greater restrictions on media
content and create an overall climate of potential
government intimidation and media self-censorship.
Elements of the latest draft included: language that seeks
to keep Radio-Television Afghanistan under the rubric
of the government, rather than converting it to
independent Public Service Broadcasting; the
elimination of three committees that protected
journalists from politically-motivated reprisals; and the
designation of certain categories of content as
“prohibited.”

Map: CIA – The World Factbook

Other Factors
In 2004 the Ministry of Information and Culture
announced the creation of a Commission of Religious
Clergy to monitor the media, but the commission’s
authority to censor content remains unclear.

Source: CIA - The World Factbook; US State Department; WAN from public sources
WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

139

AFGHANISTAN
2.a

Population by age and sex (2006)

Age
0-14
15-64
65 +
Total

All individuals
000
%
13,859
16,445
753
31,057

45
53
2
100

7.aa

Male
000

%

7,095
8,437
367
15,899

45
53
2
100

6,764
8,008
386
15,158

2000
GDP

45
53
3
100

8.ba

Number of titles
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

All newspapers
Total paid-for dailies

-

-

-

30
10

40
12

-

33.33
20.00

-

-

-

2004
927.3

Top paid-for dailies (2006)

Title

Language

Publisher

Hewad (Homeland)
Anis (Companion / Friendship)
Daily Arman
Kabul Times
Shari’at

Pashtu
Dari 1
English
English
-

Government
Government
Government
-

Circulation (000)
8
5
4
1
-

Source: WAN from public sources
1
Including articles in Pashtu and Uzbek

Source: WAN assessment
3.b

-

(Afghanistan, afghani, bln)
2001
2002
2003

Source: CIA - The World Factbook

Source: CIA - The World Factbook
3.a

Gross domestic product

Female
000
%

Total average circulation per issue
(000)
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

-

-

-

24

26

-

8.33

Source: WAN assessment

140

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

ALBANIA
Media Market Description
General economic situation
The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from
abroad of USD600-USD800 million, mostly from
Albanians residing in Greece and Italy; this helps offset
the towering trade deficit. Agriculture accounts for
about one-quarter of GDP. The government is moving
slowly to improve the poor national road and rail
network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic
growth. Growth was strong in 2003-06 and the inflation
rate is low (2.8%) and stable.

no such rules for print media. However, many
newspapers mark the pages that are sold as
advertisements or commercial announcements. When
parts of the page are sold, such sections are not always
marked. In almost all cases, the advertisements are
framed in boxes to separate them from editorial content.

There are 28 daily newspapers. Their individual
circulation ranges from 500 to 20,000 copies. While the
number of newspapers has almost doubled over the last
five years, their total circulation has fallen by around
30%. The newest daily, Shqip, which was launched in
March 2006, is actually the biggest. Shqip is an affiliate
of the biggest media group in Albania, Top Media,
which controls the leading Top Channel TV, Top
Albania Radio and Digitalb platform for satellite and
terrestrial digital paid programmes.

Online / Digital Publishing
There were no government restrictions on access to the
Internet or reports that the government monitored email or Internet chatrooms. Access to the Internet has
increased over the year, but remained limited,
particularly outside the major urban areas.

Circulation
Publishers offer cover prices as low as 10 ALL (8 cents of
a euro) per copy, which is half of the lowest price applied
to any paper in 2000, or offer the paper plus a music CD
Performance of newspapers vs. other media
for 100 ALL (EUR0.8) or 200 ALL (EUR1.6) for the
According to official data, there were 64 private paper plus a bestselling book. Nevertheless, sales
television stations and 44 private radio stations, but the continue to fall and more readers prefer to read any
actual number was reportedly larger. The growing paper offered for free from their favourite coffee bar.
number of satellite dishes in Albanian towns makes
television to be by far the leading medium.
Readership
Experts say that the crisis in the printed media market is
Agjensia Telegrafike Shqiptare (Albanian Telegraphic due to newspaper editorial policies. In recent years,
Agency) is the official news agency.
many big business companies have invested in this
market, but they have tried to use the power of their
Performance of different types of newspapers
media to put pressure on, or even blackmail the
An estimated 200 publications were available in 2006, government. Other media have been explicitly backing
including daily and weekly newspapers, magazines, the government. There is a growing concern in society
newsletters, and pamphlets. Political parties, trade that the media is being abused by their owners, often
unions, and various societies and groups published their suspected to have links with the underworld, in their
own newspapers or magazines independent of power games. As a result, more Albanians abstain from
government influence.
reading daily papers.

Ownership
The Gazeta Shqiptare is published by an Italian
newspaper based in Bari called La Gazzetta del
Mezzogiorno. This marks the only example of foreign
Publishers and newspaper owners continued to dictate ownership in the Albanian press sector.
news stories to serve their political and economic
interests and sometimes blocked stories that ran counter A single person cannot own more than 40 percent of
to those interests. Journalists continued to practice self- shares in a media entity, and one cannot own shares in
censorship, and there was little transparency in the both national television and national radio. These rules
financing of the media.
are circumvented by widespread evasion and deception.
Cross-ownership between broadcasting and print media
The independent print media were active but were is not regulated. Approved on December 1, 2003, the
constrained by limited professionalism, lack of finances, Law on Protection of Competition no. 9121/2003 does
and political pressure.
not impose any limit on market consolidation.
Newspaper launches / closures
The transparency of ownership is not mandated by
One new major national daily newspaper, Shqip, started legislation. Only a few outlets do so on their own initiative.
in spring 2006 while two others, Dita and Express, closed. Media owners are often directly involved in politics.
Advertising
Media / Press Laws
The law on electronic media stipulates that ads should Libel is a crime that may be punished with a prison
be clearly distinguished from editorial content. There are sentence of up to two years and a fine. In contrast with
WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

141

ALBANIA
the previous year, there were no cases of libel suits
against the media reported during 2006.
Printing & Distribution
The print media is plagued by a weak, often
malfunctioning distribution system. Tirana-based
newspapers cannot reach distant rural areas due to poor
infrastructure.
Other Factors
Many journalists complained that the absence of
employment contracts frequently hindered their ability
to report objectively.
Journalists are allowed to sell advertising. There is no
trade union for journalists, and their associations are
weak and fragmented. They are generally not in
a position to fight for their opinions, especially against
owners.
In 2005 the editorial office of the top-circulation daily,
Shekulli, was damaged when an explosive was thrown
onto its balcony. The case was closed with no formal
charges having been filed.

Map: CIA – The World Factbook

Source: CIA - The World Factbook; US State Department; SEENPM; WAN from public sources
2.a

Population by age and sex (2006)

Age

All individuals
000
%

0-14
15-64
65 +
Total

888
2,374
320
3,582

25
66
9
100

7.aa

Male
000

%

465
1,215
148
1,828

25
66
8
100

423
1,159
172
1,754

GDP

24
66
10
100

8.ba

Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05
19
79

21
79

29
80 1

28
81 2

55.56
5.19

-3.45
1.25

Source: 2002-2004 Albanian Media Institute; 2005-2006 WAN from public sources
1
Estimate
2
Estimate
3.b

Total average circulation per issue
(000)
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

-

76

74

70

65

-

-7.14

Source: 2003 Albanian Media Institute; 2004-2006 WAN assessment
4.d

Cover prices (2006)

Single copy

10.00

Top publishing companies
(2004)

8.a

(Albania, lek)
min
max
50.00

Source: WAN from public sources

Publisher
Spekter
Klan
Hoha
Party Papers
Others

Share (%) 1
21
16
11
16
36

Source: The Commercial Register
1
Print media

-

-

2006

1,722.7 1,857.9 2,079.8

Source: CIA - The World Factbook

Number of titles

Total paid-for dailies
18
Total paid-for non-dailies 77

(Albania, lek, bln)
2003
2004
2005

2002

Source: CIA - The World Factbook
3.a

Gross domestic product

Female
000
%

Top paid-for dailies (2006)

Title

Language Publisher

Format

Albania
Albanian Daily News
Balkan
Biznes
Ekonomia
Gazeta 55
Gazeta Shqiptare
Koha Jone (Our Time)
Korrieri
Panorama
Republika
Rilindja Demokratike
(The Democratic Revival)
Shekulli
Shqip
Sot
Sport Ekspres
Sporti Shqiptar
Tema
Zeri i Popullit (People’s Voice)

English
-

Ylli Rakipi
Tribuna Ekonomike Shqiptare e Pavarur
Ferrano Group
Sh. a. Spekter
Enti botues Ekonomia
Fahri Balliu
Edisud sh. p. a.
Nikolle Lesi
Media 6
Panorama Group
Partia Republikane e Shqiperise

A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3

-

Partia Demokratike
Sh. a. Spekter
Top Media
Nikolle Lesi
Sh. a. Spekter
Media Enter sh. p. k.
Partia Socialiste e Shqiperise

A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3

Source: Albanian Media Institute; WAN from public sources
Due to lack of circulation and readership data, dailies are ranked in alphabetical order
9.a

Employment
Change (%)
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01

Total number of journalists Total number of employees -

-

-

543
842

305
827

-

-43.83
-1.78

Source: Albanian Media Institute

142

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

ALGERIA
Media Market Description
General economic situation
The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget
revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export
earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of
natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas
exporter. Algeria has decreased its external debt to less
than 10% of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and
London Club debt in 2006. The inflation rate was
estimated at 3% in 2006.

Media / Press Laws
The law specifies that freedom of speech must respect
“individual dignity, the imperatives of foreign policy,
and the national defense.” The state of emergency decree
gives the government broad authority to restrict these
freedoms and take legal action against what it considers
to be threats to the state or public order. These
regulations were heavily applied throughout the year,
and in some instances the government targeted specific
media organizations and their staff.

Performance of newspapers vs. other media
Radio and television are government-owned.
Restrictions remained in place on the international
media, limiting its ability to report freely; however, the
restrictions were not as stringently enforced as in
previous years.

The law permits the government to levy fines and to
imprison members of the press in a manner that restricts
press freedom.

Performance of different types of newspapers
The country’s non-state-owned print media consisted of
more than 43 daily, 60 weekly, and 17 monthly
publications that supported or opposed the government
to varying degrees.
The state owns four newspapers: the French-language El
Moujahid and La Nouvelle Republique, and the Arabiclanguage El Chaab and El Massa.

Charges of defamation are based on the 1990
communication law which protects Islam from
defamation, controls access to external information, and
outlaws writing that threatens national unity. In 2001,
the laws were amended to criminalize writing, cartoons,
and speech that insult or offend the president,
parliament, judiciary, or armed forces. The Penal Code
imposes high fines and prison terms of up to 24 months
for defamation or “the insult” of government figures,
including the president, members of parliament, judges,
members of the military, and “any other authority of
public order.” Those convicted face prison sentences that
range from 3 to 24 months and fines of USD675 to
USD6,750 (50,000 to 500,000 dinars).

Newspaper launches / closures
The sports daily Planete sport was launched in March
2006.
Article 144 of the Penal Code provides for up to five
years in prison for offenses against the Prophet or God’s
Unlike in previous years, there were no closures of Messengers or which denigrate the doctrine of Islam.
newspapers for debts to the state-owned printing house.
During 2006, 68 press-related cases were tried. In 2005,
Advertising
there were 114 recorded cases of press harassment.
The government continued to influence the
independent press through the state-owned advertising In May and July, President Bouteflika pardoned all 200
company, Agence Nationale d Edition et de Publicite journalists with pending defamation cases or defamation
(ANEP), which decided which independent newspapers convictions, including 11 sentenced to jail terms in
could benefit from advertisements placed by state- 2005.
owned agencies and companies.
The government continued restrictions on both the local
Online / Digital Publishing
and the international media’s coverage of issues relating
The government monitored email and internet to “national security and terrorism.”
chatrooms, particularly those dealing with terrorism and
security issues. Article 14 of the 1998 ministerial decree Printing & Distribution
on telecommunications states that Internet service Most independent newspapers continued to rely on the
providers are legally liable for the material and Web sites government’s four publishers for printing presses and
they host.
newsprint.
Source: CIA - The World Factbook; US State Department; Xinhua; Jeune Afrique

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

143

ALGERIA
3.a

Number of titles
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

40

40

45

47

48

20.00

2.13

Source: 2002-2005 WAN assessment; 2006 WAN from public sources
3.b

Total average circulation per issue
(000)
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

-

-

940

950

960

-

1.05

Source: WAN assessment
7.aa

Gross domestic product
2002

GDP

-

(Algeria, dinar, bln)
2003
2004
2005
-

2006

14,533.4 17,630.4 19,050.6

Source: CIA - The World Factbook
8.ba

Map: CIA – The World Factbook
2.a

Population by age and sex (2006)

Age
0-14
15-64
65 +
Total

All individuals
000
%
9,262
22,099
1,569
32,930

Source: CIA - The World Factbook

28
67
5
100

Male
000

%

4,722
11,134
735
16,591

28
67
4
100

Female
000
%
4,540
10,965
834
16,339

28
67
5
100

Top paid-for dailies (2005)

Title

Language

Publisher

Circulation (000)

Le Quotidien d’Oran
El Watan (Homeland)
El Khabar
El Youm
Liberté
L’Expression
Le Matin
Le Soir d’Algérie
El Moudjahid
Chourouk el-Youmi
Al Fadjr
La Nouvelle Republique
Le Jeune Independant
L’Actualité
La Tribune
El Chaab
El Massa

French/Arabic
French
Arabic
Arabic
French
French
French
French
French
Arabic
Arabic
French
French
French
French
Arabic
Arabic

SPA Oran Presse
SPA El Watan
El Khabar Group
Government
Government
Government
Government

190
130
100
90
80
60
60
50
50
50
30
30
30
30
10
-

Source: US State Department; WAN from public sources

144

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

AMERICAN SAMOA
Media Market Description
General economic situation
Economic activity is strongly linked to the U.S. with
which American Samoa conducts most of its foreign
trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the
backbone of the private sector. Tourism is a promising
developing sector.
Newspaper launches / closures
The newest daily newspaper in the Pacific Islands, the
American Samoa Tribune, went on sale in American

Samoa in February 2006. The bilingual (English and
Samoan) newspaper is being compiled and printed from
a new production centre set up at Tafuna, American
Samoa, by the Samoa Observer Newspaper Group.
The group’s flagship is the 27-year-old Samoa Observer,
a bilingual daily newspaper published from Apia, Samoa.
In 2005, the group also launched a New Zealand edition
of Samoa Observer.

Source: CIA - The World Factbook; Pacific Magazine; BBC; Samoa News (website)
3.a

Number of titles
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

-

-

1

1

2

-

100.00

Source: WAN from public sources
3.b

Total average circulation per issue
(000)
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total paid-for dailies

-

-

4

4

7

-

75.00

Source: WAN assessment
7.aa

Gross domestic product
1999

GDP

-

(USA, dollar, bln)
2000
2001
2002
-

-

-

2003
510.1

Source: CIA - The World Factbook
8.ba

Top paid-for dailies (2006)

Title

Population by age and sex (2006)

Age
0-14
15-64
65 +
Total

All individuals
000
%
20
36
2
58

34
62
3
100

Publisher

Circulation Full page ad rate
Mono Color
(000)
(USD)

Samoa News English / Samoan1 Osini Faleatasi Inc.2
American
English / Samoan Samoa Observer
Samoa Tribune
Newspaper Ltd.

Map: CIA – The World Factbook
2.a

Language

Male
000

%

10
19
1
30

33
63
3
100

Female
000
%
10
17
1
28

4
3

250
-

425
-

Source: WAN from public sources
1
60% of content in English
2
Owned by American Samoa residents

36
61
4
100

Source: CIA - The World Factbook

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

145

ANDORRA
Media Market Description
General economic situation
Tourism accounts for more than 80% of GDP. The
banking sector, with its partial “tax haven” status, also
contributes substantially to the economy. The inflation
rate was estimated at 3.4% in 2004.

and Spain. The independent media expresses diverse
opinions, including government criticism.
Performance of different types of newspapers
There are two independent paid-for daily newspapers
and several weeklies in Andorra.

Performance of newspapers vs. other media
The main TV station is TVA, operated by Radio In 2004, a free daily Bondia was launched.
i Television d’Andorra. There are three radio stations.
Andorrans also have access to broadcasts from France French and Spanish newspapers are also widely available.
Source: CIA - The World Factbook; WAN from public sources
3.a

Number of titles
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total dailies
Total paid-for dailies
Total free dailies

2
2
-

2
2
-

3
2
1

3
2
1

3
2
1

50.00
0.00
-

0.00
0.00
0.00

Source: WAN from public sources
3.b

Total average circulation per issue
(000)
Change (%)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05

Total dailies
Total paid-for dailies
Total free dailies

-

-

30
25
5

32
27
5

32
27
5

-

0.00
0.00
0.00

Source: WAN assessment
7.aa

Gross domestic product
(Euro Member Countries, euro, bln)
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

GDP

-

-

-

1.7

1.5

Source: CIA - The World Factbook
8.ba

2.a

Population by age and sex (2006)

Age
0-14
15-64
65 +
Total

All individuals
000
%
10
51
10
71

Source: CIA - The World Factbook

14
72
14
100

Top paid-for dailies (2006)

Title

Map: CIA – The World Factbook

Male
000

%

5
27
5
37

14
73
14
100

Female
000
%
5
24
5
34

15
71
15
100

Language

Diari d’Andorra Catalan
El Periodic
Catalan
d’Andorra

Publisher

Readership Full page ad rate
Mono Color
(000)
(euro)

Premsa Andorrana, SA
Grupo Zeta

17
-

740
750

875
970

Source: WAN from public sources
8.bb

Top free dailies (2006)

Title

Language

Publisher

Bondia

Catalan

La Veu del Poble SL

Circulation (000)
5

Source: WAN from public sources

146

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

ANGOLA
Media Market Description
General economic situation
Oil production and its supporting activities contribute
about half of GDP and 90% of exports. Increased oil
production suppoted 12% growth in 2004, 19% growth
in 2005, and nearly 17% growth in 2006. Much of the
infrastructure in Angola is still damaged or
underdeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war.
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
half of the population, but half of the food must still be
imported. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in
2000 to about 13% in 2006. To fully take advantage of
its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive
forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola
will need to continue reforming government policies and
to reduce corruption.

The only national news agencies are the Agencia Angola
Press (ANGOP), a state-run agency founded in 1975,
and Centro de Imprensa Anibal de Melo (CIAM),
a government press centre.
Performance of different types of newspapers
The government-owned and -operated Jornal de Angola
was the only daily newspaper. Its production is limited
to Luanda, with a print run of approximately 30,00040,000 copies, and a prohibitively high cover price
(USD1.20).

There were 12 private weekly publications, including
Angolense, Semanario Angolense, Folha 8, A Capital,
Actual, Agora, and Cruzeiro do Sul. Some of them were
Performance of newspapers vs. other media
distributed in the provinces several days after publication
The state controls all media with nationwide reach, in Luanda. There were also four smaller weeklies in the
including the radio, the most influential medium.
southern provinces.
There were five provincially-based commercial radio Diario da Republica is the official government
stations and two government-owned television stations, newsletter.
which broadcast from Luanda and most provincial
capitals.
There are no English-language nezspapers.
Media / Press Laws
On May 26, 2006, President Dos Santos promulgated
new press law. The law ended the state monopoly on
television, partially opened the FM bandwidth to
independent broadcasters, and rescinded travel
restrictions on journalists.
As a result of this law, foreign journalists no longer need
authorization from the Ministry of Interior to meet
government officials or to travel within the country.
Defamation of the president or his representatives is
a crime, punishable by imprisonment or fine. Factuality
is not an acceptable defense against defamation charges;
the only allowable defense is for the accused to show that
he did not produce the actual material alleged to have
caused harm. No persons have been charged under this
law.

Map: CIA – The World Factbook

Other Factors
Printed stories are often the result of bribery (ie,
information provided to journalists in order to guarantee
good exposure).

Source: CIA - The World Factbook; US State Department; BBC;
BBC World Service Trust - African Media Development Initiative; WAN from public sources

WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007

147

292 149 6.119 44 54 2 100 2.3 Source: CIA .626 3.b Male 000 % 2.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 5.304 6.00 0.a Total average circulation per issue Female 000 % GDP - (Angola.The World Factbook 3. 2003-2006 WAN from public sources Source: CIA .008 (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 44 53 3 100 Total paid-for dailies 110 100 7.00 0.73 0.7 4.aa Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4 - 1 1 16 12 4 1 1 16 12 4 1 1 16 12 4 -80.00 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2006 1.ANGOLA 2.523.488 335 12.678 3.196 186 6.2 Tabloid Source: WAN from public sources Source: WAN from public sources 148 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .081.127 44 54 3 100 3.187. kwanza.00 0.8 2.00 41 41 -62.The World Factbook 8.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher Jornal de Angola Government Circulation (000) Cover price (USD) Format 41 1.00 - 0.00 Gross domestic product 2002 Total paid-for dailies 5 National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies 41 Source: 2002 WAN assessment.

offshore banking. other media There are 37 cable TV channels available in the country. 2006 WAN from public sources 7.aa Gross domestic product 2000 GDP - (East Caribbean. Source: CIA .a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 2 9 2 13 Male Female 000 % 000 % 1 5 1 7 14 71 14 100 15 69 15 100 1 4 1 6 17 67 17 100 Source: CIA .3 0.00 0. printing an average of 1. There are two weekly newspapers. The Anguillan is the leading local newspaper.500 copies per publication run.The World Factbook.3% for 2006.200 to 1. WAN from public sources 2. The inflation rate was estimated at 5.The World Factbook 3. lobster fishing.3 Source: CIA .ANGUILLA Media Market Description General economic situation The economy depends heavily on luxury tourism.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 2 2 2 2 2 0.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 149 . Increased activity in the tourism industry has contributed to economic growth. dollar.00 Source: 2002-2005 Commonwealth Press Union. Performance of newspapers vs. Performance of different types of newspapers There are no daily newspapers.3 0. and remittances from emigrants. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 - 0. Prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector. the Anguillian and the Light.

The World Factbook. account for the limited economic activity of Antarctica. during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps. operate through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and its nearby islands.The World Factbook No indigenous inhabitants. A total of 23. but there are both permanent and summer-only staffed research stations. is published during the austral summer at McMurdo Station for the United States Antarctic Program.175 tourists visited in the 2004-05 Antarctic summer.000 personnel. up from the 19. The Antarctic Sun. these stations are populated by persons doing and supporting science or engaged in the management and protection of the Antarctic region.000 in summer to 1. approximately 1. and their friends. WAN from public sources Population by age and sex (2006) 2. summer-long temporary facilities. The newspaper is funded by the National Science Foundation.00 0. their families. both based abroad. Its primary audience is US Antarctic program participants.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 1 1 1 1 1 0. 1 The number varies from approximately 4. in addition.486 visitors the previous year. all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty.000 in winter. Twenty-six nations.ANTARCTICA Media Market Description General economic situation Fishing off the coast and tourism. and mobile traverses in support of research. including ship crews and scientists doing onboard research. Nearly all of them were passengers on commercial (non-governmental) ships and several yachts that make trips during the summer. The only weekly newspaper. 3.00 Source: WAN from public sources Map: CIA – The World Factbook 150 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .a Age All individuals 000 % Total 41 - Source: CIA . Source: CIA . are present in the waters of the treaty region. In addition. Performance of different types of newspapers There are no daily newspapers.

The inflation rate was estimated at 0.57 28.ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA Media Market Description General economic situation Tourism continues to dominate the economy. Performance of different types of newspapers The editorial and news focus of the mainstream daily Antigua Sun is influenced by a foreign owner who has invested a lot in the country and wields considerable political influence. dollar.75 0.00 0. 2006 WAN from public sources 7. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner.00 0.a Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 19 47 3 69 Male Female 000 % 000 % 10 24 1 35 29 69 3 100 28 68 4 100 9 23 2 34 26 68 6 100 Source: CIA . Kitts/Nevis WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 151 .aa Map: CIA – The World Factbook Gross domestic product 1998 GDP - (East Caribbean.00 2. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 - - - 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 28.9% in 2005. published Monday-Saturday 2 Publishing also Sun St.The World Factbook 8.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher Daily Observer Antigua Sun 1 Observer Group Sun Printing & Publishing Ltd.The World Factbook Number of titles 3.75 Format Tabloid Source: WAN from public sources 1 Established in 1997. Source: CIA .50 12. WAN from public sources Population by age and sex (2006) 2.2 Circulation (000) Readership (000) 5 4 11 Cover price (East Caribbean Dollar) (USD) 2.00 0. accounting for more than half of GDP.57 12.0 Source: CIA .a Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.The World Factbook.00 0.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.50 Source: 2002-2005 WAN assessment.

state pensioners or widows (no other earners) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .116 1. both of which have reduced the external debt burden of Argentina.633 1.625 3. averaging 9 percent during the period 2003-2006. Advertising National government spending on advertising increased significantly over the past few years.441 1. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class . communications were private and had not been made public or shared by either the reporter or the federal judge.165 1.993 12 10 25 29 24 100 Female 000 % 1. A few mails to the defendant’s law firm.503 2.770 11 10 24 26 29 100 Source: TGI Latina Aged 12-75.762 11 10 25 28 27 100 Male 000 % 1.978 1590 18. including the capital city and its surrounding area Map: CIA – The World Factbook 152 A = Upper middle class . from approximately USD5 million (15.199 929 667 8.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class ABC1 C2 C3 D1 D2 Total All adults 000 % 2.994 20 13 20 16 13 10 7 100 Female 000 % 1. and a diversified industrial base.supervisory or clerical.762 19 12 19 16 14 11 8 100 Male 000 % 1. and a television station.254 2. The government also restructured its defaulted debt in 2005.281 3.699 1. and junior managerial.intermediate managerial.884 4. since the provincial governments also own broadcast media. other media argued that the intelligence service must have been The federal government owns the Telam wire service. and paid off its IMF obligations from reserves in full in early 2006.159 4.167 8.049 961 2. Online / Digital Publishing The Association for Argentine Reporter Entities (ADEPA) complained about violation of e-mail privacy in a case where transcripts of e-mail exchanges between a reporter and a federal judge investigating an international drug trafficking network appeared in one of the law firms representing the defendants.112 1. Source: CIA . administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .4 million pesos) in 2002 to approximately USD47 million (127. including the capital city and its surrounding area 2. The inflaton rate was estimated at 10% in 2006.5 million pesos) during 2006.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 12-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-75 Total All individuals 000 % 3. convincing most bondholders to accept a large cut on the value of their holdings.633 5. an export-oriented agricultural sector. ADEPA Performance of newspapers vs.049 923 9.063 923 2.074 2.574 2.higher managerial. a highly literate population. administrative or professional B = Middle class . data referring to 13 metropolitan areas.804 1.512 1. bolstering government revenues and keeping the fiscal accounts in surplus.768 17 11 19 17 16 11 9 100 Source: TGI Latina Data referring to 13 metropolitan areas. Real GDP has continued to grow strongly.586 2.ARGENTINA Media Market Description General economic situation Argentina benefits from rich natural resources.789 1. US State Department 2.The World Factbook.379 2.836 1. monitoring the reporter’s e-mails and had given the ea radio network.807 9.711 1.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .974 18.

d Age % % daily reach of readership within age group 123 119 9 110 182 178 9 169 184 178 9 169 4 4 6 184 184 178 1 178 2 9 9 169 169 6 6 1 % reach by medium.00 Source: IFS.544 3.0 535.ab Including 36 titles associated to IVC Including 37 titles associated to IVC Gross domestic product per capita 2000 3. internet: Global Mind.79 2.548 1. data referring to 13 metropolitan areas.553 1.00 0.96 17. WAN assessment (free dailies) 1 7.0 Source: 2002-2004.a Households 000 % Without persons below 20 With persons below 20 aged 0-2 aged 3-8 aged 9-11 aged 12-19 Total 1.7 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.396 1.685 913 1. including the capital city and its surrounding area Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Housewives 000 % 13 13 19 18 15 12 10 100 Source: TGI Latina 2.aa 50. peso.00 7. Asociación Argentina de TV por Cable.58 0.2 9. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 376.103 989 7.65 Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Source: IFS.00 0. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 269. 2006 IVC (paid-for dailies).494 1. adults per day 2005 Reported as 30-60 minutes.ac -4. Free Dailies Newsletter.59 49. the average was taken.572 1.5 (Argentina. peso.02 7.b GDP per capita Total average circulation per issue Total dailies Total paid-for dailies 1 Total free dailies (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Source: IFS. Comfer. 2005 WAN assessment 1 2 7.0 313.579 1.0 435.175 1. 2006 WAN from public sources.7 7.b (%) Reached All adults Men Women Main household shopper Age 45 33 39 52 12-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-75 Total Source: TGI Latina Aged 12-75.65 0.8 11. including the capital city and its surrounding area Newspaper reach (2006) Age structure of readership (2006) 5.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 918 1.998 22 53 13 22 14 33 100 Source: TGI Latina Data referring to 13 metropolitan areas. ZenithOptimedia 1.386 1.00 0.850 6.725 1.537 985 2. ZenithOptimedia GDP 2001 (Argentina.00 53.96 7.997 13 19 22 20 26 100 Source: TGI Latina Data referring to 13 metropolitan areas. ZenithOptimedia 2002-2005 Titles audited by IVC WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 153 .363 1.97 -56.128 1.2 8.64 0. television: TGI.00 0.a 34 53 48 55 51 54 55 49 Data referring to 13 metropolitan areas. this figure refers to adults with internet access Gross domestic product 49.341 1.64 0. Monitor.502 1.69 0.48 Source: 2002-2005 IVC. including the capital city and its surrounding area Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-75 Total 918 1.ARGENTINA Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.49 0.835 5.194 1. 2005 Radio: TGI.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2.c 12 22 20 20 14 13 100 All newspapers Radio Television Internet 2 (minutes per day) 2002 2003 2004 31 66 70 - - - - 2005 360 180 45 Source: 2001 EGM. including the capital city and its surrounding area 5. WAN assessment. ZenithOptimedia 1 Number of titles 2 Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Media consumption 2001 1 Source: TGI Latina 3.091 1.287 481 451 188 202 207 7.280 6.

500 3.00 279.400 8. IVC.R.15 20.1 84. magazines and outdoor are Buenos Aires only.2 7. auditing started in 2003 (A+B+C+D) = total dailies + total non-dailies + total Sundays + online newspapers Total Revenue (Argentina. peso.Tarifario.597 Source: Monitor Medios Publicitarios 7.9 51.45 Publisher Owners Grupo Clarin La Nacion Ambito Financiero P8gina 12 La Prensa El Cronista Source: Monitor Refers to all media owners 8.734 322 2. 000) Advertiser Classified ads Sales houses Media owners Communications Political & civil assoc.5 2. El Huarpes SA Jornada SA Circulation (000) 125 30 26 16 5 5 Source: Free Dailies Newsletter.289 1.738 18.600 41.000 1. ZenithOptimedia 1 Adults 8.71 190.8 1. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers (A+B+C+D) 1.056 1.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) 7.016.5 Source: Monitor Medios Publicitarios 1 Top publishing companies (2002) Calculations based on gross revenues 8.5 1.000 copies 2 In Buenos Aires 3 In Posadas 4 In San Juan 1 154 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . ZenithOptimedia Calculations based on gross revenues.00 0.L. WAN assessment La Razon was founded in 1905 as a paid paper and was converted to a free daily in 1999.510.1 Total free dailies 37.45 193.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure (Argentina. 2003 radio and outdoor are Buenos Aires only 7.300 46.8 78.988 2. excluding online dailies.700 471.00 - 30. 000) Editorial Agea La Nacion Editorial Atlantida Editorial Perfil Prima Turner International Fenix Producciones Produfe BAE Negocios Artear Source: Monitor Medios Publicitarios 7. 2002-2005 excludes agency commission.800 100.314 Source: VC .340.8 Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays - - - 2.118.700 Source: Monitor de Medios Publicitarios.800 57.500 1.7 52. peso.c Advertising revenues (Argentina.287 Source: AAAA.906 105. capital of the Neuquen province in West-Argentina on October 17.500 1.9 2.26 29.037 1.243 1.02 30.110 73.1 Regional and local paid-for dailies 147.390 54.7 192.7 3.700 74.200 94.282 77 128 93 238 647 1.51 35. 2006. excludes production costs.091 1.2 69.588.108 1.500 21.179 1.209.176.4 63.176.748 1.950.3 3.8 Total dailies 1.838 341 2.885 32.000 2.744 68 83 93 105 26 37 43 57 101 128 188 232 11 17 24 32 1. peso.005 121 65 267 37 4.138.500 103.0 - Display Classified Inserts Online 1 Source: Monitor Medios Publicitarios 1 Not audited Top paid-for dailies (2005) Title (pages & page equivalents) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 61.52 190.635.690 1.ARGENTINA 7. peso) 391 175 166 90 79 62 60 25 5.3 340.349 28.444.106 23.8 2.0 Total paid-for dailies 1.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Argentina.000 83.627. ZenithOptimedia 2005 After discounts. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - - 97.544 51.520 613 963 1.400 2.097. classified.85 97.450 23.253 205.5 62.0 2.201 1.138.ba Advertising volume sold - - 98.8 35.200 184.600 47.2 1.000 292.722. with initial circulation of at least 5.500 1. peso.8 Total paid-for non-dailies 0.26 0. 000) 102.922 1.66 212.000 7.a 7.3 7.780 109.7 27.621 301 2.70 30.393 2.5 1.987.2 27.359 142 75 313 43 4.100 Source: ZenithOptimedia Expenditure 1 (Argentina.931 68.2 74.g Top owners (2005) Clarin La Nacion Crónica Ambito Financiero Diario Popular Ole El Cronista Infobae Circulation Readership 1 (000) (000) Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Argentina. 2002 radio.880. published in Buenos Aires. Hygiene & beauty Food Pharmaceutical Soft drinks Detergents Cencosud Carrefour Coto Cicsa Fravega Telecom Argentina SA Presidencia De La Nacion La Nacion SA Garbarino SA Artear Cia De Telefonos Del Interior 866.000 39.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Publisher La Razon 1 Diario la U 2 Noticias de la Calle 3 Huarpe 4 Extra de Bolsillo Jornada Editorial La Razon SA (Grupo Clarin) Periodismo Universitario SA La Verdad S.88 50.e Contribution of display. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 690 1.7 460. peso.00 50.402 22.564.45 279.4 41.200 28.500 3.2 1.664 2.200 76.600 4.224.838 3.500 150 80 332 46 5.d 7.800 7.205 133 71 293 40 4.2 National paid-for dailies 991.2 1.6 62.934 41.8 National paid-for non-dailies 0.6 3. a local edition launched in Neuquen.007 66.543 2.415. excludes classified.474 274 2.

282 people aged 12-75 from 13 metropolitan areas. imported newsprint average cost was USD650 per ton in the same period Readership is measured by TGI Latina Methodology Annual sample of 10.c Newsprint costs 11.8 g from Papel Prensa.. including the capital city and its surrounding area. four reports per year. S. peso) 2003 2004 2005 - - 1. covering last 12 months and last six months. personal interviews and questionnaires WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 155 .571 2 Research Circulation is audited by Institudo Verificador de Circulaciones (IVC) Source: El Dia 2006 January-June 1 Domestic newsprint 48. 2002 Average per ton - (Argentina.A.8 g from Papel Prensa.383 2006 1 1. imported newsprint average cost was USD609 per ton 1 Domestic newsprint 48. S.A.ARGENTINA 10..

this requirement creates an additional potential for corruption and represents an additional obstacle to free dissemination of advertisement information. Hayk was the organ of the Armenian National Movement. interviewing. newspapers have little public impact because of their low circulations. Another major factor behind the contradictions of the social-economical situation is the steady depreciation of currency.000 to Zhamanak Yerevan is a version of the Zhamanak Los 150. The a different arrangement between them” (cl. new dailies are launched with a modest circulation of 1. The same research revealed that 45% of Armenian residents did not trust news and political information from any newspaper (November 2006). Several branches of the economy may be described as monopolized. Article 32 dictates that “the copyright for an interview Advertising belongs to the person interviewed and the person Armenia has no real tradition of private advertising. after a seven-year break. Thus. In 2006. the ruling party from the first days of independence in 1991 up to February 1998. and medical methods advertising.000 to 1.500 copies. which affects media activity in general. generally. Newspaper launches / closures As a rule. Performance of newspapers vs. period of time. The law contains a number of common provisions on media activities that Pakagits non-daily newspaper shifted to daily publishing are mostly similar to the stipulations of the previous law (5 days a week) after a couple of years of non-daily of 1999. 1) and that majority of advertising expenditure goes to TV. no survival prospects after elections.000 in 2006 (estimates). The number of websites. compared to 53% in May and August 2006. while 27% said it declined. Two entertainment (consumer) magazines. increased as well. Hayk daily restarted publication in September 2006. and English. According to the Armenia National Voter Study (November 2006). status. medical equipment. Public attention seems to be shifting from newspapers to with. while constantly improving during recent years. new national dailies were launched in 2006. still does not function like a typical market economy. Angeles newspaper. while “publication of an interview is allowed by the consent of radio takes most of the rest. as co-authors. in November 2006 44% of respondents did not regularly read any of the newspapers published in Armenia. According to experts. becoming the first alternative publication in Soviet Armenia. Readership According to the Armenia National Voter Study. Clause 2 of Article 4 of the new law indicates that No closures were registered in 2006. Copyright In 2006. newspapers are launched in pre-election years. while publishing of “the information of the news of the day or current affairs Ayb-Fe weekly remains interrupted for an indefinite and facts” is not an object of copyright. the National Assembly of Armenia amended Article 22 of the Law also stipulates free use of the works the advertising law. Circulation Some newspapers have increased their circulation by 100 to 200 copies per issue. the National Assembly adopted the new law On Copyright and Adjacent Rights. Formerly it was launched in November 1989. More than 97% of the people rely on TV for news and information.ARMENIA Media Market Description General economic situation The general economy of Armenia. (cl. However. other media Newspapers in general offer more diverse opinions than the broadcast media. intended for Armenia. The major media outlets generally maintain pro-governmental views. published in the USA in Armenian including those of governmental/administrative bodies. compared to 52% in August 2006 and 48% in May 2006. which now requires permission from without the author’s consent and remuneration but with 156 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Before 1999. unless they have settled Most advertising expenditure is political in nature. Meanwhile. a year before parliamentary elections: Online / Digital Publishing The number of Internet users increased from 100. leaving too little for the interviewed and the interviewing individuals” newspapers and even less for their online editions. 2). the Healthcare Ministry for medicine. 24% of Armenians said that the financial situation of their household improved in the last year. The price of mobile connections dropped significantly in 2005 after the second mobile operator entered the market.

which prints about three dozen newspapers. whereas distribution in effect remains subject to licensing.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 179 485 625 465 455 453 210 346 3. there are no clear and fair criteria for 1. Credit. the National Assembly had still not discussed a set of draft amendments to the Law on Postal Communication. The ferry route was the Constitution and the Law on Mass Media Activities. This means that an entity which provides subscription service cannot distribute the press without a license. if adopted. The latter would Printing & Distribution imply indirect honoring of obligations in respect of On December 1. would dispel all of the aforementioned concerns. Postal Issues In January 2006. reopened in mid-December. According to Yerevan Press Club experts. Fiscal. and distribution of periodicals will either have to pay the unless it runs contrary to the legitimate interests of the required license fee of 5 mln drams.577 3.665 5 14 19 14 14 14 7 12 100 Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia 2. it would stop printing the subscription and distribution. and Economic Affairs of National Assembly are negative about this draft and would prefer to retain the licensing clause and lower the licensing fee State Support The Government has increased subsidies to print media. this means: however. The newsprint shortage resulted from delivery 2. It is expected that such as well as Article 10 of the European Convention for the a situation might happen during election campaigns in Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental 2007 or 2008. Source: Yerevan Press Club 2. Newspapers publications on their own. is not subject to licensing. and a higher cost of subscription and a lower Mets. 2006 for an undetermined period of time. the Ministry of Transport and Communication published an official explanation of Article 11 of the Law on Postal Communication. Editorial offices of periodicals and publishers will not problems caused by inaction of the ferry between have the possibility of subscribing and distributing their Ilyichevsk (Ukraine) and Poti (Georgia).219 6 15 19 14 14 14 7 11 100 Male 000 % 96 253 315 228 216 213 94 140 1.ARMENIA a mandatory specification of the author and the source. despite the increased expenses and Moreover. and. 2006.694 A = executive/managers/administrators B = professional/managers C = skilled manual workers D = state pensioners/widows/children 24 7 70 100 Source: Armenia Sociological Association Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 157 .554 6 16 20 15 14 14 6 9 100 Female 000 % 83 232 310 238 239 238 116 207 1. However. Freedoms. were looking for alternative publishing houses and did not stop publishing. the publishing house Tigran subscribers. Both this explanation and draft amendments initiated by the Government refer only to subscription. which will cause author. as of December 6. both the Government and the Standing Committee for Finance. Small organizations engaged only in the subscription distributing the funds. declaring that the print press subscription is not a postal service and. At the end of 2006.b Population by social class (2002) Social class A+B C D Total All adults 000 % 868 250 2. this situation contradicts some provisions of technical problems in some cases. as such. or have to outsource the distribution to another licensed entity. them to go bankrupt. which had been proposed by several parliamentarians. stated print run due to different entities being responsible for that due to a newsprint shortage.

17 -11.08 -7.2 54.a 8 6 2 5 5 - 5 5 - 8 8 - -33.b 100.0 2.aa 5 7 4 11 28 28 56 35 21 3. There are no daily or community newspapers in Armenia's regions 3. WAN from public sources.0 Gross domestic product per capita - GDP per capita - (Armenia. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2002 22 22 59 38 21 10 13 Gross domestic product GDP 1. 2003 UNESCAP.27 27.c Advertising revenues (Armenia.000 1.00 100. 000) 7. IREX ProMedia.6 697. 2004-2005 RA Agency of Media Distribution.4 593.20 25.89 0.7 - 7. Yerevan Press Club. Yerevan Press Club. dram.00 Daily 5.00 0.d Cover prices (2006) Source: Armenia National Voter Study (2006) Single copy Subscription The study was carried out by the International Republican Institute.00 22 22 22 59 38 21 7.665.c Households % 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 people 6 people 7 people or more Total Type of newspaper sales 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 85 15 100 85 15 100 85 15 100 85 15 100 85 15 100 Single copy sales Other Total 4 11 15 25 20 16 9 100 Source: RA Agency of Media Distribution 4.244.00 - - 10. 4. There are no free and Sunday newspapers in Armenia.0 120. it was funded by the USAID Source: RA Agency of Media Distribution 3. dram.7 3. IREX ProMedia.76 0.624.9 827. National newspapers are defined as those which are published in Yerevan and distributed throughout the country.a Source: 2002-2003 WAN estimate.ARMENIA Households (occupancy) (2006) 2. 2006 RA Agency of Media Distribution.a (Armenia. 4.33 - 60. Yerevan Press Club - Online editions Source: Yerevan Press Club Address Book (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 - 16 24 29 36 11 Dailies Non-dailies Total average circulation per issue Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Monthly 14 Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 1.b All adults % of readership 12 6 6 Total paid-for dailies 27 National paid-for dailies 27 Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies 110. There are no free and Sunday newspapers in Armenia.00 60. and the Armenian Sociological Association.2 - - 7.000 2.00 2006 1.90 -4. dram) min max - - - 30.27 -5. mln) Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 600. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 505.00 333. mln) Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies - (Armenia.ca Occupancy 4. - 5 3 2002 Source: 2002-2005 RA Agency of Media Distribution.9 2. Baltic Surveys Ltd. dram.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2002) 7. National newspapers are defined as those which are published in Yerevan and distributed throughout the country. Yerevan Press Club 4.6 1. dram. Regional newspaper are defined as those publications distributed through certain regions. 2006 RA Agency of Media Distribution.b Number of titles Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Newspaper reach (2002) 5. WAN from public sources. 2. 26 26 - 18-29 30-44 45-59 60 + 6.000 6.600 3. dram. 2. There are no daily or community newspapers in Armenia's regions 3.907. Regional newspaper are defined as those publications distributed through certain regions.00 (%) Weekly Age structure of readership (2002) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 3.0 300.4 Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia 7.g Top newspaper advertisers (2002) Advertising sector Advertiser Expenditure (%) Bank services and reports Property Airlines and travel agencies Cosmetics and beauty salons Alcohol and cigarettes Computers and accessories Classified Training and education 30 25 20 7 5 5 5 3 SIL Group Armavia Grand Candy Multi Group Jermuk Vedi Alco Cigaronne Grand Tobacco Kilikia Beer Avshar Expenditure (Armenia.500 700 400 300 200 200 Source: Informal survey of newspaper ad sales departments 158 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . / Gallup.00 - 41 12 29 43 13 30 47 16 31 48 17 31 46 15 31 12.33 Source: National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia Sales revenues - 11 13 (Armenia.33 33.ab 27.00 6.

dram) (USD) 6 5 4 4 4 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.Simikyan Grigor Tatevatsi Voskan Yerevantsi 8. Aravot Oratert Ltd.26 0. Skizb Media Kentron Ltd.00 100.00 280.26 0.26 A2 A3 A3 A3 A3 150. Hayots Ashkhar Terti Khmbagrutjun Ltd.000 Total amount - - 30. dram) 1999 2000 2001 - - - Direct subsidies (Armenia.00 100. dram.26 0.b 1998 Average per ton Subsidies generally (2006) - (Armenia. Cover price (000) Format 1 Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Armenia. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2002 472. 2006 Journalists Union of Armenia 12. dram) (Armenia.00 100.00 0. A3 = 420x594 mm 10.a Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Broadsheets Tabloids 10. 20 Discount on rates of 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 Source: Yerevan Press Club Source: Yerevan Press Club WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 159 .0 - - Source: 2004 Yerevan Press Club.00 180.standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Discounts (2006) % 14. AGAP-Hrat Ltd.ba - - - - 1 5 - - Distribution costs as a % of average cover price 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 - - - - 30 45 Single copy sales Postal deliveries Figures include dailies and non-dailies 10.26 0. Taxes (2006) Tax Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits . dram) (Armenia.c Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? Yes Source: Yerevan Press Club Newsprint costs 13.0 - 182.00 0.26 A3 Tabloid A3 100.00 100.a Publisher Tigran Mets Gind H.00 100.00 - 3 1 1 100.00 - - Source: From public sources and interviews Ad rates for both mono and colour per 1 square cm 1 Page sizes of the Soviet times: A2 = 297x420 mm. Azg Oratert Ltd.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Hayastani Hanrapetutyun Haykakan Zhamanak Pakagits Aravot Hayots Ashkhar Armenian Armenian Armenian Armenian Armenian Azg Zhamanak Yerevan Hayk Armenian Armenian Armenian Hanrapetutyun CJSC Dareskizb Ltd. Hayk Editorial Staff Ltd.a Newspaper colour capability & formats 13.ARMENIA Top publishing companies (2002) 8.26 0.26 0.00 100.

but no specific rules for publishers. and in particular. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? The RA Law On Television and Radio does not prohibit it but stipulates that both TV and radio broadcasting require a licence (Article 7). but cannot own a control package of shares Satellite TV Broadcasters Foreign Investors Allowed.a 15.b Ownership laws and rules Source: Yerevan Press Club Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Not allowed Not allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National TV Licensees Not allowed Not allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed No special regulations No special regulations No special regulations No special regulations No special regulations Local Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed. but cannot own Allowed. but cannot own a control package of shares a control package of shares Source: Yerevan Press Club 160 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners.ARMENIA Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. but no specific rules for publishers. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? There is a general anti-monopoly law regulating businesses. the majority of shares. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? There is a general anti-monopoly law regulating businesses. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No 15.

with 75% of those from the US. The Amigoe is an evening daily in the Netherlands Antilles. Circulation Aruba belongs to countries with the relatively highest daily newspaper circulation (about 750 daily newspaper copies per thousand population).0 Source: CIA .a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 14 49 9 72 Male Female 000 % 000 % 7 24 4 35 20 69 11 100 19 68 13 100 7 25 5 37 19 68 14 100 Source: CIA .4% in 2005.00 Source: 2002-2003 WAN assessment. with more local Aruba news and advertisements.The World Factbook 3. Over 1.00 Source: WAN assessment 7. The inflation rate was estimated at 3. open Aruban economy. bln) 2002 2003 2004 3.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies - - 54 54 54 - 0.5 - - 2005 4. Some pages appear in both editions.ARUBA Media Market Description General economic situation Tourism is the mainstay of the small. with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. Amigoe is the oldest daily newspaper appearing in the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. Source: CIA . with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level.The World Factbook 8. Construction continues to boom. 2004-2006 WAN from public sources 3.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation (000) Diario Aruba Today / Bon Dia 1 Solo di Pueblo Awe Mainta Amigoe 2 Papiamento 3 Agencia Arubano di Noticia English / Papiamento Sociedad Interamericana di Prensa 25 19 80 1. Bon Dia is the Papiamento version of the Aruba Today 2 Founded in 1884. a separate daily edition is printed for Aruba.33 0.50 - - - - - Broadsheet Papiamento Papiamento Dutch Uitgeverij Amigoe NV Readership Cover price Format (000) (Aruban guilder) Source: WAN from public sources 1 Published Monday-Sunday. 3 Local language WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 161 .aa Gross domestic product 2001 Map: CIA – The World Factbook GDP - (Aruban guilder/florin.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 3 3 4 4 4 33.5 million tourists per year visit Aruba.The World Factbook 2.

5 per cent strategic stake in Fairfax Media for AUD360 million. online advertising was up 60% to and perhaps elsewhere. Brisbane Mx.5% share of the advertising market. . regional daily newspapers (up 3.8% growth in the media sector in Australia and New Zealand to AUD4. The massive demand for natural resources from China and India has boosted commodity prices and greatly benefited Australiaís trade in mineral exports. Broadcasting Ltd by spinning off its media assets and laying the groundwork for expansion.9% stake Circulation in Southern Cross Broadcasting for AUD165 million. published by News Limited. the Nine Network.Seven Network taking a 14.Publishing and Broadcasting Limited spinning off its main media assets (ACP Magazines. Australasia.2%) fell at a time when the advertising market as a whole rose by 3. Performance of different types of newspapers In the six months to December 2006 (the latest available figures). . its 50% share in ninemsn) into a joint venture with private equity group CVC Asia-Pacific. the impact of the worst drought in 100 years has reduced forecast GDP growth to 2. 162 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . This disparity is expected to remain for the immediate future as the natural resource export boom continues. Outdoor grew magazine and online assets. KKR and Seven will each 13% over the same period the prior year.AUSTRALIA Media Market Description General economic situation At first glance. . The new enterprise. the Australian economy continues to perform strongly. The result has been a two-tier economy based on geography and industry. Seven sold its Advertising television and magazine assets into a USD4 billion media The two fastest growing media categories in Australia are joint venture with US-based private equity firm Kohlberg online and outdoor. classified and Providence Partners and the Carlyle Group. 8. local economies are thriving and their newspapers along with them. In regions less reliant on agriculture and with large natural resources reserves. with the aim of pursuing (the latest available figures). Online / Digital Publishing Newspapers are applying more resources to their online extensions as the revenue from online display continues to grow. called Seven AUD421 million – drawing level with radio with an Media Group. advertising in metropolitan daily newspapers (down 5. local search classified business. of which INM already arrival of Google in Australia and the expansion of its holds a 40% stake.5%. PBL to retain control of the JV. However. .5 billion sale to fund growth in its publicly-listed gaming business.4%) and regional non-dailies (up 12. Newspapers as hold 50 per cent of the new joint venture. PBL will use the proceeds of the USD4. local economies have slowed and newspapers serving those markets have suffered as a consequence. are seeking search/directories.7%) and Sunday papers (down 10.25% and unemployment running at a 30-year low of 4. or AUD5. Newspaper launches / closures There were no major closures. a whole were down 2. at which time subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval the notes will convert. interest rates steady at 6. which will look for new media opportunities in Australia and overseas.News Corp taking a 7.20 a share. the category has benefited from the to privatise APN News & Media. Ownership A number of mergers and privatisations have been mooted ahead of planned changes to media ownership laws.Macquarie Media Group has picked up a 14. In regions affected by drought and without reserves of natural resources such as coal.9 billion. Corporate activity in late 2006 included : . when advertising grew 3. includes Seven Network’s television. although changes in the Audit Bureau of Circulation methodology . A free daily commuter newspaper.Fairfax Media and Rural Press are considering a AUD9 make meaningful comparisons with prior periods billion merger to create the largest newspaper group in difficult.4%. Readership Readership numbers for most major metropolitan and regional titles increased in the latest survey period. iron ore and nickel.Independent News & Media of Ireland. with inflation controlled around the 3% level.8%. CVC will hold convertible notes in the new entity until the foreign ownership rules are relaxed. Newspaper circulations have trended flat.8% in 2007. The rapid expansion of online advertising continues to be a feature of the local market. together with Comprising online display.9%) reflected the strong export-oriented economies of some parts of regional Australia. In the six months to December 2006 Kravis Roberts & Co (KKR).9% stake in WA Newspapers for AUD11 a share.Seven Network Ltd followed the lead of Publishing and launched in Brisbane in Queensland in March 2007. . However.

intermediate managerial.428 1.729 1.737 9 31 20 23 17 100 Source: Roy Morgan Research September Without children With children aged 0-2 aged 3-8 aged 9-15 Total Households 000 % 10.higher managerial.794 2.430 1.supervisory or clerical.AUSTRALIA Media / Press Laws The Federal Government is due to proclaim new media ownership laws in 2007 that will open up the Australian media industry to foreign ownership as well as crossmedia ownership.810 1.348 16.605 19 14 14 15 14 11 13 100 Male 000 % 2. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class . administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2. Proprietors will be allowed to own two of the three main media types in any one market (daily newspapers.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 3.690 3.ca Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.797 8.392 1.618 1.240 3.642 1.490 18 20 20 20 21 100 Source: Roy Morgan Research September Socio-economic quintiles based on rankings on three main criteria: income.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .705 1.560 6. June Qtr 2006 Estimates only Female 000 % 1.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .467 1.985 2.551 8. Some limitations will continue but the previously onerous restrictions have been greatly liberalised.177 1. TV and radio).556 5.140 1.525 1.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.734 20.756 16.737 63 37 9 16 24 100 Source: Roy Morgan Research September 2.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Age 14-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Total Housewives 000 % 111 337 313 235 164 136 1. however.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class AB C D E FG Total All adults 000 % 3.273 2. For the first time.413 1.514 1. Source: APN News & Media 2.859 2. administrative or professional B = Middle class .391 3. overseas investors will still need to gain approval from the Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB).842 2. education.348 3.233 10. and occupation A = Upper middle class .347 3.039 2.347 3.247 22 20 20 20 19 100 Female 000 % 1.456 2.445 1.626 1.940 1.045 1.501 10. full foreign ownership of newspaper and TV assets will be allowed.347 3. and junior managerial.873 3.737 20 20 20 20 20 100 Male 000 % 1.133 1.538 1.348 19 13 14 15 14 11 15 100 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 1.296 9 26 24 18 13 11 100 Source: Roy Morgan Research September WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 163 .994 16.257 20 14 14 15 14 11 12 100 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.721 1.

474 3.91 0. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Suburban newspapers 3.7 30.0 111. 2006 ABC July to September.50 Source: 2002 WAN assessment.15.d Cover prices (2006) 5.b - Source: ABC/Circulation Audit Board Source: 2002-2004 ABC/Circulation Audit Board.970 National paid-for dailies 215 217 219 221 Regional and local 522 572 591 594 paid-for dailies City paid-for dailies 2.00 0.142 free non-dailies City free non-dailies 8.3 247.233 2.422 - 5.1 864. CAB April to September.0 205. 2005 ABC July to December.b - Age 14-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total -1.419 .24 - 257 - 290 - 303 - 292 109 20.075 2.461 3. CAB April to September 1 - (Australia.065 3.63 - 4.68 9. Commercial Economic Advisory Service of Australia (CEASA).09 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies City paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays City paid-for Sundays 1 Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 3.934 2.16 - -3. 2003-2004 ABC/Circulation Audit Board.116.91 15.0 - - 1.155 Morning paid-for dailies 2.0 36.00 - 0.26 - - 685 32 32 - - - - - 542 180 - - - 2004 Including city dailies Sales revenues - 1.484 Regional and local 63 paid-for Sundays City paid-for Sundays 3.888 Total paid-for Sundays 3. dollar) min max Single copy 3.00 0.00 0.0 - - 282.86 50. 2006 ABC July to September 2006.12.241 Total paid-for dailies 2.09 50.150 3.56 Regional and local 90 free dailies City free dailies 181 Total paid-for non-dailies 456 433 474 Regional and local 456 433 474 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 1 .18 - 10 10 11 10 -9.885 2. WAN assessment.90 2. WAN assessment (free dailies).26 -5. WAN assessment (free dailies).32 610.0 282.970 Total free dailies 180 180 180 180 271 50.AUSTRALIA 3.09 -9. CAB April to September.00 0.459 3.51 950 103 162 909 732 177 -2.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached (Australia.7 - - 800.145 2.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 50 Total paid-for dailies 48 National paid-for dailies 2 Regional and local 35 paid-for dailies City paid-for dailies 11 Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies 2 Regional and local free dailies City free dailies Total non-dailies 338 Total paid-for non-dailies 95 Regional and local 95 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 1 243 Regional and local free non-dailies City free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 11 Regional and local paid-for Sundays City paid-for Sundays 11 Total paid-for dailies 930 National paid-for dailies 1 778 Regional and local 153 paid-for dailies City paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 31 Regional and local 31 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 178 City paid-for Sundays - 49 47 2 35 49 47 2 35 50 48 2 36 51 48 2 36 2. production costs and directories.1 177.041.030 Regional and local 3.00 - 373 116 116 425 135 135 458 155 155 2 292 - -13.0 - - - 177.56 - 0.18 - 18.00 50.86 2.172 National free non-dailies .95 0. Excludes agency commission.a Number of titles 4.00 0.970 2. dollar.b 10 - 10 - 11 - 183 13 3 18.61 - -36. CAB April to September 1 (mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 % % daily reach of readership within age group 5 12 16 17 19 15 16 100 All adults Men Women Main household shopper 60 64 56 59 Source: Roy Morgan Research September 47 60 57 58 63 64 64 60 Source: Roy Morgan Research September 5.0 30.00 2.December 2006 Age structure of readership (2006) 5.00 10 2 - 10 2 - 10 2 - 10 48 3 1 -9.c Media consumption Suburban newspapers 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet - (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 - - 30 16 133 18 65 2006 31 17 134 191 69 Source: Roy Morgan Research 164 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .10.50 Source: ABC July .0 - - - 247. after discounts 4.114 3.0 - - Source: Advertising Expenditure in Main Media.74 2.69 -4. 2005 ABC July to December.

01 6.060 1.71 11.50 54.ab Display Classified 2001 4.813 News Limited Fairfax Media Independent publishers APN News & Media 1 Rural Press Limited 4.59 17.338 2.722 3.30 7.000.com.894 4.847 778 3.9 Expenditure (Australia.666 702 58 261 167 7.266 842 74 327 300 9.production costs and directories.94 36.625 3.30 -5.000 (Australia. 000) 79. and regional newspapers 1 Source: Commercial Economic Advisory Service of Australia.a 607.070 4.11 30. 8.news.016 1.766 287.4 66. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Gross domestic product GDP 2002 (Australia.544 2004 45.6 Source: 2002-2005 IFS.506 Source: ABC July to September 2006 (audited): national dailies .aa 7.695 4.000 15.AUSTRALIA 6.317 35. 2005 Australian Bureau of Statistics 1 12 months to September 2006 7.074 3. mln) Advertiser Retail Motor vehicles Real estate Recruitment Entertainment & leisure Travel/accommodation Finance Communications Government Services Coles Group Limited Woolworths Limited Government Commonwealth Harvey Holdings Limited Government Victoria Government New South Wales Telstra Corporation Limited Government Queensland Government Western Australia Toyota Motor Corporation Aust.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure (Australia.461 20.0 229.000 17. dollar.70 52.118 4.87 646 331 331 17.54 2. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Publisher 3. excludes agency commission 1 Including Transport WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 165 .c Advertising revenues Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Non-dailies Sundays - 22 460 - 12 12 12 450 12 372 - - 3. 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics 1 Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 2001 (Australia. dollar.341 4.6 927.532 3.1 48. excludes production costs.091 4.com.30 45. ZenithOptimedia Nielsen Media Research AdEx data.924 737 66 297 236 8.4 808. ABVS. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1.905 817 3.642 1.906 1.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) Source: Nielsen Media Research Estimate based on 2005 data 7.au dailytelegraph.566 Regional and local 364 paid-for dailies Total non-dailies 813 Total paid-for non-dailies222 Regional and local 222 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 2 591 Total paid-for Sundays 301 City paid-for Sundays 3 301 2.3 320.822 3.10 69.65 -5. 6.03 1.034.e Contribution of display.4 Source: 2001-2004 IFS.9 78.074 286 321 337 377 286 321 337 377 32. dollar. 000) 5.517 3.22 -1.051 2. surburban & trader papers should be regarded as a minimum as it is difficult to monitor all of them accurately. 2006 CEASA 1 2005 47.04 932 1. dollar. After discounts 1 Including national and city (metropolitan) dailies Suburban newspapers 3 Metropolitan Sunday newspapers 2 Source: Nielsen//NetRatings Market Intelligence for Audited Sites 7.871 Total circulation (000) Total revenue (Australia.70 58.834 409 417 447 474 19.00 - Source: National Library of Australia The figures for regional.0 45. dollar.50 56.au age.204 20.3 1 864.com.790 727 3. ZenithOptimedia.com.8 181.b Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website The Sydney Morning Herald The Age The Australian The Herald Sun The Daily Telegraph smh.20 1 Source: 2002-2005 IFS.82 5.213 2.000 8. dollar.991 789 2.06 1.82 69. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2006 760.128 29.687 660 388 1.687 40.60 Source: Nielsen Media Research AdEx Advertising expenditure per medium Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor 1 Internet Total (%) 2003 7.au heraldsun.964 858 3.122 Top publishing companies (2006) (Australia.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 1. Ltd. includes classified.780 2. ZenithOptimedia.7 903.40 54.535 4.463 11.7 193.001 55.252 822 2. classified.11 1. 000) 2002 2003 2004 2005 36. metro newspapers.9 447.87 11.54 36.426 24.09 1.848 989 102 471 1.28 -3.079 51. dailies based on Monday-Saturday average After discounts.ba 2002 Source: Comercial Economic Advisory Service of Australia (CEASA) 12 months to September 2006 7.30 693 379 379 679 434 434 697 411 411 Source: Commercial Economic Advisory Service of Australia Excludes agency commission.637 895 3.014 1. including selected major publications.9 39.0 1 41.891 1.40 43. ZenithOptimedia.308 1.271 1.928 80.615 880 84 354 620 10. dollar.2 428.747 942 96 428 1.004 104 478 1.000 53.485 11.a Online editions 7.60 41.0 43.com.news.au australian.156 11.930 National paid-for dailies 1 1.023 871 3.668 24.655 902 89 396 868 10.796 1.307.news.au Page impressions (000) 92.887 54.

037 46. dollar) Tabloid Tabloid 7. GST exclusive 8. through the book – business magazines.166 581 603 887 1. readership questions: composite measurement approach is used. 2 Current as of February 2007. recency – newspapers 12. delivered free to homes and businesses from Manly to Palm Beach Tuesday-Saturday. GST exclusive Two different editions 4 Suburban newspaper in Cumberland.10 1. dollar) 540 394 228 225 212 1.072 News Limited Fairfax Media News Limited Fairfax Media 203 200 135 86 562 736 426 265 1. the area of Sydney’s northern beaches. i. plus leave-behind diary.076 27. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids 10.814 12.159 5.699 35.120 29. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 10 30 30 Source: Australian Taxation Office 166 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .778 12.515 7.10 Tabloid 4.648 61.20 1 1. dollar) (000) (000) (Australia.20 Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet 32.AUSTRALIA 8. frequency: once a week.10 1 1.c - - - - 355 4 351 - - Circulation is audited by Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC).706 Source: Circulation: ABC July to September (audited).389 5.412 38. methodology depends on frequency of publication. readership: Roy Morgan Research September.363 35.000 Australia-wide.172 47.920 15.e. monthly or less freqency published magazines.482 1.978 41.50 Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid 9. single source.311 15. front cover recognition – fortnightly.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Readership Cover price The Herald Sun The Daily Telegraph The West Australian The Courier-Mail The Sydney Morning Herald The Advertiser The Age The Australian The Australian Financial Review The Mercury English English English English English News Limited News Limited West Australian Newspapers News Limited Fairfax Media English English English English English Format Full page ad rate Mono 1 Colour 2 (Australia.40 1.000.000 3 10.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Format (000) Mx Sydney / Mx Melbourne Manly Daily 4 3 English English News Limited Cumberland Newspaper Group (News Limited) 181 5 90 Full page ad rate Mono 1 Colour 2 (Australia. combination of face-to-face questions. readership: Roy Morgan Research September 1.896 22.140 News Limited 49 131 1. 2 Current as of February 2007. Melbourne 89. with the first edition distributed on the famous Manly ferries in 1906 5 Sydney 92. it has been continually published for 100 years.20 2.461 15.a Newspaper colour capability & formats 11. first time reading – weekly magazines. Circulation Audit Bureau (CAB) Readership is measured by Roy Morgan Research Newsprint costs 1998 Average per ton Research - (Australia.169 Source: Circulation: CAB April to September.278 11. dollar) 1999 2000 2001 - Source: ANM/Fletcher Challenge Paper/Norske Skog 947 980 2002 985 Methodology Sample size: 50.159 7. WAN from public sources 1.

the majority of shares. All media proprietors must register with the Australian Communications and Media Authority. which was previously prohibited. Monopolies provisions are administered by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission under the Trade Practices Act. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. of domestic daily newspapers? Laws prohibiting foreign companies from owning more than 25% of a metropolitan newspaper and 50% of a regional newspaper will be lifted in 2007. Newspapers will be able to own either TV or radio assets in the same market. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Laws governing the ownership of media assets are due to change in Australia in 2007 when the Federal Government proclaims new legislation. allowing for a company to own two of daily newspaper. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. Nondaily and free publications are exempt from this restriction.a Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. subject to approval by the Foreign Investment Review Board. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? As part of general anti-trust provisions in Section 50 of the Trade Practices Act. These laws are contained under the Broadcasting Services Act. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other 15. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? Yes. which administers the Act. a company is deemed to be in breach if its actions lead to a substantial lessening of competition in a market. and will administer the new ownership framework. New legislation allows for 100% foreign ownership. which oversees the media ownership law. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No 14. under the Broadcasting Services Act all media companies must register with the Australian Communications and Media Authority. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 167 . which maintains a media ownership register. has broad-ranging powers to investigate specific cases. radio or TV in a single market. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? Laws prohibiting cross media ownership will be amended in 2007. and in particular.AUSTRALIA 13.

subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval Local Radio Licensees National Radio Licensees Foreign Investors Due to be proclaimed by the Federal Government in 2007 168 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . but precludes owning TV in the same market Satellite TV Broadcasters Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes. but precludes owning a newspaper in the same market Yes Yes. but precludes owning a daily newspaper in the same market Regional Newspaper Owners Yes. but limit of 2 licences per market 100%. subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval 100%. provided total market coverage does not exceed 75% of the Australian population Yes. but precludes owning radio in the same market Yes Yes. but precludes owning radio in the same market Yes. but precludes owning a daily newspaper in the same market National TV Licensees Yes. but precludes owning TV in the same market Yes Yes Yes Yes. but precludes owning radio in the same market Yes Yes Yes. but precludes owning radio in the same market Yes Yes Yes Yes. but precludes owning TV in the same market Yes. subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval 100%.AUSTRALIA 15. but precludes owning a newspaper in the same market Yes Yes. provided total market coverage does not exceed 75% of the Australian population One licence per region Yes Yes. but precludes owning TV in the same market National Newspaper Owners Yes Yes.b Cross-media ownership restrictions (2006) Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees One licence per region Yes. subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval 100%. subject to Foreign Investment Review Board approval 100%.

The gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 3.1%. This is remarkable.326 million daily. expanded by 29. campaign addressed.5% for the age group 20 to 29 year significant discounts are granted on account of the fierce olds.7% of the Austrian trade journals. Despite the generally good economic conditions. as in previous years. The unemployment rate declined from 5. a second phase will be weekly newspapers also grew.9% over the preceding year. boosting their share by launched at the end of March 2007 until June 2007. the figure was 59.5% on average over the year (harmonized EU consumer price index +1. while four new free papers for metropolitan areas were launched between May and September in addition to an existing commuter paper in eastern Austria. It was followed by the services sector with gross advertising expenditure of EUR 615 million. which was more than the average for the European Union.6% for the age group 14 to 19 (+5. private consumption only rose by 1. which did advertising in daily and weekly newspapers. due to the merely moderate increase in wages. The benefits of reading a newspaper were and a 56. radio. In 2006. high.949 million (+6. 3. After Print subjects in the media of VÖZ members serve as WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 169 . no 2006 – despite growing competition between the media.9%. a rise of 6. accounting for EUR 2. with classical advertising. Inflation remained at +1. to the age group of 17 to 25 year olds in order to win them as newspaper With advertising revenues of EUR 1. Growth was essentially fuelled by exports.2% in real terms. the print humorously and strikingly conveyed in the young media indisputably continued to lead the market in people’s own language with the claim “No paper.9% in real terms. it must be remembered that year olds and 67. the Austrian economy spent a total of EUR 2.2% over the preceding Readership year) on advertising (according to listed prices excluding Market saturation can generally be described as relatively discounts and taxes). In sectoral terms. competition between media and this fact must also be taken into account when considering the following In 2006. i. Under the leadership of the VÖZ and in cooperation with the Creativ Club Austria (CCA).7% to EUR 36. which is still a relatively small market in Austria.8 million in 2006. to EUR 388 million.4% over the preceding year. Expenditure on online advertising. However. a European competition entitled “best YET” for young creative talents has been organized and hosted in Austria since 2006. The branded goods sector once again grew strongly by 9. to EUR 213 million. considering that some 800. advertising sector. outdoor advertising and public over 14 years of age read one paid newspaper classical leaflets.7%). The first phase of the campaign was accompanied Daily newspapers generated revenues of EUR 668 by a separate online appearance and extended from million. magazines. the VÖZ launched a widely acclaimed reader figures. in particular. magazines of every kind grew by 0. with expenditure totalling EUR 509 million.6% in relation to 2005. with attractive relaunches. rising 6.6% share in classical advertising. The retail and mail order trade boosted their gross advertising expenditure by 4.AUSTRIA Media Market Description General economic situation Austria’s economy developed favourably in 2006 and additionally profited from the general upswing in Europe. Several Austrian Circulation publishing companies have already realized mobile The reader market was characterized by growing services and interactive services with varying degrees of competition. In 2006.8% to EUR 321 million. circulation figures for the intensity in order to strengthen the loyalty of their established paid newspapers have essentially remained readers and to remain present throughout the entire day. the capital goods industry remained the leading advertiser.318 million (+5%) readers. television. not yet include the new paper. According to the media analysis 2006. Performance of different types of newspapers The print media presented themselves as the most innovative media sector in Austria in 2006. A new paid daily was launched in September.e. newspaper supplements also picked up considerably. However. a rise of 6. years in the doldrums. more or less unchanged.8% to EUR 110 million.000 copies are distributed free of charge Advertising every day of the week in the form of commuter papers The economic development also stimulated the and other free offerings. 42 teams (each comprising one graphic designer and one copywriter) submitted 85 The new free papers which appear from Monday to entries to the competition. Friday are issued by publishing companies whose portfolios also include paid dailies. spending a gross total of EUR 929 million (+4%) on advertising. idea”. although prices for household power and fuel increased above average.8%). new titles and the development of cross-media offerings.9% of the economically active population (Eurostat definition).2% in 2005 to 4. 72. Regional October to December 2006. The purpose of this initiative is to attract young creative talents with a maximum age of 28 to print advertising.

postal deliveries play a minor part here. With regard to promotion of the press (for criteria. establishment of an independent.44 million in Following the parliamentary elections on 1 October marketing promotion from the Federal budget. this free of charge for the purposes of “collecting and obligation constituted an interference with the archiving all publications issued or published in Austria. a commitment to the dual broadcasting system. which also includes training for journalists. convergent media regulator. One striking feature is that the equipment used at home is becoming more professional Postal Issues and no less than 86% of all households already have A ruling by the Supreme Constitutional Court on 25 high-speed Internet access. basically only provide access to archives. These were supplemented by BoomerangCards Daily newspapers are predominantly delivered by the and attractive giveaways. research for advertising sales. The government agenda EUR 2. A total of EUR 0. creativity in sales. FOCUS-Research 170 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . see World Press Trends 2005. 67% of the on the other hand. are predominantly delivered by the Austrian public have Internet access and 52% qualify as post office. A new not yet been passed. The trend is All daily newspapers also issue online editions. etc). an evaluation of promotion for the press. intensive users. Weekly newspapers and magazines. with corresponding cinema and radio Printing & Distribution spots. a digitalization the field of reader marketing (subscription sales.08 million last year. print performance studies and their use in the sales process). According to the Court. not only in broadcasting corporation ORF. page 156).97 million also includes a fairly comprehensive chapter devoted to was spent on “quality assurance and promotion for the media policy with the following objectives: future”. are to be encouraged). the promotion of reading and research projects. corporation ORF at the beginning of 2007. field of advertising sales (principles of market and media such as mobile TV.. but also in the to promote digitalization in broadcasting (new forms. Publishing companies have already regulation has not yet been passed.64 million Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) and the Austrian People’s in “special promotion to preserve the regional diversity”.g. The VÖZ also offered additional training for members evaluation of the restrictions on advertising by the public of the publishing companies’ staff last year. constitutionally guaranteed right of ownership and including the electronic media”. DVDs. publishing companies' own delivery services. The VÖZ and ORF have started talks over future media policy in Austria prior to the forthcoming political debates.AUSTRIA advertising media. requiring them to The Austrian National Library prompted a debate over install new letter boxes with slot instead of the old a statutory obligation for publishing companies to pigeon-hole systems by July 2006 (with free access for all supply the National Library with their online contents postal service-providers). sales marketing). A new management took over the public broadcasting Specific training seminars were offered for this purpose. campaign for radio broadcasting. CD-ROMs. been obliged since 2001 to supply the National Library with copies of all digital publications issued on physical State Support data media (e. as the post office does Online / Digital Publishing not offer an early morning delivery service. 15 daily Media / Press Laws newspapers received a total of EUR 2. Paid generally away from individual sales towards more contents are only offered to a very limited extent and subscription sales. Other Factors establishment of media promotion for electronic media. a new coalition government with the Austrian eight dailies were awarded a total of EUR 6. a statutory ruling has therefore did not serve the public interest. Source: Verband Österreichischer Zeitungen (VÖZ) – Austrian Newspaper Association. while 2006. April 2006 rescinded the obligation imposed on house owners by the law on postal services. and further initiatives customer service centre. Party (ÖVP) came into office on 11 January 2007 with 45 weekly newspapers received promotion totalling a broad parliamentary majority.

474 2.2 10.00 300.00 300.353 3. 2005-2006 ÖAK (Final Reports 2001-2005.7 19.5 7.276 2. Austrian Newspaper Association.318 1.5 21.74 5.356 150 150 330 200 658 150 150 330 200 658 10.096 1400 1.00 -1.46 -16.43 14.a Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.153 2.41 12.619 701 707 719 733 737 31.69 -18.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2003) Age Housewives 000 % Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 13 89 121 111 106 115 554 2 16 22 20 19 21 100 Source: Statistics Austria 3.393 1.9 20.7 17.50 300.67 9. B = Middle class – intermediate managerial.2 3.0 100 Number of titles Male 000 % 1.22 5.8 13.3 17.0 100 Source: Statistics Austria.2 11.00 229.3 13.09 9.117 949 1.2 11.074 1.6 16.155 705 690 583 208 3.70 -38. Microcensus 1 No current figures for age split of children available 2.99 0.198 993 564 467 253 100 Source: Statistics Austria.01 0.a Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 1.00 16 1 1 17 2 2 17 1 1 18 4 4 12.1 20.08 90 90 85 85 111 111 135 135 80.287 2. Microcensus Households 000 % Without children With children all under 15 1 Total 1.25 338. Austrian Press Handbook.5 100 Total dailies 17 Total paid-for dailies 16 National paid-for dailies 8 Regional and local 8 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 16 Total free dailies 1 Regional and local 1 free dailies Total non-dailies 198 Total paid-for non-dailies 123 National paid-for non-dailies 13 Regional and local 110 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 75 Regional and local 75 free non-dailies 17 16 7 9 19 17 7 10 18 17 7 10 22 18 8 10 29.7 20.9 12.0 12.5 13.002 16. WAN assessment (free dailies) 3.126 2.419 1.341 34. Austrian Newspaper Association. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class – Skilled manual workers D = Working class – Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence – state pensioners or widows (no other earners) 25.00 80.7 13.233 16.00 196 106 15 91 189 104 11 93 212 101 8 93 235 100 8 92 18.425 1.6 100 Source: Statistics Austria.00 22.126 2.6 17.2 13.420 1.14 28.578 Source: Media Analysis A = Upper middle class – higher managerial.79 10.432 1.0 13.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 2. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class –supervisory or clerical.88 300.5 19.00 21.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2.7 19.9 16.015 1.137 2. WAN assessment (free dailies).62 Source: ABC.25 12.144 2.4 815 2.137 2.3 100 Female 000 % 642 498 547 691 560 488 805 4.5 16.4 6.436 1.62 21.6 11.153 2.67 338.014 2.9 13.328 692 6.8 12.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies Regional and local free dailies 2.475 1. Statistical Yearbook 2. and junior managerial.00 Source: ABC.231 15.2 100 Female 000 % 919 688 742 745 484 3.55 2.29 0.85 -0.144 2.36 10.43 229.356 1.3 100 Male 000 % 676 517 549 709 557 461 533 4.475 64.9 11. administrative or professional.1 20. Austrian Press Handbook.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 34.5 28.50 0.00 5.338 8.AUSTRIA Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.00 25.919 29. Average Monday-Saturday) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 171 .2 20.3 13.291 35.88 14.

52 13.1 77.8 226.63 67.015 1. Average Monday-Saturday) On January 1.87 Source: IFS.53 250.186 95370 41.84 0.47 100 13.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually 6.at www.a Online editions (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 1.4 547. ZenithOptimedia Advertising expenditure per medium (Austria.9 74.26 4.52 373.0 2001 (Austria.8 14.at www.c 16 NEWS-Networld Krone.74 Source: Austrian Presshandbook Age structure of readership (2006) 5.at Page impressions (000) 369.868 National paid-for dailies 1. Regioprint 2006: 6.81 12. 2006 WIFO 1 2006 WIFO forecast 7. 2002-2005 Statistik Austria 7.58 8.7 74.093 199. includes classified advertising.d 14 Source: Austrian Press Handbook Source: Austrian Web Analysis 1-12/2006 Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions Bulk (sponsored) deliveries Free distribution Other Total Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 30 209 162 25 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 - - - 2006 41 31 35 195 183 84 7.4 18.81 40.15 5. 2003 WAN/ZenithOptimedia estimate 2002 Total (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 58.38 9.ba Source: Media Analysis 5.5 14.86 1. 000) 2002 2003 2004 2005 26.82 1.026 1.471 1.7 70.141 1.875 1. euro) max Single copy Subscription All adults Men Women Main household shopper 0.8 Source: 2002-2005 Statistik Austria.113 1.11 7. Focus Media Research.c Advertising revenues (Austria. 6.7 1.AUSTRIA 4.868 Total paid-for dailies 1.aa Gross domestic product GDP†1 2002 (Austria.875 1.at Kurier Online Kleine Zeitung Online derStandard.69 70.871 1.267 1.388 2.news.at % % daily reach of readership within age group 8.derstandard.978 Source: 2002-2003 VOZ. euro.243 129.96 0. 2004-2006 Focus Media Research 172 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . euro.73 71.06 5.72 10.01 65.81 - 10.41 3.045 2.d 590. ZenithOptimedia Includes agency commission at 15%.657 39.059 433 445 456 468 544 571 592 605 183 190 199 210 13 13 14 14 168 176 183 191 32 38 42 46 2. euro. age 14+.6 67. AIM-Spezial.25 Website www.c Dailies 14 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 17.kurier. Wegra.263 CASI/CAPI interviews.593 Source: Nielsen.2 Source: Media Analysis 21.499 7.272 1.500 96.b Cover prices (2006) 5.871 1.70 100 Source: ÖAK (Final Reports 2001-2006. MTU’s.41 3. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total paid-for dailies 7. subjective estimation of consumption the day before - Source: VOZ.8 18.8 235. Austrian Newspaper Association 4. Teletest.070 170 170 805 210 170 170 595 10.53 9.ab Gross domestic product per capita 27. excludes production costs.6 73.50 100 14.871 1.87 0.87 100 15.6 72.5 69. before discounts.314 1.02 9.7 - 1. including changes in the definition of paid circulation.501 2. FOCUS Institute.91 10.79 1.868 Total free dailies National free dailies Regional and local free dailies - 1.0 571.ZenitOptimedia.918 2.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.at www.9 Source: 2001 IFS. 2004.435 604 606 635 53.8 79.3 12.873 2.873 2.60 68. the reformed guidelines of the ÖAK came into force.2 27.9 100 15 Newspaper/ Publisher GDP per capita 4.861 1.kleinezeitung.280 Regional and local 589 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 1.84 0.527 881 955 1.at www.855 123.070 1.92 Advertising volume sold Source: Radiotest.254 2. FOCUS Institute.875 1.00 Source: ÖAK.2 245. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 59. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2006 220. euro. daily newspapers only Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Regional and local newspapers National newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 17 Online readership (2006) 7.43 6.186 537 549 564 576 592 622 456 463 497 147 154 171 9 11 10 136 138 140 10 22 1.400 1.65 100 16.4 77. 2004-2006 data are not comparable with those of previous years.b Age 14-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ Total 72.275 596 2.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached (Austria.krone.255 833 422 508 176 14 157 28 2.3 28.398 125.85 0.9 29.138 1.0 537.70 5.18 1.1 12. Therefore.1 265.043 2.04 14.

bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Heute 1 ok 2 Oberösterreichs Neue 3 Neue Express 4 German German German German AHVV Verlags GmbH Innovation Medien GmbH Neue Medien Verlags GmbH Neue Express Verlag GmbH Circulation (000) Readership (000) 470 93 85 10 289 - Format 203 x 272 200 x 275 199 x 272 212 x 275 Full page ad rate Colour 9.751 26.264 29.00 -11.822 23.95 1.50 0. OÖN Wimmer Medien GmbH & Co KG0 Die Presse Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.30 1.106 9.052 29.90 0.90 0.90 0.611 15. Polten.031 847 668 0. euro.00 Source: Austrian Press Handbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 173 .ba Top publishing companies (2006) Total circulation (000) Krone Verlag Kleine Zeitung Österreich Classic Kurier Zeitungsverlag und Druckerei Wimmer Medien Schl¸ssel Verlag J. euro) Full page ad rate Mono Colour usual max usual max (Austria.848 25. 000) Hofer Spar Austria REWE Telekom Austria Verlagsgruppe News Raiffeisen T-Mobile Austria Bank Austria / Creditanstalt Catro Lidl Austria 94.90 0.867 50.00 1.480 17.086 12. Media Analysis 8. Audit Bureau of Circulations.40 278 x 425 6. 000) Food Telecommunications Banks Car Manufacturers Marketing/Advertising /Printing Services Fairs/Events/Exhibitions Press Public Services Car Retailers Furniture Retailers 8.072 Source: Media Focus Research Source: Media Focus Research 1 7. S. Linz Graz.640 17.520 129 385 0.50 266 x 421 13.900 26. Moser Die Presse Verlagsgesellschaft Standard Verlagsgesellschaft Salzburger Nachrichten Verlagsgesellschaft Eugen Russ Vorarlberger Zeitugnsverlag und Druckerei Gesellschaft 891 289 207 196 129 128 103 100 84 69 Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Kronen Zeitung Kleine Zeitung Österreich Classic Kurier German German German German OÖNachrichten German Die Presse German Tiroler Tageszeitung German Der Standard German Salzburger Nachrichten German Vorarlberger Nachrichten German Circulation Readership Krone-Verlag GmbH.00 1.042 40.694 69.30 284 x 430 272 x 428 270 x 410 10.086 13. Cover price Format usual max (Austria.551 66. & Co KG Kleine Zeitung GmbH.868 41. euro) (000) (000) 891 289 207 196 3.120 18.960 3.879 26.900 26.00 0.612 16.255.00 1.971 20.628 18.696 103 300 1.122 15.AUSTRIA 7.476 18. Moser GmbH.50 1. Wels.664 7.980 11.959 53.33 50.00 0.565 24. Graz.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) 1 Gross figures for all newspapers Gross ad spendings 8. & Co KG Österreich .30 1. S.520 29.900 22.30 1.836 14.680 16.972 13.980 10.90 0.330 9. & Co KG Schlüsselverlag J.900 22.100 20.458 15.827 16.452 15.659 49.064 13.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids 15 6 9 16 9 7 16 9 7 17 9 8 17 9 8 13. Salzburger Nachrichten Verlags GmbH.264 390 Source: Austrian Presshandbook.944 15.950 Source: Austrian Presshandbook 2007.11 0. Steyr 4 Innsbruck 2 10. Standard Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.072 18. Karnten 3 Linz.227 14. euro.244 18110 15260 15.848 31.404 21.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure 1 (Austria. Regioprint 1 Vienna.a Advertiser Publisher Expenditure (Austria. & Co KG Eugen Russ Vorarlberger Zeitungsverlag und Druckerei GmbH.30 1.677 61.792 2.00 198 x 265 200 x 275 216 x 315 266 x 400 23. 69 225 1.882 18.874 57.800 102 100 84 323 341 265 1.Zeitungsverlag GmbH Kurier Zeitungsverlag und Druckerei GmbH. St.30 270 x 410 11.

“The quality assurance and subsidy for the 174 Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? There is no general subsidy for capital investment. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 sold copies. The response rate is 80.oeak.6 - 5.AUSTRIA 11. A subsidy for press-related research projects is also new. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? According to the Cartel Act. The court may prohibit the acquisition if it is deemed to create or fortify a dominant position or endanger the plurality of the media landscape.00 70.61 Source: 2005. if the buyer is itself a media company or is owned by a media company (upon condition that both companies involved have generated a turnover of at least Euro 5 million each the year before the acquisition).7 -13.5 1. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 General subsidy 1 Special subsidy of the press 2 Sales subsidy Quality assurance and future promotion subsidy Total amount 10 10 20 20 20 20 34 34 5 5.6 1. 12.1 12.9 7.b Taxes (2006) 13.5 12. The subsidy now encompasses three areas: the sales subsidy (distribution). Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. KommAustria 1 2 General subsidy for dailies and weeklies Special subsidy for dailies under particular conditions 14.2%.00 - 0. Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax on advertising 20 Are there any direct subsidies? All Austrian newspapers may apply to a committee for either a general subsidy or a special subsidy.Audit Bureau of Circulation: www.8 8. There may be slight differences in reach data because of new criteria. The general subsidy is for all dailies and weeklies.00 13.5 - 6.7 4.5 7. “the special subsidy of the press” and “the quality assurance and a subsidy for the future”.media-analyse.177 individuals aged 14+.Media Analysis: www. so comparisons with previous years’ data are not recommended. Daily newspapers worthy of a subsidy receive a uniform basic sum and additional funds for the first 25.0 6. It covers up to 50% of the project costs.a future” is intended to promote training for journalists. Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex 15a.000 sold copies for daily newspapers / 5. Leading daily newspapers on the market (nationwide and regional) are excluded from this type of subsidy. reserved exclusively for daily newspapers.000 copies sold on subscription. Austrian Newspaper Association 2006. 13.000 sold copies. The special subsidy is available to smaller dailies with less than 15% coverage and 22% advertising pagination. or the use of more complex matrices.16 0. Daily newspapers are subsidized with equal sums.9 13. For the Media Analysis 2006 there has been a change in procedures. Direct subsidies (Austria. “The special subsidy of the press”.at Readership is measured by Verein Arbeitsgemeinschaft Media-Analysen . Newspapers can also apply for subsidies to cover costs of their contractual foreign correspondents and for training modules for their journalists.5 12.at Methodology Face-to-face interviews (standardised questionnaire) run throughout the year with a disproportionate random sample of 16. but preferential loans are available in the Vienna region.6 4. The sales subsidy is available for all daily and weekly newspapers that meet certain criteria.44 6. Subsidies generally Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? The press subsidy was awarded for the first time on a new statutory basis in 2004. the same applies for daily newspapers with over 100. the acquisition of a controlling stake in a publishing house must be notified to the Competition Authority. euro. such as a minimum circulation (10.000 sold copies for weekly newspapers) and being of more than a purely local interest.9 -4. is to maintain the diversity of newspapers. A new subsidy for reading is to encourage reading of daily and weekly newspapers at schools.4 - 4. Research Circulation is audited by Österreichische Auflagenkontrolle (ÖAK) . while weekly newspapers obtain a subsidy for the first 15.

a second one open for application in 2007 (only to incumbent operators) Allowed 100% Allowed 100% EEA companies: allowed 100% Others: 49% Satellite TV Broadcasters Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Local Radio Licensees Allowed 100% as long as Allowed 100% as long as the radio has no more than the radio has no more than 30% of the audience 30% of the nationwide in the region audience National Radio Licensees Allowed 100% as long as Allowed 100% as long as the radio has no more than the radio has no more than 30% of the audience 30% of the nationwide in the region audience Foreign Investors EEA companies: allowed 100% Others: 49% EEA companies: allowed 100% Others: 49% WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 175 . except that publishers with a 30% share of the national newspaper readership may not own the national TV operator. the majority of shares. as long as Allowed 100%. the court may impose specific restrictions on the dominant company with the effect of weakening or abolishing the dominant position. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? Parliament enacted the Private TV Broadcasting Act on 5 th July 2001. There is no restriction for publishers to operate a radio broadcasting station in the same locality (Private Radio Broadcasting Act 2001). and publishers with a 30% share of a regionís newspaper readership may not own a TV operator in that region. a publication must disclose the identity of its owners/stakeholders and parent companies as well as controlling interests in other companies. as long as owner does not cover more owner does not cover more than 30% of readership than 30% of readership in region in Austria Cartel Act Cartel Act Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% but every region may only be covered once by one owner (twice by one media chain) No national licence No national licence The first national license was granted in December 2004. and in particular. In case of breach of the prohibitions. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. The Cartel Law further provides for the control of abuses of dominance in the media sector. as long as owner does not cover more owner does not cover more than 30% of readership than 30% of readership in region in Austria Cartel Act Cartel Act Allowed 100% National Newspaper Owners Allowed 100%.b rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? According to the Media Act. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Cross–media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Allowed 100% as long as areas of coverage con't overlap Forbidden Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% National TV Licensees Forbidden Only one private national TV licence Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Allowed 100% Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed 100%. as long as Allowed 100%. is there any law or 15. opening up the market for private terrestrial TV.AUSTRIA Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? The acquisition of a controlling stake in a media company is dependent on the notification to the Competition Authority which can launch an investigation and apply at the Cartel court for prohibiting the merger on grounds of creating or fortifying a dominant position of the companies involved in the merger or of endangering the plurality of the media landscape. The media clause of the Act allows newspaper publishers to hold 100% of a TV operator.

and periodic court fines.5 million people in Baku increased from 0. and 7% do not show an interest in newspapers. conducted by Puls Center among There were several national state newspapers and various social groups.2 manats to 0. We have hardly any reduced circulation. Musavat and Baki Khabar. Performance of newspapers vs. broadcaster is a requirement for Azerbaijan’s membership of the democracy and human rights body.” Aliev also explains why: “People have lost their orientation since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Only 2. was pulled from the air by the government.6 manats (approximately USD0. Newspaper launches / closures Real Azerbaijan. taxes. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. television. Authorities said the station had not extended its license. The majority of independent and opposition newspapers remained in a precarious financial position.35). 70.4 manats to 0.000 in rent arrears. and in say that newspapers are not interesting. and their circulation was low. period. absence of news-stalls. ceased publication in October 2006. 9. and weekly newspapers from 0. In contrast to progovernment newspapers. Advertising the Council of Europe. a daily circulation of a mere 7. USD0.3 manats (approximately and the surrounding areas. A consortium of Western oil companies began pumping 1 million barrels a day from a large offshore field in early 2006. other media A large number of opposition and independent media outlets operated during the year. the founder distribution of many opposition newspapers was limited and editor of the daily Gun Seher and president of the to the capital. the “People do not like to read. electricity. a 2004 law stipulates that only one of Circulation the two state channels will be removed from direct The cover prices of some leading Azerbaijani newspapers government control. The State Property Committee had offered alternative premises that the editorial staff of Azadliq rejected as unsuitable. 29% TV stations from Turkey are widely available.7). and several. The the reason for the closure of the paper. Russian TV channels are relayed in Azerbaijan.000 in a country of however. after its editor was sentenced to two years imprisonment for “insult of the honor and dignity” of Interior Minister Ramil Usubov. The inflation rate was estimated at 8% in 2006. The print media expressed a wide variety of views on government policies.2% complain about the Nagorno Karabakh can be picked up. 8 million. they continued to have problems paying wages.8% of Azerbaijanis regularly read newspapers. The sentence was suspended for two-year There were 17 television and 12 radio stations. most broadcast media adhered to a progovernment line in their news coverage. numerous newspapers funded by city or district level officials. ostensibly because they owed USD26. Economists estimate that by 2010 revenues from this project will double the current GDP of Azerbaijan. Yeni opposition newspaper Yeni Musavat. the prices of daily newspapers have ANS TV had an audience of 2. have increased by 50 percent since January 9. according to poll of people in 12 cities Performance of different types of newspapers and 15 regions. However. the largest circulated weekly (15. 2006 due to increases in prices of oil products. including prominent nonpartisan journalism. Even the largest papers. “Rich people year many opposition and government-run newspapers found their own newspapers. though there have been calls for them to be curbed over alleged Readership bias in their coverage of Azerbaijani issues. The independent newspapers Azadliq and Bizim yol were evicted in November from the premises in central Baku they had occupied for over a decade. There has been a debate about whether to retain state TV in its entirety.AZERBAIJAN Media Market Description General economic situation The number one export of Azerbaijan is oil. have Moderate independent newspapers Echo and Zerkalo. maintained their circulation.000 copies).8% do not read them or read them very seldom. The editor reported harassment and threats on A recently-launched public TV and radio service is the safety of Real Azerbaijan staff and their families as intended to be free from overt government control. 176 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . reduced frequency. 21% do not have parts of the country broadcasts from Armenia and money to buy newspapers. Total advertising revenue in media sector was more than USD16 million in 2005. both of the opposition. ANS gas and water in the country. During the independent journalists union in Baku. In particular. natural The country’s first independent TV station.” says Arif Aliev.

the NTRC.573 247 3.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 2. The debts. was responsible presses owned by individuals close to the government.962 26 66 8 100 Male Female 000 % 000 % 1. Baku Today. Source: CIA . and older people cannot read new ones.706 378 4. stating that materials prepared abroad. the number of defamation suits threatening the financial viability of the print media increased during the year. US State Department.011 2. the law allows for large fines and up to three years imprisonment. However. will be paid from the state budget. prohibitively high court fines for libel. but it did not function independently of the government and its Continuing a trend from 2005. the young cannot read older books. independent newspaper vendors who that Azerbaijani media outlets cease broadcasting news mainly distributed opposition newspapers. the government issued a command unregistered.AZERBAIJAN After independence in 1991.095 25 66 9 100 Source: CIA .047 2. Gaya. Thus. and measures that hampered printing and distribution of independent newspapers and magazines. Interfax. for issuing licenses and monitoring broadcasts. in 2002 by the Baku mayor’s office. the illegal vendors created traffic hazards on city streets.058 5. including leading opposition publications. the the newsstands remain in the custody of the Baku NTRC did not open tenders for the issuance of new municipal authorities. IREX. Printing & Distribution Most newspapers and magazines were printed in Media / Press Laws government publishing houses or on private printing A state regulatory agency. Libel is a criminal offense. a book costs about USD5 in a country with an average monthly income of USD35.The World Factbook.867 27 67 6 100 1.279 625 7. some of Despite pressure from independent media outlets. In contrast State Support The OSCE office in Baku welcomed President Ilham Aliyev’s decision to cancel the debts of newspapers. As in 2005. The justice ministry largest independent newspaper distributor. the country’s procedures were not transparent.a Number of titles Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 All newspapers Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 27 22 22 - 22 22 22 - 35 24 24 11 8 3 - 140 1 - 418. primarily through defamation suits.The World Factbook 3.000 euros. we changed our alphabet for the fourth time in a century. WAN from public sources 2. BBC. to the state publishing house Azerbaijan. Also.52 - - 5 - - - - - - Source: 2005 IREX 2003: Includes only newspapers which are published regularly 1 Including both government and independent titles published regularly Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 177 . The government intimidated and harassed the media. totalling 350.” to 2005. the government tightened enforcement on In October 2006. broadcast licenses during the year. reopened must register a corporation such as a television station some of its 20 newsstands in Baku that were torn down operating company in order for it to have legal existence.

670.20 0.20 0.20 0. WAN from public sources 10.600.AZERBAIJAN 3.20 Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Source: Azerbaijan Journalists Confederation.944.0 Source: CIA . 178 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .2 175.d - - - - 132 132 15 - - Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Dailies Non-dailies 1 Cover prices (2006) - 7.375.465.20 0.3 266.20 0.aa 1. when the costs were 5.20 0.20 0.130.c Newsprint costs 1999 Average per ton 1 - (Azerbaijani manat) 2000 2001 2002 - 3.000 1 Except for the period October-November 2003.80 - 26 1 6 - - Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Azerbaijani manat.000 - 2003 2.30 916.342.The World Factbook Source: WAN from public sources 8.20 0.b Total average circulation per issue 6.a Online editions (000) Change (%) 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2001/97 2001/00 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for Sundays 4. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2006 130.000 manats.ba 14 - Two of which are published only as online formats (Azerbaijani manat) min Single copy Subscription - Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Yeni Musavat Azadliq Ekspress Baki Khaber Azerbaycan Khalq qezeti Echo Zerkalo Sherq Azeri Azeri Russian Azeri Azeri Azeri Russian Russian Azeri Isa Qember Gunduz Tahirli and Collective Mushfiq Safiyev Tahir Tagiyev Milli Mejlis Administration of the President Ayna Publishing Ayna Publishing Akif Ashirli Circulation (000) Readership (000) Cover price (USD) Format 25 10 9 7 6 6 6 6 6 60 30 15 18 10 10 8 8 14 0.

00 0.56 2. Financial services constitute the second-most important sector of the Bahamian economy.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. Family Islands (on Grand Bahama.000. 17 17 3 3 Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Source: 2006.BAHAMAS. a bi-monthly tabloid with a circulation of 7.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies 3 3 2 1 4 4 3 1 4 4 3 1 4 4 3 1 4 4 3 1 33. Broadcasting was government controlled until 1992.The World Factbook 28 66 6 100 - 5.00 6.a 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 84 201 19 304 Source: CIA . bln) 2003 2004 2005 8. Overall growth prospects in the short run rest heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector.25 Source: WAN from public sources 7. developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking.000.67 2. There is one local television channel.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies 30 30 18 12 33 33 20 13 35 35 20 15 39 39 23 16 40 40 23 17 33. other media government restricted access to some information.00 0. Family owned Jones Communications Ltd. circulation 20. dollar.00 0. accounting for about 15% of GDP. a biweekly tabloid. There are currently 10 information. the source of more than 80% of the visitors. which depends on growth in the US.7 6.00 0. Media / Press Laws Members of independent media complained that the Performance of newspapers vs. The inflation rate was estimated at 1. Abaco and Eleuthera).The World Factbook. and The Abaconian.5 Source: CIA . providing preferential access to government media A public radio station was established in the 1930s as sources and denying access to certain government a hurricane warning service.The World Factbook Population by age and sex (2006) Age - (Bahamas. THE Media Market Description General economic situation The Bahamas is a stable.33 33.00 0. US State Department. Tourism together with tourism-driven construction and manufacturing accounts for approximately 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of the labor force. WAN from public sources 1 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 Afternoon daily. Media Enterprises. Several non-daily newspapers include The Punch.56 0. it also publishes a Bahamian version of the Miami Herald as a supplement included in the paper 179 .0 2006 5.33 27.78 41.2% in 2004.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. Performance of different types of newspapers There are four dailies in the Bahamas.33 33. WAN from public sources 3. private radio stations on New Providence and four in the Source: CIA .ba Male 000 % 42 99 8 149 28 66 5 100 Female 000 % 42 102 11 155 27 66 7 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher The Nassau Guardian The Tribune 1 The Bahama Journal Freeport News English English English English Circulation (000) Format The Nassau Guardian Ltd. Online / Digital Publishing There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet.33 50. The Nassau Guardian Ltd.

70% of government revenues. 36% went to television and 3% was equally divided between cinema. at 61%. owned Batelco which prohibited user access to Internet sites considered to be antigovernment or anti-Islamic. underpinning the strong economic growth of Bahrain in recent years.BAHRAIN Media Market Description General economic situation Petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of the export receipts of Bahrain. the law allows Ministry of Information exercised considerable control fines up to USD5. The only security. of government regulations.S. The law provides for prison sentences in three general categories of offenses: criticizing the state’s Performance of different types of newspapers official religion. in August 2006 implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA).000) for nondailies. In 2004 the began implementing the law but later “froze” it due to government lifted its ban on correspondents from the a public outcry. Bahrain is actively pursuing the diversification and privatization of its economy to reduce its dependence on oil. other media and governed by the law of establishing commercial The government owned and operated all local radio and companies. Although suspended the law was Qatar-based Al-Jazeera satellite television channel. posted on their Web sites or chat rooms.family. satellite television systems were readily available to the public. but the that undermine state security. and hotel newsstands. providing access to Media / Press Laws international broadcasts.not fewer than five shareholders Performance of newspapers vs.000 dinars) for 14 other over local privately owned print media. Two of these are published in English.650 (1. 2006. The inflation rate was estimated at 3. newspapers have to obtain clearance from the Minister of Information and approval from the Cabinet. Of this share. publishing any Al Waqt (The Time). television stations.65 million) paid-up capital to issue a daily newspaper. International press sales are generally 45% lower during the tourism off-season. WAN from public sources 180 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . and judges.000 (USD132. criticizing the king. an Arabic daily newspaper. In addition. and BHD 250.5% in 2006. and inciting actions There was no government-owned print media. Khaleej Times. the Saudi royal Internet service provider in the country is government.000 (USD662. However. However. of a state that maintains diplomatic relations with the country. There were no reports of In 2002 the king decreed a press law. The suspended maintained control over the selection of the locally. especially those related to sectarianism. radio and outdoor advertising. was launched on national currency. Under new The total number of press outlets is around 120. Bahrain and the U.press law provides for restricted freedom of speech and based correspondent.000 dinars) on any in the country. APN Newsletter. bookshops. or publishing offensive remarks towards an In the last two years Bahrain has seen the launch of three accredited representative of a foreign country because of Arabic dailies. (2005) and Al Waqt. In order to obtain a licence.The World Factbook. and 20% of GDP. Ownership The Ministry of Information handles all licensing. Web site administrators face the which international press is available in 30.000). It also levies Print media in Bahrain has the biggest share of ad spend a fine of up to USD2. and Web network for press products is mainly comprised of masters are held jointly responsible for all of the content supermarkets. 50% went to four newspaper or individual who publishes news relating to Arabic newspapers and two English dailies. offenses. should not be published. the company has to be owned by Bahraini nationals . Of the remaining 39%. US State Department. The law prohibits newspapers from publishing information related to any case that is under Advertising investigation or is being tried in the courts. The law requires publishers to have BHD 1 million (USD2.300 (2. The retail same libel laws that apply to print journalists. including publicizing statements issued by a foreign state or organization before obtaining the Newspaper launches / closures consent of the Minister of Information. Printing & Distribution E-mail use was reportedly monitored. news reports that may adversely affect the value of the published by Time Media House. but enforced at the government’s discretion. As part of this effort. Al Watan acts connected with the person’s position. or criticism of the royal family. Representatives from the Ministry of Information actively monitored and blocked local stories on sensitive Online / Digital Publishing matters. This raises the number of dailies to eight. reporting any offense against the head February 21. Source: CIA . national The government restricted use of the Internet. while 11% crimes that the investigative authorities have decided was spent in magazines in 2004. Specialised newspapers must have capital of no less than BHD 50. The government restrictions in access to these broadcasts. press. notably Al Meethaq (2004).

3 35.288 1.9 0.4 44.4 44.844 1.5 45.7 3.8 3.5 5.3 3.6 45.38 (2005 exchange rate) 1 Arithmetic total is 46.8 32.7 36.3 7.2.4 Source: ZenithOptimedia.The World Factbook 3.14 Source: WAN from public sources 7.8 0. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Cinema Outdoor Total - - - 32. Kuwait.8 3.953 2.6 35. distributed locally in Bahrain.00 14. dinar.4 7.BAHRAIN 7.6 1 34. dinar.97 0.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Source: PARC Source: CIA .5 5.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2001) 4. ZenithOptimedia 7.88 Ad expenditure Source: IFS.5 0.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - 0.67 7. 000) 8.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 180 180 140 140 150 -16.The World Factbook 7. as well as in other Gulf states 2 Published from Dubai.009 2. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 4.6 46.2 0.7 3.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 181 . it covers Bahrain.8 3.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Bahrain. dinar.820 3.3 5.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 192 482 25 699 Male 27 69 4 100 Female 000 % 000 % 97 280 13 390 25 72 3 100 95 202 12 309 31 65 4 100 Number of titles 5 5 6 7 8 60.7 Source: CIA .com Dell Standard Chartered Nat’l Bank of Bahrain Sada Al Ousbou Giant Club One Hertz 4.3 3. OANDA 1USD = BHD0.056 1.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Bahrain. 000) 2003 2004 2005 - 7.ab Advertiser Retail stores Publishing/media Financial services Vehicles Government Entertainment Professional services Travel.a 7.1 3. it is also sold on stands in the UK.3 30.063 3. dinar.2 0. Oman.911 1. ZenithOptmedia. hotels & resorts Office equipment Commercial & public services Batelco Kuwait & Bahrain Tradearabia.8 3.7 29.1 (Bahrain.29 Source: WAN from public sources 3. 000) 940 504 421 416 413 410 409 388 362 294 Source: PARC Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Al Ayam (The Days) Arabic Al Meethaq Arabic Akhbar al Khaleej Arabic Bahrain Tribune English Gulf Daily News 1 English Al Wasat Arabic Al Watan Al Waqt Khaleej Times 2 Arabic Arabic English Circulation (000) Readership (000) 36 - 35 - 32 - 13 - 11 - 9 - 73 3 450 4 Alayan Company for Press & Publishing Dar el Meethaq for Press & Publishing Dar Akhbar al Khaleej Press & Publishing Dar Akhbar al Khaleej Press & Publishing Dar al Wasat for Publishing & Distribution Galadari Printing and Publishing Llc.149 Expenditure (Bahrain. United Arab Emirates. WAN from public sources 1 Gross domestic product per capita 2002 GDP per capita Advertising sector Expenditure (Bahrain. India and Pakistan 3 Total multinational circulation 4 Total multinational readership Source: 2002 IFS.6 33.517 1. Source: 2006.5 The first English paper to be published in Bahrain. 2004-2006 CIA .8 2006 9.4 2006 6.5 6.ba Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 7. Qatar and Saudi Arabia through a dedicated distribution network.5 5. difference due to curency conversion and rounding Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.2 31.7 3. dinar.

a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture. The Daily Star 28. The inflation rate was estimated at 7.000 to 9. inadequate port facilities. and slow implementation of economic reforms. DFP allocated Tk214 million advertisements to the Dhaka-based dailies and Tk43 million to 224 dailies published from outside the capital. report observed the circulation figures and number of newspapers were not authentic and most of them were TV dominates media usage. president H.810 copies.100. 182 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Prices of newsprint in Bangladesh The government exerts indirect pressure and leverage on were 20 per cent higher than the international market the press through distribution of advertisements that price.2% in 2006.BANGLADESH Media Market Description General economic situation Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector. which is affiliated with Agence details. Ershad had evaded taxes. According to police often misused surveillance of journalists e-mail. fake ones. In 2003-04 fiscal year. other media The main broadcasters .000. there were two private news services.465. With the increase in literacy rate to about 40% in 2005. sources said quoting the report. The DFP said in its report that 388 daily newspapers were published and getting government advertisements from the DFP. United information about other newspapers was not shown in News of Bangladesh.115. The cost of locally produced newsprint stands at form a major part of newspapers revenue. domestic news operations. In 2004.M. of daily and weekly independent publications. Prothom Alo 223. Prices of imported newsprint increased by about 134 per cent during the last three years (2004-2006) and reached Advertising Tk60. with rice as the single-most-important product. There were six private satellite television stations in operation. The Bangladesh Observer published 35. nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector. press reports. The report contained information about the circulation In addition to one official government-owned news and advertisements allocated against 24 dailies but service. delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas). New Age 19. Two private radio stations began broadcasting The DFP report also showed at least a hundred dailies a few hours a day on a trial basis. Jatiya Party activists seized and destroyed Online / Digital Publishing copies of the daily newspaper Prothom Alo after it ran There were no direct government restrictions on access to a story claiming that Jatiya Party leader and former the Internet. There were hundreds bigger allocation of newsprint.000 tons of newsprint (DFP) presented to members of the parliament monthly to meet the domestic demands. Circulation Performance of different types of newspapers Most newspapers tend to exaggerate their circulation State-wned newspapers were closed down in 1997. USD675 despite being inferior in quality. Performance of newspapers vs.000 copies of the Printing & Distribution paper from a bus. Of them. According to Reporters Without Borders.000 per ton.040 copies. Inqilab 150. There were also two with circulation between 6. Readership There is a strong tradition of owner-editorship. According to the circulation figures mentioned in the report. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods.000. and BD News.000 and 7. Growth has been a steady 5-6% for the past several years. Jatiya Party supporters barricaded a main road in Magura and stole over 11. especially in the cities.are state-owned and The members of the parliamentary body reviewing the favourable to the government. France-Presse. Dinkal 60. Newspaper launches / closures On July 22. inefficient state-owned enterprises. in figures to gain a share of government advertising and line with the privatization policy.000 and Khabarpatra 39. insufficient power supplies. Even Information Minister M Shamsul Islam echoed the members views. the Department of Films and Publications Bangladesh needs 8. the foreign-based and -licensed satellite television stations minimum circulation stipulated for newspapers to be that broadcast into the country and maintained listed with the DFP and get government ads. remaining is imported. About 50 per circulation statistics of the dailies and volume of cent of the needed newsprint is produced locally and the advertisements allocated for them.Radio Bangladesh and Bangladesh Television (BTV) . 164 were published from Dhaka and the rest from elsewhere. the readership of newspaper was estimated at 20 million.

33 Source: WAN estimate 7. 2004 Department of Films and Publications (DFP).00 8.552 33 63 4 100 Female 000 % 23.Ministry of Information.BANGLADESH Bashundhara Group.a 1998 GDP per capita Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 48.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 294 - 340 - 388 164 224 400 - 410 - 39.755.300 30. Jamuna Group - Circulation (000) 20 15 - Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 183 . Bangladesh. in the country.361 71. taka.781 5. The price was Tk49.092 147.The World Factbook.000 in early 2005.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher The Daily Star The Independent Bangladesh Observer Daily Ittefaq Dainik Jugantor Janakantha Muktakantha Prothom-Alo Ajker Kagoj The New Nation English English English Bengali Bengali Bengali Bengali Bengali Bengali English Free Press Ltd.863 2.ab Gross domestic product per capita Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.200 1.492 93.000 1.46 - 2. The International Herald Tribune began printing in Bangladesh in April 2004 in a new agreement with Cross World Trading Co.958 47. ZenithOptimedia 8. India.388.5 23. BD News. the leading manufacturer of newsprint in Bangladesh has increased the price of the newsprint to Tk55.365 Source: CIA . 2003 WAN estimate.100 1.. US State Department. 000) 1999 2000 2001 - 17.731 75. Japan. Source: CIA .0 Source: IFS.251.918 2.000 1.2 18. which already distributed the Parisbased daily in the country.0 2002 19. 2005-2006 WAN estimate 3. taka.813 33 64 3 100 - (Bangladesh.9 Source: CIA . WAN from public sources 3.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1. Thailand and Indonesia. Bangladesh. The paper now prints through its subsidiary IHT Bangladesh Ltd. outlets and subscribers in Dhaka and other major cities China.50 - Source: 2002 RSF . (IHTBL) and is available for early morning distribution to news Newspapers import newsprint from South Korea.The World Factbook 7.534 45.7 19.The World Factbook 33 64 3 100 Male 000 % 24. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 2006 15.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Bangladesh.000 per ton in September 2006 and Tk42.250 per ton from January 2006.

b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 34 37 40 44 48 41.ab Gross domestic product per capita 1997 GDP per capita 8. other media Barbados has a government-controlled television and radio broadcasting service (The Caribbean Broadcasting SystemĖCBS) and a commercial rediffusion service that broadcasts over a cable network.00 0.054 - 1.000 in 2002) and the Daily Nation (32. dollar.9 Source: IFS.ba Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 56 199 25 280 Source: CIA . ZenithOptimedia Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. Performance of newspapers vs. Performance of different types of newspapers There are two major daily newspapers (both independently operated. but production in recent years has diversified into light industry and tourism.09 Source: 2002-2005 WAN estimate.a - (Barbados.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 0.000).The World Factbook 184 20 71 9 100 - - 19. dollar. the Advocate (circulation 15. The inflation rate was estimated at -0. 2006 WAN from public sources 7.BARBADOS Media Market Description General economic situation Historically. ZenithOptimedia 7. including a monthly magazine. two of which were owned by CBS.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. Thomson Gale 3.8 2001 10. In 2001. there were six radio stations. in Bridgetown).00 1.3 Source: IFS.2 2001 18. the New Bajan. 000) 1998 1999 2000 - - 8. Source: CIA .8 9.18 9. The country's only television station is also owned by CBS. Growth was positive in 2005-06. as economic conditions in the US and Europe moderately improved.626 - Source: WAN from public sources 1 The same company produces weekend publications under the masthead of the Saturday Sun and the Sunday Sun WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities. as well as some periodicals.The World Factbook.aa Gross domestic product 1997 GDP (Barbados. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners. 000) 1998 1999 2000 Male 000 % 28 98 10 136 21 72 7 100 Female 000 % 28 101 15 144 19 70 10 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Circulation Readership Cover price The Nation 1 The Barbados Advocate (000) (000) 33 15 131 - Full page ad rate Mono Color (Barbadian dollar) (USD) 1.5% in 2003.

On March 17. again included the country on its annual list of “enemies of the internet. In 2005. Broadcasts from other Online / Digital Publishing countries. usually along the border. economic. There were some independent small-circulation newspapers and magazines. other media closed the independent newspaper Zhoda for violating Only state-run radio and the state-run television the country’s criminal code by publishing composite networks ONT. On November 7. and sites and opposition publications and monitor the the private Belapan. published mainly in Russian language. This growth will be threatened in 2007. Local independent television stations operated in some areas and reported local news relatively unhindered by Circulation the authorities. The publication of 299 copies is unregistered (registration is obligatory for titles with 300 copies and more). Belarus receives heavily discounted oil and natural gas from Russia and much of the growth of Belarus can be attributed to the re-export of Russian oil at market prices. Media / Press Laws In December 2005 the National Assembly passed and the president signed a series of amendments that greatly inhibited the freedoms of speech and assembly and criminalized the following actions: giving “false” information about the political.decreased in 2006.5% in 2006. The newspaper was founded in 1990 under the name Belorusskij rynok (The Belarusian Market) and was one of the first private media in Belarus. the newspaper had to change its name following a decree of president Lukashenka that WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 185 . financing public demonstrations. Internet to stifle dissident voices. Authorities closed at least two independent newspapers and threatened to close several others.” available. President Lukashenko signed an order empowering the State Security Council to control the Advertising distribution of radio frequencies Authorities warned businesses not to advertise in newspapers that criticized the government. Belarusian Television (BT). or international situation of the country to a foreigner. in 2006. largely as a result of a change in the way the value added tax (VAT) on trade was calculated. including Poland and Lithuania. German and Russian broadcasters. Performance of different types of newspapers The highest circulation newspapers and other publications were state-owned and printed only materials supportive of the government. Since 2005. could be The government restricted access to the Internet.BELARUS Media Market Description General economic situation The economy of Belarus. Violations are punishable by up to three years in prison. received in parts of the country. although in many parts of the country only through pay cable services. it aims to increase access to independent news via radio. Credible reports indicated that the government The European Commission is funding a consortium of monitored e-mail and Internet chatrooms. Polish. forbid usage of the words National and Belarusian in names of organisations and newspapers. however. many of which criticized the government. Lithuanian. the NGO Reporters Without Borders TV and the Internet. Trade with Russia .” countries that censor independent news There are two news agencies: the state-owned Belta.by far its largest single trade partner . and soliciting foreign countries or international organizations to “act to the detriment” of the country. Most government newspapers offer subscription discounts to “(the second world) war veterans” and to Russian channels NTV and RTR were generally “labor veterans. However. 2006. On July 31. when Russia raises energy prices closer to world market prices for Belarus. participating in the activities of unregistered NGOs and in public demonstrations. and Capital photographs of President Lukashenko and other Television broadcast nationwide. The inflation rate was estimated at 9. the centre of publishing activities and civil society Za Maladzechna launched the independent regional newspaper Za Maladzechna. Copies are to be distributed in the town of Maladzechna and nearby regions. military. Newspaper launches / closures In February 2007. social. Supreme Economic Court Judge Oksana Mikhnyuk Performance of newspapers vs. local authorities frequently warned independent editors to avoid certain topics and not to criticize the government. providing information on government agencies or the rights of citizens." Belorusy i rynok is the main business weekly newspaper. training people to demonstrate publicly. posted more than 8% growth. prominent politicians and for reprinting satirical drawings of the Islamic Prophet Mohammad. the government has renationalized a number of private companies.

Tovarishch. BBC. their circulation was seriously exercise self-censorship. In 2006. on January 17. refused to distribute most of them. BAJ. On July 26.BELARUS Under the country’s media laws. police in Lida seized 1. For example. including one of the country’s two independent daily newspapers. political parties. authorities arrested Dzemjan Frankouski pursuant to a criminal case started in May for distributing issues of the independent newspaper Narodnaya Volya free of charge. On February 12. The State Committee on the Press can suspend On May 30. regulatory provisions grant authorities rather than to their mailboxes. and many publications were forced to independent sellers. Andrey Dynko. Printing & Distribution The government took numerous other actions during the year to limit the independent press. Narodnaya Volya. Nasha Niva. Belsoyuzpechat.000 copies. State Support Government-controlled newspapers enjoy considerable subsidies and financial privileges. As of February 3. making it impossible to receive them by mail. Frankouski was released two days later. power arbitrarily to prohibit or censor critical reporting. US State Department. including Brestskiy Kuryer. Lyakhavitskiy Chas. Den. authorities offered to return the newspapers only after the country’A81s March 19 elections. 2006. In many cases the government confiscated at will independent and opposition newspapers in 2006. and restricting the import of media-related materials. restricted by these measures. delivering periodical press directly to subscribers hands In addition. Belpochta and Belsoyuzpechat refused to distribute an additional 15 independent newspapers. state-run post offices in Novopolotsk and Polotsk refused to deliver the independent newspaper Khimik. Belpochta. A public figure who was criticized for poor performance while in office may sue both the journalist and the media outlet that disseminated the critical report. police in Grodno seized 50 copies of Polish Magazine in Exile from two activists with the NGO Union of Poles. On April 10.The World Factbook. a newspaper must maintain a legal address in order to publish. The law specifies that the government may close a publication after two warnings in one year for violating a range of amendments adopted in 2005 that inhibit freedom of speech and of the press. and Kuryer iz Borisova. on March 14. Borisovskie Novosti. Authorities continued to use such laws to stifle press freedom and to imprison political opponents. or a large fine. and Solidarnost printed their materials in Russia because domestic printing presses (mostly state-owned) refused to print them. In November and December 2005. authorities nullified the legal address of independent newspaper Nasha Niva because its editor. Mestnaya Gazeta.200 copies of Narodnaya Volya from opposition campaign activists. Starting on January 1. While journalists and editors for criticizing the president and independent newspapers could still be purchased from his supporters. and NGOs. the police confiscated the paper’s entire replacement run of 300. and Solidarnost began disseminating Internetonly versions due to printing and distribution problems created by the government. State-owned stores across the country also stopped Authorities frequently imposed heavy fines on selling all but eight independent newspapers. and the state kiosk network. The law also prohibits the media from some affiliates of the state-owned Belarusbank would not disseminating information on behalf of unregistered permit them to transfer money to subscribe to the paper. Belaruskaya Delovaya Gazeta. WAN from public sources 186 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Authorities continued to frequently issue warnings to pressure independent newspapers. State printing houses refused to print four independent newspapers. Source: CIA . had been arrested while reporting on opposition demonstrations following the fraudulent March 19 presidential election. Volaye Hlybokaye. On March 3. On March 17.600 copies of the opposition newspaper Tovarishch. The law provides for punishment of public insults or libel of the president and government officials by up to four years imprisonment. Myastsoviy Chas. Intex-Press. authorities removed 17 independent newspapers from the state subscription list. The libel law makes no distinction between private and public persons in lawsuits concerning defamation of character. The other three. trade unions. Belpochta started to provide a new service. 2006. Vitebsk police seized 250. Several independent newspapers. while much of the opposition print media face increased charges. Narodnaya Volya discontinued free periodicals or newspapers for three months without distribution of its print run and warned its readers that a court ruling.000 copies of the independent newspaper Narodnaya Volya being transported from a Russian printing plant to Minsk because the issue contained quotations of an opposition presidential candidate. Minsk police seized 85. The state postal system. including Belorusskaya Delovaya Gazeta. two years “khimya” (restricted freedom and labor in a remote area). Khimik. Vitebskiy Kuryer. including limiting access to newsprint and printing presses.

50 1.00 0. ZenithOptimedia 3.260 1.280 40 40 40 40 27 1.00 0.00 0.ab Gross domestic product per capita 2000 GDP per capita - (Belarus. ruble.0 63.720.00 13 1 13 1 13 1 13 1 13 1 0.704.9 3.335 1. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 1.260 1.BELARUS 7.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies 14 14 11 3 14 14 11 3 14 14 11 3 14 14 11 3 15 14 11 3 7. ZenithOptimedia Top owners (2005) Owners 1 BelkPress Belpronto Government Map: CIA – The World Factbook Source: ZenithOptimedia 2.00 0.00 7.679.0 Source: IFS.260 1.14 0.565. ZenithOptimedia 7.54 0.50 1. ZenithOptimedia 7.ba Total average circulation per issue Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Sovetskaya Belarussiya – Belarus Segodnya (Soviet Belarus – Belarus Today) 1 Komsomolskaya Pravda Belarusskaya Niva (Belarusian Cornfield) Respublika (Republic) Zviazda (Star) 2 Narodnaya Hazieta (People’s Newspaper) Vecherniy Minsk (Evening Minsk) Vo slavu rodiny (To the Glory of the Motherland) Russian Government 390 Broadsheet (A2) Russian Russian Government 320 85 Broadsheet (A2) Russian Belarusian Belarusian Council of Ministers 53 Government 42 Supreme Soviet 38 - Russian / English Vecherniy Minsk OOO 27 - Russian - Circulation (000) Ministry of National 18 Defence Format Source: WAN from public sources 1 Source: WAN estimate 2005.00 - - - - 1 1 - - 3. Top newspaper owners 2 5 times a week: Tuesday-Saturday 5 times a week 8.401 1.485 1.217 16 14 13 15 15 10 18 100 Source: Minstat of Belarus.00 0.583 19 16 15 16 15 8 10 100 819 720 699 758 769 500 953 5.260 1.17 0.59 -32.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP (Belarus.260 1.300 1.260 1.63 -2.0 26.54 0.096.307 1.14 0.0 49.138.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP 2001 2002 (%) 2003 2004 2005 - - - 0.50 - - - - - - 28 Source: WAN estimate WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 187 .800 17 15 14 15 15 9 14 100 1 Male Female 000 % 000 % 864 751 702 727 687 385 467 4.0 Source: IFS.63 -2.00 0.260 1.173.992.455 885 1.300 1.50 0.b 8.0 36.683 1.8 2.420 9.6 5.260 1.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will) Russian Private publishing house Magic Circulation (000) 28 Source: ZenithOptimedia. WAN from public sources (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies 1.300 1. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 17.634.59 -32. ruble.00 0.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 1.17 Ad expenditure Source: IFS.300 1.471 1.268 40 40 40 40 39 0.

00 0.057 5.9 100 Households 000 % Without children With children Total 2. administrative or professional C1 = supervisory or clerical.50 0.441 1.040 Male 15 29 21 36 100 000 % 717 1. and income distribution is relatively equal.The World Factbook 2.809 10.270 1.647 13 28 19 40 100 Source: Institut National de Statistique.609 1. Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures.144 18 13 13 16 15 11 15 100 Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Female 000 % 878 626 681 783 745 598 1.00 0.848 4.130 57.402 4.873 3. junior managerial. CIM A = senior managerial.317 891 1.371 1.308 2.393 16 29 22 32 100 Female 000 % 591 1.586 1.386 1. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of the global economic slowdown.2 100 Source: Institut National de Statistique Source: Institut National de Statistique Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.496 1.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total 3.a Households 000 % Male 000 % 918 643 690 802 752 586 752 5.4 15. On the positive side.00 0.00 100.00 0.8 42.9 13.00 0.00 0. with moderate recovery in 2004-06.183 1. Public debt is more than 90% of GDP.00 1 1 - 1 1 - 28 1 1 1 1 1 28 1 1 1 1 1 28 1 1 2 2 2 0.00 -16. administrative or professional B = intermediate managerial. making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.67 12.511 17 12 13 15 14 11 17 100 Source: Institut National de Statistique 1.1 6.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1. Roughly threequarters of its trade is with other EU countries.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 C2+D E Total All adults 000 % 1.cb Households (children) (2005) Occupancy Children 2.292 982 1.796 1.00 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 188 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .7 31.402 32.384 698 576 303 4. the government has succeeded in balancing its budget.368 16 12 13 15 14 11 20 100 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total Sundays Total free Sundays National free Sundays 29 28 12 16 29 28 12 16 29 28 10 18 29 28 10 18 29 28 10 18 0.BELGIUM Media Market Description General economic situation With few natural resources. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in January 2002.00 - 0. Source: CIA .250 9.00 0.00 100. administrative or professional C2 + D = skilled or unskilled manual workers E = housewives / pensioners / unemployed / students / inactive Households (occupancy) (2005) 2.00 100.744 4.

021 1.aa 7. euro) min max Single copy Subscription Het Laatste Nieuws Het Nieuwsblad De Tijd De Standaard La Derniere Heure Source: IFS.424 1.1 47.8 17..67 hln.B.95 0. Mediamark Belgium.4 7.478 1.0 300.59 427 50 50 26 26 26 5.ab Gross domestic product 2001 (Belgium.U. after discount 4.59 3.4 52 52 25 25.06 -3.94 0.70 - 0.6 58.b 4.02 -2.034 855 519 Source: C.5 - 50.146 1.00 1.a 0.013 1.00 3.M.4 132 438.4 20.32 -3.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Source: IFS.E.be 6. ZenithOptimedia WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 189 .9 100.466 1.49 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 4.73 0.5 50.0 46.b Sales revenues (Belgium.BELGIUM 3. ZenithOptimedia Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Cover prices (2006) Page impressions (000) 1 Website GDP Single copy sales Postal deliveries Free distribution Other 4.5 51.424 200 220 218 226 200 220 218 226 475 512 535 475 512 535 475 512 535 -0.I.3 299 209 90 312 220 92 319 225 94 322 227 95 15.I.0 35.706 1.475 1.67 3.87 267.be dhnet.1 8.2 24.486 1.486 1.65 -2.1 25.4 5.41 - -2.554 1.8 1.49 4.c Media consumption 2001 All newspapers (minutes per day) 2002 2003 2004 - - - - 2005 54 Source: Scripta & Full Page.1 49.0 13.67 -5.89 1. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 278.be nieuwsblad.85 -3.D.58 28. Readership studies 2005-2006.23 - -2. METRIWEB 1 Average number of page impressions per day. euro.6 49.06 Source: 2002-2004 A.0 Source: IFS.5 54.c Type of newspaper sales 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 54.J.78 0.2 25.65 11.be standaard.1 14.7 - 53. 2007 7.3 1.4 2000 (Belgium.007 986 462 457 464 459 438 176 176 - 1.b (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total % % daily reach of readership within age group 3.0 260. monjournal.0 279. March 4-11. euro.678 1.650 1.46 -2.19 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 2.4 427 302 295 136. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 254.82 0.11 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 6.7 56.2 45.41 28.7 0.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies 17 17 17 18 20 17.d Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher 51.60 -3.684 1.6 54. only paid-for dailies Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total Sundays Total free Sundays National free Sundays 440 440 - 439 439 303 136 444 444 307 137 - - - 490 477 438. Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux.5 1.5 - 52.8 45. ZenithOptimedia (%) Reached All adults Men Women Main household shopper Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita Newspaper reach (2006) (Belgium.5 16. 2005-2006 Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Advertising revenues include production costs and agency commission (15%).5 48.41 -2.19 -2./B.7 Source: C.022 1.81 0.49 4.3 45.86 3.651 1.85 4.9 27.2 14.M.86 -2.7 25.2 - 54.a Age structure of readership (2006) 5.95 - -2.09 -4. euro.6 -2.be Tijdnet.67 4.7 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.be 2.V.b Total average circulation per issue Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total Sundays Total free Sundays National free Sundays 1. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 24.466 1.1 47.

b 3 Dutch edition EUR9.044 4. ZenithOptimedia Top publishing companies (2006) 8. Sud Presse De Vlijt Concentra Editions de l’Avenir Rossel & Cie Uitgeverij De Morgen Uitgeversbedrijf Tijd 361 288 133 122 109 98 98 94 51 36 Source: C.2 100. Dutch edition 114.M. V.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Belgium.200 Salaries Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Total number of journalists Total number of employees - - 1.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation (000) Readership (000) Cover price (euro) Format Full page ad rate Colour (euro) Het Laatste Nieuws / De Nieuwe Gazet Het Nieuwsblad / De Gentenaar La Meuse / La Nouvelle Gazette / La Capitale / La Province / Nord Eclair Gazet Van Antwerpen Het Belang Van Limburg Groupe Vers l’Avenir Le Soir La Derniere Heure / Les Sports De Standaard Het Volk Dutch Dutch French Aurex V.035 Circulation (000) Readership (000) Format Full page ad rate Colour (euro) 226 1 866 2 Tabloid 11. Dutch edition 300. euro.0 41.109 74.4 351.499 11.U. Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Advertising revenues include production costs and agency commission (15%).4 352./B. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total paid-for dailies 7.0 - Display Classified Inserts Total Total circulation 1 Publisher V.600 29.00 1.000.309 - - (Belgium. CIM MDB. excludes classified advertising 7.00 4 1. euro. excludes production costs./B.400 Dutch Dutch French French French Dutch Dutch De Vlijt Concentra Editions de l’Avenir Rossel I. ZenithOptimedia Includes agency commission.612 17.845 12.20 6 up to 2.060 779 641 0.442 991 1.95 2 Tabloid Tabloid Belgian Berliner Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid 18.725 2.030 1. 109 98 98 94 86 84 71 442 400 427 546 496 331 277 1.00 1.20 5 up to 1.BELGIUM 7.044 36.8 2.M. before discounts.158 813 531 282 1.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Advertising sector Expenditure (Belgium.P.V.00 6 0. 1 French edition 112.D. euro.95 1 0.B.M.E.377 4.a Advertising revenues (Belgium.c 7.B.241 329 360 384 402 29 30 30 31 228 240 247 261 85 120 145 166 2.D.347 22. V.66 Source: A.800 3 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 1 up to 1.M. Aurex I..M. after discounts 7.132 1.M.886 3.004 1.910 12.382 14.95 3 1.4 411. MediaMark Belgium.M.063 1.P.476 7.900 17.U.U.00 5 1.595 20.525 15.00 Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Metro French / Dutch Mass Transit Media Source: C.822 - 1. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 655 743 386 472 269 271 865 945 208 229 23 25 182 198 11 18 1.00 4 up to 1.052 705 712 728 744 286 292 302 308 1..00 3 up to 1.181 135.U. Mediamark Belgium.I.234 11. IAB.661 11.277 12.195 1.a 2 French edition 566.944 2. euro.U Daily newspapers only 8.E.497 110.790 7.00 Berliner Tabloid Tabloid 37. statements 2006 1 Average daily circulation Source: A.M.000 Employment 9.326 872 592 280 982 290 29 215 55 2.000 9.153 Source: ACP. euro. ZenithOptimedia Expenditure (Belgium.I.e Contribution of display.046 22.660 15.00 1. mln) Change (%) 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2001/97 2001/00 Total salary costs - - - - 227 - - Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 190 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .287 4.M.I.645 27.228 14.J. 000) Advertiser Retail Tourism/leisure Services Transport Telecoms Home/office equipment Food Energy Clothes Beauty Belgacom Carrefour Delhaize Public authorities Lidl Aldi D’ieteren Media markt Fortis Standaard Boekhandel 177. 000) 26.320 Source: MDB CIM.20 8.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) - 350.000.bb 2 up to 1.004 253 25 203 28 2. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue 1997 1998 (%) 1999 2000 2001 - - - 56.U.1 - 16. Sud Presse 288 206 122 1.070 24.J. classified.900 15.032 3.V.385 Source: MDB C.

and in particular. euro.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover price 2002 2003 (%) 2004 31 31 31 31 31 31 Single copy sales Home deliveries 2005 2006 31 31 31 31 Newsprint costs Average per ton - (Belgium. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 1 2005 2 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux Total amount 10.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats 28 7 8 13 28 7 8 13 28 3 11 14 28 3 14 11 32 20 12 14.I. Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 13. The general law regulating competition applies to publishing companies as to all other companies. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. investment by daily and weekly newspapers Ownership laws and rules Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? The government ended direct subsidies for Flemish newspapers (which had been euro 0. broadcasting media have to communicate the identity of their shareholders as well as the interests of their shareholders in other media.69 14.20 Source: 2002-2003 Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux.I. Investment subsidies vary according to region: in Flanders and Wallonia.29 150. per year) at the beginning of 1998. Walloon newspapers still receive subsidies of euro 1. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Methodology Circulation: accounting control.29 42.9 mil.a Readership is measured by C. and to the Germanophone community at EUR0. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? There is no specific provision for publishing companies.20 1 14. All Belgian companies must publish their annual accounts: these state in detail the administrators and their main interests in other companies.07 million a year.M Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership.17 mil. However. in the French community.00 316. 1997 1.M 15. 2004-2006 Les Journaux Francophones Belges Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 10. the majority of shares.BELGIUM 10.44 Research There is a discount on mailing newspapers and periodicals that are published at least four times a year Circulation is audited by C.c 1. There are no specific provisions for the daily press in Brussels.67 -3.86 9.b Direct subsidies (Belgium. 6. euro) 1998 1999 2000 - - 6.23 Total budget of the Centre d’aide a la presse écrite de la Communauté francaise Total budget of the Centre d’aide a la presse écrite de la Communauté francaise 3 Including direct aid to the French community at EUR0. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 191 . 2 527 Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of 2001 - Telephone Post 1 Discount rate (%) 50 - Source: Les Journaux Francophones Belges Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 1 11.89 million.09 can receive a 15% subsidy in certain conditions.00 -7. The audit commission can thus evaluate if a shareholder is in a dominant position: such a position must not hamper the public right to access a plurality of broadcasting services. Readership: face-toface interviews 12. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 21 0 0 21 21 21 21 34 34 Source: Association Belge des Editeurs de Journaux 13.07 3 6. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? There is no anti-trust law specific to the press.

2006.7 Source: CIA .000 on Tuesdays and 10. initiated in September 1998. cane sugar. led to sturdy GDP growth averaging nearly 4% in 1999 . Belize Today is a monthly publication out of Belmopan.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Belize.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 114 164 10 288 Male 40 57 3 100 000 % 58 83 5 146 40 57 3 100 Female 000 % 56 81 5 142 39 57 4 100 Source: CIA . two Internet service providers were serving 15.5 3. dollar.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 192 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . bananas. Online / Digital Publishing In 2000.00 0.500 (BZD5. or both. There are no daily newspapers.BELIZE Media Market Description General economic situation The tourism industry is the number one foreign exchange earner followed by marine products. there were eight privately-owned television rigidly prescribed procedure is subject to a fine of up to stations and several cable stations. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2. Anyone who Performance of newspapers vs. imprisonment of up to three years. The largest non-dailies were The Amandala Press and The Reporter. The expansionary monetary and fiscal policies of the government.000). other media questions these statements orally or in writing outside a In 2001. The government in 2006 announced it would seek a restructing of its sovereign debt and has been negotiating with international creditors to find an acceptable formula for doing so. both All newspapers were subject to libel laws that were published in Belize City.The World Factbook. Thomson Gale 2. twice a week and has a circulation of 5. USD2. The Amandala Press prints enforced during the year. There were no reports that this Performance of different types of newspapers prohibition was used during 2006.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7.000 subscribers. citrus.The World Factbook 3. Source: CIA . and garments.5 2006 4. US State Department. The inflaton rate was estimated at 3% in 2006.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 10 10 10 10 10 0.000 on Fridays. Media / Press Laws The constitution permits authorities to forbid any citizen to question the validity of financial disclosure statements submitted by public officials.

Online / Digital Publishing There are no government restrictions on the Internet. and members of the press were imprisoned for libel during 2006. but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase. In order to raise growth still further. government sponsored conferences. The majority of citizens were illiterate. Fifteen rural radio stations.BENIN Media Market Description General economic situation The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture. Two national and several private television stations broadcast. Performance of different types of newspapers There is a large privately owned press composed of some 20 daily newspapers that are active and express a wide variety of views without restriction. Although none of the television stations broadcast partisan programs. Performance of newspapers vs. other media The government continued to own and operate the most influential media by controlling broadcast range and infrastructure. and regional trade. but the effect on public opinion is limited because of their urban concentration and widespread illiteracy. and encourage new information and communication technology. which has resulted in increased smuggling and criminality in the border region. US State Department. Radio France International and the BBC broadcast in Cotonou. The inflation rate was estimated at 3% in 2006. These publications criticize the government freely and frequently. WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 193 . Benin continues to be hurt by Nigerian trade protection that bans imports of a growing list of products from Benin and elsewhere. and international stories provided by French television or other foreign sources. Several of the largest dailies maintain websites. broadcast several hours a day exclusively in local languages. the vast majority of news programming centered on government officials activities. Media / Press Laws The law criminalizes libel. Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past 6 years. and generally received their news via radio. facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products.The World Factbook. place more emphasis on tourism. lived in rural areas. this law is directed against threats to public order or calls to violence but is vaguely worded and susceptible to abuse. The law prevents private citizens and the press from declaring or predicting election results. cotton production. Many of these proposals were included in the USD307 million Millenium Challenge Account granted to Benin and signed in February 2006. The constitution provides for prison sentences involving compulsory labor for certain activities related to the exercise of the right of free expression. Benin plans to attract more foreign investment. Source: CIA . which were governed by local committees and received support from the ORTB.

0 272.719 2.ab Gross domestic product per capita (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BCEAO) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Map: CIA – The World Factbook GDP per capita - - 258.895 45 53 2 100 Female 000 % 1.The World Factbook 8.578.863 Male 44 53 2 100 000 % 1.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 20 20 20 20 20 0.7 4.00 0.The World Factbook 3.088.aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BCEAO.26 Source: WAN estimate 7.669. WAN from public sources 194 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . 2006 WAN estimate 3.0 299.3 Source: CIA .29 5.00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN from public sources.The World Factbook 7.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 3.BENIN 2.968 43 54 3 100 Source: CIA .067 76 3.134 - Source: HM.567 - 5. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 4.0 Source: CIA .139 110 3.752 2.206 186 7.471 4.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher Circulation (000) Le Matinal La Nation Les Echo du Jour Le Republicain La Nouvelle Tribune Fraternite Le Telegramme Government - 5 5 5 3 2 2 - Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc) 2.6 4.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 35 35 36 38 40 14.

far higher than in the US or Canada . radio. They are answerable to a cabinet minister. National newspapers from overseas are available from local stores.BERMUDA Media Market Description General economic situation Bermuda enjoys the highest per capita income in the world.bm averages over 300. The print edition of The Royal Gazette is published six days a week. GazetteNet. The site www. Advertising The Royal Gazette offers free or limited cost . published on Fridays or the day earlier if a public holiday.depending on value . usually without some or all of the supplements. WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 195 . The inflation rate was estimated at 2. It holds a top five position on nearly all Internet searches for “Bermuda. TV Guides. sometimes as much as 350% more than the domestic price in the country of origin. The Royal Gazette produces more than 80% of the daily community and business news of Bermuda and from overseas. it was the Official Gazette. but at very high prices. it also owns Bermuda Press Ltd. in addition to owning the island's leading media group. under contract. Bermuda Sun is available twice weekly (Wednesdays and Fridays. in place since 1995. 12% Canadian and 6% British. it is read by more than 80% of the entire population of Bermuda. other media Broadcast stations are all commercial. satellite facilities. published by Bermuda Sun Ltd.The World Factbook. Most daily newspapers are not available until later that day or at least a day later than their published dates.and without most of the inserts included in Britain. and local television is controlled by the government-appointed Broadcasting Commissioners set up under the Broadcasting Commissioners Act of 1953. started publishing in 1997 and is daily.000 page views per month and was the first Bermuda-based site.900. which is a member of the Newspaper Association of America and Inland Press Association. The tourism industry in Bermuda . Bermuda circulation of the print edition is about 18. The Royal Gazette Limited is a subsidiary company of Bermuda Press (Holdings) Ltd. It has an Mid Ocean News is a weekly newspaper. Established in 1828. wire and syndicated services.which derives 80% of its visitors from the US .” 45% of visitors are American. Worker’s Voice is published every other Friday by the Bermuda Industrial Union. the leading commercial printer in Bermuda. and real estate. Performance of different types of newspapers The only daily newspaper is The Royal Gazette. 32% Bermudian. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. office supplies companies. A Sunday English newspaper can now cost as much as USD10 .. Performance of newspapers vs. and probably 100% of all of the international business leaders in the country.continues to struggle but remains the number two industry. it incorporates The Colonist and Daily News. incorporated in Bermuda.classified advertising for personal sales of household goods. or the day earlier if a public holiday) with a much smaller circulation.bermudasun. Monday though Saturday. electronic newsroom. more than 50% higher than that of the US. Source: CIA . established in 1866.8% in 2005. Content on cable. and one of the highest local circulation standards in the world. From April 1st 2003 until March 31st 2004. It is a sister newspaper of the The Royal Gazette. The online edition. meaning it also published all Bermuda government notices and vacancies. etc.

a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 0.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 12 46 8 66 Source: CIA .75 670. dollar) (USD) 0. dollar) min Single copy Subscription 1 0. Circulation (000) 19 Cover price (Bermuda.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Map: CIA – The World Factbook Dailies 2. dollar.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.5 Source: CIA . 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 4.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher The Royal Gazette The Bermuda Press (Holdings) Ltd.d Cover prices (2004) (Bermuda. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source: WAN from public sources Male 000 % 6 23 3 32 19 72 9 100 Female 000 % 6 23 5 34 18 68 15 100 7.75 Source: WAN from public source 196 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .76 0.The World Factbook 18 70 12 100 1 1 1 1 1 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.00 0.aa Gross domestic product 2000 GDP - - - 2.3 4.00 (Bermuda.The World Factbook 8.BERMUDA 3.00 Source: WAN from public sources 1 1 year 6.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 17 18 18 19 19 11.00 0.

Newspaper launches / closures which was being sent to some 530.00 200. and Dzongkha weekly newspaper. including CNN. circulated on Fridays. Performance of newspapers vs. The Bhutan Observer. ngultrum. Once adopted. The Bhutan Times will also have to publish in Dzongkha. other media The state-owned Bhutan Broadcasting Service ran radio and television stations. reported material on the Internet that it considered pornographic.The World Factbook 3. BBC. published in English. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 3.33 133. The the Internet. Bhutan unveiled a 34-point constitution.104 39 57 4 100 Source: CIA . Online / Digital Publishing Internet access was growing and was unrestricted. bln) 2000 2001 2002 - - - 2003 131. There were no private broadcasters.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 15 15 15 15 35 133. the constitution will replace a royal began printing. On June 2. frequency of publishing. Dzongkha.2 Source: CIA . and diversity of content among others.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 197 .The World Factbook. along with Kuensel. and a number of Indian news services. The inflation rate was estimated at 7% in 2005. began publication in Bhutan. Source: CIA . The hydropower potential of Bhutan and its attraction for tourists are key resources. which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. the government-controlled bi-weekly Kuensel was the only newspaper in the country. The two private newspapers will be solely owned by Bhutanese and published in Bhutan. 2006. It has recorded a total sell-out hours after it was published.176 39 57 4 100 427 631 46 1. A selection committee formed under the ministry selected the two private publishing firms after going through about 10 variables including professional competency. public service agreement. Media / Press Laws In 2005. an English views and is expected to be ratified after a referendum.000 citizens for their On April 30. a weekly newspaper published in English and circulated on Sundays. the government regulated all Bhutan Observer and The Bhutan Times. editorial independence from ownership.aa Gross domestic product 1999 Map: CIA – The World Factbook GDP - (Bhutan.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 1 1 1 1 3 200. and Nepali.33 Source: 2005 WAN from public sources.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate. 2006 WAN estimate 7. The economy is closely aligned with India through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on the financial assistance of India.BHUTAN Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is based on agriculture and forestry. coverage density plan. Within a year from its launch. stories on a daily basis through online editions. The government did not censor content.208 Male 39 57 4 100 Female 000 % 000 % 459 671 46 1. A large variety of television programming was available in the country. US State Department. The Bhutan Times. Kuensel Online. There were no reports of government restrictions on access to Two newly launched private weekly newspapers.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 886 1. Tthere is no government commitment or subsidies. decree of 1953 giving the monarch absolute power. Performance of different types of newspapers Until The Bhutan Times hit the stands in 2006. Hindustan Times 2. according to an official from the ministry of information and communication. however.302 92 2.

00 0.76 20. defaming.83 20. Real GDP growth in 2003-06 .a Number of titles Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.83 0. The press in Bolivia has less impact than radio and TV.BOLIVIA Media Market Description General economic situation Bolivia. reformed its economy after suffering a disastrous economic crisis in the early 1980s. illiteracy. of various viewpoints.00 7.The World Factbook.542 17 7 10 17 7 10 19 7 12 19 7 12 19 7 12 11.772 228 4. or television. vice president.41 - 1 1 4 4 5 5 11 11 - 120. Insults directed against the president.433 410 8. The number of media outlets. US State Department. In 2005.00 Source: Raúl Penaranda.00 120. continued.963 49 20 31 100 Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística 3.ca Occupancy Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística Households 000 % 2 people 3 people 4 people Total 968 389 606 1. the G8 announced a $2 billion debt-forgiveness plan over the next few decades that should help reduce some fiscal pressures on the government in the near term.146 5. Thomson Gale 2.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 3. including El Deber de Santa Cruz and Los Tiempos (Cochabamba). Media / Press Laws The law provides that persons found guilty of insulting. long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries.b Population by social class (2004) Social class 1 A+B = Can satisfy basic needs C1 = On border of poverty line 3 D = Live in moderate poverty 4 E = Live in extreme poverty 2 All adults % A+B1 C2 D3 E4 Total 17 25 34 24 100 Households (occupancy) (2004) 2.3% in 2006. including printed press. and poverty.989 35 60 5 100 Male 000 % 1.00 17 24 24 17 25 25 19 27 27 19 27 27 19 29 29 11.00 0.was positive.00 0.542 2.447 36 60 4 100 Female 000 % 1. but still below the levels seen during the 1990s. Source: CIA . owing to high percentages of rural inhabitants. or slandering public officials for carrying out Performance of newspapers vs. but the country remains dependent on foreign aid from multilateral lenders and foreign governments to meet budget shortfalls.helped by increased demand for natural gas in neighboring Brazil . ATB owns a TV network and two newspapers: La Razon (La Paz) and El Nuevo Dia (Santa Cruz).76 0. The other large media corporation is controlled by the Ribero and Canelas families and owns eight titles in all. Radiografía de la prensa boliviana 34 61 5 100 Source: CIA . Ownership There are two large media networks in Bolivia. and a healthy airing a minister increase the sentence by one-half.41 7.00 20.The World Factbook 198 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .604 2. other media their duties may be jailed from one month to two years. The fiscal position of Bolivia has improved in recent years.661 182 4. and radio was extensive. The inflation rate was estimated at 4. many expressing opposition to the government.

bln) 2003 2004 2005 2002 (mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 - - Gross domestic product Total number of copies sold or distributed annually Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies Free papers - GDP - - 171.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 - - - - 38 3 45 - - 199 .92 - - 6.aa Source: Source: Raúl Penaranda.00 200.d Cover prices (2004) (Bolivia.43 0.15 0.50 3.00 - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 1 1 3 3 - 200.00 15 10 - (Bolivia.67 4.00 15.43 Format Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Source: WAN from public sources Source: Source: Raúl Penaranda. Radiografía de la prensa boliviana 10.The World Factbook 8.0 Source: CIA .00 - - - 1 3 - 200.0 192.50 0. Radiografía de la prensa boliviana 0.BOLIVIA 3.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher El Deber La Razon La Prensa Los Tiempos El Diario Grupo Lider Grupo Prisa Grupo Lider Grupo Lider El Diario Circulation Cover price (000) (Bolivia.5 2006 225.00 - - 47 47 28 20 - - - 51 51 28 23 8. boliviano) (USD) 30 25 15 12 12 3.67 116. boliviano.b Total average circulation per issue 4.a - 2 2 4 4 6 6 13 13 - 116.a Online editions Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Dailies Non-dailies 7.43 0.50 3.43 0.50 3.40 13.43 0.51 8.00 14.51 0.81 - Single copy Subscription 130 - - - - 139 19 19 6. boliviano) min (000) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies 130 76 54 - - - 138 76 62 6.50 3.

Federation Television (FTV) in although this did not eliminate the possibility of the Federation and Radio Television of Republika Srpska reprisals or charges being brought against journalists for (RTRS) in the Republika Srpska. The print media engaged in self-regulation. Performance of different types of newspapers Many independent. Since 1996 the US government has of independent print media outlets encountered invested USD34 million to support independent financial problems that endangered their continued broadcast and print media in Bosnia and Herzegovina. while 13% read non-daily papers on Other Factors a regular basis. removing the need to charge newspapers for access by Banja Luka-based daily Nezavisne Novine. Internet or reports that the government monitored Source: CIA . e-mail or Internet chat rooms. television broadcasters in the country. as did the Taxes private television networks OBN and PinkBH. operation. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-06. remaining public cases have been tried in cantonal and district courts in broadcasters in cantons and municipalities in the the Federation and Republika Srpska. A local commercial network of five stations operated in both entities (Mreza Plus). Online / Digital Publishing journalists worked without an employment agreement There were no government restrictions on access to the or social and health benefits. Courts.2% in 2006. did not always have sufficient experience and training to accurately interpret this area Performance of newspapers vs. approximately 400 defamation provided relatively balanced coverage.5 million. whose editorial policy strongly reflects Bosniak a news agency which together receive EUR750. however. approximately Federation and Republika Srpska remained vulnerable to 350 charges were brought in Federation courts. Ownership Cross-ownership is not permitted between electronic and print media. BHT 1.The World Factbook. remained the largest the content of their reports. gradually increased its From the adoption in 2001 of the Law on Defamation audience and outreach. Private media owners and twice as much. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance. a nationwide public broadcaster. items mandated by law. A number to information. Other big donors include Readership the Open Society Fund and the European Commission Less than 17% of the population regularly reads a daily newspaper. privately owned newspapers were State Support available and expressed a wide variety of views. Media / Press Laws The law prohibits criminal cases against journalists for defamation. followed year. While these broadcasters until the end of 2006. with estimates below 20 percent. Nationallevel statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. the US committed an additional USD4. although they may be sued in civil court. while magazines cost continued during the year. The inflation rate was estimated at 8. WAN from public sources 200 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Rates of Internet usage by the Bosnian population remained very low. VAT has been charged at a rate of 17% without exception. Two public broadcasters. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious economic problems. For the period 2003-2006. The EUR0. management were the most frequent perpetrators of violations of employee rights. remained the largest circulation daily. Dnevni Each entity (Federation and Republika Srpska) funds Avaz.50 price for most dailies is too Violations of the employment rights of journalists expensive for many consumers.000 per interests. In a number of cases. political influence. other media of law. US State Department. From 1 January 2006.BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Media Market Description General economic situation Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation.

1 541.879. Serbian. WAN from public sources Nezavisne novine and Glas Srpske published in Republika Srpska. marka.00 0.223 3. other titles in the Federation BiH 2 Owned by the Slovenian financial/investment group. Croatian NIK Avaz Oslobodjenje shareholders’ company 2 Alden print N. Serbian. 000) Dnevni avaz Dnevni List Nezavisne novine Oslobodenje Jutarnje novine 6.026 19 72 9 100 359 1.1 485. marka.9 Source: CIA .G.149 Source: MIB.bb Advertising expenditure per medium 1998 1999 (%) 2000 2001 2002 - - - - 25 6 4 65 Outdoor Press Radio Television Source: European Journalism Centre Media Landscape 7. Serbian.00 Source: 2002.532.3 Source: CIA. 000) Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.ab Gross domestic product per capita (Bosnia and Herzegovina.The World Factbook 7.847 441 4.837 1.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) Advertising sector Expenditure (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian Circulation (000) 40 17 13 13 10 8 5 Source: South East Europe Media Handbook. ZenithOptimedia 7. 2006 WAN assessment.082 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1.5 506. ZenithOptimedia Refers to newspaper owners Source: MIB. marka.9 1. ZenithOptimedia Number of titles Total paid-for dailies Newspapers TV stations Auto industry Radio stations Medical institutions Banks Home equipment Mobile phones Shopping centres IT/computers Top owners - 90 100 100 100 - 0.9 542. marka.9 3.042. Serbian.0 1.a Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 7 7 7 7 7 0.265 1. 2003-2005 South East Europe Media Handbook 3.389 252 2.0 3. Kmecka druzba. Croatian Nezavisne novine Bosnian. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP per capita 2.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title 1 Language Publisher Dnevni avaz Oslobodjenje Bosnian Bosnian.BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 7.8 2.The World Factbook 3.4 40. DNN in Banja Luka 3 National Holding National Assembly of Republika Srpska Max Music Company Sarajevo Jutarnje novine Bosnian.6 2.0 518.aa Gross domestic product (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian Dnevni List Glas Srpske Croatian Serbian Source: WAN assessment Sarajevske novine Bosnian.I.458 189 2.00 8.026 18 71 11 100 Male Female 000 % 000 % 379 1.2 455. which is the majority owner with a 39% stake in the company 3 Established and owned by Zeljko Kopanja and Natasha Kopanja 1 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 201 .D.1 Owners Revenue (Bosnia and Herzegovina.000 18 69 13 100 Source: CIA .a Population by age and sex (2005) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 738 2.4 729. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP - - - 38.

10. 5. The advent of commercial radio stations was the most important development that added to the development of the media industry overall. Performance of newspapers vs. Government-owned Radio Botswana and Radio Botswana 2 covered most of the country. The urban areas. The Sowetan. and thereby to compete with the privately-owned press. owned and operated by the government. Botswana Guardian. financial services. A single which is a daily published in Setswana. The Voice. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Tourism. It publishes general coverage of current last four are published from Johannesburg in South events and issues and includes a second front page in Africa. The inflation rate was estimated at 11. and The Voice. one weekly newspaper is published in Francistown. WAN from public sources 202 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . they had about a BWP20 million stake in the market. ordered to begin accepting advertising. of which about BWP80 million is probably print and the balance is spread between radio. US State Department. provided most of the information found in the media through the Daily News newspaper.BOTSWANA Media Market Description General economic situation Botswana has maintained one of the highest economic growth rates in the world since independence in 1966. Setswana. a few investors control most of the sector. The circulation of privately-owned recourse to the courts if they believe they have been print media continues to be limited primarily to the libeled. a media consultant working as the general manager at the CBET Publishing Company (the publishers of Botswana Guardian and Midweek Sun). a weekly carrying both Media / Press Laws investigative and informative stories. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. and two FM radio stations. Readership For the past few years. Daily News. 7. He believes that radio and television were most important and that the media market share has since grown to about BWP150 million. Advertising The Daily News began competing with the privately owned press for advertising in 2003. 2. Ownership Market weakness has encouraged consolidation. Mmegi/The Reporter. the Botswana Gazette. and in doing so undercut the rates set by private newspapers in the country’s newspaper industry.4% in 2006. The the non-dailies Botswana Guardian. Source: CIA .The World Factbook. Libel is a civil matter. broadcast mostly foreign programs. The Midweek Sun. There is also a lot of interest in South African Performance of different types of newspapers newspapers. Daily News is distributed for free. weekly papers concentrating on investigative journalism. 9. the Botswana company owns four weeklies and one of the two Guardian and the Midweek Sun. Government officials and other public figures have which is a tabloid. The Botswana Gazette. 3. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten the impressive economic gains of Botswana. and the privately owned Gaborone Broadcasting Corporation Botswana Gazette. The Star). and of televised news and current affairs programs. the read newspaper. the most commonly spoken language. main cities and towns: eight weekly newspapers and one daily newspaper are published in Gaborone. TV and outdoor advertising. at the last count. 4. Mail & Guardian. The Daily News is a state-owned and by far the most widely Sunday Times. the five most read newspapers State-owned Botswana Television was the primary source have been the two dailies Mmegi and Daily News. subsistence farming. distributed nationwide at no cost. Radio continued to be the most broadly accessible medium. but in 2003 it was was by the Audit Bureau of Circulations for Southern Africa. It was previously financed Only five newspapers published in Botswana are audited entirely by the government. He added that outdoor advertising has also been very interesting and that. Out of the top ten most read newspapers in The activities of the news media are concentrated in 2002 (1. and just The main privately-owned newspapers are Mmegi. other media The Botswana Press Agency. according to Methaetsile Leepile. Privately owned Yarona FM and Gabz FM broadcast in five of the country’s 10 largest towns. The Voice. both of which are privately-owned radio stations. 8. and eleven monthly magazines are published nationally. 6. and cattle raising are other key sectors. They produced news and current affairs programs without government interference.

2002-2003 WAN from public sources. 2006 WAN assessment 7.00 0.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total GDP All individuals 000 % 000 % 628 950 62 1.The World Factbook 8.3 (Botswana.00 0.5 2006 85.00 0.00 11.00 0.aa Gross domestic product Map: CIA – The World Factbook (Botswana.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Daily News English / Setswana Government Circulation (000) 65 Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 203 .ab 37 58 5 100 - 66.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies Total free dailies 76 11 65 76 11 65 76 11 65 76 11 65 76 11 65 0.00 10.67 0.4 Source: 2002 IFS.00 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies 2 1 1 1 1 7 6 2 1 1 1 1 8 7 2 1 1 1 1 9 8 2 1 1 1 1 10 9 2 1 1 1 1 11 10 0.00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN from public sources.African Media Development Initiative.640 319 461 23 803 40 57 3 100 Source: CIA . 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 Gross domestic product per capita 2002 GDP per capita 20.00 0. ZenithOptimedia.00 0. pula.00 0.00 0.00 0.7 68.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Circulation (000) Mmegi Setswana 11 Source: WAN from public sources 8.00 0. 2004-2006 WAN assessment 3.00 0.BOTSWANA 3. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2002 2.11 1 1 1 1 1 0.00 0. pula.14 66.00 0.00 Source: BBC World Service Trust . 2005-2006 CIA .6 - - 51.The World Factbook 38 58 4 100 Male - Female 000 % Source: CIA .2 112.00 57.The World Factbook 309 489 39 837 7.

newspapers will also grow in circulation. the Brazilian GDP – now computed according to a new methodology – grew by 3. The falling share of total advertising expenditure captured by Brazilian newspapers. popular newspapers. to a great extent. The idea is to create effectively consistent alternatives for the advertising space newspapers have to offer. In 2006. newspapers got 16. as the country moves forward and develops.285 . the Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) grew at low rates. in 2006 the Brazilian newspaper industry worked toward attracting lower-income readers with new launches of popular newspapers at lower prices than their mainstream counterparts. increasing to 7. The mainstream newspapers. As purchasing power rose. showed low growth rates.3% of total advertising expenditure. for segments of the population that have the reading habit and a higher purchasing power. The share of Brazilian newspapers in the countryís advertising business has been declining steadily over the past decades. Advertising Beyond newspaper sales.5% relative to the previous year. where there is plenty of room for growth. exerting downward pressure on newspaper circulation. At the same time. the main audit institution focusing on printed media sales in the country. benefiting the newspaper industry. During 2001. were responsible for the 6. along the same lines as what is being done in the United States by the Newspaper National Network. which added up to about R$ 24 billion. and the loss of major advertisers led the Brazilian Association of Newspapers (ANJ) to announce an initiative in 2007 to restore the status of the newspaper industry in the advertising marketplace. Source: ANJ 204 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The medium tends to be ignored by large advertisers and is increasingly limited to local retailers. in 2006 Brazilian newspapers got 15. According to the Circulation Verification Institute (IVC). Brazil is a classic example of the direct connection between the overall economic scenario and newspaper sales. Both the negative period and this recent recovery of circulation can be traced to the performance of the Brazilian economy. Brazilians started to buy more newspapers. the chief concern of newspaper executives is the ability to attract advertisers.5% circulation increase recorded in 2006. Like other countries – including the developed world – the number one challenge in this group of consumers remains how to attract young readers.230.the number of daily copies sold on average around the country. the Brazilian newspaper industry continues to invest in creative solutions to attract new consumers. or due to illiteracy remains a challenge for the local newspaper industry.46% of total advertising expenditure. Readership Conquering the vast portion of the Brazilian population that does not buy newspapers because of price. a rekindling of the economy began. In 2005. absence of reading habits. Newspaper circulation rose 6. According to the Intermedia Project (Projeto InterMeios). These outstanding results reflect a recovery begun in 2004 after three years of slumping newspaper sales. which lead circulation country-wide. 2002 and 2003. improving its products and working on reader loyalty.BRAZIL Media Market Description General economic situation A developing country with a sizable segment of its population showing low income levels.7%. Circulation The performance of the Brazilian newspaper industry in 2006 was among the best experienced in recent years. launched by the publication Meio & Mensagem and the benchmark for the Brazilian advertising marketplace. In 2004. As in previous years. with better income distribution and lower illiteracy rates. The expectation is that.

administrative or professional B = Middle class . 2005 Circulation Verification Institute (Instituto Verificador de Circulacao – IVC).563 4.522 7.505 5.322 8.state pensioners or widows (no other earners).National Household Sample Survey 1 Including population with age ignored 2.522 6.56 -0. ABRE .80 55.580 Source: TGI Latina Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.525 25.IVC. and the regions Sur and Sudeste Population by age and sex (2006) Age 5.972 6.470 6.180 6.161 2.318 42. JOVE/Midia Dados/Adjori-SC and Adjori-RS.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 523 529 532 535 536 Total paid-for dailies 523 529 532 535 532 Total free dailies 4 Total paid-for non-dailies 2.464 2.10 60.196 17.379 8.000 17. population aged 12-64 Households 000 % Without persons below 20 6.379 6.668 20.90 100 41. population aged 12-64 A = Upper middle class .972 6.b 3.10 60.271 12.275 32 39 30 100 2.297 aged 3-8 6. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .503 18.776 8.065 5.570 6.482 39.a Housewives 000 % Male 000 % 9.50 6. and the regions Sur and Sudeste.589 32 39 30 100 Source: TTGI Latina Data relevant to 9 metropolitan areas and Sao Paolo.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Age Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Total 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-39 40-59 60+ Total 1 All individuals 000 % 14.269 8. JOVE/Midia Dados/Adjori-SC and Adjori-RS. and the regions Sur and Sudeste.575 aged 9-11 4.70 - 11.958 8.595 9.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .955 6.19 -0.BRAZIL Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.754 18.622 24. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .544 AB C DE Total All adults 000 % 19.978 20.481 With persons below 20 15.49 1.389 8 9 9 10 9 23 22 10 100 Male 000 % 7.351 11.72 17.734 17.90 100 39.678 8.790 8.higher managerial.522 6.852 8 10 10 10 10 23 21 9 100 Female 000 % 7.563 2.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2.230 340 8.58 3.50 - Source: 2002-2004 ANJ Data Base/IVC .30 58.407 8.74 Source: 2002-2005 ANJ Data Base/IVC (Instituto Verificador de Circulacao).30 58.650 21. 2005 Circulation Verification Institute (Instituto Verificador de Circulacao – IVC) and ANJ Data Base.supervisory or clerical.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class 17 24 25 21 13 100 Data relevant to 9 metropolitan areas and Sao Paolo.654 25 62 13 26 17 38 100 Source: TGI Latina Data relevant to 9 metropolitan areas and Sao Paolo.20 100 Source: 2002-2004 Instituto Verificador de Circulacao . 2006 IVC – Instituto Verificador de Circulacao WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 205 .470 6.164 18. 2006 ANJ Data Base/IVC – Instituto Verificador de Circulacao 4.900 aged 0-2 3.472 2.686 32 39 30 100 Female 000 % 10. ABRE (Associacao Brasileira de Representantes de Veículos de Comunicacao).648 17.328 7.894 10.352 aged 12-19 9.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .569 8. and the regions Sur and Sudeste 2.70 100 39.intermediate managerial.The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.789 7.212 31. Total dailies Total paid-for dailies Total free dailies 6. 2006 ANJ/Abre/Anuário de Mídia/Jove/ADIBrasil/Adjori-SC 3.979 89.72 0.70 100 44.654 10 20 25 24 22 100 Source: TGI Latina Data relevant to 9 metropolitan areas and Sao Paolo.861 7.c Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Home deliveries Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 41.215 94. and junior managerial.194 184.766 29.789 7. data from PNAD .489 62.537 8 9 9 9 9 23 22 11 100 Source: IBGE .648 Total 25.723 32.

662.332.5 3.a Newspaper reach (2006) Single copy 1.4 655. on Sundays. population aged 12-64 1 Monday to Saturday.9 1.77 0.4 918.9 cities survey All newspapers National newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 9.7 1.1 47.322. OANDA . 2005-2006 Ibope Monitor This data refers only to the 128 newspapers affiliated with ANJ.6 451.3 4. includes production costs (15%).633.3 833.202 166.5 20.062.3 3.161 193.6 13.6 906. to reflect different weights attributed to each segment of the economy. Gross domestic product 2002 GDP 15.903.8 3.7 2. mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Data relevant to 9 metropolitan areas and Sao Paolo.0 17.6 272.049.7 4. real.7 Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Notes: Ipsos Marplan – Maplan Studies/EGM .6 18.396.744.b Ipsos Marplan – Marplan Studies/EGM 9 cities survey % % daily reach of readership within age group 10-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 6 25 21 19 14 8 7 100 31 50 52 49 49 49 39 - 7.2 679. figures have been revised back from 2000.8 376. real) min max (Brazil.8 1.The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics In 2006.711.5 2.152.3 2.ab All adults Men Women Main household shopper 3.7 1.1 932. real.861.4 (Brazil.979.832. 000) 2001 2002 2003 Source: IBGE . ANJ has 122 daily.071.5 415. figures have been revised back from 2000. includes classified. the basis used is a total area of 312 cm (6 columns x 52 cm). to reflect different weights attributed to each segment of the economy.4 (Brazil.5 3. data July 2005 to July 2006 Total paid-for dailies 2.4 821. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 1 2006 2006/02 2006/05 - 126 4 122 4 121 8 128 7 - 7.0 4.7 56.Meio & Mensagem Publishing Company/Ibope Monitor Online editions 7.c 8. exchange rate used: 1 USD = 2.975 1.504.7 1. excludes production costs and agency commission.d Advertising volume sold 5.172.73 0.5 2005 figures after discounts.157.363.43 BRL (2005 exchange rate) 7.3 15.617.6 5. real.a 10.ac Source: Ipsos Marplan 5.9 11.574.006 2.8 Source: IBGE .5 794.4 1.960 201.5 342. 2005-2006 For the calculation of pages.972. Ibope Monitor (national newspapers) 1 12.00 7.6 225.1 10. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2006 173. after discounts.8 690.062 2002-2004 Includes classified and inserts. ZenithOptimedia 112 46 2 119 176 240 178 Source: TGI Latina.4 8.904. the IBGE introduced changes in GDP computing.The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Source: Ipsos Marplan Age Gross domestic product per capita (%) Reached (Brazil.9 606.d Cover prices (2006) 5.5 50.ba 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.948.BRAZIL 4. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Media consumption Dailies Non-dailies 11.315 9.195. 2005-2006 ANJ Data Base Total Figures relate only to the newspapers affiliated with ANJ Source: 2002-2004 Projeto Inter-Meios .72 Includes classified and inserts.4 499 9.485.6 517.110 1.50 2002 (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: 2003-2004 ANJ Data Base/ABRE.832.836.5 2004 In 2006. the IBGE introduced changes in GDP computing.4 Source: InterMeios Project.947. includes agency commission (15%). Since January 2005.2 11. and the regions Sur and Sudeste.147.40 Source: Projeto Inter-Meios .477.1 1.919 2.7 Source: IFS.641.82 0.aa 5. and 4 weekly member newspapers. new surveys have been also included to bring more accuracy in measuring the economy growth 206 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .8 2.1 12.9 1.90 Advertising expenditure per medium Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Outdoor Internet Total 115 52 124 191 226 136 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 112 50 119 190 234 153 114 48 118 188 231 157 115 46 1 115 187 224 164 2006 2.9 862.7 12.438. 2 twice-weekly.785.0 2.Meio & Mensagem Publishing Company/Ibope Monitor.3 4080.7 874.6 311. new surveys have been also included to bring more accuracy in measuring the economy growth 7.581. ZenithOptimedia 2002 6.941.1 782.981.c Advertising revenues (Brazil.6 3.1 171.759. after discounts. Sundays 51 minutes 2 52 min.8 1.699.0 1.9 2.202.2 13. real.362 173.481.7 19. excludes production costs and agency commission.72 0.79 -12.5 680. the pollster Ibope has begun to survey and publish advertising investment trends on Major Construction Classified Ads 1.821.085.6 6.00 Source: ANJ Database Figures relate only to 138 newspapers affiliated with ANJ 2000 51.4 GDP per capita Age structure of readership (2006) 5.

24 0.914 - - 2003 - - (Brazil.00 Source: 2006.85 36.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser % of display ad revenue Commerce (retail) Property Consumer services Culture/entertainment /sports & tourism Vehicles.November 2006 Daily average on circulation – January/December 2005.29 0.50 2. real) (USD) 309 276 267 231 175 158 152 135 130 122 2. readership: Ipsos Marplan June 2006 8.3 Source: Ibope Monitor Source: Ibope Monitor 8.RAIS 10.2 5.400 22. real. ANJ Data Base.102 6. classified.Meio & Mensagem Publishing Company/Ibope Monitor Not including inserts 39.50 100 63.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.12 0.97 0.21 0.25 0.4 8.6 3. ANJ has 122 daily.025 8.50 1.800 Source: IVC – Instituto Verificador de Circulacao.50 39.022 1.80 39.21 0. real) Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet 198.6 Expenditure (Brazil.432 125.81 12.CIA Indústria e Comércio de Papel.984 23.a Average per ton 2002 Newspaper colour capability & formats 1 Imported newsprint. 000) Casas Bahia 1.364 946 250 1. WAN from public sources 1 In Sao Paolo In Sao Paolo 3 Formerly a paid-for newspaper.50 2.20 100 64.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Folha de S.424 179.400 17.898 Casa e Video 129.05 1. now distributed door-to-door 4 In Curitiba 2 9.50 116.176 179.94 - 7.Paulo Zero Hora Correio do Povo Diario Gaucho Super Notícia Meia Hora O Dia Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Empresa Folha da Manha Infoglobo Comunicacoes SA Infoglobo Comunicacoes SA SA O Estado de S. FOB price Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats 114 106 17 - 115 17 - 111 16 - 128 96 12 20 138 108 26 6 21.48 0.e Contribution of display.321 1.652 3.00 0. parts & accessories Media Finance & insurance Public & social services Telecommunications Internet Source: Projeto Inter-Meios . full page ad price: on weekdays.9 3.00 1.261 1.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Destak 1 MetroNews 2 Folha de Londrina 3 Jornal do Onibus 4 Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese Metro News Grupo Thomeu Empresa Folha de Londrina S/A Editora Correio Paranaense Circulation (000) Format 200 120 10 10 Berliner - Source: ANJ. 2 twice-weekly.675 25.987 Ponto Frio 178. Industry and Foreign Trade Source: Ministry of Labour . and 4 weekly member newspapers WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 207 .009.15 100 70.345 1 Source: 2004 Samab .Paulo O Globo Extra O Estado de S.67 -70. ANJ Database Data relates only to the newspapers affiliated to ANJ.a Employment 10. 2005 This data refers only to the 128 newspapers affiliated with ANJ. data on cover price: March 2007.50 35.310 1.421 Hyundai Caoa 119. 2006 Ministry of Development.924 2.750 32. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Display Classified Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 60.89 52.00 1.6 15.Paulo Zero Hora Editora Jornalística SA Empresa Jornalística Caldas Júnior Zero Hora Editora Jornalística SA Sempre Editora Ltda Editora O Dia SA Editora O Dia SA Readership Cover price (000) (000) (Brazil.60 0.528 31.375 44.190 Supermercado Guanabara 146.c Newsprint costs Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total number of journalists - - - - 6.654 Fiat 125.945 257.1 9.00 1.055 General Motors 198.53 1.679 Grupo Pao de Acucar 155.139 Cyrela 173.610 202.712 163.760 268.10 2.8 1.1 1. Ipsos Marplan. real) 2004 2005 520 - 2006 1.97 0.720 1.490 149.50 100 60.48 Format Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Brazil. Ibope .977 32.10 100 7.532 11. weekdays.BRAZIL 7.209 CVC 185.90 29.

Source: ANJ Discount on rates of Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. that also guarantee priority for Brazilian professionals in the execution of domestic productions. process or medium.a Circulation is audited by Circulation Verification Institute (IVC – Instituto Verificador de Circulacao) Readership is measured by Ipsos Marplan. two reports per year. creation.65 0. Under the amended Article 222 of the Federal Constitution. Newspaper and sound and image broadcasting companies shall be owned exclusively by native Brazilians or those naturalised for more than ten years. §2° Editorial responsibility and programming selection and direction are the exclusive responsibility of native Brazilians or those naturalised for more than ten years. at least 70% of voting capital stock of newspaper and sound and image broadcasting must belong. TGI Latina: Annual sample of 16. the majority of shares. of domestic daily newspapers? Yes. aged 12-64. independent of the technology used. in any form.00 2 1 VAT on other materials 2 The tax rate on profits is the same for all private companies (between 24% and 34%) Discounts (2005) Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex “Art. Research 15. The first filter refers to the exposition within the largest time span. legal entities may now own journalistic and radio broadcasting companies. shall not be subject to any restriction. urban population of nine metropolitan areas. each covering last 12 months. directly or indirectly. Saturday.65 3. 208 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . but monopolies are forbidden. expression and information. was it read or leafed through and when it was last time. Article 220 of the Federal Constitution states: The manifestation of thought.65 3.00 40.BRAZIL 11.” Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No. TGI Latina 2006 Methodology Ipsos Marplan: From 2006. 221. 222. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Yes. Sunday. §3° All electronic social communication media. to native Brazilians or those naturalised for more than ten years who shall be responsible for the management and intellectual guidance thereof. or by legal entities that conform to Brazilian laws and have a branch in the country. Sao Paolo and the regions Sur and Sudeste. §4° The participation of foreign capital in firms will conform to Brazilian law as defined in § 1°.25 34. see the next question. in any kind of social communication media.768. Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. should observe the principles stated in art. or weekly. Source: ANJ 12. if someone read/leafed through the paper at home or outside one of the titles that circulated from Monday to Friday. and foreigners can own up to 30% of the voting capital in such companies. §1° In every circumstance. using a stimulated recall technique with cards and logotypes. Ownership laws and rules Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 §5° The national Congress shall be informed of any alterations in partnership control in firms in regard to § 1°. Then the person is asked right away how long it took to read one of the publications mentioned. personal interviews and questionnaires. with due regard to the provisions of this Constitution. and in particular. Taxes (2006) Tax 3. newspaper readership is researched one day a week. % VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Other taxes 1 Tax on profits – standard rate 14. in the form of specific law.

see Article 222 above. 10 in the whole country (max. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? Yes. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. 10 in the whole country (max. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. 10 in the whole country (max. 10 in the whole country (max. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM National TV Licensees Max. Paragraph II: Any and all censorship of a political. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. 10 in the whole country (max. be subject to monopoly or oligopoly. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM Satellite TV Broadcasters Max. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM National Newspaper Owners Max. 10 in the whole country (max. 10 in the whole country (max. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. V. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. 10 in the whole country (max. 10 in the whole country (max. 10 in the whole country (max. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. directly or indirectly. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? Paragraph V: Social communications media may not. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM National Radio Licensees Max. 10 in the whole country (max. X.BRAZIL Paragraph I: No law shall contain any provision that may present a hindrance to full freedom of press information in any medium of social communication. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM Forbidden Forbidden up to 30% of voting rights up to 30% of voting rights up to 30% of voting rights Foreign Investors WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 209 . Sections IV. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM Local Radio Licensees Max.b Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Max. 10 in the whole country (max. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No 15. 5 VHF and 2 per state) No limit No limit Local: max 4 AM. no provisions have been made to enforce this legislation. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. 10 in the whole country (max. Although. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. the Federal Constitution prohibits media monopolies or oligopolies. as mentioned above. XIII and XIV. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. 6 FM Regional: max 3 AM (2 per state) National: max 2 AM Regional Newspaper Owners Max. ideological or artistic nature is forbidden. with due regard to the provisions of Article 5. 5 VHF and 2 per state) Max. 10 in the whole country (max. Paragraph VI: The publication of a printed social communications medium shall not be subject to licensing by authorities.

Livestock raising is the most important argicultural activity. bln) 2001 2002 2003 - - - 2004 0.29 0.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 210 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . dollar.BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is highly dependent on tourism.500 and estimated readership 14. and a few others published periodically during the year for tourists. In the mid-1980s. The Island Sun is the oldest newspaper in the British Virgin Islands and is published on Fridays with a print-run of 3.The World Factbook 3. The inflation rate was estimated at 2% in 2005.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 7 7 7 8 8 14.The World Factbook.000. There are three weekly newspapers.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 4 17 2 23 Male Female 000 % 000 % 2 9 1 12 17 75 8 100 17 74 9 100 2 8 1 11 18 73 9 100 Source: CIA . The BVI Beacon is the second oldest. the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands.00 Source: WAN estimate 7. Source: CIA . and the Standpoint (formerly Pennysaver) is published on Tuesdays. The Island Trader. WAN from public sources 2. generating an estimated 45% of the national income. Other newspapers include Nautical Times.aa Gross domestic product 2000 GDP - (USA. Performance of different types of newspapers The (US) Virgin Islands Daily News is distributed on Tortola and Virgin Gorda.9 Source: CIA . and incorporatin fees now generate substantial revenues.

200 (BND5. the foreign minister and brother of the sultan. in general. further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas. Printing equipment used in printing Borneo Bulletin. Some content is subject to censorship based on publishes matter having a seditious intention. the Brunei Times. In April 2006. journalists. The inflation rate was estimated at 0. US State Department. Media / Press Laws Under the Sedition Act. or editor of a newspaper that each. Journalists deemed In July 2006. Source: CIA . or editing any The country’s largest circulation daily newspaper. and printers. discretion. successors. Substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. both of which offered more than 75 channels publisher. The law also the colour edition. Persons convicted Bolkiah.The World Factbook. and the publisher. Radio Television Brunei. writing for. sovereignty. WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 211 . privileges. reducing unemployment. the other newspaper. Although the government owned the country’s only the Malay Islamic Monarchy concept.BRUNEI Media Market Description General economic situation Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP and more than 90% of government revenues. gives the government the right to bar distribution of foreign publications and requires distributors of foreign There are several Chinese-language newspapers. or prerogatives of the sultan. it is an offense to “directly or indirectly lower or adversely affect the rights.000) and jail terms of up to three years. or editor can be Performance of different types of newspapers prohibited from publishing. Publication of the newspaper may be suspended for up to one year. and. the Attorney General’s Chambers and Authority for Info Communications Technology Industry advised Internet service and content providers to monitor for content contrary to public interest. is controlled by Prince Mohammed the newspaper can also be seized. It is The law requires local newspapers to obtain operating published every Wednesday and has a circulation of licenses and prior government approval of foreign 30.500 for editorial staff. powers. three Malaysian television channels were available. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. his spouse. in addition to two satellite television The act also provides for the prosecution of any services.” television station. printer. Online / Digital Publishing The government monitored the private e-mail and Internet chatroom exchanges of citizens believed to be subversive. national harmony. but such censorship was not consistent. Pelita Brunei is an official government weekly newspaper distributed for free to members of the public. proprietor. other media the standing or prominence of the national philosophy. a second English-language daily to have published or written “false and malicious” newspaper.” The act also makes it an offense to “directly or indirectly lower or adversely affect Performance of newspapers vs. and social morals. status position.9% in 2004. publications to obtain a government permit.000 for the black-and-white edition and 1. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force. The law allows the government to close a newspaper without Newspaper launches / closures giving prior notice or showing cause. strengthening the banking and tourist sectors. under the act face fines of up to USD3. reports may be subjected to fines or prison sentences. or other members of the royal family. was launched. theme.

dollar. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 3.a 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 106 261 12 379 Source: CIA . dollar) (USD) 20 - - 10 5 - 0. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 7.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 30 30 25 25 25 25 25 25 35 35 16.ba Male 000 % 54 138 6 198 27 70 3 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Female 000 % Title 52 123 6 181 Borneo Bulletin English 29 68 3 100 Language Publisher The Brunei Times English Media Permata Malay Brunei Press Sdn Bhd Brunei Press Sdn Bhd Circulation (000) Cover price (Brunei.00 50.00 40. bln) 2000 2001 2002 8.67 16.The World Factbook 7.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 50.ab Gross domestic product per capita 1999 GDP per capita Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.00 50.9 Source: CIA . bln) 2000 2001 2002 - - - - 2003 12.5 Source: CIA .aa Gross domestic product 1999 GDP (Brunei.80 Source: WAN from public sources 212 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .BRUNEI 3. dollar.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.80 0.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.00 50.The World Factbook 28 69 3 100 - - - 2003 41.The World Factbook Population by age and sex (2006) Age - (Brunei.041.67 40.

announced that the companyís project to launch a free paper was cancelled. including one daily. there are several influential regional papers. market for several years. is published by BGNES. and Dnevnik (10. The Man. The biggest growth of ad revenues among dailies was There is only one evening paper – Noshten Trud. recorded at Novinar (39. Performance of newspapers vs. Due to the practice of soThere is only one known free weekly newspaper. radio. Performance of different types of newspapers from BGN1. five new newspaper titles were launched. management of Ekonomedia. Computer Build. An accumulated inflation rate of 6 per cent is expected in 2007. including in media enterprises. The political movement of diminishing influence.79%. The other four are weeklies. Standart and Monitor.BULGARIA Media Market Description General economic situation Economic growth is continuing at a relatively high pace. The biggest loser is Duma. newspapers followed 0. with low quality the overall increase for the weekly newspapers segment newsprint and contents. whose advertising revenues decreased by half. Presidential elections at the end of 2006 also increased print advertising volumes. MediaBox. the GDP grew by 6. The problems of labor force qualification and education as a whole are aggravating factors. and magazines. In 2006. Tcherno More. 2007.5 per cent (December 2005 to December 2006). the publishing house of Capital and Dnevnik. most significantly for the group of non-food goods. The health-care system has yet to be reformed and improved in quality and efficiency. Novoto vreme. Newspapers in Bulgaria are predominantly paid-for according to TNS/TV Plan data. and Rodoplar. were launched in 2006. Commercial banks continued their credit expansion policy. Pari. Newspapers Trud and 24 Hours owned by WAZ in Bulgaria released an open letter saying that they were going to launch an alternative free newspaper on the same day as Handelsblatt. from which print media benefited both by getting financial credits and paid advertisements. Pogled. Glasove. press advertising expenditure grew by 13. remain daily newspaper ad market leaders. as well as advertisers increasing their budgets. was 6. Advertising In 2006. Story. Foreign direct investments exceeded EUR3. also reflecting a decline of ad expenditure at TV.000 in 2006. called mirror advertising (buying ad space Sedmichna poshta. free weekly magazines Programata Press advertising expenditure grew due to new and One week in Sofia show stable market performance. Buditel. The majority of other increase in advertising revenues in 2006 (34%).8%). Several hours after the open letter was published. Telegraph (28%). Pogled is published by the Bulgarian Union of Journalists and covers issues related to media. 24 Hours and Trud. whereas free newspapers are specialized titles. Consumer prices increased by 6. Rodoplar is published in Turkish. WAZ and Verlagsgruppe Handelsblatt in Bulgaria.98%. The daily. advertisements and announcements. commodities. and Vyara.5 per cent year-to-year. Newspaper launches / closures In 2006. Max. Duma. which increased foreign investment volumes in the country. employment increased at a doublepace compared to the previous year. the subsidiaries of two German newspaper groups. National newspapers attract most of the advertising. In 2006. Fourteen new magazines. Capital recorded the highest publishes a free newspaper Be BG. Republika.371 mln in 2005 to BGN649. BG Dnes. advertising and public relations. In 2006. compared to 28% growth in 2005. that has managed to stay on the simultaneously in both titles with additional discount). Armi e Tiro. On the other hand. tabloids. Both titles of Zeitungsgruppe Bulgarien (Newspaper such as Maritsa. other media Advertising expenditure at daily newspapers increased by In terms of media consumption. The capital market has registered growing indices and a higher number of initial public offerings.5%). co-owned by Handelsblatt. went through a public dispute after the latter had decided to launch a free newspaper. FHM. Vagabond. one of the largest private information agencies in the country. It mainly includes they get 55% of daily newspaper advertising. Various social security incentives for employers were introduced.5 billion. especially telecommunications companies WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 213 . Struma. Group Bulgaria). however. Among weekly newspapers.31% year-on-year. The corporate tax rate has decreased by 10 per cent since January 1. including F1 Racing. The lack of knowledge and skills in public administration and business hampers the absorption of resources from the EU structural funds. Among major factors that influenced the newspaper industry in 2006 was the forthcoming EU membership of Bulgaria (1 January 2007).

Readership The top three age groups of newspaper readers are 3544. although Criminal Code amendments from 2000 restrained the right of the State Prosecutor to initiate defamation charges on behalf of public officials and abolished prison sentences. The RTA provides for intervention by the main broadcasting authority. and credit services (6. The Act on Access to Public Information adopted in 2000 guarantees the right to access government information. books and other promotional materials. which regulates radio and TV activity through registration and licenses and through monitoring radio. the Union of Bulgarian Journalists. Shok is the most controversial yellow paper in the country. The most preferable format is that combining quality and light information on all segments of public life. Defamation is still a criminal offence. They were mostly reporters from regional newspapers. some do not provide complete editions. many offer RSS feeders. The youngest readers remain mostly attracted to TV and Internet. and the Media Development Center Sofia. honoraria paid to authors (including journalists) are also subject to VAT. CIO. Among the most popular and high-rated dailies. Regional newspapers tend to launch websites. Other Factors In 2006. The commissions were established by the National Council on Journalism Ethics. Most of them are available free of charge. car importers (10. Ownership In 2006. Shok and Doctor.9% of print ad market). The most read dailies are Trud. Source: Media Development Center 214 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . only 24 Hours and Trud provide e-contents via e-subscription.and TV operators. the magazines PC World. many dailies and weeklies promote their titles by adding CDs. more than 45 complaints were received and reviewed. the Association of Bulgarian Broadcasters. although their consumption of life-style and economic information grows.500. the Council on Electronic Media. By the end of the year. Media / Press Laws There is no press law in the country. Yellow titles maintain a very low cover price on print copies and do not support Internet websites. Taxes According to the VAT Act amendment adopted in 2006. Some newspaper websites are WAP available. generally including only their editorials or large interviews. Mostly national business dailies and weeklies are accessible via subscription. the Press Complaints Commission and the TV and Radio Complaints Commission started to operate in Bulgaria.2%). Readers prefer yellow press. DVDs. the Bulgarian Media Coalition. The Union of Publishers is close to completion of a project aimed at setting up a public registrar of ownership of its members. sentenced to pay a penalty. there were 12 cases lost by journalists. In 2006. 24 Hours and Standart. Digital World and Network World. The most popular weeklies are Treta vazrast. In order to stop negative readership trends. Sanctions for defamation are now entirely financial and the maximum fee is about EUR7. 45-54 and 55+.BULGARIA (13. Treta vazrast is focused on readers 65+. With the support of the NGO Access to Information Programme.2%). Online / Digital Publishing The use of Internet newspaper editions continues to grow. a foundation representing the Union of Publishers in Bulgaria. Ekonomedia bought IDG Bulgaria and thus became owner of the newspaper Computerworld. however. journalists use the act to force the government to release information. State Support There is no state support for print media. Nearly 60% of registered newspapers have websites and online editions. from politics to sports and life style. Electronic (broadcast) media are regulated by the Radio and Television Act (RTA).

142 1.89 - 1.a Number of titles Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.5 15.0 1.0 27.00 0.51 0.719 14 14 15 14 14 13 17 100 Male 000 % 538 537 583 533 532 471 550 3.75 -14.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2004) Age under 20 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ Total Housewives 000 % 24 302 420 452 426 304 168 2.096 1 14 20 22 20 14 8 100 Source: National Statistical Institute 3.00 - 167 92 75 233 129 104 180 110 70 - -22.059 1.976 13 13 14 13 14 14 20 100 Total paid-for dailies 60 National paid-for dailies 29 Regional and local 31 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 59 Evening and afternoon 1 paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 59 28 31 62 27 35 58 26 32 60 26 34 0.009 National paid-for dailies 873 Regional and local 136 paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 853 746 106 667 554 113 616 507 109 558 452 106 -44.c Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Postal deliveries Office deliveries Free distribution Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 78.744 14 14 16 14 14 13 15 100 Female 000 % 509 510 559 526 554 539 779 3.356 2.69 - 157 102 55 186 136 50 183 127 56 - -1.70 -48.047 1.03 -14.00 Source: National Statistical Institute Source: National Statistics Institute 3.0 12.0 26.00 6.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1.85 -2. B = self-employed C1= employees in private companies C2 = employees in public sector D = family-employed.0 35.68 3.388 9 33 56 2 100 Source: National Statistics Institute A = company owners.5 100 Source: 2002-2003 M3 Communications.593 16 25 58 1 100 Female 000 % 122 462 771 31 2 1.ca Occupancy 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households % 23 33 21 17 7 100 Source: National Statistics Institute (000) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies 1.BULGARIA 2.047 1.06 -9.697 2.00 3.b 2.00 -10.34 9.61 -6.0 20.45 0.0 100 46.981 13 29 57 2 100 Male 000 % 250 403 920 15 5 1.97 -11.45 -4.88 - -4.25 58 1 61 1 57 1 59 1 0.328 7.42 -10.0 100 48.341 1.0 28.73 -32.cb Children Without children With children Total Households % 72 29 100 Source: National Statistics Institute Children under 18 in the household 4. not paid E = not specified Households (occupancy) (2005) 2.086 1.75 - 545 428 117 892 791 101 722 633 89 - -19.b Total average circulation per issue Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 372 865 1.831 2450 2.010 1.0 1.22 -22. 2005-2006 Media Development Center WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 215 .0 100 - 52.0 10.691 46 7 2.261 134 94 80 Source: National Statistical Institute Households (children) (2005) 2.06 -19.62 12.

721 8.4 4.98 1. lev. Naturally.d Cover prices (2006) Newspaper reach (2006) 5.a 7.com www. TNS TV Plan.17 - - Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Standart daily / Standart News PLS Sega daily / SEGA JSC Dnevnik daily / Economedia JSC Trud daily /Media Holding 1 24 hours/Media Holding 2 www.ba 27 86 212 (Bulgaria.3 Estimate 5. 2006 TNS TV Plan 1 Estimate Advertising expenditure per medium (Bulgaria.701 197.c Gross domestic product (%) Reached (Bulgaria. lev. ages 4 and up. or DVD.313 Source: TNS.294 11. BBSS Gallup.772 7.com www.9 Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 28 46 41 46 52 43 23 - (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 1 38.b Source: Market Links All newspapers National newspapers Regional and local newspapers Magazines 2 Radio Television 2002 Source: 2002-2005 Bulgarian National Bank.1 2006 Estimate 7. 2006 TNS TV Plan Source: Market Links less than 16 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 5.879. 2006 TNS TV Plan Media consumption 2002 41.579.675 546.ab 1 41 40 3 37 104 222 43 40 5 36 115 210 7.d Advertising volume sold 2002 In colour Total (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 7.36 55.213 Source: 2002 M3 Communications . Internet Web counters 1.b Advertising revenues The Internet edition was launched in 2005 823. TNS TV Plan (advertising volume). 2006 TNS TV Plan. ZenithOptimedia Before discounts.aa All adults Men Women 6. 2003 M3 Communications (advertising revenue).632. 2003-2004 M3 Communications (advertising revenue).trud.standartnews. Advertising Expenditures monitoring system.BULGARIA 4. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2006 32. this does not apply to all newspapers sold.544.65 7.384 7. 2 2005 45 minutes is the number for all magazines (weekly and monthly).3 34.812 11. 1 2005 age 18+ 100 60 40 200 42 342 Including Transport 1 Comparison 2000-2002 is not available due to methodological changes in 2003. AdEx Monitoring Square cm 216 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .dnevnik.415 10.c (Bulgaria.940. they sold copies either with a book.999.50 - 30.30 Source: 2002 M3 Communications. CD.g.06 1.4 6.50 17. excludes production costs.39 1 Source: 2002-2005 Bulgarian National Bank.a Single copy Subscription 0.90 25.445 13. 2 Total paid-for dailies 56 65 National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 14. the consumption of monthly magazines is 35 minutes 6.376. 2006 Market Links Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Outdoor 1 Internet Total 97 77 20 261 8 46 404 108 80 28 325 20 24 3 479 138 92 46 413 25 49 5 630 169 102 67 531 28 59 7 792 194 107 87 637 30 65 10 935 225 253 112 118 113 135 764 917 33 35 71 89 15 20 1.segabg. 2005 TNS TV Plan. lev) min max 240 260 Source: 2002-2004 TNS TV Plan. 2005 TNS TV Plan: Newspapers and Radio – Media Diary Panel – nationally representative of population aged 12 or more: Magazines (definition “read at all”) – Yearly databases.108 1.bg www. TNS TV Plan.9 5.bg Page impressions (000) Source: Media Development Center. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2002 Source: 2002-2005 Bulgarian National Bank. 2006 Media Development Center 6. lev.ac 4. TNS TV Plan (advertising volume). includes classified. e.210.109 327. nationally representative of urban population aged 15-60: Television – Nationally representative Peoplemeter Panel.5 47. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Sundays 15 15 13 18 12 22 31 20 35 25 133.bg www. 39 42 36 GDP 1 (Bulgaria. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2006 43 40 5 45 119 208 4.330.37 1.643 13.60 Source: Media Development Center The increase in the maximum price per single copy is due to the fact that many daily newspapers do marketing promotions. lev. includes agency commission.9 1 Age structure of readership (2006) Age % % daily reach of readership within age group 2 11 17 21 20 19 10 100 7.764 10.50 22.67 12.00 1.15 1.50 0.781 10. AdEx Monitoring Source: 2002-2005 Online newspaper sites.2 1 Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.20 0.33 66.00 - - 73 73 22.297.24hours.40 National paid-for non-dailies Total online newspapers 0. 2006 TNS TV Plan.927 172. face to face interviews.

55 0.000 7.211 2.250 16.9 Source: TNS TV Plan.0 15.a Expenditure (Bulgaria.305 6.171 6.50 0.e Contribution of display.80 Source: 2003 M3 Communications.91 13.319 2.500 6.70 0.704 1. 2005-2006 Media Development Center 12.0 74. lev.851 6. Union of Bulgarian Journalists.a Title 9.114 1.9 3.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser % of display ad revenue Telecommunications Financial services Motoring Publishing Insurance Retail outlets Office Equipment /Furniture/Stationery Immovables/Construction /Repairs Drinks Pharmaceuticals 30.27 0. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total salary costs - - - 68. 8. AdEx Monitoring Dailies and non-dailies Top publishing companies (2003) Publisher Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Source: Media Development Center Employment Total revenue (Bulgaria.BULGARIA 7.885 1.3 3.50 0.966 1.50 0.50 0. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists Total number of employees - 6. lev.b Mobiltel BTK Globul First Investment Bank Raiffeisen bank Bulgarian Financial Group DZI Stopanska investicionna banka Moto Pfohe Vestnikarska Grupa Bulgaria 168 Chasa LTD. lev.000 17.00 Source: 2004 M3 Communications.35 Format 9. Union of Publishers in Bulgaria. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 15 Source: Media Development Center 10.250 11.8 14. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue 1999 2000 (%) 2001 2002 2003 - 72 17 6 95 72 17 6 95 75 15 5 95 90 7 3 100 Display Classified Inserts Total Source: M3 Communications 7.40 0.8 - 10.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.062 Source: DAXY Bulgaria Ltd.1 1.35 0.40 0.1 2.769 30.074 5.250 - 3.80 0.35 0.00 31.35 0.993 1.50 0.50 0. 000) Salaries (Bulgaria.750 17. AdEx Monitoring 8.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 217 . classified.229 6.500 7.258 2.80 0.777 2. (WAZ) Telegraph Ltd Standart News Media Holding (WAZ) Novinar Media Jsc Ekonomedia Sega Jsc PM Press Ltd Evromedia Ltd Circulation (000) Cover price (Bulgaria. Research Readership is measured by Market Links - - 28 1 47 1 62 - 0.217 Source: TNS TV Plan.517 4.57 -5.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids - Source: M3 Communications 11. lev) (USD) 145 106 60 48 20 12 12 10 8 7 0.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Language Publisher Dneven Trud 24 Chasa Telegraph Standart Noshten Trud Novinar Dnevnik Sega Duma Zemia Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Bulgarian Media Holding (WAZ) 168 Chasa Ltd.35 0.1 11.3 2. 000) Media Holding (WAZ) 168 Hours (WAZ) Media magazine publishing house (WAZ) Agency for Investment Information (since 2005 part of Economedia) Standart news Press Group Monitor Sega 7 Days Sport Novinar Printing Complex Pari 47.27 0.55 0.576 1340 1.8 2. 2004-2006 Media Development Center 9.

There are common restrictions in the Protection of Competition Act for companies. including media groups. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No 218 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The anti-trust law regulates some issues related to the concentration of business activity. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other Source: Media Development Center 15. i. the majority of shares.a Ownership laws and rules Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No. The law imposes sanctions in the form of fines from 2.846 Euros on companies abusing their dominant position.564 Euros to 153. According to the Protection of Competition Act. and in particular. it monitors mergers and joint market power.e. a company in dominant situation holds more than 35% of the relevant market in its geographic and product area.BULGARIA 14.

b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 33 33 33 33 33 0. Source: CIA . regulated the media. Journalists charged with libel may defend themselves in Foreign radio stations broadcast without government court by presenting evidence to support their allegations.539 208 6. and Chad .ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.982 46 51 3 100 Source: CIA .Mali.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 5 5 5 5 5 0.00 0.8 Source: CIA .The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 219 .903 47 51 3 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Le Pays L’Observateur Paalga Sidwaya Bulletin Quotidien L’Express du Faso French French French French French Government Government - Circulation (000) 20 7 5 1 - Source: WAN from public sources Male 000 % 3. and the high rate of illiteracy limited public access to the Sidwaya. The Superior Council of Communication. including the daily newspaper.684. and radio and television Media / Press Laws stations. All media were under the administrative and technical supervision of the Ministry of Information.939.The World Factbook.00 Source: The Supreme Council of Information.to lobby for improved access to Western markets. Performance of different types of newspapers The independent press includes three dailies and more than a dozen other newspapers. displayed a progovernment bias.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 6.9 9. Burkina Faso is eligible for a Millenium Challenge Account grant. There were numerous independent papers. WAN from public sources 3.0 8.00 0.921 47 51 2 100 Female 000 % 3. and the government-controlled radio and Internet. Performance of newspapers vs. US State Department.The World Factbook 8. but the burden of proof rests on journalists. The inflation rate was estimated at 4% in 2006. Cotton is the main cash crop and the government has joined with three other cotton producing countries in the region .267 3. Niger. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 7.235 3. Burkina Faso. WAN from public sources 3. which is vulnerable to periodic drought.053 348 13. other media The major daily newspapers have websites. television.514 140 6. Dire poverty The official media.502 7. some of which were critical of the government. which would increase investment in human capital. which was under the presidential office and had limited independence.BURKINA FASO Media Market Description General economic situation About 90% of the population is engaged in subsistence argiculture.aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BCEAO. Online / Digital Publishing There are no government restriction on the Internet. GDP growth has largely been driven by increases in world cotton prices. some publish only occasionally.342. interference.

Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased. Delayed disbursements of funds from the World Bank may add to budget pressures in 2007. and African Public Radio (RPA). all of which broadcast news in French. The government owned Le Renouveau. but a wide range of political opinion exists among the press Media / Press Laws Media outlets complained about having to pay licensing fees. There were eight privately owned radio stations. which some said were an unnecessarily heavy financial burden. The law criminalizes offenses. The ability to pay for imports. Ownership Ownership of private newspapers is concentrated.The World Factbook. Burundi grew about 5 percent in 2006. The inflation rate was estimated at 11% in 2006. US State Department. it was not clear whether these fees weakened the independent media.risk undermining planned economic reforms. Bonesha FM. committed by the media and provides for fines and criminal penalties of six months to five years imprisonment for the dissemination of insults directed at the president. but underlying weaknesses . Source: CIA . Online / Digital Publishing Poverty and a lack of infrastructure prevented widespread public access to the Internet. Printing & Distribution Performance of different types of newspapers Newspaper circulation is generally limited to Bujumbura There were six private weekly publications. rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. and approximately one in 10 adults has HIV/AIDS. including the and urban centers. including Radio Isanganiro. as well as the country’s only television station. Newspaper circulation was generally limited to Bujumbura or other urban centers. as well as writings that are defamatory. other media The government controlled many of the major media outlets.BURUNDI Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is predominantly agricultural with more than 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. including defamation. and low administrative capacity . and readership limited by low literacy levels. a weak legal system. and 11 private Internet and fax-based news sheets. thererfore.a high poverty rate. Kirundi. Only one in two children go to school. private French-language Arc-en-ciel (Rainbow). injurious. Radio remained the most important medium of public information. and Kiswahili. French. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports. poor education rates. WAN from public sources 220 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. and Kiswahili and offered limited English programming. The government-owned radio station broadcast in Kirundi. Circulation The number of copies printed by independent publications is small. The number of copies printed by independent publications was small. Performance of newspapers vs. the only daily newspaper. and readership was limited by low literacy levels. or offensive to public or private individuals.

748 4.BURUNDI 3.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Burundi.00 0.052 83 4.070 46 51 3 100 Source: CIA .004.6 6.00 0.020 47 51 2 100 Female 000 % 1.00 0.00 Source: 2002-2003 WAN estimate. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2006 4.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7.a Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Le Renouveau French Government Circulation (000) 20 Source: WAN from public sources Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 3. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 3.863 2.134 208 8.The World Factbook 8.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 221 .00 0.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 0.126.916.00 0.0 Source: CIA .6 4.885 2.090 46 51 3 100 Male 000 % 1.00 0. 2004 US State Department.082 125 4.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0. franc.

other media The government controlled national television and radio stations broadcast taped sessions of National Assembly debates. Online / Digital Publishing The Internet was widely available through Internet cafes and home subscriptions in urban areas. However. UNTAC Article 62. There are more than 100 newspapers. education. both civil and criminal. There are an estimated 20 defamation suits.The World Factbook Households (occupancy) (2004) 2. Furthermore. social action. one-third are considered to support the royalist movement. including a prohibition on prepublication censorship and protection from imprisonment for expressing opinions.468 4. Performance of newspapers vs.370 291 7. and all major parties have access to the print media. with foreign visitors surpassing one million per year beginning in 2005. than half are considered progovernment. as well as Khmer-language newspapers published regularly. public health. Media / Press Laws The constitution implicitly limits free speech by requiring that it not adversely affect public security.The World Factbook. but judges can still order large fines.095 180 6. the government continued to use the older UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) law to prosecute journalists and others on criminal defamation charges rather than the 1995 press law. Source: CIA . which treats defamation as a civil matter. representing a new revenue stream for the government once commercial extraction begins in coming years. Their The government and influential individuals used distribution is limited.882 36 61 3 100 Male 000 % 2. and one is considered to support the opposition.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.465 471 13. but few of them keep regular publication schedules and have paid staffs. continues to include prison sentences of up to three years.109 34 61 4 100 Source: CIA .” The 1995 press law provides journalists with a number of rights. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. which covers the crime of disinformation.773 37 60 3 100 Female 000 % 2.448 4. which many citizens cannot afford to pay.ca Occupancy Total Households 000 2. National radio and television stations regularly broadcast some human rights. The tourism sector continues to grow rapidly. however. The inflation rate was estimated at 5% in 2006. and civil society programming produced by domestic NGOs.CAMBODIA Media Market Description General economic situation Better-than-expected garment sector performance led to about 6% growth per year in 2005-06. Performance of different types of newspapers Newspapers are generally aligned politically. In May the National Assembly amended the UNTAC law to eliminate imprisonment as a penalty for defamation. more charges of disinformation in an effort to silence critics. US State Department. The constitution also declares that the king is “inviolable.189 Source: 1998 census / 2001 projection Map: CIA – The World Factbook 222 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . WAN from public sources 2. in several instances these broadcasts were censored. exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath the territorial waters of Cambodia.946 8. In 2005.

bln) 2000 2001 2002 - 2003 101.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 50 50 50 55 55 10.5 8.938 690 450 - Source: ZenithOptimedia.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers Total paid-for dailies 100 20 100 20 100 20 100 20 100 20 0. WAN from public sources 1 No circulation figures are audited WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 223 .00 0.aa Advertising sector Expenditure (Cambodia.5 120.7 154.00 0.ba Expenditure (Cambodia.CAMBODIA 3.636.The World Factbook 7.00 Source: WAN estimate 3. 000) 1 211 210 174 117 92 87 77 68 66 57 Source: IRL 1 1999 Source: CIA .g Top newspaper advertisers (2001) Source: IRL Gross domestic product GDP 7.00 Source: WAN estimate 7. 000) Advertiser Telecoms Tobacco Education Bars/restaurants/clubs Accomodation Fuel Packaged food Financial Airlines Electronics Jet Cigarettes MobiTel Shinawatra Tele2 Mild Seven Samart Banana Center Sokimex Norton University Ara Red Cigarettes 774 602 308 198 174 119 106 89 88 87 - (Cambodia. riel. riel.213.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2001) In press Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Circulation1 Full page ad rate Mono Color (000) (USD) Rasmei Kampuchea (Light of Kampuchea) Koh Santepheap (Island of Peace) Cambodia Daily Cambodge Soir Chakraval Kampuchea Thnai Nes (Cambodia Today) Khmer Khmer English French Khmer Khmer 15 10 4 3 2 2 807 581 285 250 - 1. riel.408 1.00 0.00 0.762.

Newspapers were distributed In 2004 the government established a special fund to primarily in urban areas. In 2006. Radio France International. and Le Messager were privately State Support owned daily newspapers. CAMNEWS through criminal libel laws. International oil and cocoa prices have a significant impact on the economy. Radio remained the most important medium reaching most citizens. and other foreign services broadcast in partnership with state-owned CRTV. 1990) and the Constitution of 1996. to criminalize a civil libel suit or to initiate a criminal libel suit in cases of alleged libel against the Performance of different types of newspapers president and other high government officials. daily newspapers. The commission in charge of issuing press cards is composed mostly of independent personalities from the communication profession.000 CFA francs against a cover price of 300 and photocopies being traded undercover. Circulation In 2006. human rights abuses. The government homosexuality. such as topheavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The inflation rate was estimated at 2. plaintiff. The five independent television stations largely avoided criticizing the government. at its discretion and the request of the is foreign. and economic policies. Cameroon has one of the bestendowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa.4% in 2006. One of the few legislated restrictions on journalist activity is the provision that every journalist needs to have a press card. the influence of print media was minimal. intervention or intimidation. These laws authorize the (Cameroon News) which is staterun. Many of those “outed” by the gutter press have strongly denied the allegations and some are taking legal action. it continued to have a certain degree of influence over media outlets. Still. La Nouvelle Expression. it faces many serious problems. Media / Press Laws Press freedom is guaranteed by the Freedom of Social Communication law (Republic of Cameroon.CAMEROON Media Market Description General economic situation Because of its modest oil resources and favorable argicultural conditions. with only one owner having more than one station. approximately 200 privately owned newspapers were published. with originals fetching up to 5. 224 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . primarily for lack of Despite the large number of private newspapers in the funding. The government prosecuted its critics in the print media There are two news agencies in Cameroon. only an estimated 25 were Printing & Distribution published on a regular basis. Performance of newspapers vs. stirring a storm in a country where homosexuality is illegal. and prices of independent newspapers were high. newspapers and radio stations. The libel law places the burden of proof on the defendant. format. entertainers and even religious figures are gay. poor education. unemployment. the Cameroon Tribune. and government neglect. and most continued to criticize support the development of the press. newspapers. and corruption which the broadcasts said had caused these problems. Mutations. other media The government tightly controlled the broadcast media. Television was less pervasive but more influential than print media. and funds were disbursed to some private including corruption. such The number of newspaper and magazine titles grew crimes are punishable by prison terms and heavy fines. which government. continued to disburse such funds during the year. Ownership of the private radio stations was very diverse. from around 50 to more than 500 in the period 2000-5. There were approximately 20 privately owned radio stations operating in the country. Advertising Since the government was the largest advertiser in the country and could choose which media outlets to pay to place advertising. particularly the government and report on controversial issues. The law permits broadcasting by foreign news services but requires them to partner with a national station. Distribution was problematic outside of major towns. Cameroon tabloid newspapers have alleged dozens of prominent politicians. Approximately 75 percent of private radio stations were concentrated in Yaounde and Douala. while blaming rivals for spreading the charges. although their news broadcasts sometimes focused on poverty. The issuing or refusal of a press card has not been used to date by the government as a form of control. The incriminating articles multipled newspaper circulations and created their own market. however. Almost all the newspapers are tabloid in country. and Reuters. due The government published one of the country’s few largely to high government taxes on newsprint. The BBC.

The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 225 . bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 15.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 65 65 65 70 70 7.CAMEROON Other Factors The quality of reporting has improved enormously in Cameroon between 2000-2005. Source: CIA .796 303 8.The World Factbook 8.234. The integration of trained journalists into this sector has helped raise the quality of journalism.632 563 17.aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC. US State Department 3.4 Source: CIA .69 0. This improvement in quality is not reflected in the salaries of these journalists.615 4.630 41 56 4 100 Source: CIA .711 41 56 3 100 Female 000 % 3.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.239.The World Factbook.2 17.00 Source: WAN estimate 3. Many of the journalists and media practitioners who graduate from the Advanced School of Mass Communication (ASMAC) and the University of Buea Department of Journalism and Mass Communication are employed in the private sector.5 22.341 41 56 3 100 Male 000 % 3.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 7.531 4.00 0.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Cameroon Tribune Le Messager La Nouvelle Expression Mutations French/English French French French Sopecam (Government) The Free Media Group South Media Group Circulation (000) 25 15 15 10 Source: WAN from public sources 2.836 260 8.146 9.769.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 4 4 4 4 4 0.

Canada is the US’ largest foreign supplier of energy. gas. but one less than in 2004. and affluent living standards.C.Weekly and weekday readership remains stable .Frequency of reading remains stable in markets where Performance of different types of newspapers free dailies are available but continues to decline in most There are still 100 English and French language paid other markets daily newspapers in Canada. and 31. including oil. Black Press currently publishes 18 free dailies in various regions across B. Quebecor publishes “24 Hours” in Toronto. skilled labor force. Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system. NADbank.075.3% decline in 2005.No change in content readership interests Source: Canadian Newspaper Association (CNA).Weekend readership continues to decline format in the spring of 2006 from a broadsheet to a tabloid. and electric power. Average daily and weekly circulation levels declined by 1% in 2006. CanWest and Torstar jointly publish publications in . up from 17 last year. Torstar and Metro International SA jointly publish “Metro” in Toronto.No change in time spent reading (for readers) Five ownership groups publish over 25 free dailies in Canada. Transcontinental and Torstar have a joint stake with Sweden’s Metro International SA to publish “Metro” in Montreal. Vancouver and Ottawa. after a 2. two dailies.551 copies in a week. Circulation The daily paid circulation in 2006 stands at 4. Montreal. “The Valley Today” was launched in September 2006 in the Annapolis Valley region of Nova Scotia. . the same as in 2005.070 copies on an average publishing day.CANADA Media Market Description General economic situation As an affluent.Readership of the free daily newspapers continues to grow .Readership increased somewhat among adults 18-34 in markets where free dailies are available In April 2005. uranium. although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. professionals. CIA .Online readership remains stable.753. somewhat offset by online readership One newspaper. and modern capital plant. pattern of production. high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner. while Metro International SA. which absorbs about 85% of Canadian exports.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 226 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . . the US.. Readership Overview of readership results (NADbank): . Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Ottawa and Vancouver. changed its . The Port Hope Evening Guide and the Cobourg Daily Star. Le Soleil in Quebec City. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997. Given its great natural resources.Readership continues to decline among managers and publishing frequency to a five-day from a six-day cycle. reach and time spent per week varies by market . reduced their .

407 4.00 0.06 4.6 745.121 1.645 4.754 2.431 4.468 17 13 13 15 16 11 15 100 Source: Statistics Canada 2006 Projected figures 2.944 2.808 1. top 19 markets 20.150.358 1.752 -0.018 2.88 3 Source: CNA All adults Men Women 77 79 75 1 Source: NADbank 2006 2 All markets.948 2.669 1.023 2.342 15. and junior managerial.supervisory or clerical.81 0.620 7.00 - 4. dollar) min max Housewives 000 % 154 880 1.268 2.105 2.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 2.a 2.ca 104 102 2 100 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association Male Households (occupancy) (2005) Number of titles Female 000 % Single copy Subscription 1 0.117 636 583 4.930 4.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.987 2.059 1.11 -14.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .771 15.435 995 1.670 1.6 674.015 1.92 -2.545 2.479 6.57 -3. dollar.71 -2.891 2.329 4.869 15 35 4 10 36 100 Source: 2005 NADbank Study.461 5.405 278 689 2.71 Estimate based on weekly average Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 68 32 13 13 16 100 Total paid-for dailies 1.987 2.908 2.280 5.57 Without children With children aged 0-5 aged 6-11 aged 12-17 Total 5.13 -4.060 5.918 1.80 4 2. top 19 markets 2.17 -3.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached (Canada.173 2.944 2.d 3 20 25 25 14 13 100 125 100 2 98 (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Cover prices (2006) 5. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies 681.491 124 100 2 98 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association.77 5. top 19 markets Age 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total Total dailies Total paid-for dailies 1 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 1 Source: 2005 NADbank Study.00 3 7-day average 4 Price Monday-Friday 5 5-day Monday to Friday average WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 227 . including VAT 4.578 6. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .165 18 14 14 16 16 11 11 100 2.43 -1.State pensioners or widows (no other earners) 1 Occupancy 3.250 1.96 0.97 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 4.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .044 3.432 16.707 274.753 1.b Children 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total 2.cb 2.0 722.623 17 14 14 16 15 11 13 100 3.higher managerial.71 40.314 31.573 598 578 582 570 802 4.34 2.535 1.608 5.83 456 660 667 1.553 1.29 9.163 2.696 1.861 2. weekly reach (6/7 day cume) Median price Price on Saturday. WAN assessment (free dailies) Households 000 % Source: 2005 NADbank Study.70 -10.00 -2. administrative or professional B = Middle class .906 -1.00 -8.911 4.CANADA 2.252 2.615 27 31 16 16 10 100 Source: 2005 NADbank Study.579 1.209 2.00 - - - 57 43 - - - 2 - 3 - 3 - 24 28 28 25 27 27 1.29 2.799 4.764 1.669 4.908 2.172 20 28 8 16 29 100 Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 1 Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 000 % 1.85 5 1.00 0.214 770 7.099 14.184 7.303 24 21 11 22 22 100 Female 000 % 1.005 4.352 4.906 -1.460 5.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) ( 2005) 103 100 2 98 Total average circulation per issue Households (children) (2005) Households 000 % 105 102 2 100 2005 Including 1 all-day newspaper 4. top 19 markets A = Upper middle class .63 34.00 0.19 -1.515 2.268 4.782 3.513 827 1.b Sales revenues (Canada.590 5.229 3.a Male 000 % 2.91 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association All paid-for newspapers.352 6.intermediate managerial. price on Sunday: CAD1.1 789. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .25 2 3.1 15.948 2.

33 37.85 Includes classified.CANADA Age structure of readership (2006) 5.732 Media consumption 1 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 2002 47 58 45 15 116 114 46 49 62 48 16 159 115 63 48 69 46 16 151 114 70 2006 49 63 47 17 114 115 65 7.2 Source: NMR Annual Summary Data 7. top 19 markets 1 % read online past week 7.664 682 3.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Advertising sector Expenditure (Canada.9 54.370 610 2.4 236. divided by 7 Dailies 4.8 36.com theglobeandmail.0 37.5 Source: NADbank Study. AC Nielsen 2002 6.70 2005 2006 0. magazines exclude trade titles All newspapers National newspapers Regional and local newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 1 3.641 Source: TVB. dollar.498 Excludes agency commission.5 Source: IFS.605 665 3.9 38.0 2.414 3.330 1. inserts.8 136.0 2. Statistics Canada. ZenithOptimedia 228 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .187 15 284 237 8.33 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association.c 33 34 32 15 99 118 74 4. dollar.4 35. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 1.973.249 1.902.4 40.084 3.270 3.684 444 1.562 11.329 558 2.611.770 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 7.640 Advertising revenues (Canada.228.887 3.0 1.c Advertising expenditure per medium Display 1 Classified Inserts 2 Total Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 1 2 Retail & national Measured separately.ca Reach (%) 1 4 2 5 2 - - - 1. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies 2. production costs.887 3. age groups were modified to reflect the NADbank Study 5.3 Online editions Advertising volume sold Total 54 63 Change (%) 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 66 72 99 83.413 1. includes classified advertising.788 1.357.113 1 Source: NADbank Study.943.0 1. ZenithOptimedia 7.d 2002 2003 2004 6.0 1.e Contribution of display. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 35.4 130.539 1. ZenithOptimedia All markets.24hrs.501.529.302 11. by number of pieces Source: NADbank Study.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) 7.478 3.0 2.071. dollar.120 4.246 16 303 295 8.0 347. CRTC. dollar.561.7 40. CCNA/Les Hebdos du Quebec.4 103.346 3.0 Source: IFS. ZenithOptimedia 7.70 Source: IFS.4 36.ab Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 2000 (Canada.1 58. agency commission.502.504 395 1.5 448.ba (Canada. top 19 markets 6.215.437 647 2.416 371 801 10.990. 000) 2002 2003 (%) 2004 0. top 19 markets (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 - - Newspaper/ Publisher Website Toronto Star The Toronto Sun The Globe and Mail National Post 24 Hours thestar.659.041 10.0 35. 000) Advertiser Retail Auto Local auto dealers Entertainment Travel & transport Telecommunications Finance / Insurance Media Computers & related products Education GM Chrysler Various theatrical / entertainment Rogers Communications Chrysler Dodge Jeep Dealers Assoc.0 2. Pontiac Buick Cadillac Hudsons Bay Company BCE Chevrolet Telus 509.760 718 3.708.715 699 3.9 Source: NMR Annual Summary Data Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Expenditure (Canada.278.398.b Age 25-34 65 + Total 18-24 35-49 50-64 7. classified.com/nationalpost toronto.613 1. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - - 65.8 100 NADbank only measures online editions for daily newspapers Online readership (2006) 1.179 1.108.3 51.290.242 4.com canada.510.68 0.965.69 0.965.343.591 419 1.895.2 34.417. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % % daily reach of readership within age group 17 16 100 12 30 24 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor 1 Internet Total 72 78 77 77 76 80 Source: NADbank 2006 3.7 87.155.2 65.172.9 213.6 49.66 0. after discounts.com torontosun.523.309 344 562 9.603 Including Transport Data based on minutes per week. after discounts 7. dollar.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP (Canada.808.ac 62.0 1.a 4.797 740 3. CAN.092 14 273 176 7. excludes production costs.b 4.963.081.013 1. dollar.6 39.537 3.

Vancouver The Gazette. of Canada Bell Globemedia Osprey Media LP Transcontinental Inc.CANADA Top publishing companies (2006) 8.351 946 655 461 336 299 150 139 105 101 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 8.000 English) and Metro Ottawa (60. Brunswick News Inc. Metro MontrÈal (130. FP CNLP Halifax-Herald Ltd.000 copies in English).a Publisher 8.00 0. Research Circulation is audited by ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation).000 English) 2 Toronto and Vancouver 3 Montréal 4 Both editions have a print run of 40. Metro Vancouver (160. Montréal The Toronto Sun The Vancouver Sun The Province. Language Format Source: Canadian Newspaper Association Top free dailies (2006) Title Circulation 1 (000) - 0. WAN from public sources Including Metro Toronto (550. 11. the 12-page paper is available Monday to Thursday after 4 PM at 120 distribution points 6 Metro Montréal is published by Groupe GTC Transcontinental / Metro Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Broadsheets Tabloids - 85 17 Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet 87 17 85 17 85 17 Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant 61 6 6 6 6 6 6 Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 1 10.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 14. Montreal Ottawa Citizen English English French English French English English English English English TorStar Bell Globemedia Quebecor Power Corp CanWest Quebecor CanWest CanWest CanWest CanWest Total circulation (000) CanWest MediaWorks Publications Quebecor/Sun Media Torstar Power Corp.bb Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title 1 Metro Publisher Circulation (000) 1 English / French Torstar / CanWest / Metro International 6 Dose English CanWest Global Communications Inc.00 1 Down from 7% 13.a 466 336 273 231 216 193 175 150 143 135 Average daily circulation 12. 1.000 French). 24 hours 2 English Quebecor / Sun Media 24 heures 3 French Quebecor / Sun Media 24 Hours/Heures Ottawa 4 English / French Quebecor / Sun Media RushHour 5 English CanWest MediaWorks 900 290 240 120 40 30 Source: 2006.000 and are published Monday to Friday 5 Ottawa.ba Language Publisher Toronto Star The Globe and Mail Le Journal de Montréal National Post La Presse. CCAB (Canadian Circulation Audit Bureau) Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 Readership is measured by NADbank WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 229 . Free Dailies Newsletter.

CANADA 15. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. but the Federal Broadcasting Regulator is reluctant to grant a broadcasting licence to a company that already has daily newspapers in the same market. competition substantially”. although daily newspapers receive no special treatment. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Yes Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No. but some jurisdictions maintain a register of shareholders with voting powers in publicly traded companies. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No. where ownership “prevents or lessens. or is likely to prevent or lessen. Publishing is dealt with by the same law as other businesses. of domestic daily newspapers? Yes. The Investment Canada Act requires a review of foreign purchases or establishments of Canadian businesses with assets greater than C$5 million. No order has been put on a newspaper publisher under the Federal Competition Act and so what constitutes a publisher in a “dominating position” is unspecified. the majority of shares. and in particular.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No. The Federal Competition Act enables the government to obtain an enforceable order requiring divestiture. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Source: Canadian Newspaper Association 230 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . or prohibiting purchase.

000) and Boletin Informativo (1. owned radio station. Cape Verde has been exploring European Union membership in recent years.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 231 . financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants. tourism.500). escudo.7% in 2006. including government authorization to broadcast. The government-run Novo Jornal-Cabo Verde is published twice a week with circulation 5. and public services accounting for 66% of GDP. including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought.2 2006 274. with commerce.00 0. one state-owned television station and two foreign-owned stations. WAN from public sources 2. Foreign broadcasts were permitted. remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%.The World Factbook. Performance of different types of newspapers There were three independent newspapers and one stateowned newspaper.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 4 4 4 4 4 0.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Cape Verde. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 265.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 160 232 29 421 Male 38 55 7 100 Female 000 % 000 % 81 113 11 205 40 55 5 100 79 119 18 216 37 55 8 100 Source: CIA .CAPE VERDE Media Market Description General economic situation This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base. The economy is service-oriented. The inflation rate was estimated at 4.000. there were no reports that licenses Performance of newspapers vs. one state. none of which are published daily.9 Source: CIA . Source: CIA . Media / Press Laws The law requires a formal licensing mechanism for mass media. transport. US State Department. The independent periodicals include the weekly A Semana (5.The World Factbook 3.to authorize broadcasts during the year.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit. other media were denied or revoked or that the government refused There were six independent radio stations. however.

Circulation exceeds 10.The World Factbook 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 10 10 10 10 18 80. and USA Today are on sale in Grand Cayman on the day of issue. The Caymanian Compass is a member of the Inter American Press Association. including overseas subscribers. established in 1970 3 Including overseas subscribers 2 232 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .209 Source: WAN from public sources 1 Established in 1965 Successor to the Nor'wester. and other newspapers can be obtained promptly. culture. Tourism is also a mainstay. and entertainment.6 Source: CIA .000 daily. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America. Source: CIA . religion. accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings.4% in 2004.50 0. dollar) 1. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 - - - - 1.00 100.The World Factbook 3. The inflation rate was estimated at 4.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Caymanian Compass Cayman Net News 2 Publisher 1 Circulation Readership Cover price (000) (000) (USD) 30 - 0. the islands are a thriving offshore financial center.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 10 32 4 46 Male Female 000 % 000 % 5 16 2 23 22 70 9 100 22 70 9 100 5 16 2 23 22 70 9 100 Source: CIA .080 990 1. the International Herald Tribune. the Financial Times. 10 8 3 Format Tabloid Broadsheet Full page ad rate Mono Colour (USA.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. Printing & Distribution The Miami Herald.The World Factbook 8.00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN from public sources.00 80. Cayman Net Ltd. it is published Monday to Friday.630 1. dollar. Performance of different types of newspapers The main newspaper.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1 1 1 1 2 100. Performance of newspapers vs.aa Gross domestic product 2000 Map: CIA – The World Factbook GDP (Cayman Islands.50 Cayman Free Press Ltd. other media There are two TV stations and three radio stations. 2006 WAN estimate 7. is the Cayman Islands only daily newspaper. Established in 1965. The government-owned Radio Cayman designs its programmes to meet the needs of education. the Caymanian Compass.CAYMAN ISLANDS Media Market Description General economic situation With no direct taxation. The local TV stations compete with a vast array of US and other international TV programming transmitted via satellite.

823 (one million CFA francs) for the publication or broadcast of false or fabricated information that “would disturb the peace. Performance of different types of newspapers More than 30 newspapers. with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry. the government’s economic Other provisions in the new press law that concerned policies. hatred. journalists found guilty of libel or slander faced fines of between USD182 and USD1. Performance of newspapers vs. distribution.000 and one million CFA francs). for 40%. and a severe lack of access to information ministries and the HCC at least four hours before held by the government. Source: CIA . approximately USD0. and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. although the reach of Ndeke Luka was limited. Printing & Distribution While five independent dailies.823 (100. a largely unskilled work force. individuals and groups could engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet. a serious deficiency of distribution and the requirement that foreign press professional skills. The agricultural sector generates more than half of GDP. the absence of an independent organs submit copies of publications to two government printing press.823 (one million CFA francs) for journalists who incite disobedience among security forces or incite persons to violence. Media / Press Laws In early 2005 the president signed a law passed by the transitional legislative body in December 2004 that precludes the imprisonment of journalists for defaming a third party in a published story.55 (300 CFA francs). The private radio station Radio Ndeke Luka continued to provide a popular and independent alternative to the state-owned Radio Centrafrique. other media Radio was the most important medium of mass communication. Le Confident. Important constraints to economic development include the landlocked position of the CAR.” Although defamation is no longer punishable by imprisonment under the law.6% in 2001. instead. The government owned and operated a radio station and the country’s only television station. a right of reply or compensation must be accorded to the plaintiff. including by e-mail. including Le Citoyen. or discrimination through publication in a newspaper or a broadcast. WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 233 . they were not distributed outside of the Bangui area. a poor transportation system. together with forestry. The inflation rate was estimated at 3. many of which were privately owned. were published at varying intervals and often criticized the president. and the average price of a newspaper. However. the law still provides for terms of imprisonment and fines of up to USD1. local press observers included a requirement that local press organs submit copies of their next publications to Journalists continued to face many challenges. was more than most citizens could afford. Online / Digital Publishing Although less than one percent of the population had access to the Internet. were available in Bangui. and Le Democrate. and official corruption. US State Department. in part because the literacy rate was low. including four government entities and the HCC prior to chronic financial problems.CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Media Market Description General economic situation Subsistence agriculture. Circulation Financial problems prevented many private newspapers from publishing regularly. remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR).The World Factbook. In addition the law provides for terms of imprisonment of between six months and two years and fines of up to USD1. and the absence of a functioning postal service continued to hinder newspaper distribution.

1 2.00 Source: WAN estimate 3.303 42 54 4 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Male 000 % 908 1.650.4 2.a 8.00 0.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.178 41 54 5 100 Le Confident Le Citoyen L’Echo de Centrafrique Le Democrate L’Hirondelle Le Quotidien de Bangui Circulation (000) 1 - Source: WAN from public sources Source: CIA . bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 2.381.319 179 4.173 108 2.146 71 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 4 4 4 5 5 25.9 Source: CIA .aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC.805 2.00 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers Total paid-for dailies 30 5 30 5 30 6 30 6 30 6 0.297.00 20.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.125 43 54 3 100 Female 000 % 897 1.CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 3.00 0.ba Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 1.The World Factbook 234 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

A consortium led by two US companies has been investing USD3. Abeche. many of them owned by religious organizations. other media Due to widespread illiteracy and the relatively high cost of newspapers and television. Radio N’Gato.369 2.The World Factbook. publish and circulate freely in the capital.00 Source: WAN estimate 7. WAN from public sources 2.551 164 5. The inflation rate was estimated at 4% in 2006.907 272 9. There were numerous private radio stations that broadcast throughout the country.233.749. Performance of newspapers vs. L’Observateur.00 0. radio remained the most important medium of mass communication. Performance of different types of newspapers There are no daily newspapers in the country. The government owns the newspaper Info Tchad and influences another. Source: CIA . Le Progres.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels .a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 5 5 5 5 5 0. Over 80% of the population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood.in southern Chad. and Taya. but it does not dominate the press.3 8. many of which are critical of government policies and leaders. N’Djamena Hebdo. Chad began to export oil in 2004.CHAD Media Market Description General economic situation The primarily agricultural economy of Chad will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. the growth of Internet access was almost entirely through the government telecommunications company. Moundou. Sahr. et Notre Temps.00 Source: WAN estimate 3. US State Department.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 3 4 4 4 33.944 Male 48 49 3 100 Female 000 % 000 % 2.356 108 4.7 Source: CIA .aa Map: CIA – The World Factbook Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC.396 2.The World Factbook 3. A new privately owned commercial radio station.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 235 . Online / Digital Publishing Although increasingly available to the public at Internet cafes. The government-owned Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne had branches in N’Djamena. A number of private newspapers. Le Temps.5 9. began broadcasting in July 2006.084 47 50 3 100 Source: CIA . The include Le Progres.860 49 48 2 100 2. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 5.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.765 4.859.33 0.

171 1.267 8 8 9 9 8 7 8 8 8 7 5 4 4 8 100 Male 000 % 630 675 757 743 670 590 621 618 627 539 420 338 272 545 8. advertising in newspapers kept growing but at lower levels compared to previous years. but the economic growth figures were not as good as expected.Chile Press Association 2. Even though the law will not take effect until 2007. Readership 2006 was the third year of the SVCL .052 8 8 9 9 8 7 8 8 8 7 5 4 3 7 100 Female 000 % 607 652 731 720 652 580 618 620 634 551 437 362 304 745 8. Media / Press Laws The modification of the 8th article of the political Constitution restricted the capacity of the authorities to ban or limit access to certain information related to their institutions. who is the first female President in the history of Chile.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1. Ownership El Mercurio SAP bought part of one of the biggest regional newspapers. reaching only 4%.214 7 8 9 9 8 7 8 8 8 7 5 4 4 9 100 Source: INE Estimation from 2002 Census Map: CIA – The World Factbook 236 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Performance of newspapers vs. companies started making adjustments to comply with the new regulations. closed down after a series of problems with its editorial staff. and one of the oldest in Latinamerica. had A new law which will regulate the work of external service companies and freelancers was passed by the Congress.328 1. Performance of different types of newspapers El Mercurio de Santiago (national). El Sur de Concepciůn.000 copies. 16 months after their launch.463 1.the system used to measure readership.240 1. which specialized in political news. serious problems getting advertising and its circulation never exceeded 20.237 1.262 1.322 1. Michelle Bachelet. The paper.090 858 701 577 1. owned by Copesa and a group of investors. The study only measures 6 national newspapers and three freepapers. remain the only broadsheets in the market. Source: Asociacion Nacional de la Prensa .488 1. The advertising share of the press remained behind television (50%) but still much higher than the rest of the media. along with El Sur de Concepción (regional). Newspaper launches / closures In the middle of 2006 Diario Siete.290 16.CHILE Media Market Description General economic situation The Chilean economy remained stable during the first year of the new socialist goverment of Ms.239 1. other media With the economy doing well.

00 0.0 56.00 0.0 73.74 -63.67 -22. WAN assessment (free dailies) 3. .376 8 16 23 36 18 100 Source: Adimark 1 18+ ABC1 = upper and upper middle class.00 - - 55 1 55 1 55 1 - 0. managerial and professional C2 = middle class.00 0.0 218.15 0.18 -3.4 Regional and local 72. intermediate managerial and administrative C3 = lower middle class D = working class.0 54.00 0.045 5.22 -5.3 National paid-for dailies 602.068 7 15 22 35 21 100 425 832 1.0 11.76 1.a Male 000 % 372 742 1.62 -65.034 10.087 4.0 73.0 Evening and afternoon 33. WAN assessment (free dailies) Age Under 30 30-44 45-59 60-74 75+ Total Housewives 000 % 283 1.7 Total paid-for dailies 248.0 199.and unskilled manual labourers E = those at lowest levels of subsistence Households (occupancy) (2005) 2.00 12 12 9 32 32 10 33 32 9 36 36 9 34 32 7 183.00 24.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Social class ABC1 C2 C3 D E Total All adults 1 000 % 798 1.94 1.0 56.74 -63.CHILE 2.00 - 0.00 0.909 990 5.0 274.00 3 - 3 - 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.0 218.789 1.58 -63.25 0.22 3 22 23 27 25 733.0 199.141 12 18 22 23 26 100 Without children With children aged 0-3 aged 4-9 aged 10-15 Total Source: INE Source: INE Based on 2002 Census Based on 2002 Census Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Female 000 % Households 000 % 1.00 0.00 0.667 11 42 30 14 4 100 40 816 600 600 567 33 802 602 602 569 33 812 602 602 570 32 - 1.218 1.575 2.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 302.8 National paid-for Sundays 0.254 1.32 0.00 - - - 16 16 - - 2004 Includes only nine titles monitored by KPMG in Santiago 2005-2006 Only titles audited by SVCL (KPMG) 1 2003 Includes only nine titles monitored by KPMG in Santiago 4.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 473 727 900 952 1.118 1.141 44 56 19 30 31 100 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 50 47 10 37 57 54 9 45 59 56 10 46 59 56 10 46 59 56 10 46 18.00 0.00 Source: ANP.4 free dailies Total paid-for Sundays 0.804 2.cb Households (children) (2005) Occupancy Children 2.00 100.0 801.12 - - Source: KPMG as a part of the SVCL 2006 Only titles audited by SVCL (KPMG) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 237 .00 5.0 54.336 3.33 166.698 2.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Source: INE Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies 1 Total free dailies 234 Regional and local free dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays - Based on 2002 Census Source: 2003 KPMG.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2.444 8 15 22 35 20 100 3.26 - 5.03 251 251 216 216 200 200 210 210 -10.41 - - 1 - 2 2 - - - 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 200.94 -63.00 0.12 -63.0 218.294 4.11 -22. 2005 ANP.336 759 1.8 - -63.00 19.3 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 72.33 -7.3 Morning paid-for dailies 569. semi.00 0.109 791 388 96 2.0 602.56 -11.0 207.0 291.

peso.992 3.187 121.484 31.KPMG 1 2 238 Includes two daily newspapers and two free newspapers Includes two morning newspapers and one evening (Monday-Friady) paper WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .941 31.52 114.230 30.021 5.549.047 161. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE) Newspaper reach (2006) 5.693.00 284.151.a Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher Copesa El Mercurio SAP Metro International La Nación Ediciones Financieras Editorial Gestión Empresa Diario El Sur Diario El Día de La Serena Diario El Centro Diario La Prensa Total circulation (000) 390 328 93 8 - 235 1 236 2 - Source: SVCL .200 1.583 146.923 135.320 440. ZenithOptimedia.0 120.0 77.066 14. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 30 30 30 22 184 144 All newspapers (A+B+C+D) 2 Advertising sector Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 - 38 8 - 46 8 - 46 7 2 49 15 2 - 6.Second Semester Adimark 2003 6.588 13.233 216.lanacion.685 3.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) Online editions Dailies Non-dailies Sundays 116.838 97.620 465.5 (A+B+C+D) = total dailies + total non-dailies + total Sundays + online newspapers KMR .c Media consumption (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 2002 All newspapers National newspapers Regional and local newspapers Magazines Television Internet - - 30 214 - 7.2 77.78 % of display ad revenue Telefónica Fallabella Ripley Almacenes París Televisión Nacional de Chile Corporación de Televisión de la U.0 3. C.c 30 1 30 30 22 2 184 - (Chile.1 2002 Advertising expenditure per medium Age structure of readership (2006) 12-24 25-39 40-54 55-75 4.973.a - Source: ACHAP Source: Kantar Media Rersearch.2 Cover prices (2006) GDP per capita 200.337.9 7.a (Chile.aa - 7.ab 2002 2003 (%) 2004 - - - Single copy sales Subscriptions 2005 2006 - 61.68 0. 2005-2006 Banco Central de Chile 8.905 1.005 328.cl www.4 79. peso. 2005-2006 Banco Central de Chile.498.0 114. peso.7 78.00 - 7.040 397.686 188.982 14.526 138.714.608 13.00 Source: ANP 1 Only ANP members 6.018 169.202 145.64 0.692 243.060 186.emol. C.cl Page impressions (000) 229.956 153.c Type of newspaper sales 7.161 37.163 21.d Gross domestic product per capita 69. peso.215 131. Time Ibope.967 950 Source: AMI Gross domestic product 2002 GDP -13.CHILE 4.126 107.359 31.7 Source: 2002-2003 IFS.762 34. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2002 Source: ANP 4.652 162.786 16.846 365.0 - 2006 64.ba Source: Kantar Media Research 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 46.200 1790 42.8 38. ZenithOptimedia.445 516.581 14.cl www.64 0.716 1.0 103.780 1. ZenithOptimedia 5.510 15. Adimark 1 Advertising revenues 2006 (Chile. Banco Santander General Motors Banco de Chile Banco de Crédito en Inversiones 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Source: Mega Time Online readership (2006) 7.29 0.134 4.233 1.819.5 23. peso) min max Single copy Subscription 2.903 4.878 44.1 Source: IFS.950 490.4 27.625 39.185 22.b Newspaper/ Publisher Website El Mercurio La Nación Diario Financiero www.268 3.787.293.733 1.5 72.220 23.061.0 4.340 345.0 2006 Source: 2002-2003 IFS.548 36.945 229.0 49.569 110.263 152.328 4.65 (Chile.411.1 Source: Kantar Media Research 112260 98.206 13.720 1.892 122.488 Source: ZenithOptimedia 5.ac All adults Men Women 600.6 73.b Age - Ad spend as a % of GDP (%) Reached (Chile. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total % % daily reach of readership within age group 21 28.diariofinanciero.71 0.548 35.757 32.250 175.00 Source: ANP Ad expenditure 75.477 258.706 40700 4.

452.688.800 4.203.74 Full page ad rate Mono Colour usual max usual max (Chile.000 Grand Santiago Metropolitan area sample annually.264.37 0.627.CHILE Top owners (2006) Owners 1 El Mercurio SAP Copesa Ediciones Financieras Editorial Gestión Diario El Día Diario El Centro Diario El Observador Source: APN 1 Newspapers 8. peso) 2.291.000 24.126 Tabloid 1. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists 7. peso) Broadsheet 5.550.044.500.900.702.917 8.000 interviews/month in Santiago.000 1.600 2. peso) usual max (USD) Spanish Spanish Spanish El Mercurio SAP Copesa El Mercurio SAP 159 142 138 386 471 390 300 600 200 200 - 0.287. yesterday readers by day of week Source: SVCL Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Single copy sales Circulation is audited by KPMG Readership is measured by Kantar Media Research Source: 2002-2003 Ministry of Education.589.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Berliner 42 2 48 - 76 2 88 - 79 2 91 - 2 56 1 2 94 2 0.600 1.230.56 0.408.SVCL Only titles audited by SVCL 8. persons 12-75 years old.600.187.56 1. random probability sample stratified by SES.800 2.11 0.800 2.856 Tabloid 1.00 95.600 2.264. 1.37 - Spanish Spanish Spanish Copesa El Mercurio SAP Copesa 131 32 8 325 72 29 300 600 300 350 250 400 0.000 6.65 0. face-to-face interviews using CAPI with PDA.115 1.600 10.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language El Mercurio La Cuarta Las Ultimas Noticias La Tercera La Segunda La Nación Publisher Circulation Readership (000) (000) Cover price Format usual max (Chile.264.980.000 Berliner Tabloid Tabloid 2.226.031.000 3.600 10. Journalists Association.703.334 -87.00 67.290 25.260 3.99 - - Only full-time 10.400 Source: ANP 9.400 2.000 cases (4-months).855 Total number of employees - - - 951 1 5.56 1.820 1.00 Source: ANP 10.800 4.ba Methodology Kantar Media Research: 12.765 4.056 2.86 100.019.000 6.046.600 Source: ANP .019.a Employment 11.400 2.83 - 0.202. 2006 ANP 1 Research 2000 2001 (%) 2002 2003 2004 36 36 36 36 36 Source: ANP WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 239 .bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher La Hora Publimetro La Hora de la Tarde Spanish Spanish Spanish Copesa Metro International Copesa Circulation Readership (000) (000) 100 93 17 269 267 22 Format Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Chile.986.11 0.500 2.260 3. monthly delivery of a rolling database of 4.435.46 0.118 6.680.

2001. 19733. considers that free competition may be limited by acts. According to Article 9. contractors or licensees. 19733. 2001. by setting sales or purchase prices. and in particular. The public must have free access to this information. or misusing the power conferred by such agreements and practices. or having use thereof in any capacity. b) Unfair exploitation by a company or group of companies under a common administrator of a dominant market position. imposing the sale of a given product. Para. 19 19 19 19 19 19 17 Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? Article 37. assigning market shares or sectors or other similar forms of abuse of power. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? According to Article 9. 19911.CHILE 12. the information must allow for the individualization of each person and legal entity sharing ownership.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. amended in 2003 by Law No. Neither Law No. maintaining or strengthening a dominant position. Source: ANP WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate 19 be constantly updated and available at the official address of the media company for authorities requiring such information to carry out their duties. c) Predatory practices. Likewise. of domestic daily newspapers? No. the majority of shares. Law No. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? There is no known initiative in this respect. 19733. direct or indirect administrators. except in the case of open public limited companies. 1973. aimed at setting fixed sales or purchase prices. lessees. limiting production or assigning market shares or sectors. copies must be available of the documents proving the constitution and articles defining the legal entities partaking as partners or shareholders. If these are one or more individuals. Any modification in these data should also be made known accordingly. states that any relevant change or modification in the ownership or control of a social media company must be made known to the abovementioned court within 30 days of implementation. which should 240 a) Explicit or tacit agreements or practices settled between economic agents. publicising and commercialisation of media. 19733 nor decree 211 establishes boundaries whereby a companyís dominant position would be considered illicit. and subsequently refers to Law No. It is up to a special Court for the Defence of Free Competition to define these boundaries. which establishes general rules ensuring free competition. carried out with the purpose of reaching. Either way. Law No. Article 38. facts or conventions that interfere with the production of information and the transfer. distribution. Source: ANP 14. 2. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. foreign companies must be domiciled and have been constituted in Chile or else have an agency that is enabled to operate on national territory. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. or unfair competition. all social media companies are bound to give reliable information concerning their owners. 211. 19 733. flow. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 This latter decree considers that the following acts or conventions hinder. Law No. accordingly. restrict or interfere with free competition: Source: ANP 15. Law No.

CHILE 15.b Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National TV Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Satellite TV Broadcasters Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Local Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Foreign Investors Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed if investor’s country reciprocates Source: ANP WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 241 .

The government has struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises. newspapers 242 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .nearly USD180 billion. including: . mouthpieces of the CPC at all levels. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. the Suzhou Daily. Shanghai-based Liberation Daily. and Guidelines for the National Cultural Institution Reform. and the Zhongshan Daily The government will heavily invest in the public service media. which issued by the Central Committee of the Communist are restructuring their business mechanism into Party of China (CPC) and the State Council (China a commercial one. organizations have been pushed into the market and are television stations. will be transformed into commercial media. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment . there are three newspapers in Beijing: China Securities Journal. the majority of publishing houses. migrants. One demographic consequence of the “one child” policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. the People’s Press House which publishes the works of CPC’s leaders. journals. and the China Petroleum News. soil erosion. Newspapers. officials said. mouthpieces of the CPC at all levels. (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes. and the Guangzhou Daily . and Although the government intends to convert some publishing houses for minorities and handicapped newspapers into commercial entities. calls for It is not clear which kinds of newspapers.31 dailies which are mouthpieces of the CPC municipal committees in provincial capitals. the government intends some newspapers for public Most media in Mainland China are to be transformed service media. such as the Beijing Daily. function as organs of central government departments. and the steady fall of the water table. one newspaper in Chengdu. Resources News. 958 were departmental organs. At the same time.CHINA Media Market Description General economic situation China’s economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. strive to be in public service media.31 dailies which are mouthpieces of the CPC provincial committees.926 newspaper titles published at the remarkable expansion in world trade and has been an end of 2004 (dailies. and the remaining 530 were In 2006 China had the largest current account surplus in market-oriented. including newspapers such to be commercial. cannot decide as the China Chemical Industry News. 438 were important factor in the growth of urban jobs. Sundays). other media Beijing-based Machinery & Electronics Business. media. Wuhan-based Yangtze Daily.the People’s Daily . China Information World.more than 310 dailies which are mouthpieces of the CPC district committees. account for 28% of the total number of newspapers in China. and new entrants to the work force. Thus the market-oriented newspapers the world .the mouthpiece of the CPC Central Committee . such as the Wuxi Daily. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The 11th Five-Year Program (2006-10). non-dailies. Performance of different types of newspapers There are more than 370 dailies that belong to the public service media. and Performance of newspapers vs. cabinet) in 2006. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China’s Out of all the 1.notably air pollution. approved by the National People’s Congress in March 2006. and radio stations that are to be restructured into commercial units. the China Water on their own which type of media they will be. but these newspapers endeavor forcefully into commercial type media. the Computer News. distinguished between two groups of media: public service and commercial. and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy’s rapid transformation. to According to the government’s original idea. such as the Nanjing Daily. those newspapers persons. and Guangzhou-based Nanfang Daily . especially in the north. GDP by 2010 and an estimated 45% increase in GDP Under the piloting program for building the commercial by 2010. all distribution companies and other media-related Public service media includes newspapers. however. to improve their services and to meet the demand of all people. On the other hand. except CPC’s a 20% reduction in energy consumption per unit of dailies.

Source: Media Research Center. More and more media companies are preparing projects to become publicly traded at home and abroad. The Zhejiang Guangsha Co Ltd. which is the organ of the Central Committee of the CPC.000 by the end of 2001 and 380. The Guangzhou Daily has held the country record in advertising revenues for 12 years. a typical private company. has invested in the Nanfang (southern) Newspapers Group. based in Hubei province. to launch a daily. which is the organ of the Zhejiang Provincial Committee of the CPC in east China.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 243 . has invested in Zhejiang Daily Newspapers Group. transportation. whereas its mother newspaper. which is the organ of the Shenzhen Municipal Committee of the CPC. Soon a daughter newspaper of the People’s Daily was launched. the organ of the Guangzhou Municipal Committee of the CPC. a morning tabloid. controlled by Beijing University. with circulation of 300. has invested in the Jiangxi Business News published in Nanchang. to publish the Securities Herald.the Beijing Business Today. to deal with printing. invested in the Hainan Daily Newspapers Group.000 by the end of 2005. China Education Press Agency. and the Xinhua Finance Media Limited under the Xinhua News Agency. such as the Shenzhen Press Group. east China. the Wenhui-Xinmin United Press Group and the Jiefang (Liberation) Daily Newspapers Group controlled by the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC. the advertising revenue of the Beijing Times was the 12th highest of all media in China. which is the organ of the Chengdu Municipal Committee of the CPC. Ltd. It was the Beijing Times. with more than 100 million users at the end of 2005. in order to publish a financial newspaper. has invested in the Hangzhou-based Youth Times. which is the organ of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC. The Beida Jade Bird Group then invested in the China Youth Daily. the capital of Jiangxi Province. Students Post and others. One of them was the People’s Daily in May 2001.the Yanhuang (Chinese) Culture & Arts Co Ltd. Numerous private companies are also involved in the media business in China: . central China. It has also invested in the Zhejiang Radio and Television Group. the Guangzhou Daily Newspapers Group. a private enterprise. a private company with its headquarters in Wenzhou.Moldcam Group. Life Week. and in 2006 was transformed into a joint-stock company called the Guangdong China Sunshine Media Co. at about RMB 869 million. Online / Digital Publishing China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer Internet use. to launch the New People’s Livelihood. The state-owned CITIC Guoan Information Industry Co Ltd has invested in the Beijing Daily Newspapers Group. Shanghai-based Youth Daily. a Hangzhou-based private company producing healthy food and medical material.CHINA that are mouthpieces of the CPC at all levels would be transformed into public service media. The state-owned Tianjing Tianyao Pharmaceutical Co Ltd was transformed into a public company in 2000 and invested in the Tianjin Daily Newspapers Group. The Beijing Youth Daily has been transformed into a publicly traded company . acquired a public construction company in 1999. but more and more CPC’s newspapers have been aiming for profit maximization. an evening daily. a morning tabloid newspaper of 48 pages. belonging to the Chengdu Daily Newspapers Group. which is the organ of the Tianjin Municipal Committee of the CPC. and the Huawen (Chinese culture) Media Investment Corporation under the People’s Daily followed almost the same procedures as the Guangzhou Daily Newspapers Group to become publicly traded or jointstock companies. .. For example. The Hunan Investment Group Co Ltd has merged with a newspaper affiliated with the Economic Daily Newspapers Group under the State Council (China cabinet). is a high technology company focused on software development.the Shanghai-based Fosun Group. . the People’s Daily only ranked 77th. Beijing. The Chengdu Economic Daily. At that time.the Yangshengtang (preserving the health) Co Ltd. which is the organ of the Guangzhou Provincial Committee of the CPC. .the Beijing Media Corporation Limited (Beijing Media). CIA . in central China. The group has invested in more than three newspapers. Ownership More than 60 public companies have invested in the media: The Beida Jade Bird Group. distribution and advertising activities for all publications of the group. Zhejiang. with about RMB180 million. printed and distributed in Shanghai. a private construction company transformed into a public company in 1997. which is the organ of Hainan Provincial Committee of the CPC.

d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Occupancy Age 2.096 8 11 16 41 14 9 100 Source: CMMS (Spring) (30 cities) Socio-economic quintiles based on rankings on three main criteria: income.China Population Statistics Yearbook.564 50.736 41.096 2.35 5.609 24 14 20 15 12 7 7 100 Households (occupancy) (2004) 2.645 8.073 Source: China Statistical Yearbook Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 7.084 National paid-for non-dailies 122 126 126 Regional and local 892 1.708 640.ca Male 000 % 161.916 190. 2005 China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication. senior managers C1 = mid-grade skilled professionals.661 18.543 3800 9.242.518 88.186 2.384 76.957 119.a Population by age and sex (2004) Age up to 15 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 304.34 1 964 136 828 2 977 143 834 -3.175 244. service and transport workers E = other 244 3.632 79.272 1.10 -0.512 2 24 26 22 14 12 100 Source: Communique on Major Figures of the 2000 Population Census.21 -6.062 86. 2.218 125.591 98. sales.50 -1.65 17.CHINA Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.744 45.50 100.787 75. senior skilled professionals.491 4. education.593 11 13 17 36 14 9 100 Male 000 % 3. China Population Statistics Yearbook Source: Communique on Major Figures of the 2000 Population Census.73 -0.014 1130 1.408 6.957 177.825 88.007 1.035 National paid-for dailies 88 86 87 Regional and local 887 921 948 paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 1. middle managers 2004 C2 = junior skilled professionals.325 92.909 2.028 336.486 39.83 -6.390 148.333 24 14 20 15 12 7 8 100 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 people Total Households 000 % 28.074 88. freelance workers.678 84.276 25 14 20 15 12 7 6 100 Female 000 % 143.878 365. WAN assessment.081 42.004 958 paid-for non-dailies 963 962 82 880 956 954 77 877 -2.72 Source: 2001-2003 China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication.861 8.a Number of titles Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies 975 1.13 -0.225 115.542 3.033 7.15 0.102 4. housekeepers.061 46. Annual Report on China’s Newspaper Publishing Industry.15 -12.099 67.338 46.497 13 15 18 31 15 9 100 Female 000 % 1.499 4.564 602.b 8 18 32 23 19 100 Housewives 000 % Population by social class and sex (2004) Social class A+B C1 C2 D1 D2 E Total All adults 000 % 5.282 4. 2004 China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication. junior managers.116 23. and occupation A + B = government officials. entrepreneurs D1 = factory/construction/service industry employees D2 = clerks.193 69.448 27.006 72. WAN assessment (free dailies) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .00 1.895 90.

aa Gross domestic product (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies .693 47.18 Source: China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication 5.886 12.154 3.662 14.9 2. before discounts 7.741 3. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.926 28. ZenithOptimedia Excludes agency income.517. sports sponsorship.49 Source: CNNIC WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 245 .077 41. HC360.221 60.554 98.293 12.77 0.b (%) Reached All adults Age % of readership 60.233 34.704 99.c Advertising revenues (China.0 Gross domestic product per capita 2002 GDP per capita 8.396 82. 2004-2006 CRT. 2004-2005 China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication.233 38.438 25.103 2190 5.7 8. yuan.960 4.744 13.1 86.590 80. yuan.818 29.109 23.500 25. CNNIC.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 4.c Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Others Total 15.848 1.893 4.749 26.141 14.876 133. 2006 WAN assessment (free dailies) 10.848 24.30 7.9 4.157 86.583 15. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies 1 Source: www.470 88.731 93.657 96. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication 4.206 7.487 35.690.744 14.900 152.9 6.568 15.725 46.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (China.b Sales revenues (China.com 5.529 3.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Advertising sector Advertiser Real estate Matera medica Food Cosmetics Home electrical appliences Medical treatment Cars Healthy food Alcohol Commerce % of display ad revenue 9.400 Source: China Advertising Association.940.hc360.161 108. event marketing. yuan. includes classified advertising.645 13.301 2.521 82.521 23.56 0.00 - 2002 GDP 88. 2004-2006 China Education Press Agency 7. 2004 Annual Financial Report of China Mengniu Dairy Company Limited Source: China Advertising Association 66.623 23.419 70.9 9.164 51.605 2.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) 7.CHINA 3.8 Mengniu Expenditure (China.0 11.1 Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (China. 000) 450.media.40 All paid-for newspapers 7.504 2.044 85.037 29. ZenithOptimedia. CSM.454 Source: SAIC. 2005-2006 China Education Press Agency 7.a 2006 Source: 2002-2004 IFS.035 - (China.832 69.022 4. yuan.431 17.0 4.770 18. yuan.369 69. CMMS.522 75.092 25.301 26.0 10.369 18.5 2006 13.739 24.616 45.9 16.0 18.585 63.499 83.097 32.06798.300.791 5. yuan. ZenithOptimedia. industry training and other sources.0 20.948 13.7 3. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 All paid-for newspapers - - - 97.8 2.1 Source: 2002-2003 IFS.6 Under 18 19-25 26-40 41-60 61+ Total Source: Chinese Institute of Publishing Science 3 40 43 13 1 100 Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 56 48 56 179 85 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 62 56 179 84 53 30 58 175 115 49 24 43 150 164 2006 48 33 23 145 138 Source: 2002-2003 CNNIC. excludes production costs.072 2.33 -3. CMMS.600 62.658 20.385 25.ab 150 300 600 101740102. WAN assessment (free dailies).a Newspaper reach (2005) Age structure of readership (2005) 5.325 - - - - 100.3 - -26.9 171.540 3.449 6.357. HC360 6.909 85.66296.50 0.087 50. which comprises regular commission and income from programme syndication.a Online editions Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total - - 273 579 964 - 20.5 6.181 40.0 13.557 8. 000) 2003 2004 2005 9.261 13.96.75 Source: China Education Press Agency (mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total dailies - - - 117. CSM.54 0.5 - 75.709 - - - Source: 2002-2003 China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication.b Total average circulation per issue 7.

300 300 Source: WAN from public sources 1 2 Free in Shanghai metro to those who can show a ticket.000 278. Wednesdays and Fridays 246 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation (000) Metro Express 1 Guangzhou Metro Daily 2 Chinese Chinese Jie Fang Daily Newspaper Group Guangzhou Daily Press Group / Guangzhou Metro Corp.00 1.560 261.000 202.000 114.000 138.900 216.50 0.007 6.50 0.100 105.250 152.140 1.300 144.000 110.000 158. Concise Yearbook of Media.50 Xinhua News Agency People's Daily Xinhua Daily Group Guangzhou Daily Group Nanfang Daily Group Guangzhou Daily Group Yangcheng Evening News Group Hubei Daily Group Hebei Daily Group Dazhong Daily Group Wenhui-Xinming United Press Group China Daily Zhejiang Daily Group Xinhua News Agency Nanfang Daily Group Hangzhou Daily Press Group Henan Daily Group Beijing Daily Group Yangtze Daily Group Sichuan Daily Group Jinwan Media Development Co Ltd Dazhong Daily Group Qingdao Daily Group Tianjin Daily Group Yangcheng Evening News Group Chengdu Daily Group Zhengzhou Daily Group Changsha Evening News Group Nanjing Daily Group Hubei Daily Group Chinese Businese Group Hunan Daily Group Liaoning Daily Group Format Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Full page ad rate Mono Colour (China.000 148.50 0.600 1.80 0. China Journalism Yearbook 8.048 4.400 120.00 0.092 1.768 1.000 221.000 Source: China Statistical Data Collection of Press and Publication.000 225.000 235.800 29.000 318.800 239.163 2.770 1.00 1.50 0.250 140.000 364.50 0. 000) Shenzhen Newspapers Group (Guangdong) Guangzhou Daily Group (Guangdong) Jiefang Daily Group (Shanghai) Beijing Daily Group Yangcheng Evening News Group (Guangdong) Jinghua Times (Beijing) Xinming Evening News (Shanghai) Xinhua Daily Group (Jiangsu) Hubei Daily Group Yangtze Daily Group (Hubei) 2.50 0.00 1.898 1.000 170.000 40.050 1.00 1.800 302.210 1.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Cankao Xiaoxi People's Daily Yangtze Evening Post Guangzhou Daily Nanfang City News Information Times Yangcheng Evening News Chutian Metro Daily Yanzhao Metro Daily Qilu Evening News Xinming Evening News 21st Century Qiangjiang Evening News Modern Express Nanfang Daily Metro Express Dahe Newspaper Beijing Evening News Wuhan Evening News Western China City News Today Evening News Peninsula City News Qingdao Evening News Morning Post New Express Chengdu Economic Daily Zhengzhou Evening News Changsha Evening News Jinling Evening News Chutian Gold News Chinese Business View Morning H! Liaoshen Evening News Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Publisher Circulation Cover price (000) (China.50 0.000 240.000 175.500 168.000 228.000 98.a Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher Total circulation Total revenue (000) (China.000 120.000 210.000 126.000 60.951 5.CHINA 8.000 160.00 0.400 227.50 0.000 198.000 20.800 168.000 121.800 252. yuan) 3.50 0. yuan.300 1.50 0.000 150.50 1.000 280.000 144.786 1.714 1.000 320.000 280.00 0.600 217.600 114.70 2.923 2.000 256. otherwise it costs 1 yuan Published Mondays.00 0.800 110.000 200.000 90.200 110.00 1.000 36.50 1.50 0.000 281. China Statisitical Data Collection of Press and Publication 8.100 190.80 0. yuan) 200.717 985 978 920 713 700 640 586 560 Source: China Advertising Association.000 258.000 100.50 0.400 1.000 160.000 218.000 230.023 896 891 862 850 850 830 800 800 788 699 690 680 600 600 600 560 550 550 544 530 520 500 0.000 150.50 0.000 198.542 2.000 215.320 350 1.40 1.50 1.50 0.000 92.000 160.743 1.00 0.

Chinese Institute of Publishing Science.showing video tapes. For example. State Council. producing.128 194.a Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total number of journalists Total number of employees 18.CHINA 9. but no details have bee revealed. and radio and TV transmission networks. producing. of domestic daily newspapers? According to the China’s commitment to the WTO and the Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries issued by three central departments (the State Development Planning Commission. TV stations. Research Circulation is audited by The General Administration of Press and Publication.publishing. the State Economy and Trade Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation).06 0. .producing and distributing films.gapp.publishing.527 20. Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. distributing and importing books.200 5. Popular Science China and Harvard Business Review.china-paper.933 82. since 1980 the US-based International Data Group (IDG) has been a partner of Chinaís Electronic Technology Information Institute of National Information Industry Department in jointly publishing the Computer World weekly since 1980.c Newsprint costs 2002 Average per ton 5.cn. a few foreign companies have successfully invested in these industries in mainland China by forming local partnerships.849 55.400 2006 4.300 (China. issuing and broadcasting TV programs.news agencies. 12. 2006 China Association of Newspapers. Vogel Burda Media of Germany publishes CHIP.cn 10.037 350. Hachette Filipacchi Medias Group of France has published a Chinese edition of Elle magazine with a Chinese counterpart since 1988. .779 158. Horizon Market Research Co. However.producing.china-paper. .28 Source: http://press. a monthly. Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No 14. with its Chinese partner. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Newsprint Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 17 13. Sino Publication Audit Center Readership is measured by Central Viewer Survey & Consulting. distributing and importing audiovisual products and electronic publications. yuan) 2003 2004 2005 - 5. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. Ownership laws and rules Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 .391 19.439 62.404 82.a Employment 15.49 185. and in particular.a 13 13 17 17 33 33 Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? Yes. . www.cn 11. 2004-2005 www.675 188.radio stations. newspapers and periodicals. Now IDG is a shareholder in 22 Chinese magazines. such as Fortune China.54 -16. foreign capital is normally excluded from the following industries: . publishing. the majority of shares. .gov. A few magazines have successfully published Chinese editions of international titles. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 247 .400 Source: 2002 China Newspaper Association.

CHINA So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No 248 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

The World Factbook 3. Envelopes Performance of newspapers vs. the mine was reopened.00 0. which is produced by the Shire of Christmas Island.a Age All individuals 000 % Total 2 100 Source: CIA .The World Factbook.Department of Transport and Regional Services Population by age and sex (2006) 2. GWN. All other Four television stations are broadcast from Western post.CHRISTMAS ISLAND Media Market Description General economic situation Phosphate mining has been the only significant economic activity. Australian Government . SBS. Radio National and FM music stations are also broadcast. Source: CIA . WIN and which may take up to two months for delivery. but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. A local radio station. other media and Express Post Packages will be sent by air. These are ABC. In 1991.The Islander. including airmail packages.00 Source: WAN from public sources Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 249 . 6RCI. is staffed by community volunteers and provides some local content while ABC Regional Radio. Performance of different types of newspapers There is one local.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 1 1 1 1 1 0. Postal Issues Postal services to Christmas Island are weekly. will be sent via seamail Australia via satellite. fortnightly newspaper .

172 3.3% in 2006.000-3.000+.981 1. ZenithOptimedia 250 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . D = 332-999.The World Factbook.446 1.430 4. Source: CIA .975 2.354 41 18 9 7 6 4 4 3 2 6 100 Age Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total Housewives 000 % 656 1.295 5 13 22 25 36 100 Source: TGI Latina 2.a 0-18 19-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 60+ Total All individuals 000 % 18.COLOMBIA Media Market Description General economic situation The economy of Colombia has experienced positive growth over the past three years despite a serious armed conflict.246 871 743 612 504 1.771 4. US State Department.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2.792 1. and high commodity prices. CIA estimates. 2006 a new daily Nuestro Diario was launched in the capital of Santander department and its metropolitan area. Thomson Gale.100 41.000.074 11 17 39 23 10 100 Source: Ibope. compared with 46 in Performance of different types of newspapers 2005.387 7.722 41 18 9 7 6 4 3 3 2 6 100 31 66 11 26 15 42 100 Data for 10 cities and 6 regions 2.970 15.318 3.759 3.295 Source: TGI Latina Data for 10 cities and 6 regions Map: CIA – The World Factbook Without persons below 20 With persons below 20 aged 0-2 aged 3-8 aged 9-11 aged 12-19 Total Households 000 % Male 000 % 8. The inflaton rate was estimated at 4. WAN from public sources 2.442 21.095 1. aged 0-60 Households (occupancy) (2006 2.722 43. one of the most influential newspapers of the Spanish-speaking world.192 3.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 156 425 725 817 1. an export-oriented growth strategy. hand.183 372 856 500 1.765 1.005 2.219 4.107 21.036 2. focused efforts to reduce public debt levels. E = <332.583 8.000-7. based on monthly income : AB = 8.302 911 578 372 189 4. an improved security situation in the country.280 22.529 1. ZenithOptimedia Definition of status.368 41 18 9 7 6 4 3 3 2 7 100 Female 000 % 9. Newspaper launches / closures November 15.847 2.203 7.009 16 33 23 14 9 5 100 Source: TGI Latina Data for 10 cities and 6 regions Source: Dane. printed newspapers of the small towns of the interior to such national dailies as El Tiempo.317 921 786 647 533 1.000 11 17 39 23 10 100 Male 000 % 2. The ministry also supported an alerts network Almost every town publishes at least one daily organized for journalists by providing a small number of newspaper.563 1. The economy continues to improve in part because of austere government budgets.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 4.926 11 17 39 23 10 100 Female 000 % 2.378 3.510 6. Other Factors The Ministry of Interior and Justice operated a program to protect journalists that covered 94 media representatives during the year. The press varies from the irregular.076 2. The publisher is the same company that owns the daily Vanguardia Liberal.264 3.993 19.981 2.583 1.990 9.999.radios and an emergency telephone hot line.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Population by age and sex (2006) Age 1. C2 = 1. C1 = 4.529 1260 1.746 4.

5 1.23 Newspaper reach (2006) 1 All adults Men Women Main household shopper 40 24 26 24 Source: TGI Colombia Data in % calculated on the basis of total population.60 4. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Classified Inserts Total 1 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 11.3 2.742.0 5.3 3.0 13.331.5 1. 2006 TGI Latina Data relevant to 10 cities in 6 regions.800 - (%) 2004 (Colombia.7 1.5 1.COLOMBIA Population by income (2002) Annual income (US$) under 332 332-999 1.713 21. excludes classified.597.5 191. WAN from public sources Ad expenditure 7.872.908 688.7 827.5 0.3 20.65%.067 9.7 3.0 4.636 8.70 3. 2005 WAN from public sources.0 1.0 268.998.8 981.0 285.7 461.25 Before discounts.3 Advertising revenues (Colombia. ZenithOptimedia 7.2 1. population aged 12-69 7.551 1. ZenithOptimedia Refers to newspaper owners 4. 2005 Radio: Starcom.10 866.a Publisher Casa Ed. peso. El Tiempo El Espectador Others 357.4 1.0 Source: 2001 IFS.100 Source: Ibope. peso. raw materials Education.c Age structure of readership (2006) Age 12-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-69 Total % % daily reach of readership within age group 20.192 11 31 39 11 8 100 Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 39 - - - 41 8 33 42 8 34 7.0 675.748.8 2001 (Colombia. industry.69 - 2.1 3.ac All individuals 000 % 4.568 44. includes agency commission.000 8.90 100 7.0 203.152. Average discount available 17.327 10.b Ad spend as a % of GDP Female 000 % By ad revenue 2005 Publisher Revenue (Colombia.00 3.0 769.045 2.081.400.190 9. decoraction Entertainment Automobiles Drinks and tabac % of display ad revenue 40.06 Expenditure (Colombia.117.2 377.951.6 1.aa 2001 (Colombia.820.600 444.114. television.a 7.500. 2005-2006 WAN estimate 5.21 Source: IBOPE Colombia Gross domestic product GDP 1.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.641.0 258. TGI sample in Colombia includes people aged 12-69.298.4 440. exchange rate used: 1 USD = 2.0 231. peso.75 7.366 4.600.818. bln) 2002 2003 2004 188.7 412.8 6.020.03 Source: 2002.9 347.061.350 4.999 4.3 1.7 3. OANDA .429.1 598.0 6.826 17.4 2.938.641. ZenithOptimedia.20 100 8.1 1.408 11 31 39 11 8 100 2.7 3.906 13.068.7 2.b (%) Reached 2006 After discounts. peso.80 100 Source: IBOPE Colombia 1 Total revenue of newspapers 7.000 488.923.9 1.876. 2002-2005 Banco de la República WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 251 .376 574.0 5.000+ Total 3.ab 1.ba Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Total 3.e Contribution of display.2 10.672 Source: IBOPE Colombia Top owners (2005) 2005 Source: IFS.112 11.600 Source: 2002 WAN from public sources.71 COP (2005 exchange rate) Source: IBOPE -11.000-7. ZenithOptimedia 7.600 11 31 39 11 8 100 Male 000 % 2.44 0.a 761.90 3.551 7.641. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 - 476.5 890.530. internet: TGI. ZenithOptimedia.392. peso.626.0 100 44 48 53 53 57 53 54 51 Source: TGI Latina Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 210 160 190 115 133 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 224 163 198 117 148 222 159 198 118 146 105 86 150 2006 201 147 174 114 136 Source: 2002-2004 TGI Latina.10 4.1 28.300.0 19.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser Trade and tourism Media and communication Civil campaigns and government Agriculture.30 100 7.c 3.906 3.0 249. 000) Cine Colombia Dell Computer Comcel GM Colmotores Telefónica Movistar Bavaria Alkosto Alcaldía de Bogotá Universidad de la Sabana DIAN 16.2 2.200.355 6.7 1.8 1.com.355 1.5 273.50 100 7. 000) 2002 2003 2004 Top publishing companies (2003) 8. excludes production costs.11 2005 Source: Ibope. administration Finance and securities Furniture.550 1.126.299.7 279.9 8.573.170. all paid-for newspapers 5.673.0 1.4 1.4 1.601 5. ZenithOptimedia Total paid-for dailies 1.687.1 3. 000) Casa Ed. peso.615 5.7 2. classified.847 12. socio-economic groups 2-6 1 Aged 20-69 5.680.1 10.7 645.800 16.0 182.206.8 380. 2006 Mediatico.20 4. El Tiempo Inversiones Cromos Independents Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 1.6 317.000-3.552.175.5 1.019.05 1.400.5 2.448 - 19.349 2.5 162.4 1.0 340.394 4.7 3.855 23.2 273.250 7. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 - 2003 Advertising expenditure per medium Total average circulation per issue Total paid-for dailies 2002 Source: IFS.

or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? There are no laws that regulate this issue specifically.000 on Sundays 4 2006 data 11. Other newspapers use their own methodologies to keep track of this information. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No. From January 1. Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Is further regulation of media concentration expected? There are currently no plans to legislate on this topic.COLOMBIA 8.405 9. 252 Discount rate (%) Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. and carries out the Estudio General de Medios (EGM). A publishing company is free to promote or own any number of newspapers. of domestic daily newspapers? No prohibitions exist on this matter.188 23. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No. Americas Market & MediaFact 2 TGI 2005 3 Weekday edition (Monday-Saturday) in 2004.213 13. which is the normal rate for all private companies in Colombia. 12. Taxes (2005) Tax % 1 Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 2 15 0 0 0 0 0 Ownership laws and rules Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. advertising agencies and media buyers. Readership 2 (000) (000) 241 3 150 4 99 91 60 55 51 42 36 32 2280 565 496 299 80 150 16 61 217 Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Colombia.700 8. A foreign citizen is allowed to publish a newspaper in Colombia as long as the publishing company is established within the law. and in particular. using methodology approved by the Audit Bureau of Circulation. Any foreign agent can be a shareholder of a Colombian newspaper and be an active participant in it. peso) 34. 475.581 22.668 18. Newspapers are exempt from paying customs tariffs and VAT when they import newsprint from other countries. As long as a company meets all the requirements established in the Commerce code for the opening of any kind of company. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .579 15.251 16.725 52. However.a Research Circulation is audited by Five members of ANDIARIOS have enlisted the firm Pricewaterhouse Coopers to audit their data.634 23. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Circulation 1 Title El Tiempo Nuestro Diario El Pais El Colombiano El Heraldo La Patria Vanguardia Liberal El Nuevo Siglo El Diario de Otun El Universal 14. WAN from public sources 1 ZenithOptimedia.163 5. There is no dedicated organisation that audits this information. it can be registered legally.321 41.120 Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex 62. which is the most comprehensive media study in Colombia. Publishers are as free to operate television or radio stations as any other citizen. Source: ZenithOptimedia. the government and guerrillas are initiating negotiations in the peace process.613 9. 0 0 10 15 15 15 35 35 1 VAT has been reduced from 16% to 15%.900 13.395 14. and is 10% for newspapers which have revenues exceeding Peso 3 billion. Readership is measured by The Asociación Colombiana de Investigación de Medios (ACIM) represents media companies. Industry and commerce taxes are different in each city.699 9. the result of which is unpredictable. 2 There is a 35% tax rate on profits. the majority of shares.236 30. 2005 a new level of 2% VAT was introduced for newspapers which have revenues below Peso 3 billion.

00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. The inflation rate was estimated at 3% in 2005. Kwezi is published on Mayotte. bln) 1999 2000 2001 - - - 2002 229. over reports deemed offensive to the government.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Le Matin des Comores Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 253 .The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 8. and forestry. WAN from public sources 2. including fishing. Performance of different types of newspapers Journalists risk arrest and detention.The World Factbook.00 0. Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links. contributes 40% to GDP. Le Canal. La Gazette des Comores. published in French by Al Watwan Edition & Press on Source: CIA . and newspapers Most Comoran papers publish weekly.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 National paid-for dailies 2 Total paid-for non-dailies 4 2 2 4 1 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 5 -50.00 0.The World Factbook 3. Newspaper launches / closures The daily Le Matin des Comores ceased publication in 2006. franc. other media Radio is the dominant medium. relatively wealthy and educated minority of Comorans. Several Internet cafes and the Internet stations at the American Corner in Radio and TV broadcasts from the neighbouring French Moroni have expanded usage in and near cities. hunting. island of Mayotte can be picked up in parts of the Comoros. launched in 2005). The national state-run network competes with regional services and private stations.000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP. US State Department.00 0. Al-Watwan. employs 80% of the labor force. Online / Digital Publishing Illiteracy and shortages of electricity and phone lines limited Internet use to the small. Performance of newspapers vs.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 295 375 21 691 Male 43 54 3 100 Female 000 % 000 % 148 185 10 343 43 54 3 100 147 190 11 348 42 55 3 100 Source: CIA . Remittances from 150. high poverty rates and poor distribution networks inhibit circulation.00 25. Local community radio stations operated in very narrow transmission areas. a young and rapidly increasing population.2 Source: CIA . One government radio station operated on a regular schedule.COMOROS Media Market Description General economic situation One of the poorest countries in the world. There is have been suspended and radio stations put off the air a government-supported weekly newspaper.aa Gross domestic product 1998 GDP - (Comoros. Circulation A feeble advertising market. Grand Comore.00 -50. and provides most of the exports. and few natural resources. There is independent radio on all three islands. BBC. Agriculture. Media / Press Laws The authorities have a tight hold on the media. and four independent newspapers Kashkazi (a weekly published in French by Bangbbe Productions. and l’Archipel (monthly).

Circulation Newspaper circulations are often very low. although an uncertain legal framework. There are no dailies focused on a particular province. The 1996 Press Law encouraged this trend with its support for media pluralism. L'Observateur. launched between 2003 and 2006. and the papers themselves do not conduct systematic readership research. the year in which then-President Mobutu called for media pluralism. This decline can be seen as a product of recent history. which began in 1998. Ten of the most-read papers are Le Soft. all except Le Soft have started up since 1990.000 Congolese francs) license fee Newspaper launches / closures and complete several administrative requirements before There have been 14 new provincial newspaper titles publishing. occupy a position of independence. uncertain resources.5 million people from violence. This is because most sector. Many newspapers Many survive on the generosity of politicians who openly manifest their political positions. which undermines efforts by some papers to newspapers have unpredictable. Performance of newspapers vs. with the exception of Le Soft. not attempting dictate the publication schedule. corruption. and a lack of opennes in government policy continues to hamper growth. making it affordable to only an elite of citizens. and a large number of daily newspapers licensed to publish. in addition to two state-owned radio stations and one state-owned television station. There were about 250 newspapers in 2005. Le Phare. political actors continue to imperatives. Salongoand L'Avenir26. and poor economic conditions. and many newspapers have disappeared. Le Potential. increased external debt. In 2000-2005. Numerous privately owned radio and television stations operated. renewed activity in the mining sector. Tempetes des Tropiques. Performance of different types of newspapers There is an active private press. Many newspapers were founded during this period. A newspaper can change from daily to make concerted efforts to find allies in the newspaper weekly status very quickly. Online / Digital Publishing Private entrepreneurs made Internet access available at moderate prices through Internet cafes in large cities throughout the country. Readership There is no institution that is able to supply reliable data on readership. All Media / Press Laws dailies aim to reach several provinces. The typical cover price is around USD1. decrees. Poor infrastructure and high prices limited the ability of all but the wealthiest to have Internet access in their homes. boosted the fiscal position of Kinshasa and GDP growth. all of them private 254 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . with poor content. poor print quality and.CONGO. The inflation rate was estimated at 9% in 2004. and official statements. at only 2. ownership of newspapers has remained in changing according to circumstances and economic private hands. and resulted in the deaths of perhaps 3. with sometimes as few as 500 copies per day being printed in the Kinshasa market despite a population in that city of more than six million inhabitants. The decade 1990-2000 was marked by political pluralism made possible by the lifting of the ban on opposition politics in 1990 by thenPresident Mobutu. mostly published at irregular intervals with low circulation (50-100 copies). to hide who their political allies are. famine. commercial. Ownership The frequency of publication of newspapers is elastic. which carries two pages in English) and aimed at a wide audience. However. Vision. Of these papers. Economic stability improved in 2003-06. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Media Market Description General economic situation The war. The government press agency published the Daily Bulletin.500 copies. which costs USD5. however. the political. The private weekly newspaper Le Softhas what is considered a large circulation. Around 80% of these papers have a marked political leaning in opposition to the current leadership of the country. Since 2000. dramatically reduced national output and government revenue. the source of most exports. Uhuru. about half as many as there were in 2000. entirely in French (except for Reference Plus. which included news reports. other media Radio remained the most important medium of public information due to limited literacy and the relatively high cost of newspapers and television. In 2005-06. the weekly figure dropped significantly between Most of daily and weekly papers have some Internet 2000 and 2005. often affiliated to a political party. and disease. All the papers are privately-owned. Reference Plus. generally. economic and social situation has deteriorated. While the number of daily newspapers papers remained stable. The transitional government required every newspaper to pay a USD500 (265. mainly due to a new political context presence.

African Media Development Initiative. Source: CIA .533. and they find it difficult to maintain or replace equipment.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Congolese franc.00 Source: BBC World Service Trust . and limit press freedom.524 47 50 3 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language La Reference Plus L’Avenir Le Potentiel L’Analyste Boyoma Mjumbe Le Palmares Elima L’Eveil Salongo French French French French French French French French Circulation (000) Format 5 3 3 1 1 1 1 Tabloid - Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 255 .907 15. Printing & Distribution Newspapers tend to use poor-quality printers due to lack of finances.705 31. State Support Investment in this sector comes up against many problems.00 0. Other Factors Many journalists lacked professional training.0 Source: CIA .00 Source: WAN estimate 7.8 19. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2006 16.00 0. and were vulnerable to manipulation by wealthy individuals.CONGO.The World Factbook 47 50 2 100 Male 000 % 14.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies 11 11 250 250 11 11 220 220 11 11 213 213 11 11 147 147 11 11 147 147 0. government officials. received little if any salary. WAN estimate 3.African Media Development Initiative 3.597 632 31.The World Factbook.00 -41.33 0.20 -41. US State Department. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC The government used criminal libel laws to suppress criticism of political leaders.565 62.793 933 31.00 0.061.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.00 0. BBC World Service Trust .660 Source: CIA .259.a 8.20 0.136 48 50 2 100 Female 000 % 14.00 0. usually the head of state.390 1. including high input prices and an absence of direct or indirect state assistance with costs.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 75 75 70 70 60 60 50 50 50 50 -33.33 -33.7 20. and politicians who provided cash or other benefits to encourage certain types of articles.ba Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 29.798 15.

Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy.864 46 51 3 100 Source: CIA . In March 2006. and Radio FM. It has filled out a gap after the disappearance of Le Stade. Radio Congo. The inflation rate was estimated at 2.CONGO.The RAP 21 Newsletter 2. US State Department. and Printing & Distribution several publications which were closely allied with the The print media did not circulate widely beyond government. and one government-owned country’s image.00 0. Thomson Gale. La Nouvelle Republique launched a fortnightly sports edition. An individual with close employed with both international and government government ties owned three of the four privately owned controlled media. and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1. Source: CIA .718 1.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 5 Total paid-for non-dailies 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 -20. Radio accreditations if their reporting reflected adversely on the Brazzaville. There were four daily newspapers.00 Source: WAN from public sources Map: CIA – The World Factbook 256 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .838 47 51 2 100 854 946 64 1. other media of infrastructure.6% in 2006. the only sports publication in the country.00 0.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. an industrial sector based largely on oil.00 0.702 46 51 3 100 Male Female 000 % 000 % 864 930 44 1. television stations. The 12-page newspaper has a print run of 1. providing a major share of government revenues and exports. WAN .The World Factbook 3. There was one stateowned weekly newspaper.The World Factbook.876 108 3. The press law provides for monetary penalties for Performance of different types of newspapers defamation and incitement to violence. La Nouvelle Republique Sportive. There were 15 to 20 private weekly Brazzaville and the commercial center of Pointe Noire.000 copies and is distributed in the capital city of Brazzaville and neighboring regions. all progovernment. Tele Congo.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 10 8 8 8 8 -20. Online / Digital Publishing Estimates from 2005 indicated that only one percent of the population had access to the Internet. Newspaper launches / closures In 2006. This policy affected journalists television station. reliable power. due to the lack Performance of newspapers vs. the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) treatment for Congo. There were three privately owned Media / Press Laws radio stations. There were three The government continued to revoke journalists government-owned radio stations. newspapers in Brazzaville that criticized the government. and telephone or Most citizens obtained their news from the radio or satellite services. and primarily from government-controlled radio in rural areas. La Nouvelle Republique. support services. REPUBLIC Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts. although it reached approximately one-third of the population.00 0. television.

342.1 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Aujourd’hui L’Eveil de Pointe-Noire Mweti Journal de Brazzaville ACI Actualité French French French French Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 257 .5 2. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GDP Source: CIA .675.ba (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC.CONGO.The World Factbook - - 1.179. REPUBLIC 7.6 1.aa Gross domestic product 8.

provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid. if only because they have comparatively wide readership on Rarotonga island. dollar) 523 - Source: WAN from public sources 258 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Other Factors A Cook Islands Media Council. Established in 2000. dollar.00 0. was established in 1995. which also manages Radio Cook Islands and The Cook Islands Herald weekly. Performance of newspapers vs.00 0.aa Map: CIA – The World Factbook Gross domestic product 2001 GDP - (New Zealand.42 Tabloid Full page ad rate Mono Colour (USA. The Cook Islands News’ main asset is that most Cook Islanders have grown up with it.00 0.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1 National paid-for dailies 1 Total paid-for non-dailies 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0. but its main market area is Auckland. There is no cable television service in the Cook Islands. based on the Australian and New Zealand model of press self-regulation. Another newspaper.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 8 10 3 21 Male Female 000 % 000 % 4 5 2 11 36 45 18 100 38 48 14 100 4 5 1 10 40 50 10 100 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 3.3 Source: CIA .00 0. bln) 2002 2003 2004 - - - 2005 0. It was privatized in 1989.00 0. dollar) (USD) 2 1.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. employing about 70% of the working population. Performance of different types of newspapers The Cook Islands News daily and the Cook Islands Herald weekly are the two most influential newspapers in the Cook Islands.1% in 2005.00 0. There are several privately run FM radio stations. Cover price Format (000) (New Zealand.COOK ISLANDS Commentary General economic situation Agriculture.00 0. WAN from public sources 2. The TV station is managed by the private company Elijah Communications Ltd. other media Television is the most popular form of media on Rarotonga island.The World Factbook 8.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher Circulation Cook Islands News Cook Islands News Ltd. the bi-weekly Cook Islands Star. one on Rarotonga and the rest on the Outer Islands. The Cook Island Herald has the difficult task of building readership.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. is also available on Rarotonga where its circulation is about 400 copies. Source: CIA . The inflaton rate was estimated at 2. The editorial staff of The Cook Islands Herald is shared with Radio Cook Islands and Television Cook Islands. Black pearls are the leading export of the Cook Islands. It was created in response to a perceived threat of government-imposed regulation and functioned for four years until the threat had passed.The World Factbook. overwhelmingly from New Zealand.

collected at customs has been used. General Media Study 1 Map: CIA – The World Factbook Urban population between 13 and 64 years old A = upper middle class. among other things. It is published Monday through Saturday.076 440 342 2. newspapers held a strong leading covering various topics (youth. 6. as in 2005.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1. The bill is yet to be voted on.402 28 20 16 14 11 6 6 100 Male 000 % 626 445 357 318 241 131 120 2. on parliament’s agenda since 2001.238 28 20 16 14 11 6 5 100 Female 000 % 591 421 342 305 233 134 137 2. Advertising The advertising market increased by 12% compared to 2005. news. The dynamic export and tourism sectors continue to support the growth. In late September 2006. B = middle class. bought a radio frequency and launched Radio Disney in August 2006. targeting a part of the population that did not read the press at all. position in the advertising market. due to other periodical publications growth (e. C = lower middle/skilled working class D = unskilled working class/inactive WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 259 . volumes due to. The inflation rate. at 9. Grupo Nación launched La Teja Source: Grupo Nación 2. it took over the Performance of newspapers vs.. a computer-assisted control system for revenues Repretel. Real economic growth reached 7. etc. other media Monumental-Reloj group with its six radio stations In 2006.4%. Radio’s market share remained almost A draft of a bill to reform the 1902 Press Law has been unchanged at 16%.9%. a growth rate higher than the country’s economic growth for 2006.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Social class A+B+C1 C2 C3 D1 D2 Total All adults 1 000 % 269 318 1.271 866 699 624 474 265 258 4.445 11 13 44 18 14 100 Male 000 % 142 149 531 213 149 1.184 12 12 44 18 12 100 Female 000 % 127 169 545 228 194 1.262 10 13 43 18 15 100 Source: Ipsos. higher than the 6. not to Newspaper launches / closures disclose their sources. The popular paper covers crime stories and daily events. Since Ownership 2005. Subsequently. advertising revenues.g. both in terms of growth and main macroeconomic trends.9% growth rate forecast by the Banco Central.164 27 20 16 14 11 6 6 100 Source: Centro Centroamericano de Población.). newspaper. which operates three open TV channels (4. stricter control eliminating much tax evasion and higher tax rates. and 11). among other factors.COSTA RICA Media Market Description General economic situation The economic situation in 2006 was quite encouraging. Television’s share fell from 32% to 30%. The new press law would allow journalists. the English language. was lower than in the previous year (14%) and lower than Banco Central’s forecast (11%). Media / Press Laws magazines. with 35% of total music. The presidential election campaigns (January) and the football World Cup in Germany both The Government has collected higher income tax contributed to this increase. Universidad de Costa Rica 2. sports).

Estudio General de Medios Urban population aged 13-64.00 Source: Grupo Nación Total average circulation per issue 288 288 288 168 168 5. La Teja.0 13. and the weekly El Financiero 2.6 0.9 59.00 9.3 92.4 92.86 -92.0 - 2005 Figures given are for dailies La Nación and Al Día and non-daily El Financiero only.6 55.29 - 25 - - 28 40. colon.041 Total paid-for dailies 99.00 20. Al Día. informal survey on newspapers 260 -39.168 47 24 23 6 1 100 Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC). Estudio General de Medios 3.73 0. mln) Change (%) 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2001/97 2001/00 Source: Ipsos Costa Rica. households survey 4.9 22.07 30. colon) min max Source: Grupo Nación.00 - 20.6 - Source: Ipsos Costa Rica.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Housewives 000 % 96.a (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Households 000 % Without children With children aged 0-3 aged 4-9 aged 10-15 Total 333 708 208 229 271 1.7 90.00 20.COSTA RICA Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.0 90. 2006 Including only dailies La Nación. and La Teja 4.ca 1 to 3 persons 4 people 5-6 people 7-9 people 10 people or more Total Households 000 % 554 279 264 64 7 1.9 59.07 20.90 -30.33 - 2005 La Nación and Al Día only 2006 La Nación.73 7.00 152.6 55.532 11.00 - 29 4 7 42 - 5 31 28 - 6 34 32 4 45. Al Día. Al Día.0 - Source: Grupo Nacion Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos. Estudio General de Medios Urban population aged 13-64 1 Reading base: 30 days WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .b Age (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 281 281 281 - 100.00 Age structure of readership (2006) 5.86 Source: Grupo Nación 2005 Figures given are for dailies La Nación and Al Día and non-daily El Financiero only 2006 Including only dailies La Nación.cb Households (children) (2004) Occupancy Children 2.00 20.8 21.6 (Costa Rica.c - - 7.0 National paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies - 32 68 20 22 26 100 4. La Teja.d Cover prices (2006) Single copy Subscription 275 275 275 - 153 153 153 10 10 199 199 199 12 12 -30. reading base: 30 days % % daily reach of readership within age group 1 21.61 Type of newspaper sales 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 72 28 100 65 35 100 68 32 100 60 40 40 100 69 31 31 100 Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Total Source: Grupo Nación Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 6 National paid-for dailies 6 Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 22 National paid-for 2 non-dailies Regional and local 20 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays - 7 6 1 7 6 1 5 5 - 6 6 - 0.07 30.68 14.6 0.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached (Costa Rica.49 - Source: Media Guru Number of titles Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies 59.400 - 33.5 100 89.00 0.45 100.7 90.00 97.00 300.00 0.a 94.5 88.90 -92.90 -30. July 2003 Age Total number of copies sold or distributed annually 13-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Total All adults Men Women 90.3 13.9 0.b Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Total 54 150 159 115 59 536 4.6 0.b 55.3 86.00 - 8.6 Sales revenues Total paid-for dailies 10 29 30 21 9 100 Urban population aged 13-64 3. and the weekly El Financiero 30.1 Source: Ipsos Costa Rica.00 - - - 3 - 2 1 - -33.73 7.6 7.

d In colour Total Dailies Non-dailies 5 2 6 2 6 3 5 3 71 5 40.362 19.628.913.7 271. colon.8 Source: Media Guru Source: Grupo Nación Including only the dailies La Nación.1 5.67 Source: 2006 Grupo Ice (www.c (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 2002 All newspapers National newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 46 269 284 - 46 269 284 - 27 14 253 254 84 Advertising revenues (Costa Rica.0 1.594.338 2005 Including only La Nación and Al Día 2006 Including only La Nación.0 Source: 2002-2003 IFS.389. bln) 2003 2004 2005 6.0 2006 - Display Classified Inserts Online Total Source: Grupo Nación Source: Grupo Nación .211.571 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - - 88.29 0.29 0.cr Capitalfinanciero.127. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2006 - 24 24 30 162 198 51 Total paid-for dailies Total non-dailies - 25.4 488.39 0..6 100 Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Costa Rica. Sociedad Periodística Extra Ltda.000 897.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure (Costa Rica.749.570.com Aldia. 2004.027. Editorial La Razón S. ZenithOptimedia.go.334.A.242. Ipsos Costa Rica.com/web.0 265.00 40. 199 Sociedad Periodística Extra Ltda. General Media Study 2004 2006 Urban population aged 13-64 - 7. classified.69 Source: Banco Central de Costa Rica.115 Source: Media Guru Top publishing companies (2006) 8. Media Guru Publisher Total circulation (000) Grupo Nación GN S. Grupo Nación GN s.00 150.640 18.329.0 2006 - 11. and La Teja 1 7. 000) 2003 2004 2005 1.2 240.a.537 865.co.117 882. Estudio de Hábitos de Audiencia.48 0.ab - Source: 2002 Media Guru.html 2.5 427.000 1. colon.a.a 7.aa - Advertising volume sold 2002 Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 6.cr) 9.500 598. ZenithOptimedia.000 300.657. 2004 Banco Central de Costa Rica.0 25.322.0 1. Grupo Nación GN s.480.000 450. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue The daily El Heraldo has only electronic version.304.832 573.a Ad spend as a % of GDP 2002 Ad expenditure - 2003 - (%) 2004 2005 0.006.com Page impressions 2.036. 000) Advertiser Private universities Supermarkets Housing Electrical appliance stores State and government Credit cards Cars Departament stores State universities Used cars Corporación de Supermercados Unidos (supermarkets) Banco Nacional de Costa Rica (banking) Banco de Costa Rica (banking) Banco Popular y de Desarrollo Comunal (banking) Dos Pinos Lachner & Sáenz (cars) Veinsa (cars) Universidad de Costa Rica Hewlett Packard (computers) Banco Interfin (banking) 1.COSTA RICA 5.00 66. 2004-2005 Grupo Nación Online editions 7.8 Source: 2002-2003 IFS.a.869.000 643. colon.999.000 400.051.500 910.0 1. 2006 Banco Central de Costa Rica y Centro Centroamericano de Población 7.644 57.172 742.7 0.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7. (La República) Expenditure (Costa Rica.000 Source: Grupo Nación GN s. Al Día.a.nacion.750 748.ac 18.0 - 6. Sociedad Periodística Extra Ltda.047 398. 2004-2006 Ipsos. 2006 Banco Central de Costa Rica Gross domestic product per capita 2002 GDP per capita (Costa Rica.nacionmediakit.833 (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 - 18.372 579. colon) (USD) 92 62 44 - 510 510 365 251 31 16 200 150 150 100 250 100 Format 0. colon.70 2006 - 0.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher La Nación Diario Extra Al Día La Teja La República La Prensa Libre Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Grupo Nación GN s.http://www.b 27.2 239. colon.9 Source: Media Guru Source: 2002-2003 Optimum Media Direction (OMD).7 247.052.371 374. Circulation Readership Cover price (000) (000) (Costa Rica.c Media consumption 7. Al Día. colon) 1. included among the 7 dailies with online editions Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website La Nación Al Día El Financiero www.19 0.473 364.7 323. Editorial La Razón s.ice.e Contribution of display. 000) 523.805.500 538.0 6.161 784. Estudio General de Medios WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 261 .0 489.A.6 5. and La Teja 8.382 7.256 673.392.619.0 8.483.19 Berliner Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Costa Rica.a.

00 Source: Grupo Nación 11.00 0. and in particular. Ownership laws and rules Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No 14.33 Source: 2003 Grupo Nación 2005 La Nación. of domestic daily newspapers? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners.a Employment 15. and El Financiero only 2006 Grupo Nación employees only 10. with a few exceptions under government control. Al Dia. 13% sales tax is applicable instead 13. forbids monopolies.67 - Dailies only Research Methodology Readership sample size: 3. Concentration is considered a monopolistic practice. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No 20. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: 1 Single copy sales Subscription sales Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Stamp tax on revenue 13 1 13 13 30 30 1 There is no VAT in Costa Rica.COSTA RICA 9. passed in 1994.296 1. the majority of shares. one company has the power to substantially restrain supply.00 0.324 - 81.00 -16.325 1. there are entry barriers that prevent other companies from supplying the market.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Tabloids Other formats Berliner 6 6 - 7 7 - 7 7 - 5 4 1 1 6 5 1 1 0. Readership is measured by Ipsos Costa Rica 12. Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership.000. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? Media companies are required to publish the names of their owners or shareholders once a year. frequency: quarterly.257 1. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other 262 Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .a Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists Total number of employees - 203 120 72 131 1. or one company has special access to raw materials. when: one company has the power to fix prices.94 5.00 25. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? The Law for Promoting Competition and the Defence of Consumers. and therefore illegal.a Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares.

After Vjesnik became an obedient servant of the government. is still far away from being functional. difficult problems still remain. analytical and An initiative group for founding the Croatian Press eminent newspaper. Performance of newspapers vs. the media scene in Croatia faced a new and the Croatian Radio and Television Board. have turned extremely popular. Another reason is also important: A low cover price of 24 sata. owned 50% by Stirya 27. Advertising Media publish or broadcast hidden ads. has also contributed to the success of 24 sata. The independent daily Novi with three other dailies published by EPH. Source: CIA – The World Factbook.40). and publishing weekly Council.9%). The most visible was the government pressure in appointing the board of the Croatian news agency HINA.CROATIA Media Market Description General economic situation Since 2000 Croatia’s economic fortunes have begun to improve slowly. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform. interviews with a minister. Austrian Stirya owns the other two. Council promotes the idea of self-regulation. The two foreign publishing companies have Metro is published by Europa Press Holding (EPH). their editorial content. attracting readers with short news. The Press minister. owned mostly by journalists. the state Other Factors owned daily Vjesnik. Metro directly competes newspapers have 12. such as Jutarnji media in Croatia are partly free. attractive photos and interesting stories. the kuna. a publisher acknowledged a Press publishing in one edition five photos of the prime Council’s finding for the first time in 2006. An amendment to the Criminal Code found a proper response to this challenge. a half of other dailies’ price. structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. four of his deputy. almost 60 % of local media. For example. Performance of different types of newspapers Weekly. like an earthquake. bi-weekly and monthly magazines continuously grow and take over the print media market at the expense of daily newspapers.5%. other media Media freedom is still jeopardized. readers accept the new editorial policy of 24 sata. Free daily Metro became number one in circulation in the whole Multinational media companies own the most country. Media / Press Laws Free newspapers’ invasion at the Croatian market was According to the Freedom House and OSCE reports.5% of the daily newspaper market (EPH 59. Public is not able to distinguish the editorial content and paid advertising. leaving fines as the only sanction. as privatization efforts often meet stiff public and political resistance. The state retains a large role in the economy. Inflation over the same period has remained tame and the currency. the news agency HINA. with overall trends list. and the printing plant of Vjesnik. with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 5% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. four list. Newspaper launches / closures Another new product. best selling daily newspapers. Tabloid-size daily newspapers. they have lost their credibility and lost circulation. a growing trade deficit and uneven regional development. 24 sata is the only newspaper in the country not even trying to pretend being a quality newspaper. A newspaper article not identified as advertising or a broadcast time in a popular TV show can be bought. Being tired of old newspapers manipulated by different centers of political power. The only passed in 2006 eliminated imprisonment as a libel answer they found was a move towards sensationalism in punishment. Vecernji list and Slobodna Dalmacija have not being positive. only 3 kuna (EUR0. In addition to the achieved print run of 620. the amount other above-mentioned WAZ (EPH) that owns four out of six newspapers can only dream about. a two-years debate. owned by EPH. ICEJ WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 263 . in accordance with its promotional slogan “The whole truth at the half price”. Nevertheless. faces big financial out of six newspapers with the biggest circulation are problems and looses the market. Various editions of the bi-weekly News influential media in the country. lost its credibility completely. however.6% and countryís biggest publishing company. Journalists face all kinds of pressures. once a serious. Paid-for newspapers. Anyway.000 copies. Ownership Government owns the daily newspaper Vjesnik. financially strong impact of free newspapers. The government used all methods to appoint members of the board who will ensure its influence at HINA. As a result.000 copies. including a stubbornly high unemployment rate. 87. stable. The government tries to influence the public radio and TV through elections of In 2006. big headlines. Independent and government the German publisher WAZ. Vjesnik’s circulation is now less than 10. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved. the daily newspaper 24 sata (24 hours) published by Austrian Stirya was a surprise at the media scene.

030 Regional and local 160 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies - 508 508 476 32 382 382 352 30 1.22 14.73 -25.003 801 710 3.437 17. as well as those who do not have any education at all Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 12 12 7 5 11 11 6 5 12 12 7 5 13 13 8 5 16 15 8 7 33.a Households 000 % Without children With children aged 0-5 aged 6-9 aged 10-14 Total 338 914 264 179 237 1. administrative. Census of Population.73 -24.09 12.00 14.933 11 23 18 24 25 100 Source: Central Bureau of Statistics.682 12 20 27 22 19 100 Male 000 % 230 291 665 342 221 1.61 13.820 2.135 18.00 58 92 99 115 219. Research Institute estimates.183 1.2 - 81.062 1.06 100 Male 000 % 386 308 296 325 316 229 273 2.77 11.b Population by social class and sex (2001) Social class A+B†1 C1†2 C2†3 D†4 E†5 Total All adults 000 % 438 730 1.00 23. 2006 ICEJ (free dailies).b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 597 Total paid-for dailies 597 National paid-for dailies 562 Regional and local 35 paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total non-dailies 2.01 13.301 16.985 2.73 0. administrative.00 181 181 105 76 202 127 110 17 207 132 115 17 207 132 115 17 1 - - - - 75 5 5 75 5 5 75 - - - - Source: 2002-2005 Croatian Journalists Association.43 -15.72 12.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age 0-15 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 755 604 590 646 633 492 713 4.29 14.25 - - 187 - - - - - - - Source: 2002-2005 Croatian Journalists Association.80 10.00 40.38 19.78 100 Female 000 % 369 296 293 326 317 262 438 2.38 0.07 14.08 16. Households and Dwellings.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Total dailies 162 Total paid-for dailies 162 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 36 173 173 - 214 214 - 182 182 171 11 137 137 127 11 -15.252 27 73 100 Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.42 13.13 -6.43 - -24.29 40.875 2.08 15.190 National paid-for non-dailies 2.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 people Total Households 000 % 307 349 280 304 237 1. professional B = intermediate managerial.477 21 24 19 20 16 100 Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 3.16 Source: Croatian Journalists Association.CROATIA Households (occupancy) (2004) 2. 2006 ICEJ 3.03 100 Source: Central Bureau of Statistics 2.002 55 60 110 121 411 411 383 28 747 560 - 25.86 12. Research Institute estimates. WAN assessment (paid-for dailies) 4.16 13.33 25. Research Institute estimates 264 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .190 Total paid-for non-dailies 2.44 16. 2001 A = higher managerial. professional C1 = supervisory/clerical/junior managerial C2 = skilled manual workers D = semi and unskilled manual workers E = those who didnít finish the primary school.75 36.749 13 17 38 20 13 100 Female 000 % 208 439 338 459 489 1.26 11.86 15.59 14.73 14.cb Households (children) (2005) Occupancy Children 2.

32 Source: (A+B+C+D) = total dailies + total non-dailies + total Sundays + online newspapers 7.6 8.9 19.028.6 6. kuna.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.7 Source: IFS. ZenithOptimedia 4.9 10.12 - 10.c Advertising revenues Source: Media Metar % % daily reach of readership within age group less than 16 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 7.5 1.1.8 42.8 45.hr 1 Estimate Gross domestic product 2001 (Croatia.2 13.100 980 781 Source: ICEJ 7.450 1.3 62.7 7.0 100 93.5 6.glasslavonije.2 33.900 140.125.3 - -24.0 100 93.aa 4.6 179.8 66. mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Telecommunications Food Health care products Beverages Media and publishing Fianncial institutions Cleaning products Automobile industry Trade Tourism / Culture / Music Source: Media Metar 5.b (Croatia.800 88.4 5 21 153.000 165.b Age All adults Men Women Main household shopper 86 54 46 74 0.5 100 2005 2006 GDP 90. circulation per edition with regard to frequency WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 265 .0 824. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 33.0 5. AdEx I-XII/2006 I-XII/2006 203.7 412.0 450.novi-list.237.2 873 - - 1. kuna.hr www. 000) T-Mobile Hrvatska Vipnet GSM Procter & Gamble Europapress Holding Reckitt-Benckiser T-Hrvatski Telekom Coca Cola L’Oréal Unilever Henkel Source: MEDIApuls.4 285.3 111.CROATIA 4.2 7.8 18.0 1.0 100 93.0 3.4 207.c Page impressions (000) 1 Newspaper/ Publisher 7.00 10.a Newspaper reach (2005) (%) Reached (Croatia.hr www.8 19.1 6.vjesnik. kuna.092.89 9.4 15.0 36.7 2000 (Croatia.600 2005 Source: Media Metar 6.0 1.600 81.800 157.000 1.7 .0 5. kuna) max Single copy Subscription 6 6 Age structure of readership (2006) 5.hr www.500 162. AdEx Source: MEDIApuls.286.c 20 - Top publishing companies (2005) 8.1 Expenditure (Croatia.201.300 83.5 68 65.9 62.d Cover prices (2005) 5.00 10.6 100 1.6 20.b Sales revenues 6.6 Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Postal deliveries Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 92.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser % of display ad revenue - 10 2 12 - 140 - 14.0 1. ZenithOptimedia Source: ICEJ 2.5 6.0 1.6 10.1 7. kuna.900 98.1 Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 39.0 759.00 Online readership (2006) Website Vecernji list Novi list Vjesnik Slobodna Dalmacija Glas Slavonije www.12 -4.1 219.8 36.a (Croatia. mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies - 992.a Publisher Total circulation (000) Europapress Holdings (WAZ) NCL Media Grupa Stirya Medien AG Sanoma Magazines Zagreb Novi List Oglasnik Kultura i rasvjeta Glas Istre Glas Slavonije Vjesnik 900 690 290 210 150 35 25 20 17 16 Source: ICEJ.hr www.096.vecernji-list.200 179.7 49.0 100 Source: IFS.0 10.75 -26.0 7.ab 193.5 8.6 - Media consumption (minutes per day) 2002 2003 2004 2001 All newspapers National newspapers Regional and local newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 19 14 205 149 23 15 15 209 152 28 15 17 218 168 35 18 16 237 155 41 19 12 7 18 219 146 75 Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Non-dailies Source: ICEJ 5 - All newspapers (A+B+C+D) 177. kuna.6 27. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 165.slobodnadalmacija.0 2.

000 19.00 3.a Employment 11.00 2002 2. Croatian Chamber of Economy Readership is measured by GfK.00 6.21 8. kuna) 1999 2000 2001 - - 2.CROATIA 8. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists 1 1.00 1.201 1.000 19.918 - 2.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Metro Express Croatian Metro (Europa Press Holding / WAZ) Circulation (000) Readership (000) Format 187 331 Tabloid Source: ICEJ 9.00 1.00 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .400 14.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Single copy sales Home deliveries 1 Postal deliveries 1 Circulation is audited by HGK.100 10.23 - 0.000 Source: Circulation: HGK. kuna) (USD) 133 108 99 73 51 37 17 10 9 8 455 454 550 127 68 80 31 35 30 19 Europa Press Holding (EPH / WAZ) Styria Styria Europa Press Holding (EPH / WAZ) Europa Press Holding (EPH / WAZ) Novi list Glas Istre MC Glas Slavonije Europa Press Holding (EPH / WAZ) Vjesnik 6.000 9. Media Net. 2006 ICEJ 1 Research 1998 1999 (%) 2000 2001 2002 - - 31 24 28 31 24 28 31 24 28 Consumers pay the additional costs for home & postal deliveries 10.bb 12.00 6. opinion surveys.00 6. Media Metar.00 6.50 1.000 18. Readership: Media Metar 8.00 Source: ICEJ 10.00 1. Puls Source: 2002-2005 Croatian Journalists Association.00 1.000 12.00 6.400 30. Mediana Fides. media analyses.300 3.000 10.67 0.00 1.850 1. experts and media professionals - (Croatia.00 Format 1.00 0.00 - 15.000 15.00 6. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 20 Source: ICEJ Average distribution costs per copy 1998 Single copy Subscription 266 Methodology Public pools.00 6. kuna) 22.00 6.844 2.00 2.00 1.240 7.00 2.38 16.300 - 119.334 Number of part-time journalists 572 Total number of employees 4.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Berliner 11 1 10 - 11 1 10 - 11 1 11 - 13 12 1 15 14 1 36. interviewing media managers.400 17.00 1.000 17.000 11.24 - Members of the Croatian Journalists Association 10.00 Tabloid Tabloid Berliner Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Croatia.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Jutarnji list Vecernji list 24 sata Slobodna Dalmacija Sportske novosti Novi list Glas Istre Glas Slavonije Slavonski dom Vjesnik Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Croatian Publisher Circulation Readership Cover price (000) (000) (Croatia.000 25.400 12.000 26.36 40.

except the personal identity number of the owners and address of the editor-in-chief.000. publishers have to report to the Croatian Chamber of Commerce data on their company. adopted in 2004. By February 28. publishers are obliged to publish the same data in the Official Gazette. regional or local publisher. or 10% of a news agency. which the government owns. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. and may not own more than: 25% of a national. whose owner is unknown. 10% of any publisher of daily newspapers with circulation exceeding 3. Under the Law on Electronic Media. Source: ICEJ 14. It is questionable how the Agency for Protection of Market Competition can define the level of market concentration for media companies if hard data is unavailable. the Media Law does not define the term “daily newspapers. name and address of all persons or institutions owning shares or having any other part of ownership. It is public data that the owner of 90% of Vecernji list is the company Styria. but in December 2003 the Croatian government spent Kuna 33. but that does not mean that it is possible to determine who ultimately owns something. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? All data on media ownership are public. Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. of domestic daily newspapers? No Basic data is accessible. the definition of “dominating position” for media companies needs to be defined to prevent media concentration once hard data is available.” Do sports and business/financial newspapers belong in the same category as general/political newspapers? Source: ICEJ WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 267 .000. A company with a regional or local broadcasting licence may not publish daily newspapers in the same or neighbouring region. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Law on Media. a company with a national broadcasting licence may not publish any daily newspaper with a circulation of more than 3.a Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? Article 33 of the Law on Media states that no publisher of daily or weekly newspapers may sell more than 40% of all dailies and weeklies sold in the relevant market. and in particular.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? Subsidies are generally not available. Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No. Information on owners of shares of 1% or above of total ownership are published in the Official Gazette as summary information. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? Yes. Article 32: by January 31 each year. including data about percentage of ownership.5 million purchasing a printing rotary for Vjesnik. the majority of shares. Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex 15.CROATIA 13. Also. and may own more than 30% of a publisher that produces newspapers in the same region. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? Yes.

000 if circulation exceeds 3.000 - - Not allowed if combined circulation exceeds 40% of total market circulation Not allowed if circulation exceeds 3.000 if circulation exceeds 3.000 No restrictions Not allowed if circulation exceeds 40% of the market - Not allowed if circulation exceeds 3.000 Maximum 25% stake Regional Newspaper Owners Not allowed if circulation exceeds 3.000 Not regulated Not regulated Not regulated Not regulated Not regulated No special restrictions No special restrictions No special restrictions No special restrictions No special restrictions Satellite TV Broadcasters Foreign Investors 268 Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 Maximum 25% stake National TV Licensees Maximum 25% stake Maximum 25% stake Maximum 10% stake Maximum 10% stake if circulation exceeds 3.b Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional TV Licensees Maximum 25% stake Maximum 25% stake Maximum 10% stake Maximum 10% stake if circulation exceeds 3.CROATIA 15.000 National Newspaper Owners Not allowed if circulation exceeds 3.

unauthorized church run publications. which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies.383 19 70 11 100 Male 000 % 1. it operated many local radio stations. The inflation rate was estimated at 5% in 2006.00 Source: 2002 UNESCO. US State Department.00 0. and newspapers.” which included expressing opinions at odds with those of the government.The World Factbook 3. international reports of human rights violations.999 652 5.059 3. although newsstands at some hotels for foreigners and certain hard currency stores sold limited numbers of foreign newspapers and magazines. and three national newspapers. Protection of the National Independence and Economy of Cuba. graffiti. is punishable by up to 14 years imprisonment. one international radio station. Ownership The government considered print and electronic media to be state property. Media / Press Laws Laws against antigovernment propaganda.00 0. Disseminating “enemy propaganda.000 1.177 8. The government considered the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.00 0.710 19 70 11 100 Source: CIA . Authorities also blocked access to Web sites they considered objectionable. including distribution of printed material from foreign sources. and disrespect of officials impose penalties of between three months and one year in prison. The only citizens granted direct Internet access were some government officials and certain government approved doctors. professors. criticism of the president or members of the ANPP or Council of State is punishable by three years imprisonment.001 554 5. and mainstream foreign newspapers and magazines to be enemy propaganda. 2003-2006 WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 269 . The average standard of living remains at a lower level than before the downturn of the 1990s. one national magazine. Online / Digital Publishing The government controlled nearly all Internet access. Law 88. Many of the country’s political prisoners were convicted of violating this statute.00 0.” Citizens did not have the right to receive or possess publications from abroad. consumer goods. high metals prices continued to boost Cuban earnings from nickel and cobalt production. Printing & Distribution The law bars “clandestine printing. Additionally. Authorities reviewed and censored e-mail and forbade any attachments.673 20 71 10 100 Female 000 % 1. Performance of newspapers vs.118 4. Citizens could access the Internet only through government approved institutions. In 2006.The World Factbook. except at Internet facilities provided by a few diplomatic offices.CUBA Media Market Description General economic situation Cuba has rolled back limited reforms undertaken in the 1990s to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food. prohibits a broad range of activities.00 0. that purportedly undermine state security. other media The government operated four national television stations. television stations. WAN from public sources 2. and services.206 11. The government owned and the Communist Party controlled all media except for a few small. Source: CIA .a Number of titles Map: CIA – The World Factbook Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 18 4 14 18 4 14 18 4 14 18 4 14 18 4 14 0. magazines.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 2. All media must operate under Communist Party guidelines and reflect government views. and journalists. six national radio stations.

The World Factbook 270 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .aa Top paid-for dailies (2006) (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Juventud Rebelde Trabajadores Nueva Prensa Cubana Gross domestic product 2001 GDP - (Cuba.011.800 1.800 Granma Central Committee of the Communist Party Union of Young Communists Centre of Cuban Workers - 0.5 Source: CIA .800 1. peso) 400 - 250 - 20. peso.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.ba Circulation 1 (000) Title Publisher 1.0 2005 Cover price (Cuba.00 - Source: WAN from public sources 1 In 2002 1.800 1.00 0. bln) 2002 2003 2004 - 674.800 1.CUBA 3.b Total average circulation per issue Total paid-for dailies 8.7 778.

given the relative isolation. Haravaghi. Ownership Most daily newspapers belong to or are linked with political parties or other groups.67 0. which accounts for 76% of GDP. Yeniduzen. As an independent and autonomous corporation functioning under the Cyprus News Agency Law. reliance on the Turkish lira.00 Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 271 . the island has Several private television and radio stations competed grown into a major centre for the publication of effectively with government-controlled stations. economic growth tends to be volatile. while the inflation rate in north Cyprus was estimated at 9.8% in 2005. bloated public sector. Since 1975. Agriculture and services. Slavic-speaking residents have also Performance of newspapers vs. Online / Digital Publishing Most of the important media outlets (especially in the Republic of Cyprus) have their own websites.000 between them. Kibris. the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation. Ortam. and Agon.a Map: CIA – The World Factbook Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 18 18 18 21 21 16. numerous Arab and Russian magazines and newspapers. US State Department. As in the area adminstered by Turkish Cypriots. The law which established the Agency expressly provides that CNA cannot promote the interests of any political party or economic group. are about 13. Kibris.1% in 2004. together. creating a market for two local dailies (Cyprus News and Cyprus Times) and one weekly publication (Cyprus Weekly). The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. and has led to distribution problems as it is difficult to control distribution costs and the levels of unsold papers as stocks are spread thinly. Birlik. Makhi. Halkin Sesi. Printing & Distribution There is one press retailer for every 530 residents. Performance of different types of newspapers There are nine daily newspapers in Greek: Phileleftheros. Alithia. Source: CIA .a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 160 533 91 784 20 68 12 100 Male 000 % 82 270 40 392 21 69 10 100 Female 000 % 78 263 51 392 20 67 13 100 Source: CIA .000. Taxes Simerini. Volkan. XPress The VAT on newspapers is 5% and is included in the Economiki. and Haber Havadis.The World Factbook. English is used widely by permanent foreign residents on the island. In the Turkish-speaking part of Cyprus. the CNA cannot promote the interests of any political party or economic group.000 copies a day. the Publishers Association. and small market size of north Cyprus. Kibrisli. while sales of the most popular Turkish Cypriot paper. Apogevmatini. other media created their own local media. Conservative Turkish dailies Sabah and Hurriyet have a daily circulation of around 13. Politis. This is rather high. Tourism and financial services are the most important sectors.The World Factbook 3. The main news agency is the Cyprus News Agency (CNA). selling price. with a population of around 200. employ more than half of the work force. WAN from public sources 2. and the Press and Information Office. The inflation rate in the Republic of Cyprus was estimated at 2. Yenicag.CYPRUS Media Market Description General economic situation The Republic of Cyprus has a market economy dominated by the service sector. The agency is governed by a seven member Board composed mainly of journalists representing the Union of Journalists. there are ten dailies: Afrika (formerly Avrupa).

40 Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Source: WAN from public sources 11.9 2006 8.The World Factbook Republic of Cyprus only.0 7.ab Gross domestic product per capita 1997 GDP per capita - (Cyprus. pound) 1998 1999 2000 - - 7. pound. Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex 272 Discount rate (%) 50 0 50 50 50 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .1 bn Cypriot pounds 7.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Cyprus.70 0.40 0. ZenithOptimedia 8.40 0.CYPRUS 3.40 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 7.11 0. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Tax on profits – standard rate 15 5 5 10 Source: www. pound) Format 26 13 11 9 9 8 7 6 5 4 0. GDP of North Cyprus was 2.com 14.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Phileleftheros (Liberal) Kibris Alithia (Truth) Haravghi (Dawn) Simerini (Today) Apogevmatini Politis (Citizen) Halkin Sesi (Voice of the People) Agon (Struggle) Cyprus Mail Greek Turkish Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Turkish Greek English Phileleftheros Ltd Alithia Ltd Telegraphos Ltd Dias Publishing House Ltd Arktinos Ltd Cyprus Mail Ltd Circulation (000) Cover price (Cyprus.00 Source: WAN assessment 7. and other distributors.40 0. Research Circulation is audited by ‘Papyrus’ General Distribution Press Agency Ltd.worldwide-tax. 12.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 90 90 95 100 100 11.084.2 Source: CIA .0 2001 - Source: IFS.

National TV Licensees Maximum of one Maximum of one No limit No limit Max. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a radio station. one.CYPRUS 15. Max. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a newspaper. No limit No limit Up to 2. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a radio station. one. No limit No limit Max. one.5% per investor. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a newspaper. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a radio station. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share more than 20% of the share capital in a newspaper. one.5% per investor. one. No limit No limit Max. one. Barred if they own Max. one.b Cross-media ownership restrictions (2005) Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Maximum of one Maximum of one No limit No limit Max. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share more than 20% of the share capital in a newspaper. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a TV station. Max. No limit No limit - Up to 2. one. Local Radio Licensees Max.5% per investor. one. Regional Newspaper Owners Max. one. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a radio station. Barred if they own more than 20% of the share capital in a TV station. Barred if they own Max. one. Up to 2. National Newspaper Owners Max. All foreign investors cannot own more than 10% of total share capital. capital in a newspaper. Foreign Investors WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 273 . All foreign investors cannot own more than 10% of total share capital. All foreign investors cannot own more than 10% of total share capital. one. capital in a newspaper. No limit No limit - National Radio Licensees Max.

gross advertising revenues grew by 9. on-year. and in publishing was stopped. its share in the At the end of 2005.CZECH REPUBLIC Media Market Description General economic situation The overall economic situation in the Czech Republic in 2006 was evaluated by independent institutions as very good. In 2006. of the publishing house Ebika.8 % in 2005. copies. two new transformed into a weekly and three months later its national dailies of this orientation were launched. For 2008 the new government. 2006 a third similar title also appeared . two non-dailies were launched: the free non.5 % compared to the previous year. even though it still reached a high level . same time.close to 7. But in spite of this. The net advertising revenues increased by 10. respectively.9 % (in book prices. due to growing competition. so they actually make up one Since 2006. Online / Digital Publishing Newspaper launches / closures All Czech dailies have their own news web sites with In 2006. Metro expanded to all regional published as the amusing Sunday. In 2007.3 %.5%. According to January-February 2007 data. the Sunday Nedelni Svet of the publishing house Mediacop was also closed. significant changes have been introduced in product on the market with a paid circulation of about methodology of the readership research Media project. The inflation rate reached 2.000 and 300. However. – the company Vltava Labe Press – are published in the same graphical arrangement and under the common Readership name Denik (Daily). In spring. which represents an increase of 0. Both is apparent. The Internet was the most dynamically growing medium in 2006. For dailies. the GDP grew by 6% . especially. At the beginning of 2007. At the compact tabloid format. The daily Super Spy closed on 1 January 2007. the inflation rate in the Czech Republic is the lowest in the region when comparing over the long term. and others). All free dailies.more or less independent content.000 comparison. In 2005. 350. in places with bigger dailies providing more amusing and lifestyle information concentrations of people. have contributed to the growth of advertising revenues. free Circulation dailies Metropolitni Expres. the Czech Republic ranks among the leading countries in the region. it towns.the same growth rate as in the previous period. During 2006. Kuryr was than the standard daily news service. total volume of advertising expenditure still remains low. the Football noteworthy. before any price list discounts or other discounts). no special positive factors are expected to influence ad revenues as in 2006 (the parliamentary and Performance of different types of newspapers senate elections. a new free daily appeared in Prague. which fluctuates around the level of acceptability in terms of the Maastricht criteria. it also swallowed up the Sunday AHA Sport. 274 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . except for the public debt. especially.AHA!. World Championship. total paid circulation decreased by 1.2 % in a five-year appeared with net press runs of 200. The title is published in a smaller compact format than All regional dailies of the only publisher in this segment other Czech dailies.8% yearMAFRA. The economic growth also contributed to a decrease in the unemployment rate. the so-called gutter and tabloid newspapers. and Kuryr. of the publishing house In 2006. Thus. is preparing large-scale economic reforms. two other free dailies for the region of Prague and environs were launched. dailies that were distributed by news-vendors or were Data on individual titles shows a swing of readers to available at distribution stands. compared to 9. Advertising In 2006. in contrast to the other free Sales of news and political newspapers remain stable. Publishers are facing increasing requirements of advertisers for various discounts and bonuses. of the publishing house Iditara. the rebranding of two operators of the The rapid growth of the free dailies market is mobile telecommunication networks. However.0 % in 2006.000 copies. compared to 7 % in 2005. are published in shifted to a daily published seven days a week. their impact on the economy is not unambiguously foreseeable and opinions differ regarding them. selected during the elections in 2006. In July 2006. A tendency towards daily 14 dni (Fourteen Days) of the publishing house gradually gaining independence and bigger MAFRA. 1 in the differentiation of website content from the printed titles South) of the publishing house Vltava Labe Press. titles focus on the South-Bohemian Region. the increase in gross advertising revenues of the press was 12. National dailies and free dailies. whereas in 2005 it was only 8. except the Metro.5 %. and the paid non-daily 1 na jihu (No. there is a sharp increase in the total sales of. and it increased by 1. This title was previously In the course of 2006. Kuryr was being thrown in the letter-boxes of households. In March 2006.8% in 2006.

3 9.Media Data System WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 275 . Republic. OMD Czech. The amendment is not favourable to publishersī interests.1 100 45 55 8 16 16 16 100 Source: Czech Statistical Office Housewives 000 % 1 37 184 280 239 243 242 1.33 33.33 0.393 2.982 8.248 14 13 16 13 14 14 17 100 Source: Czech Statistical Office 2.04 4.86 15.81 42. administrative or professional B = Middle class . administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .CZECH REPUBLIC The increase in advertising revenue from online advertisement on the web sites of dailies corresponds to the total increase in online advertising revenues.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) 3.509 1.3 23.33 1 170 70 70 1 1 195 95 95 84 2 2 196 96 96 86 4 3 200 100 100 300.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .65 2.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2005) Age Households 000 % A = Upper middle class .00 Source: 2002-2004 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook.5 12. The cooperation between the server Novinky (News) and the biggest Czech Internet portal Seznam.62 17.352 1.457 10. which ensures a high visit rate for the server Novinky (News).451 1. 31 December 2004 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50+ Total Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.00 1 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 200.00 33.252 15 13 17 14 14 14 14 100 Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 552 791 2. population 12+ 6.904 2.b Population by social class and sex (2005) 1.3 15.3 34.38 100.Czech Publishers Association Households (occupancy) (2004) 2.33 2.33 33.0 27. an amendment to the Copyright Act was published.00 -25.00 50. 2005-2006 ABC CR.17 4. proved to be very effective.17 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 33.a 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1.147 2. Source: Unie vydavatelu denniho tisku .2 34.367 321 682 683 681 4.00 200.00 2.cb Households (children) (2005) Occupancy Children 2.501 1. OMD Czech .380 1.00 0. ABC CR. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .373 2 8 12 10 10 10 48 100 Source: Czech Statistical Office Male 000 % 771 692 884 704 723 660 570 5.supervisory or clerical.730 1.intermediate managerial.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 1.751 Source: MML – TGI – Median.465 660 533 104 4. Copyright In 2006.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .033 2.00 -25.381 1. and junior managerial. as it enlarges the possibility of legally copying press content and does not solve other copyright problems that publishers face.004 15 14 18 14 14 13 11 100 Female 000 % 730 660 846 676 728 721 887 5.271 New methodology since 2006 Population by age and sex (2005) Age Without children With children aged 0-3 aged 4-9 aged 10-15 aged 16+ Total Categorization incomparable with statistics in previous editions of World Press Trends 2.271 35.33 33.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 74 Total paid-for dailies 73 National paid-for dailies 7 Regional and local 66 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies 1 Regional and local free dailiesTotal non-dailies 150 Total paid-for non-dailies 75 Regional and local 75 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 75 Regional and local 75 free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 1 National paid-for Sundays 1 66 65 7 58 81 80 7 73 86 84 9 75 90 86 10 76 21.higher managerial.5 2.15 4.4 100 Source: Czech Statistical Office.38 11.11 1.

84 1.172 paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 219 279 303 319 Regional and local 219 279 303 319 paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 174 174 225 323 National paid-for Sundays 174 174 225 323 2006 (Czech Republic.a 2002 Radio Television 2 Internet 3 167 224 171 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 172 210 172 166 214 208 164 216 230 2006 205 214 65 Source: 2002-2004 Media Projekt. NetMonitor – Mediaresearch & Gemius 2006 Radio: population aged 12-79.94 -33.b 2005 2005 National + regional dailies only.Media Data System Total paid-for dailies 3.22 1.00 -1. 2006 Radio Projekt – Median & STEM/MARK. TV projekt 2005.0 (%) 2004 Source: ABC CR 4.9 53.4 54.63 -29.7 118.711 470 1.890 Total paid-for dailies 1. OMD Czech.08 -15.0 624.01 27. 2005-2006 ABC CR. Republic.0 29. period January-December Age structure of readership (2006) Paid + free dailies % % daily reach of readership within age group less than 16 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 3.33 1. home deliveries represent close to 100% of subscriptions.0 513.377 4.67 -29. period January – December Paid + free dailies 5.9 17. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2002-2004 figures include VAT 5% 68.00 470 1.0 30.338 1. ABC CR. Czech Publishers Association on Yearbook Source: 2002-2004 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook 2005.0 371.9 47. incomparable with previous years.0 15.0 552.41 2.0 50. koruna.0 19.232 1. iAudit.0 123.0 501.5 18. Czech Publishers Association All adults Men Women Main household shopper 18. TV projekt -Mediaresearch.861 2.84 -17.368 429 404 343 48.58 Source: 2002-2004 AC Nielsen.47 2.2 As of December 2006 Source: Media projekt – GfK Praha & Median.2 50.64 Cover prices (2006) Single copy Subscription 5. 2005 ABC CR.0 47. OMD Czech Media Data System.0 544.33 15.4 1.7 37.67 26.0 26.203 3. audited figures. TV Projekt.0 594.c Type of newspaper sales (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 1.12 26.742 1. TNS A-Connect.4 725. WAN assessment.50 -24. Czech Publishers Association.0 383.58 -31. ABC CR.0 17.05 -16.96 337 337 53.0 506.38 7. OMD Czech. ABC CR. TV: population 15+.4 212.0 29.49 131.0 27.33 -33.80 16.906 985 28.212 2.47 318 318 479 479 531 531 354 354 14.5 100 68.85 - 16.0 506.10 1.2 31.8 100 5. internet: population 15+ .5 - Source: Media projekt – GfK Praha & Median/SKMO. Czech Publishers Association Yearbook 4. koruna) min max (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4.667 1.0 43.b Sales revenues 221 221 68.64 5.0 2.742 1. calculated by Czech Publishers Association.174 1.7 494.4 -17.00 49. free distribution not audited for dailies in the net press run 2006 As of December 2006 Total number of copies sold or distributed annually 494.6 2.38 79.26 - 1.0 130.CZECH REPUBLIC 3.799 1.24 10.537 National paid-for dailies 3. 2005 Media projekt 2005. 2006 ABC CR.4 30.796 4.24 -15.6 58.00 5.0 27.0 513.0 19.2 30.0 17.0 51.78 2. Republic.00 17.33 1 2 46.0 37.0 17.0 29. OMD Czech .c Media consumption 2002 1 27. periodical press has not been surveyed 1 population aged 12-79 population over 15 3 Internet users only 2 276 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .88 5. 2006 ABC CR.0 53. Republic.088 444.0 51.8 100 69.711 1.661 1.63 69.0 118.365 Regional and local 1.891 3.9 16.0 30.204 463 1. postalk deliveries not audited.01 - 100 Under 1% Not audited Age (Czech Republic.8 100 Source: ABC CR.797 3.1 100 24.d Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays 2003 Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Postal deliveries 1 Bulk (sponsored) deliveries Office deliveries Free distribution 2 Total Source: 2002 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook.4 212.0 30.867 1.088 444.54 -1.238 Regional and local 452 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies 200 Regional and local 200 free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 540 Regional and local 540 paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays 308 National paid-for Sundays 308 1.6 14.65 79.10 1.0 103.49 200 200 200 200 550 550 560 560 566 566 580 580 7.4 29.0 12.65 - 50.b Total average circulation per issue 4. NetMonitor.0 30.90 3.Media Data System .88 53.2 31. OMD Czech.690 National paid-for dailies 1.1 29.0 410.0 19.0 30.0 19.41 7.78 131.9 52. 2003-2004 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook.6 4.00 5.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached -31. 2005 ABC CR. OMD Czech . calculated by Czech Publishers Association.94 14.4 29.81 - 7.

Czech Publishers Association.cz (Czech Republic.50 150.485 Total paid-for dailies 6. ZenithOptimedia. ZenithOptimedia. ad spends monitoring Paid-for and free dailies 7.811 1.CZECH REPUBLIC 6.0 100 86.62 181 181 250 135.836 7.535 16.8 1. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 12. agency commission.00 174 174 350 Advertising volume sold 2002 July-December 2006.679 60.249 National paid-for dailies 4.cz www. TNS A-Connect.988 62.674 1.226 10.7 125 189 56 7.940 348 664 830 34.813 620 386 212 www.000 Source: Amer Nielsen.546 2. calculated by Czech Publishers Association.7 100 Source: 2002-2004 AC Nielsen. before discounts and reductions. ratecard discounts 3% to 30% Source: Net Monitor – Media research 7.001 Regional and local 2.6 2. koruna. Cinexpress.55 Source: 2002-2005 IFS.215 11.789 8.855 6.145 1.049 7. 2005 TNS A-Connect adspend monitoring.997 Source: TNS Media Intelligence.67 -33.super.0 2.388 - 7. figures indicate number of unique visitors per month.aa 8.620 6.924 7. fuel Finance. Typical discounts 5-25%.204. inserts.276 279.14 288. energy.d 41.937 9.33 Source: 2005 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook.676 58.576 7.62 290.81 9. ad spends monitoring Source: TNS Media Intelligence.36 1.157 207 2.denik.339 9.0 2.804 8.114 6.cz www.820 (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 32.0 8.cz www.136 158.5 3.405 53.103 1. koruna. agency commission excluded 24. hotels.5 - 312.624 32. restaurants House equipment.25 44.007 195 2.157 2.6 6.6 100 86. 000) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP per capita 235. 2006 TNS Media Intelligence. 2006 Ratecard prices.248 Total free dailies 236 Regional and local 236 free dailies Total paid-for Sundays 74 National paid-for Sundays 74 Total online newspapers 90 6.c Advertising revenues Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Non-dailies Sundays 8 14 - 8 15 - 8 27 - 9 30 3 13 35 2 62.10 254.598 23890 2.5 4.869 18.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 1.87 -3.b Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Page impressions per month (000) Pravo / Borgis Mlada fronta DNES / MAFRA SuperSpy! / Stratosfera Blesk / Ringier CR Hospodarske noviny / Economia Denik CR (network of regional dailies) / Vltava-Labe Press Sport / Ringier CR www. all dailies having a number of visitors audited In colour Total Gross domestic product (Czech Republic.5 6.741 16. education Industry. koruna.68 290.idnes.605 26. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP 9.322 4.071 44. financial services Telecommunications incl.14 135. before discounts.cz www.0 2.888 2.789 5.666 28. production costs excluded.062 1.079 3.831 10. ZenithOptimedia Before discounts.0 25.978 1.731 8.676 173 2.727. TNS A-Connect.32 1.e Contribution of display.46 1. OMD Czech – Media Data System Regional dailies Deniky Bohemia and Deniky Moravia have one common webserver including access to all regional and local news.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Czech Republic.398 111 167 154 1.766 28.625 22. koruna.421 13.deniksport.169 2. ad spend monitoring 2. ad spend monitoring Paid-for + free dailies Paid-for + free dailies WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 277 . koruna.3 7.6 249.833 31.blesk. 2006 Czech Statistical Office 7.3 3. SVIT.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser Expenditure (Czech Republic.5 9.2 3. hobby Entertainment.12 7.264 260 922 260 922 267. 000) % of display ad revenue Cars.230 Source: 2002-2004 AC Nielsen.ihned.185 112.1 6.656 54. 2006 Czech Publishers Association Yearbook.9 100 91.89 -3.801 20. 2006 TNS Media Intelligence. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Gross domestic product per capita (Czech Republic.481 53. Czech Publishers Association.534 143.884 145.529 1.9 5. 2006 Czech Statistical Office. TNS Media Intelligence 7.513 3.934 240 32. supermarkets Personal ads Housing.68 6.248 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 2.2 3.021 1. gardening.65 32.cz www.1 Vodafone CR Telefonica O2 CR Lidl CR Skoda Volkswagen Mountfield CS Tesco Stores CR Sazka T-Mobile PSA AAA Auto 291.487 43.434 232 232 254 254 69 122.a Online editions 7. 2005 TNS A-Connect adspend monitoring.864 184 2. appliances 14.760 15.3 1. excludes production costs.5 Source: 2002-2004 IFS.ab 7.88 14.472 15.7 5.527 18.62 254. ad spend monitoring Additional colour and full colour Source: 2002-2005 IFS. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 2.13 6.415. raw materials Travelling.506 10.novinky.840 11.153 21. TNS A-Connect.0 3.009 39.075 60.962 6490 6. 2006 Czech Statistical Office 7.1 270.4 2.6 100 91.8 6.693 63 1.7 4.279 2.988.44 16.551.47 10. 2006 TNS Media Intelligence. 6.382 12.39 1.395 1. TNS A-Connect.054 174.8 12.537 179.350 2.104 48.243 Source: 2002-2004 AC Nielsen.4 3. GSM Retail chains.186 8. 2005 TNS A-Connect adspend monitoring.87 40. motoring. calculated by Czech Publishers Association.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7. ZenithOptimedia.488 285.766 104.791 Display Classified Inserts Online Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 93.264 5.00 - 44.931 38.10 4.794 2470 2002-2004 includes classified. excluding VAT.cz Total dailies 6. classified.

from July to September 2006 it was published as a weekly 9.b Salaries Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists Total number of employees 2.00 16.46 0.000 2 -4.548 1.47 0.145 498 286 225 297 203 146 Ringier CR Vltava-Labe Press MAFRA Borgis Ebika Lidove noviny Ringier CR Economia Vltava-Labe Press Cover price usual max usual max (Czech Republic.5 747.00 11.583 132.000 - 207.70 0.00 10.56 0.5 786.617. OMD – Media Data System 1 Kuryr Praha was published from 19 April 2006 to 30 June 2006 as a daily.820 392.00 18. koruna) (USD) 7.100 103.920 194.00 0.010 130.00 14.709.00 14.00 10.00 (Czech Republic.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Metro Kuryr Praha 1 24 hodin Metropolitni expres Language Czech Czech Czech Czech Publisher Metro CR Iditara Ringier CR MAFRA Circulation Readership (000) (000) 376 300 212 200 387 156 - Format Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Czech Republic.0 920.050 200. Czech Publishers Association Yearbook. koruna.6 828.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Blesk Denik CR 1 Mlada fronta DNES Pravo AHA ! Lidove noviny Sport Hospodarske noviny Sip Language Czech Czech Czech Czech Czech Czech Czech Czech Czech Publisher Circulation Readership (000) (000) 477 343 303 163 91 73 67 63 62 1.a Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher Total circulation (000) Total revenue (Czech Republic.354 Source: ABC CR.00 10.648 23.11 Source: WAN assessment based on UVDT data Source: 2005-2006 Czech Journalists Syndicate.617 411.000 23. audited circulation 8. koruna) Berliner Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid 182.258.70 0.CZECH REPUBLIC 8. Czech Statistical Office 2005 Whole publishing industry 1 2 Estimate Total number of employees in all publishing industry (including periodicals.000 2.00 9.47 0.100 - 2.00 9.040 628.400 150.130 Source: Media Projekt – GfK Praha & Median/SKMO July-December.000 1 2. koruna) 424.480 172. Media projekt-GfK Praha & Median/SKMO July-December. books.74 0.00 12.a Employment 9.00 12. TNS Media Intelligence.08 11.47 0. 000) 1.066 74.750 143.536 410.23 0.666 664. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total salary costs 747.100 2. CDs) 278 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 274.488 245.068 Ringier CR MAFRA Vltava-Labe Press Metro CR (free dailies publisher) Borgis Ebika Lidove noviny Economia Mediacop Source: ABC CR.087 503 405 376 163 91 73 63 23 1.32 0.76 - 0.00 10.564 2.65 0.500 153.350 554.800 135.51 0.00 5.00 15.298 316. rates .56 0.47 0. Czech Publishers Association Yearbook Dailies + Sundays.OMD Czech Media Data System Titles audited by ABC CR only 1 Network of 76 regional dailies 8.000 195.400 448.040 594.0 23.00 15. koruna.277 1.00 0.000 23.602 98.84 0.616 512.65 0.265 2.00 7.697 751.32 0.42 Format Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Berliner Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Czech Republic.

realised by GfK Praha and Media Methodology Each year 30. ABC CR. excluding non-dailies 10. magazines and newspapers.0 4. more than 70 paid-for and free local non-dailies.3 Source: 2002-2004 Czech Publishers Association.00 3.400. distribution companies.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? Not for newspapers 14. Czech Publishers Association. and approximately 300 countrywide magazines. the questionnaire includes all dailies.8 4.0 4.45 Source: 2005 Czech Publishers Association. distribution companies 2005-2006 Estimate 11. The percentage has relation to the amount of distributed copies and range of distributional services. 2006 OMD Czech – Media Data System 2006 Dailies + Sundays.000 face-to-face interviews (CAPI) are conducted on 8. ABC CR.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 35 40 - 35 40 - 35 40 - 35 40 - 35 40 40 2002-2004 Average figures. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats 17 15 2 67 67 85 2 85 90 3 87 92 2 90 441. 2005-2006 Estimate Newsprint costs 2002 Single copy Subscription 3. Czech Republic).0 4. 12-79 years of age.18 2.22 -33.6 4.33 4. 2005 Czech Publishers Association.0 3. 2006 ABC CR. OMD Czech.bb Taxes (2006) Tax Research Circulation is audited by ABC CR (Audit Bureau of Circulation.0 2006 3.0 3. 2005 ABC CR. joint research for periodicals.717 respondents. distribution companies.CZECH REPUBLIC 10. koruna) 2003 2004 2005 3.0 (Czech Republic. outputs four time a year (gliding half-years) WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 279 . 2006 ABC CR.a Newspaper colour capability & formats 12. distribution companies 10. randomly selected from a database of all households. member of the IF ABC 13. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other Post 1 Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 - Source: Czech Post Office 1 Special rates Readership is measured by Media Projekt 2006. % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax concessions for newspaper companies 19 5 5 19 19 19 19 26 26 0 Source: ASPI – electronic database of Czech laws 2002 Source: 2002-2004 Czech Publishers Association.

the majority of shares. the Competition Law Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees * * * * * National TV Licensees * * * * * Regional Newspaper Owners * * No limit No limit * National Newspaper Owners * – No limit No limit * Satellite TV Broadcasters * * * * * Local Radio Licensees * * * * * National Radio Licensees * * * * * Foreign Investors * * No limit No limit * * Subject to approval of the licensing authority 280 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . the Competition Law Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares.CZECH REPUBLIC 15. and in particular. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Yes.b So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? Yes. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No 15.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership.

a 47% share. Daily and weekly papers gained more than 5. Investments have also been growing rapidly. The reach of daily newspapers is still very high. The paid-for unemployment rate by almost 2 percentage points. Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 281 . Consumption in 2007 is expected to grow by 4. in 2005 it reached a 6% international growth rates have spurred Danish exports. and Danish exporters seem to have gained market shares despite having faced higher wage increases than their Circulation competitors. four new free household-distributed newspapers were launched. Among the top 20 sites in Denmark. As house prices are expected to level off and the employment rate is forecast to stay unchanged. Performance of different types of newspapers The trend of change in format from broadsheet to tabloid continued. Private consumption has been growing fast. distribution continued to fall. unemployment has been new national free morning papers.5 per cent in 2008-09. which distribute reduced by 60. but it was closed shortly after. Source: Danish Economic Council. private consumption is expected to gradually reach 2. The newspapers’ internet sites are doing very well. Newspaper launches / closures In 2006. Television still has a 19% marketshare. due to Advertising strong growth in demand. MetroXpress launched an afternoon paper. which is well below the estimated structural level of per day. Performance of newspapers vs. Internet On top of a strong domestic demand. low yields and increasing The newspapers share of above-the-line advertising has difficulties of hiring qualified labour. supported by a very strong housing market and improved labour market conditions.45 billion DKR in 2005. This was due to the Over the last year and a half. unemployment rates are expected to remain Readership low in the forecast period up to 2009.000 copies cent. unemployment. Due to the outlook of continued strong demand. relatively high advertising continues to grow . Berlingske Tidende changed its format in autum 2006. been increasing.000 persons. share. hence lowering the more than 1 million copies a day. as the first of the major national Danish morning newspapers.5 per cent. six are owned by Danish newspapers. other media The number of paid-for dailies has remained steady for Online / Digital Publishing the last six years. more than 80% of all adults read a newspaper every day. The total number of newspaper copies in Denmark went up 50% in 2006 compared to 2005. the unemployment rate is just above 4 per newspapers circulation was reduced by 22. In 2006. and the paid-for Currently.DENMARK Media Market Description General economic situation The Danish economy has been characterized by strong domestic demand over the last year and a half.

WAN assessment.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 949 834 317 342 119 2.00 100.743 18 11 13 15 13 13 17 100 Source: TNS Gallup 1H 2.64 0.51 -3.128 19 11 13 15 13 13 15 100 Male 000 % 520 309 361 413 369 359 354 2.DENMARK Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.69 Source: 2002-2004 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation.00 300 300 280 280 285 1 284 266 1 265 -4.261 26 38 33 3 100 Female 000 % 324 929 945 139 2. Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association.00 5 3 2 5 3 2 6 3 3 12 6 6 300.00 - 100.00 301 1 1 281 1 1 286 1 1 267 1 1 -4.00 13.337 Source: TNS Gallup 1 H 1 Number of titles 14 40 40 6 100 Total dailies 33 Total paid-for dailies 30 National paid-for dailies 9 Regional and local 21 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies 3 National free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies 279 Total paid-for non-dailies 1 National paid-for 1 non-dailies Total free non-dailies 278 National free non-dailies Regional and local 278 free non-dailies 35 30 9 21 35 30 9 21 37 31 9 22 42 30 9 21 27.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) 282 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Age Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total Housewives 000 % 203 474 478 429 416 561 2.intermediate managerial.68 -6.019 4.a 3.685 19 12 13 15 14 13 13 100 Female 000 % 495 296 358 400 363 360 469 2. WAN assessment (free dailies) Refused to answer A = Upper middle class .796 1.00 0.00 0.supervisory or clerical.a Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1.561 8 19 19 16 16 22 100 Source: TNS Gallup 1H Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.25 0.67 0.cb Households (children) (2005) Occupancy Children 2.561 37 33 12 13 5 100 Source: TNS Gallup 1H Households 000 % Without children With children aged 0-3 aged 4-9 aged 10-15 Total 3.318 1. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .015 606 719 813 732 720 823 5. administrative or professional B = Middle class .00 -4.279 482 798 1.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .00 0. 2005 Danish Newspaper Association.23 0.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 D E1 Total All adults 000 % 917 1.32 -4.27 0.30 0.682 202 4.55 - 14 16 16 15 15 15 - -6.597 20 39 37 4 100 Male 000 % 593 867 737 64 2.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .00 -6.00 -6.598 72 28 10 17 22 100 Source: TNS Gallup 1H 2. 2006 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H.higher managerial.00 0.00 100. and junior managerial. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .

2003-2004 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1H 2004 (annual sales 2H).00 8.442 National paid-for non-dailies 64 Regional and local 7.00 0.8 Source: TNS Gallup 1H Age structure of readership (2006) 5.2 90.03 41.4 79.83 2.53 -3.1 90.563 6.30 Source: 2002-2004 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation.461 9.055 213 7.50 0.5 100 54. weekdays.7 17.64 25.55 20.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 1.5 65.00 Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 283 .2 87.8 - Source: TNS Gallup 1H 5.62 -6.61 20.c Type of newspaper sales (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 1.74 -1.6 76.81 7. TNS Gallup Radioindex.946 3.039 2.381 1.37 15.911 1. 2006 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H 2006 Total paid-for dailies 2006 - (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4.290 1.5 84.144 16. krone) min max Age 619 490 241 249 3.5 16.000 22.00 0.02 1.8 11.113 466.32 - - 314 141 - - - 129 - 210 140 70 172 148 24 555 521 34 - 222.806 Total paid-for dailies 1.33 3.b % % daily reach of readership within age group less than 16 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 3.512 2002 Dailies Non-dailies 29 1 32 1 32 1 35 1 38 1 31.325 1.0 22.28 7. WAN assessment. TV-meter Gallup.21 -11.51 -15.67 396 3 3 324 3 3 440 3 3 473 3 3 22. 2006 Explora A/S.100 2.10 252.54 0. 2005 Newspaper Publishers’ Association Newspaper reach (2006) 5.d Cover prices (2006) 666 456 266 190 627 455 265 190 946 391 213 178 - 50.a (Denmark. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 - Single copy Subscription 10.433 National paid-for dailies 818 Regional and local 615 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies 373 National free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 7.35 (Denmark.048 4.a 2003 87.6 84.67 252.92 Source: 2002 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1H 2004.7 65.71 -4.400 9.12.18 3. krone.DENMARK 3.28 -3.72 - 7.0 14. 2006 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H.3 80.4 78.0 100 15. 2005 Danish Newspaper Association.500 6.72 Source: 2002-2004 Danish Newspaper Association.060 61 59 -99.378 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 7.300 6.098 7.75 -47. Danish Newspaper Publishers Association Sales revenues - 21.0 100 19.500 6.8 82.378 National free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies 1.074 4.00 Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers Association 82.4 81.51 - 222.0 61.910 4.88 -14.6 100 15.65 -6.c Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio 1 Television 2 Internet (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 187 169 - 188 158 - 19 2 188 158 18 179 153 - 2006 23 180 150 - Source: 2002-2004 TNS Gallup. 2005 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1Q 2005.381 783 598 - 1.0 21.00 19.0 100 2004 Weekdays 2005 Weekdays 1Q 2005 4.6 84.2 77.000 8.527 6.060 8.49 504 568 2.00 7.8 16.00 7.1 18. 2005 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1H.00 6.03 0.268 744 725 690 581 565 578 473 852 881 409 530 581 656 2.4 100 Source: 2002-2003 Danish Newspaper Association H1 2004.906 1.00 393 - 321 321 437 109 328 470 131 339 22.8 19. 2006 Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H. TNS Gallup TV-meter week 11/2007 1 2 Age 12+ Age 3+ 6. 2005 TNS Gallup Radio.85 (%) Reached All adults Men Women Main household shopper 25.b 2005 Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Postal deliveries Total Total number of copies sold or distributed annually Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies 386 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 National paid-for 3 non-dailies Total free non-dailies 383 National free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies (%) 2004 73.21 63 60 61 59 -7.003 77 88 110 .7 18.57 0. WAN assessment (free dailies) 4.0 18.07 -19.b Total average circulation per issue 4. 2004 Danish Newspaper Association H1 2004.

4 Expenditure (Denmark.480 56.810 205 64 420 900 4. krone.150 5.925 412 2.448 1.70 44.0 1. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 5.dk pol.759 77.412 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 50 48 2 52 45 3 46 51 3 50 47 3 52.552.410 1.227 5. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Unique users 1 903.d Advertising volume sold 1998 Total 284 - (pages & page equivalents) 1999 2000 2001 2002 - 90.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Denmark.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.3 260.1 BILKA DSB Salling Home Telia DDF Philipson Wine Nybolig EDC Klasselotteriet 59.510 11.80 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 Gross domestic product per capita 2002 (Denmark.5 7. krone. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 254. excludes classified advertising.750 4.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 5.dk bt.536.0 1.190 3.100 5. 000) 8.DENMARK 6.452. 2006-2009 ZenithOptimedia estimates Excludes production costs.78 0.875 10.398.386 339.480 14.dk jp.79 0.927 2.675 222 70 336 418 2. ZenithOptimedia 7.708 4.220 4.930 214 66 440 1.79 9. ZenithOptimedia 7.127 4.361.415 5.337 4.000 81.430 5.dk week 49/2006 1 2002 Source: Advertising expenditure survey Unique visitors per week 7.044 5.722 36. krone. trade press.671 1.dk 7.120 2.045 223.b Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Ekstra Bladet /JP/Politikens Hus BT /Det Berlingske Officin Politiken /JP/Politikens Hus Jyllands Posten /JP/Politikens Hus EPN /JP/Politikens Hus Eb.381 2.2 6.685 379 215 78 70 69 60 53 49 46 27 Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association Source: 2002-2005 Dansk Oplagskontrol.774 2.7 8.a Advertising expenditure per medium Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Others Total Advertiser % of display ad revenue Source: TNS Media Intelligence Source: IFS.723 30.145 4.41 9.7 1.0 1.567 483.dk epn.020 15.440 216 238 210 55 58 60 345 360 380 486 575 670 2.794 333 1.525 1.8 13.010 222 68 455 1.054 5110 5.0 GDP per capita 7.0 - Source: IFS.938 303.122 41.605 1.90 2.680 200 62 400 775 3.010 420 3.866 52.601 36.651 12.82 13.11 Source: Danish Newspaper Association 7.052 Total circulation (000) JP/Politikens Hus Det Berlingske Officin JydskeVestkysten Dagbladet Borsen Nordjyske Stiftstidende Fyens Stiftstidende Dagbladet/Frederiksborg Amts Avis Arhus Stiftstidende De Bergske Blade Kristeligt Dagblad (Denmark.274 2.79 0.975 53.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) 2006 Source: IFS.ab 7. krone.132 32.40 Display Classified Inserts Source: FDIM. annuals and directories 7.57 9.ba Advertising sector Miscellaneous advertising Electronics and telecommunication Vehicles Travel Other retailing Furniture and fittings Finance. after discounts.002 962 864 856 934 -6.c Advertising revenues (Denmark. ZenithOptimedia 7.974 Source: TNS Media Intelligence Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher 5.350 15. classified.800 380 2.750 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .825 395 2.410 2.1 2.180 4.400 35.9 6.990 3.1 3.e Contribution of display. ZenithOptimedia.311 36.073 11. “Other” includes free publications.70 -6. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 2.2 8.930 13.0 270. capital and insurance Clothes Books and magazines Housing 1.775 346 360 370 1. krone.772 1.09 -5.9 286.

50 18.00 12.a 0 0 25 25 25 25 32 32 32 Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? Yes 13.50 15. krone.00 25.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher 24timer 1 NyhedsAvisen (Copenhagen.b Direct subsidies (Denmark.671 - 2.16 2.dk/ nyheder/samfund/article219559.94 -0.81 -11.72 2. Odense and Aarhus) 2 Dato 3 MetroXpress Urban (national.T.ece JPArhus+ 365 Media Scandinavia (Dagsbrun Group.915 9.873 Total number of employees 9.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids 29 25 5 35 23 12 35 22 13 37 18 19 41 16 25 41.00 12.DENMARK 8.099 9.56 0. 3 Circulation Readership Format (000) (000) JP/Politikens Hus Media Scandinavia 7 Det Berlingske Officin 8 Metro International Det Berlingske Officin A/S Det Berlingske Officin A/S Metro International Nordjyske Medier JP/Politikens Hus Nordjyske Medier A/S Fyens Stiftstidende A/S Nordjyske Medier 480 415 366 251 233 93 90 62 50 24 26 23 464 250 215 680 624 144 60 90 36 57 4 5 Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid 6 7 8 Door-to-door distribution Distributed by postal service Afternoon edition. 2.00 15. TNS Gallup 1 H 2006.39 2. Research Circulation is audited by Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation Readership is measured by TNS Gallup Methodology Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in combination with diaries Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax concessions for newspaper companies 25 13.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Morgenavisen Jyllandsposten Politiken Berlingske Tidende Ekstra Bladet B.90 3.11 31. JydskeVestkysten Dagbladet B?rsen Nordjyske Stiftstidende Fyens Stiftstidende Dagbladet/Frederiksborg Amts Avise Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish JP/Politikens Hus JP/Politikens Hus Det Berlingske Officin JP/Politikens Hus Det Berlingske Officin JydskeVestkysten Dagbladet B?rsen Nordjyske Medier Fyens Stiftstidende Dagbladet/Frederiksborg Amts Avise Circulation (000) Readership (000) 148 126 125 104 90 78 70 69 60 53 617 461 360 442 417 252 207 204 176 164 Cover price (Denmark.11 2.00 285 .00 16. krone) (USD) 16.90 2. Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H 2006. Aarhus.81 4.64 1.50 16. source of circulation (weekdays): http://ekstrabladet.968 - 2. TNS Gallup 1H 8.00 10. Copehagen) ErhversBladet 4 MetroXpress Aften 5 Centrum Aften (Aalborg) JP+ 6 10minutter Xtra Centrum Morgen (Aalborg) Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish Danish 1.58 Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association 11.38 -36. WAN from public sources 9.76 Format Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Source: Danish Audit Bureau of Circulation 1 H.880 -26.11 2.00 2.00 400.88 - Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers’ Association 10. Iceland) Orkla (Mecom) Source: Danish Newspaper Publishers Association. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists 2.a Employment 12.00 10. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total amount WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 9 14 14 14 14 55.

and in particular. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No 286 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . the majority of shares.DENMARK 14. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other 15.a Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares.

US State Department. Performance of newspapers vs. Media / Press Laws Performance of different types of newspapers The law prohibits the dissemination of false information Djibouti has no daily newspapers. WAN from public sources 2. bln) 1999 2000 2001 - - - 2002 108.The World Factbook. owned the principal newspaper. the official government station. other media The government owned the radio and television stations. La Nation. An unemployment rate of at least 50% continues to be a major problem.aa Gross domestic product 1998 GDP - (Djibouti. franc. an association that is often critical of the government. although surfers with satellite connections were able to enter the site. The official media generally did not criticize government leaders and government policy. Online / Digital Publishing In January 2006. The government and regulates the publication of newspapers.3 Source: CIA . The inflation rate was estimated at 3% in 2005. Source: CIA . Foreign media also broadcast throughout the country. In addition. each registered political party is permitted to publish a public journal.DJIBOUTI Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is based on service activities connected with the strategic location of the country and its status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa.The World Factbook 7. which published three times a week. There are several opposition-run weekly and monthly publications that circulate freely and openly criticise the government.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 211 260 16 487 Male 43 53 3 100 000 % 106 135 8 249 43 54 3 100 Female 000 % 105 125 8 238 44 53 3 100 Source: CIA . government authorities blocked the Web site of the Association for Respect of Human Rights in Djibouti (ARDHD).The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 287 . The nation is heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. broadcast 24 hours a day in four languages on the radio. The government denied that it was blocking the site. Access to ARDHD’s website was blocked by the local Internet provider. Radio Television Djibouti.

00 0. offices.0 Source: CIA . There are also two independent radio stations owned by private companies and a Christian radio station.DOMINICA Media Market Description General economic situation The Dominican economy depends on agriculture. Performance of newspapers vs.1% in 2005. primarily bananas. Performance of different types of newspapers Dominica has no daily newspapers.500 on Fridays. and remains highly vulnerable to climatic conditions and international economic developments. and Internet cafes in urban areas.00 0. The inflation rate was estimated at -0. independent news sources through cable television and radio reception from neighbouring islands. There are three main privately owned weekly newspapers – the Chronicle with circulation of 3.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. US State Department 2.The World Factbook.00 0. dollar.The World Factbook 3.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 National paid-for non-dailies 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0. Source: CIA . Infrastructure limitations restricted Internet access in villages.aa Gross domestic product 1999 GDP - (East Caribbean. bln) 2000 2001 2002 2003 - - - 1. the Sun. Citizens have access to Online / Digital Publishing The Internet was largely available in homes.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 18 46 5 69 Male Female 000 % 000 % 9 24 2 35 26 69 6 100 26 67 7 100 9 22 3 34 26 65 9 100 Source: CIA .The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 288 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The government is attempting to develop an offshore financial sector and is planning to construct an oil refinery on the eastern part of the island. and the Tropical Star – and political party journals. other media The main radio station is state-owned and has a government-appointed board.

00 Hoy Listin Diario El Siglo El Caribe El Nacional El Nuevo Diario El Sol La Noticia Circulation (000) Cover price (Dominican Republic.783 269 4. The government controlled one television station.668 33 62 5 100 Female 000 % 1.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies Total free dailies 486 466 365 605 240 365 605 240 365 -24. stations. 2006 Instituto Verificador de Circulationes (IVC) Argentina WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 289 . peso) (USD) 85 70 - 15 15 - 0.aa Gross domestic product (Dominican Republic.146. other media Effective January 2005.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 2.00 Source: WAN from public sources.507.778.90 0. WAN from public sources 3.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Publisher El Expreso El Dia Diario Libre Listin Diario Periodico El Dia Editorial AA Circulation (000) 150 110 105 Source: WAN from public sources. International media were allowed to operate freely.00 0.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. broadcasting a wide spectrum of political views. Performance of different types of newspapers There were 11 daily newspapers and a number of weekly newspapers.00 0.DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Media Market Description General economic situation In recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the largest employer in the economy due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The development prospects of the Dominican Republic improved with ratification of the Central AmericaDominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTADR) in September 2005.00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN assessment (free dailies). Source: CIA .184 33 62 5 100 Male 000 % 1.32 0.00 0.995 5.9 Source: CIA .2% in 2006. the advertising tax increased There were many privately owned radio and television from 6% to 10%. WAN estimate 7. Instituto Verificador de Circulationes (IVC) Argentina 0. 2006 Instituto Verificador de Circulationes (IVC) Argentina. peso.32 - Source: WAN from public sources 8.00 0. Thomson Gale.516 32 62 6 100 Source: CIA .11 -25.The World Factbook 3.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 13 9 4 7 12 8 4 7 11 8 3 7 11 8 3 7 11 8 3 7 -15.464 2.00 0.00 0. The US economy is the source of about 80% of export revenues.685 504 9. The inflation rate was estimated at 8. Online / Digital Publishing There were numerous online news outlets.902 235 4.The World Factbook 8.38 -11. Taxes Performance of newspapers vs.4 2.9 1.The World Factbook. US State Department.531 2. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 2.

operation. many of ability to report on developments.the result of high petroleum prices . and distributed to the districts by small buses. mob violence. since most Instability. USAID. there were 18 community radio stations.EAST TIMOR Media Market Description General economic situation The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure. because there are no production facilities in Timor and the gas is piped to Australia.4% in 2005. The Alkatiri government fell before the bill could be reintroduced. The development of oil and gas resources in nearby waters has begun to supplement government revenues ahead of schedule and above expectations . The three newspapers were back in circulation by the end of year. including at least one in each district. of the crisis in May and June 2006 resulted in the temporary closure of all national media outlets for The mob violence in May and June 2006 also forced an varying periods of time and constricted many journalists estimated 150. and the IDPs need for information. and threats during the height streets have no names let alone house numbers. three weeklies. All Timor-Leste Media Development Center (TLMDC) in frequently criticized the government and other political distributing three daily newspapers to IDP camps in Dili entities editorially. This is the standard operation of the three daily newspapers. In addition to the PBS radio station. US State Department.000 people to flee their homes. Online / Digital Publishing There are no legal or administrative restrictions on Internet access. training and equipment from international agencies and organisations. strengthening the infant civil administration.The World Factbook. public TV has a smaller coverage. The inflation rate was estimated at 1.but the technology-intensive industry does little to create jobs for the unemployed. USAID supported the several newspapers that appeared sporadically. newspaper companies receive no tax concessions. BBC. To effectively address There were three daily newspapers. WAN from public sources 290 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . which are locally owned and run. The violence in May and June 2006 caused the Taxes interruption of various business activities. At year’s end Public radio is said to reach some 90% of the officials asserted that the criminal defamation provisions population. as well as to the other 12 districts and their subdistricts. Media / Press Laws In 2004 the Court of Appeals decided that the executive order did not overturn the Indonesian statutes that define libel and defamation as criminal offenses and the Indonesian criminal defamation statutes still applied. them ending up in internally displaced people’s (IDP) camps across the capital while others fled to the districts Performance of different types of newspapers where they originally came from. Printing & Distribution Newspapers are hand-delivered in Dili. most post is delivered in person. including the Newspaper profits are taxed at 30%. and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. provided critical financing to help them resume Source: CIA . Community radio stations play a key role in the process of national reconstruction. other media included provisions criminalizing defamation and insults East Timor’s national public radio and TV services to a person’s “honor. without promulgating it. USAID rate. The postal system is very poor and unreliable in East Timor.” Following an intense national launched in May 2002. In December 2005 the cabinet passed a penal code that Performance of newspapers vs. replacing the interim debate. of the Indonesian penal code still apply. the president sent the law back to the cabinet broadcasting services operated by the UN. Many of them receive funding.

a 0.4 Source: IFS. ZenithOptimedia 7.00 0.c Advertising revenue - - - 4 80 12 7.aa All individuals 000 % 000 % 385 644 33 1. launched in February 1993.50 Online editions Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Dailies 2. current staff 50 employees. dollar. dollar) min Single copy 6. Tetum is the official language of East Timor WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 291 .37 0. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2000 GDP - 0.00 50.a Advertising sector Publisher % of display ad revenue Private companies Government NGOs Small businesses Number of titles Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 110 24 - 37.00 0.00 60 20 10 10 Top publishing companies (2002) Beran Timor Timor Tatoli Naroman Foundation Kdadalak Media Cooperative Source: Media sales departments Source: Media sales departments 8.37 0.a - Source: Internews Map: CIA – The World Factbook - 4 4 3 3 - -25.52 -96.50 100.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Suara Timor Lorosae Language 1 Indonesian / English / Tetum / Portuguese 2 Timor Post Indonesian / English / Tetum / Portuguese Jornal Nacional Diario - Publisher Circulation (000) Timor Tatoli 2 Timor Post Group - - - Source: WAN from public sources 1 The first daily of East Timor.b 2 Gross domestic product Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Source: Suco Survey 2001 2 2 2 2 - (USA. dollar.37 0. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies - 0.31 0.ca Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies - Female 000 % Source: CIA .00 - - 2004 - 0.00 50.11 0.00 -25.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2002) 8.70 0.30 - -14.90 0.90 0.00 -25.b Sales revenues (USA. 000) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 2.062 196 328 16 540 36 61 3 100 36 61 3 100 Male 189 316 17 522 36 61 3 100 Households (occupancy) (2001) Occupancy Households 000 % 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total 70 78 20 42 46 12 168 100 2 2 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 50.00 Source: Internews Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 3. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Source: WAN assessment - - (USA.00 Source: 2002-2004 Internews.02 - -64.50 0.60 0.d Cover prices (2002) (USA.40 0.00 50. including 25 reporters 2 The Indonesian name for the Indonesian language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally language of Indonesia).67 Source: Internews.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 7.00 Source: Internews 4. WAN from public sources 4.29 -66. dollar.The World Factbook 3.EAST TIMOR 4.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies - - 0.00 -25.

98 -34.000 2002 2.53 Source: Internews 292 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .200 11.200 Source: Internews Source: Internews 9.EAST TIMOR 9. dollar) 1999 2000 2001 - 1. Salaries (USA.100 11. dollar) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total salary costs (US$) - 10.000 - - (USA.a Employment 10.420 80.b 1998 Taxes (2006) Tax % Tax on profits – standard rate Tax concessions for newspaper companies 30 0 Source: WAN from public sources 600.500 2.43 12.c Newsprint costs Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total number of journalists Number of part-time journalistsTotal number of employees - 100 112 108 118 102 122 50 20 80 - Average per ton -50.

minimum updated information free dailies market thereby increasing the offerings.000 cases (mostly bi-monthly and from mobiles). stipulates that it is mandatory for media organizations to broadcast through Performance of different types of newspapers a news portal or a web page. allowing the central government greater access to oil windfalls and disbursing surplus retirement funds.ECUADOR Media Market Description General economic situation Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources. as well as via other media at A mass public transport service has been set up in the disposal of the public managed by the same Guayaquil allowing two new competitors to enter the organizations. print media in Quito and means to fight corruption. the government under Alfredo Palacio has reversed economic reforms that reduced Ecuador’s vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises. General Regulations within the Ley Orgánica de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública.Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices. Online / Digital Publishing Before and throughout 2006. Media / Press Laws The Ley Orgánica de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública (Law on Transparency and Access to Public Information). Under the administration of Lucio Gutierrez . Circulation The paid-for newspaper market in Ecuador is stable in terms of circulation. There is a significant increase in readership on Sundays as compared to weekdays. require media organizations ruled by the Law to set up web portals in compliance with technical specifications established by the Comisión Nacional de Conectividad. going from a general news output to a much more selective channel where users can choose what kind of information they wish to receive on their cellphones. Source: AEDEP. published in the Registro Oficial Suplemento 337 on May 18. Congress approved a series of structural reforms that provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Guayaquil have used a readership measurement system. KMR Chile. where each item of analysis is based on 4. fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Consequently. Dollarization stabilized the economy. the constant launching of collectables and promotional materials in general have boosted single copy sales of the brands that have launched them. implemented by Kantar Media Research. However. This Law was proposed by AEDEP Readership (Ecuadorian Newspaper Publishers’ Association) as Since January 2006. and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. published in the Registro Oficial 507 on January 19.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 293 . as specified by the Law. In 2006. not applicable to national newspaper market. 2004. Furthermore. This service has become popular among readers. VAT on newspaper advertising remained generally reflecting the overall world trends in the at 12%. which have accounted for 40% of the country’s export earnings and one-third of central government budget revenues in recent years.January 2003 to April 2005 . The Taxes results obtained from this measurement system are During 2006. the SMS service offer was also increased. circulation. In March 2000. Postal Issues Information is gathered in the two main cities in There are no discounts available for the mailing of Ecuador (Quito and Guayaquil) using the “Recent printed materials. 2005. newspapers in Ecuador put great effort into expanding their offer of digital editions thereby giving added value to readers. Reader” method. CIA .

a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.supervisory or clerical. El Comercio.196 4. and El Diario Manabí 2.848 9 13 18 20 40 100 Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. INEC Census 2001 3.319 5.136 2.708 6. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class . data cover El Universo.157 2 8 18 27 45 100 Male 000 % 138 457 1.768 32 62 5 100 Source: CIA .00 - - - - 3 1 1 2 1 1 - - Source: 2002-2005 WAN assessment. 2006 AEDEP 2006 Data cover El Comercio.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) Census 2001 2 8 18 27 45 100 3.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.37 - -6.211 361 6.67 - Source: 2002-2005 WAN assessment.152 3. Grupo Hoy.higher managerial. Grupo Hoy.67 -6. 2006 AEDEP: Kantar Media Research 2006 Estimates.00 100.b Population by social class and sex (2001) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 280 924 2.ECUADOR Households (occupancy) (2001) 2.37 47. and junior managerial.00 100.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence .676 2.018 2 8 18 27 45 100 Female 000 % 141 467 1.477 8.138 Source: Proyección Grupo El Comercio A = Upper middle class .086 1.390 681 13.548 33 62 5 100 Male 000 % 2.179 320 6780 34 62 5 100 Female 000 % 2.ca Occupancy 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 259 372 507 575 1.643 2. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .Skilled manual workers D = Working class . administrative or professional B = Middle class .00 100. El Universo. and El Diario Manabí 294 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .065 1.The World Factbook Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies International paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies National free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies - - - - 19 17 8 6 - - - - - - 3 15 2 - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 100.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies International paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies 95 Regional and local free dailies 95 Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies National free non-dailies - - - - 670 530 403 88 - - - - - 39 470 60 - - 100 100 - 120 120 - 150 150 - 140 140 107 53 53 54 54 47.281 4.470 12.762 6.intermediate managerial.

733 6. and El Diario Manabí Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Grupo El Comercio C.263 1.297 2.255 4.A.0 100 7.57 1. Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Source: AEDEP - Source: Ibope Media consumption Dailies Non-dailies Sundays - Source: IFS.com Page impressions 2.cometa. MARKET 5.com 4.1 17.a - Ad expenditure Source: Target Group Index .8 - - Source: Kantar Media Research Estimates.com.com. 000) 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 (United States of America. Grupo Hoy 4.155 1.ECUADOR 4.585 2. Infomedia WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 295 . dollar.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2004) 7.0 0.31 1.140 890 859 814 790 586 Source: Infomedia (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 2002 National newspapers - - - - Figures include the total newspaper market 2006 20 8.A.eluniverso.ec www.911 1.ac 48 50 46 % % daily reach of readership within age group less than 16 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 45.274 2.628 2. dollar. Diario HOY Diario HOY Diario HOY Diario HOY El Diario El Universo www.com.053 32.300 1.aa Gross domestic product (United States of America.890 1.ec www.058.401 Source: Kantar Media Research. Grupo Hoy.The World Factbook - - - - 12 2 2 - - El Universo El Comercio Extra Super Ultimas Noticias Metrohoy Expresso La Hora Metroquil El Telegrafo Diario Hoy Total circulation (000) Total revenue (United States of America.hoydomingo. dollar.2 2.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure (United States of America.b Sales revenues 6.862 2. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies International paid-for dailies - - - - 64.5 61. 000) Advertiser Expenditure (United States of America.083 3. data cover El Universo. ZenithOptimedia 7.A.c Figures refer to average monthly page views Type of newspaper sales 2002 2003 (%) 2004 - - - Single copy sales Home deliveries Office deliveries Bulk (sponsored) deliveries Free distribution Other Total 2005 2006 - 70. Grupo El Comercio C.siosi.0 2.397 2.a 0.258 1.elcomercio.A.167 7.059 2. dollar) min max Single copy Subscription - Gross domestic product per capita Source: Diario El Comercio. dollar.c 52.ab Cover prices (2006) 5..879 7. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GDP - 7.b (United States of America.com www.3 9.890 1. dollar.780 2.ec www.6 1.a Source: Projection Grupo El Comercio C.5 - - - - - - 0. Grupo El Comercio C.66 Source: IFS.com www.d - Source: CIA .eldiario.90 0. 000) Public institutions Vehicles Department stores Banks Universities Appliances Supermarkets Housing Trade guides Beer Importadora El Rosado Municipio de Quito General Motors Municipio de Guayaquil Lotería Nacional Banco de Guayaquil De Prati Conecel Megamaxi Otecel Carrera Autos 11.15 1. dollar. 000) 374 165 363 122 88 85 58 15 14 11 6 36. ZenithOptimedia All press 6.b Age GDP per capita Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached All adults Men Women 0.670 1.25 Source: AEDEP Age structure of readership (2006) 5.xona.242 2.25 0.925 Source: Audited by Certifica.com.61 Ad spend as a % of GDP 7.ec www.0 - 1999 2000 (%) 2001 2002 2003 - 1.65 (United States of America.45 8 25 23 22 14 7 1 100 Source: TGI Target Group Index (Quito+Guayaquil) All press 33 49 49 54 49 46 30 - 32.hoy.ec www.

200 8.140 890 859 814 790 586 Source: Ibope 1 8.258 1. Ferré Primera Hora . Grupo HOY.A.Narciso “Pete” Currás La Semana . Grupo Hoy.35 0.35 0. data cover Grupo El Comercio.130 - Source: Grupo El Comercio.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total number of journalists Number of part-time journalists Total number of employees - - - - 580 40 2.Gerardo Angulo Caribbean Business .6 x 31. 2002 Launched July 1.ECUADOR Top owners (2005) Top owners (2004) Owners Owners 1 Revenue (United States of America.25 0.Gaspar Roca San Juan Star . dollar) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats - - - - 22 9 12 1 - Average per ton - - - - 649 Source: Grupo El Comercio - Source: Grupo EL Comercio.30 0.3 25.024 1. El Universo.a Employment 10.6 x 31.70 cm x 52. KMR .Antonio L.a Newsprint costs (United States of America.000 560 768 564 - 6.bb Top free dailies (2005) Title Language Publisher MetroHoy 1 Metroquil 2 Spanish Spanish Metrohoy (Edimpres S.560 6.50 cm Tabloid Berliner Tabloid 5.Fam.Manuel Casiano La Estrella de PR .c 10. El Diario 296 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Ferré El Vocero .90 - Format Full page ad rate Mono Colour usual max usual max (United States of America. Diario El Universo. Martínez Pérez La Perla .890 1. 2006 9.000 800 1. dollar) 113 112 50 40 36 20 229 95 35 100 Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish Spanish 0. Circulation (000) Format 80 60 25. Noguera Source: ZenithOptimedia Refers to newspaper owners Importadora El Rosado Municipio de Quito General Motors Municipio de Guayaquil Lotería Nacional Banco de Guayaquil De Prati Conecel Megamaxi Otecel Carrera Autos 2. Hoy. Grupo Hoy 1 2 Launched July 1.840 10.A.040 7. Grupo El Comercio.Antonio L.) Publicaciones Quil S. dollar) Broadsheet Broadsheet 29.3 Source: AEDEP.862 2. 000) El Nuevo Dia .263 1.45 0.000 - Single copy sales Home deliveries - 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - - 6 14 Source: Grupo El Comercio Source: AEDEP Data relevant to national paid-for dailies Estimate as of December 2006. dollar.ba Newspapers Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Diario El Universo El Comercio HOY Ultimas Noticias Líderes El Diario Language Circulation Readership 1 Cover price (000) (000) usual max (United States of America.Juan J.628 2. and El Diario 10. El Universo.readership 1 August-November 2006 8.

is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Source: Grupo El Comercio 14.a Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Advertising Newsprint Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax concessions for newspaper companies 12 Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. and in particular.b Cross-media ownership restrictions Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Commercial TV licence Newspapers Regional TV Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National TV Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Satellite TV Broadcasters Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Local Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed National Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Foreign Investors Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Owners WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 297 . Ownership laws and rules Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Discount rate (%) Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Source: AEDEP Source: AEDEP 15. of domestic daily newspapers? No Source: SRI 13.ECUADOR 12. Taxes (2006) 15.a Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No 0 12 0 12 25 25 10 Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. the majority of shares.

Under the law.. the public interest. which generally followed the government including a limit of 10 percent ownership by any line. Online / Digital Publishing The government blocked access to some sites and monitored the Internet. or editions in the interest of public order.” director of Al Masry Al Youm and adds: “It is about making editorial propaganda of advertisers and anti. and the president appointed their top editors.000 to over 30. or Al Jazeera “because Egyptian audiences prefer them”. operated without direct government control. Circulation Newspaper circulation in Egypt has been going down in the last years due to TV competition and their lack of credibility. “because of its series and special programs during this The amended law also preserved existing articles which time of the year. spread horror. During the year. Dream foreign leaders or the president.” concludes Hisham Information is empowered only to ban particular issues Qassem. In end.. got a boost from a On July 10. increasingly blocked secular sites as well. The Ministry 298 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . launched in 2004 with circulation of 500 copies. the government continued to charge journalists Patriot Today). and GDP grew about 5% per year in 2005-06. corporate bodies. Afaq Arabiya remained closed at year’s against malicious and unsubstantiated reporting. with libel.EGYPT Media Market Description General economic situation In 2005. While there is so specific legislation regarding blocking of Web sites. on 11 July. sentences of high fines or jail for journalists who criticize The daily chose satellite channels like Rotana. The Penal Code stipulates fines or Arabiya. when it has its biggest audience. The stock market boomed. The Ministry of press by allowing these practices. Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif reduced personal and corporate tax rates. and foreign heads of state. the government. Press Law.” says Ramy Botros. which has previously blocked Islamist Web sites. newspapers. a newspaper published by the Ahrar Party imprisonment for criticism of the president.000 copies. opposition party newspapers have published articles critical of the president and foreign The ruling National Democratic Part (NDP) launched heads of state without being charged or harassed. individual. Two private satellite stations. reduced energy subsidies. and Performance of different types of newspapers political parties. according to the newspaper’s CEO Hisham New law stipulates up to five years in prison for any Qassem. Performance of newspapers vs.The Emergency Law authorizes censorship for public propaganda of competitors. The percentage of citizens who received satellite television broadcasts has grown steadily. the authorities may force Internet service providers to block sites on public safety or national security grounds. recent years. Al-Mihwar and Dream TV. and privatized several enterprises..” “They have destroyed the safety and national security. Ownership The constitution restricts ownership of newspapers to public or private legal entities. however.5% in 2006. Newspaper launches / closures The government closed at least one newspaper during Media / Press Laws the year.. sales and marketing to . this limit appeared to have been enforced unevenly. other media The government controlled and censored the stateowned broadcast media. 2006 the daily Al Watani Al Yom (The however. and Publications Law Higher Press Council suspended publication of Afaq govern press issues. TV.” allow for detention of “whoever affronts the president of the republic” as well as journalists whose work might “Most of the Egyptian marketing is done by editors and “disturb public security. On March 8. the People’s Assembly amended sections of TV promotion in 2006. although the government has a financial stake in both. The government did not block reception of foreign channels via satellite. The campaign took the paper the penal code governing the press by adding minimum within two months from 7. The independent daily Al Masry Al Youm. or cause harm journalists. the government-controlled The Penal Code. The inflation rate was estimated at 6. due to a dispute among the newspaper’s and Publication Laws ostensibly provide protection board members. members of which served as a mouthpiece for the Muslim the government. There were numerous restrictions on The government owned stock in the three largest daily legal entities that sought to establish newspapers. The Ministry of Information owned and operated all ground-based domestic television and radio stations. and then went to the Egyptian TV in Ramadan journalist convicted of “vilifying” a foreign head of state. The Press Brotherhood. an editor-in-chief found to be negligent could be considered criminally responsible for Advertising libel contained in any portion of the newspaper..

pound.993 1. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.336 361 17 5 8. the public prosecutor may issue a temporary ban on the publication of news related to national security.100) in advertising revenue.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Egypt.607 3.721 49.081 4 22 135 164 13 14 3 4 1.786 33 63 4 100 Female 000 % 12.439 Source: ZenithOptimedia 1 Including Transport Source: CIA .67 7.543 78.033 39. the daily Al Masry-Al Youm could finally afford to purchase its own printing press.53 0.842.The World Factbook. pound.103 1510 39. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 2006 1.909.63 -3.438 1. International Journalists Network.590 3.69 Source: WAN from public sources 3.195 1.623 3.5 Source: CIA . The length of the ban is based on the length of time required for the prosecution to prepare its case.000 2. including those of the opposition parties.773 137 129 184 220 722 654 817 1. ZenithOptimedia 7.173 25.220 574 4.APN Newsletter. In 2006.794 5.200 3.548 24.900 273 15 3 4.261 4. Only the cabinet can place a long term ban on a foreign publication.52 2.635 4.61 0.796 3.606 2.700 -15.341 265 1.EGYPT of Interior has the authority to stop specific issues of foreign newspapers from entering the country on the grounds of protecting public order.203 1.2 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.ab Gross domestic product per capita 2002 GDP per capita (Egypt.The World Factbook 7.354 5. a record for an independent newspaper.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 3.970.237 370 2.The World Factbook 3.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 12 12 13 13 14 16.074 1.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Egypt.The World Factbook 7.887 33 63 4 100 Male 000 % 13. Under the law.921 1.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 25. Printing & Distribution The government controlled the printing and distribution of newspapers.57 Source: WAN assessment WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 299 . CIA . WAN from public sources 7.0 1. pound.81 Source: CIA .ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Source: IFS.170 452 18 5 10.349 285 16 4 6.101 3 63 5 100 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor 1 Others Total 1.255 2.176 459 3.058 1.0 1.800 2.622 1. Al Youm no longer needs to rely on government-run presses that would regularly stop working when the paper had to go to print. due to more than one million Egyptian pounds (about USD174. WAN .45 0.6 24.879 2. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 - - - 25.51 0.900 2. US State Department.

200 4. principally in Arabic countries 2 300 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .g Top newspaper advertisers (2003) Advertiser Mobinil Goldi Neslac Nat’l Bank Egypt Vodafone Ring Egyptair Telecom Egypt Metro Stores Toshiba Expenditure (Egypt.499 3.488 3.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Al-Ahram (Pyramids) 1 Al-Gomhuriya (The Republic) Al-Akhbar (The News) Al Alam Al Youm Al Masry Al Youm (The Egyptian Today) 3 Al-Messa Al-Ahali Al-Wafd Nahda Misr Rose El Yossef Al-Ahrar Al Watani Al Yom (The Patriot Today) 2 The Egyptian Gazette Progrés Egyptien Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic Arabic English French Al Ahram Foundation Dar al Tahrir for Printing & Publishing Dar Akhbar Al Yom Al Masry Foundation for Press & Printing Dar al Tahrir for Printing & Publishing Al-Wafd Party Good News 4me International Rose El Yossef Foundation Al-Wafd Party National Democratic Party (NDC) Dar al Tahrir for Printing & Publishing - Circulation (000) 1.080 Source: Pan-Arab Research Center 8.594 3.005 3. pound.379 3.EGYPT 7.921 3.868 3. 000) 12.924 4.100 4 800 500 110 60 40 - Source: WAN from public sources 1 The leading newspaper in the Arab world Launched in 2006 3 Launched in 2004 4 A substantial part of circulation is sold abroad.

his family. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 301 . and fishing are also major components of GDP. a publication of the Ministry of Information. Growth remained strong in 2006. Radio Asonga.EQUATORIAL GUINEA Media Market Description General economic situation The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Satellite reception increasingly is available. such as some sessions of parliament and national conferences. The inflaton rate was estimated at 5. Online / Digital Publishing Internet had replaced broadcast media as the primary way opposition views were expressed and disseminated. The government owns and operates the station Radio Malabo. is broadcast by cable only in Bata. Horizontes. is very expensive. which appears approximately twice a month. Source: CIA . El Correo.The World Factbook. Ecos News kiosks did not exist. The president's son. voices of dissent are broadcast.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 225 295 20 540 Male 42 55 4 100 Female 000 % 000 % 113 142 9 264 43 54 3 100 112 153 11 276 41 55 4 100 Source: CIA .3 Source: CIA . Forestry. La Opinion. officially known as National Radio of Equatorial Guinea. Television Asonga.” The law authorizes government censorship of all publications. affiliated with religious congregations. farming. El Correo Guineo Ecuatoriano. manganese. The government-controlled national television station broadcasts some government activities live.2% in 2006. Printing & Distribution There is no printing press in the country and newspapers Performance of different types of newspapers are published in the form of photocopies.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies - - 1 1 1 - 0. iron ore. involvement were published irregularly (Ebano. led by oil. uranium. and Culture. In some cases. Criticism of the president. owns the only private radio station.The World Factbook 3. Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue. a bi-monthly newspaper published by the Gaceta group. and Ebano. Internet use grew. US State Department 2. La Gaceta. Foreign cable television is available and provides news in French. Seven periodicals with varying degrees of government imported from Cameroon. and English. Information. Paper. other media Radio is the most important and influential medium of mass communication. Tourism. and also one monthly. Subsistence farming predominates. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Map: CIA – The World Factbook GDP - - - - 13.aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC. and the only bookstores were de Mongomo). Realite. Performance of newspapers vs. a Malabo-based monthly magazine printed in International newspapers or news magazines could not Spain and published by an employee of the Ministry of be sold or distributed without government permission. Bantu Africa. or the security forces was considered “attacks against the nation. Some remote areas including smaller islands were still lacking in telephone service. Media / Press Laws Starting a new publication was governed by a very complicated and ambiguous law. and alluvial gold. also operated by the president's son. La Gaceta. further limiting Internet use. but cost was prohibitive for most citizens.686.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. Spanish.

other media were able to access the Internet through Internet cafes In 2001. bln) 2002 2003 2004 - - 45. including one radio there was no private media in the country. and government controlled all media. Online / Digital Publishing All Internet service providers were required to use government-controlled Internet infrastructure to provide service. holding down growth in 2002-06. nakfa. the only source of news for Media / Press Laws Eritreans has been the government press and the few The law does not allow private ownership of broadcast foreign radio stations that can be received. Since then. In urban areas.ERITREA Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture. Erratic rainfall and the delayed demobilization of agriculturalists from the military kept cereal production well below normal. There were three newspapers and two magazines. newspapers to close and imprisoned the leading journalists. and all newspapers.386 44 52 3 100 1.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 302 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . unemployment.244 82 2.047 1. The Source: CIA .The media or foreign influence or ownership of media. the English weekly Arabic Eritrea Profile. individuals Performance of newspapers vs.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies - - 3 3 3 - 0. published three days a week. with 80% of the populaion involved in farming and herding. government's three newspapers are Hadas Eritrea. one television station.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 2. US State Department.107 2. as well as the willingness to open its economy to private enterprise. The inflation rate was estimated at 14% in 2006. and low skills. The press law forbids reprinting of articles from banned Performance of different types of newspapers publications.512 168 4.401 44 53 4 100 Source: CIA . The government owned a significant percentage of the three Internet service providers. and the weekly youth paper Tirigta.The World Factbook.5 2005 64.787 Male 44 52 4 100 Female 000 % 000 % 1060 1. The economic future of Eritrea depends upon its ability to master social problems such as illiteracy.The World Factbook 3. WAN from public sources 2.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP - (Eritrea. There were reports that the government monitored Internet communications. station.8 Source: CIA . the government forced all the privately-owned for a fee or through an at-home service provider.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7.268 86 2.

Oma Saar.00 -46. Circulation Subscription sales are growing. the government provided a 15 million kroon postal subsidy for rural distribution. was launched in Taxes 2006.09 0. Ownership The first media group. 2007 it decreased again to 22%.00 0.00 0. The Central Bank of Estonia estimates further 8-9% annual growth rates to continue in 2007-2010. media business income grew even faster. while single copy sales are State Support stable or decreasing slightly. GDP grew by 11. aiming at a further decrease to 18%.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 000 % 202 210 188 182 188 149 225 1.33 0. No big newspaper launches are expected in the In 2006.00 -62. in near future.00 0.00 0.00 8 8 7 7 3 3 2 2 2 2 -75.96 -26.00 0. Ekspress Grupp.00 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Map: CIA – The World Factbook Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies 12 12 6 6 11 11 6 5 11 11 6 5 12 11 6 5 13 12 6 6 8.344 104 107 95 88 87 64 75 619 17 18 15 14 14 10 12 100 15 16 14 13 14 11 17 100 Male Female 000 % 98 103 93 94 101 85 151 725 14 14 13 13 14 12 20 100 Source: Statistical Office of Estonia 3.00 Source: EALL WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 303 . adding comments and other materials to the web content. went public by launching its shares at the stock exchange. Newspaper launches / closures A new regional newspaper.00 -75.4%.00 58 50 27 23 54 47 24 23 50 47 25 22 1 1 29 27 10 17 1 1 29 27 10 17 -50. however. Source: EALL. Statistical Office of Estonia 2.00 0.09 0. In 2006. printing and other services rose fast.ESTONIA Commentary General economic situation In 2006.00 8.00 0.00 0.33 9. Online / Digital Publishing Large newspapers launched online sites. Prices of newsprint. the income tax decreased from 24% to 23%.00 20. Printing & Distribution Competition between the state-owned Estonian Post and the private-owned Express Post has increased.

0 6.3 69. kroon.4 18.63 -0.aa Gross domestic product 2002 (Estonia.5 Source: 2002-2004 IFS.67 6. 2005-2006 Statistical Office of Estonia Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions Postal deliveries Total 11 29 GDP Source: EALL 292 237 Online editions Dailies Non-dailies Sales revenues 240 - - Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 6.0 84.0 -18.b Total average circulation per issue 4.29 -11.0 Total paid-for non-dailies 21.29 12.0 126.0 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total non-dailies 25.70 0.maaleht.00 10.c Radio 1 Television 2 (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 Source: TNS Emor TV-Meter Survey.51 Newspaper reach (2006) 5.0 17.0 20. NRS Source: EALL 5.9 68.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually 2002 (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 70.47 38.27 1.0 138.69 0.350 http://www.sloleht.0 9.3 113.89 - -23.0 70.24 14.33 7.44 -67.0 14. NRS % % daily reach of readership within age group 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-74 Total 8.40 -13.2 100 59.b Total paid-for dailies 235 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 113 National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies - Population aged 18-74 1 Recorded music included 2 Video included (Estonia.0 free non-dailies 70.7 20.50 11.ee/ 1.5 67.0 2.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.0 2. ZenithOptimedia 304 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .81 -39.00 10.53 - -27.09 138 138 88 88 37 37 42 42 -67.c 4.d Cover prices (2006) Total dailies 255 Total paid-for dailies 255 National paid-for dailies 196 Regional and local 59 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total non-dailies 470 Total paid-for non-dailies341 National paid-for non-dailies273 Regional and local 68 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 129 Regional and local 129 free non-dailies 251 251 199 52 257 257 200 57 298 256 205 51 334 276 224 52 30.ee/ 80 Page impressions (000) Source: EALL 7.b Age All adults Men Women Main household shopper 68.0 205.0 13. 2005-2006 Statistical Office of Estonia 7.5 29.0 National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 4.0 22.0 90.0 2.0 7.11 7.9 71.ap3.0 9.10 1.0 10.20 -45.74 4.aspx 345 http://www.5 65.45 0.12 -26.00 -45.33 33.00 6.10 38. kroon) min max (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Single copy 2.b Media consumption 2002 2003 (%) 2004 - - 22 78 100 7.a 286 247 39 342 305 37 248 217 31 5. kroon.57 29.1 18.21 -18.0 7.0 9.98 8.8 17.1 62. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4.49 -28.6 73. bln) 2003 2004 2005 2006 117.0 61.0 57.3 152.0 12.ee/ 150 http://www.00 -42.60 -9.a (%) Reached (Estonia. ZenithOptimedia.30 17.5 Source: TNS EMOR.44 13.9 17.0 19.0 Total paid-for dailies 70.ab 2005 2006 35 65 100 40 60 100 Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita 2002 (Estonia.0 71.00 3.postimees.06 2.81 9.48 2.2 8.0 153.09 3.0 Source: 2002-2004 IFS.0 - 71.33 - 33.08 7. TNS Emor Radio Diary Survey Source: EALL 4.epl.0 16.51 13.2 - Source: TNS Emor.45 Source: EALL Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Eesti Päevaleht/AS Eesti Päevaleht Postimees/AS Postimees Ärip‰ev/ Äripäeva Kirjastuse AS SL Ohtuleht/ AS SL Ohtuleht Maaleht/ AS Maaleht http://www. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 87.82 -37.2 17.2 95.ESTONIA 3.71 0. ZenithOptimedia.0 69.85 -16. kroon.86 12.0 7.37 7.72 Source: IFS.2 10.5 78.0 75.96 - 192 65 - - - - 474 336 266 70 317 229 177 52 42 42 246 209 154 55 58 58 250 208 158 50 -46.5 65.14 - 7.ee/Default.0 - 23.0 12.0 Regional and local 4.22 115 - 84 65 19 112 85 27 86 69 17 -23.20 2.0 14.90 Source: EALL Age structure of readership (2006) 5.70 0.0 8.5 104.56 -3.04 Source: EALL 303 235 2006 282 244 10 30 11 30 12 29 12 30 9.ee/ 600 http://www.

380 3.00 5.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Cover price Format (000) (Estonia.904 234.B.78 91.E.00 10.0 Total paid-for dailies 224.20 - Source: A.198 28.400 17.320 18. kroon.900 19.44 23.00 0.00 19.0 280.019 132.0 National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 13.300 16.80 15.557 19. 000) 84 65 30 48 34 15 45 16 99 19 192.0 134.900 32. kroon.51 0.32 70. excludes production costs and agency commission.0 2002 Daily newspapers only 8.60 0.EALL Includes classified and inserts.0 41.e Contribution of display.0 23.0 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total non-dailies 128.0 3. ZenithOptimedia After discounts.0 17.42 Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid 57.43 22.858 2.c (Estonia.101 Source: TNS Emor Advertising Expenditure Survey.27 1.000 28.00 6. kroon.500 16.0 401.400 13.2 - - - Source: TNS Emor .0 144.6 378.J. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 252.0 289. after discounts of 10%-20% 1 In colour Total (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 - - 11.0 - 330. excludes agency commission 7.9 - 27.937 6.85 1.320 22.614 1.0 Total online newspapers 3.100 AS Postimees AS SL Ohtuleht Äripäeva Kirjastuse AS Eesti Ekspressi Kirjastuse AS AS Eesti Päevaleht Telereklaami OU AS Maaleht AS Pärnu Postimees AS Linnaleht AS Moles Source: EALL Including total free dailies and total free non-dailies 8.300 138.90 21.082 57. excludes production costs.000 107.4 14. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Outdoor Internet Total 476 368 108 195 79 44 20 814 510 402 108 232 81 57 28 908 556 638 441 504 115 134 254 310 87 90 66 67 29 40 992 1.29 68.0 252./B.820 39.70 14.ESTONIA 7.25 0.00 0.0 161.198 70.0 244.00 3.0 105.00 3. kroon) (USD) Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Estonia.0 36.51 0.885 50.ba Advertising expenditure per medium 7.68 0.745 23.0 Total paid-for non-dailies 115.145 730 822 919 1.3 16.0 2.71 16.820 39.363 1.0 110.6 1 147. classified.D. includes classified.V.00 6.55 13.a Top publishing companies (2006) Publisher Total circulation (000) Total revenue (Estonia.42 Tabloid 2.900 14.0 330.0 131.000 47.0 - 79.0 280.000 7.895 122.500 Estonian OU Saaremaa Raadio 8 5.00 15.400 12.75 - 21.011 580 650 730 803 150 172 189 208 375 460 530 610 105 120 138 150 83 100 120 140 70 112 151 190 1. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Display Classified Inserts 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 76 16 8 73 15 12 82 10 8 78 17 5 84.d Advertising volume sold (Estonia.000 40.25 0.8 50.U Advertising revenues Total dailies 224.0 327.000 Source: EALL 7. kroon) SL Ohtuleht Postimees Eesti Päevaleht Äripäev Postimees vene keeles Pärnu Postimees Sakala Vesti Dnja Pohjarannik / Severnoje Poberezhje Meie Maa Estonian Estonian Estonian Estonian Russian Estonian Estonian Russian Estonian/Russian AS SL Ohtuleht AS Postimees AS Eesti Päevaleht Äripäeva Kirjastuse AS AS Postimees AS Pärnu Postimees Sakala Kirjastuse AS Jüri Vilmsi Sihtkapital SA AS PR Pöhjarannik 65 65 34 24 19 16 11 10 8 8.000 Source: EALL WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 305 .

b Salaries (Estonia.00 2.00 1.a Employment 12. The national readership survey is a continuous survey in the course of which 500 Estonian residents aged 15-74 are interviewed every month. kroon. kroon) 2000 2001 2002 2003 1.00 2. kroon.00 2.44 2.ESTONIA 8.45 2.940 38. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists 496 Total number of employees 811 503 829 691 795 894 1.700 8.37 8.88 Source: EALL Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax concessions for newspaper companies 18 5 5 18 18 18 18 34 34 0 Source: Estonian Tax and Customs Board 10.000 7.00 2.650 8.b Single copy Subscription (Estonia. 11.00 Total amount Newsprint costs 1999 Average per ton - 2003 8.86 Source: EALL 9. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total salary costs 114 144 247 259 282 147.c Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No 2.bb Are there any direct subsidies? Yes 13.ba 13.940 Source: EALL 1 Estonian edition 38.a Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other Research Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Source: EALL Readership is measured by TNS Emor Methodology Emor carries out the national readership survey once a month in the course of the Emor bimonthly CAPI-bus survey. Direct subsidies Average distribution costs per copy 1999 10.54 3. Media usage and background data are gathered by using the computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) method.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids 11 1 11 10 11 41 42 41 42 42 43 281.00 2. kroon) 2000 2001 2002 26 Source: EALL 14. kroon) 58 1 Tabloid 38.87 12.402 80. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 - (Estonia. 306 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .173 1.24 72.000 28 28 28 29 11.91 Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Distribution costs as a % of average cover price 2000 2001 (%) 2002 2003 2004 30 15 20 28 26 - - - 32 29 - Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries 10.38 Source: EALL 10.82 290.000.57 Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of (Estonia.363 1.000 9.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Linnaleht Estonian / Russian AS Linnaleht Format (000) (000) Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Estonia. Russian 20.00 2.

or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 307 . the majority of shares.ESTONIA 15. and in particular. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership.

(9) Woyin Also in August. Walta Information Ababa. several “blogs” (Internet The government operated the sole television station and journals) and media watchdog groups alleged that the tightly controlled news broadcasts.5% in 2006.72%). (1. accounting for half of GDP. Tigrinya (1) and Arabic (1). (4) Addis Admas (1. and the second most common language is English (14).000. (8) Addis Zemen daily (0. (7) Minilik to begin radio broadcasts by launching six FM stations.3%). Most papers were weeklies.14%). Normal weather patterns helped argiculture and GDP growth recover in 2004-06. the Kori Community Radio. Following the crackdown. Circulation The newspaper sector is limited by the country’s low literacy rates. both of which mainly serve the state media. 308 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .5% reach of adult population).ETHIOPIA Media Market Description General economic situation The poverty-stricken economy of Ethiopia is based on agriculture. Online / Digital Publishing Beginning in mid-May 2006. according to the Ministry of Information. eight newspapers were banned after their publishers and editors-in-chief were arrested. There are also several bi-lingual The Minister of Information states that of the 56 newspapers." Centre. and a private local one. other media On February 10.08%). (8).98). (6) Asmat (1. publishing in both Amharic and English newspapers currently being published. radio station. Performance of newspapers vs.4%). political parties (3) and NGOs (1). such as Reuters and AFP. but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. In 2006. The law The majority of the newspapers are in the Amharic also prohibits foreign ownership. 60% of exports. there were 56 newspapers and 12 magazines. (3) Abiotawi Democracy (2. and there is one newspaper that publishes in government-owned and 32 are privately-owned. The Amharic language weekly Dagim Wonchif went out of business. The private media do not have arrangements increasingly popular for communicating with family and with these news agencies to provide them with the friends overseas. only approximately 40. Six other newspapers ceased publication directly as a result of the Only a few of the newspapers.000 copies. Ownership with only three dailies. Ethiopian News corroborated by members of the general public in Addis Agency. operating in the country. lived in Addis Ababa. The other five news agencies Ababa in late 2004 was estimated at 100. associations (6). six are (5).000 copies of the six remaining private Amharic language political papers were in circulation. Zami Public Connections and Tensae Fine Arts. (5) In August the Southern Regional State announced plans Ethiop (1. ostensibly due to problems encountered in obtaining newsprint. EBA issued a license for a community (0. Newspaper launches / closures In 2006. and most titles are said to have small print runs of only about 3. were: (1) Netsanet (2.91%). The Ethiopian Broadcasting Agency (EBA) said it had selected the two stations. (2) Oromiya (2. The inflation rate was estimated at 10. the government issued the first broadcasting licenses allowing two private radio stations to operate in the country. such as The Reporter (with Amharic and English editions. from among 12 contenders on the basis of their financial status and proposed program content. owned by the Media Communication Centre) and Addis Admass (in Amharic) are backed by strong private investment. this was an indication of the relative lack of telecommunications infrastructure Performance of different types of newspapers outside of the capital. By year’s end neither of the two stations was operational. The broadcasting law prohibits political and religious organizations from owning broadcast stations. are all Approximately 94 percent of the country’s Internet users international. bi-weeklies and monthlies. Walta Information Centre is owned by the ruling party Voice-over-Internet-Protocol technology also became (EPRDF). The number of Internet users in Addis content they require. English and French. 2006. There are also newspapers remaining papers are owned by religious organisations written in Oromifa (2). Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $156 million in 2002. the ten most read newspapers.000. language (33). government had begun blocking various websites that displayed content critical of the government. The closed papers had a combined total weekly circulation of approximately 400.85%). This was There is a state-owned news agency.4%). and 80% of total employment. Readership In 2006. government’s crackdown or the government-owned printing presses refusal to print the papers. and (10) Ethiosport (0. in the Southern Regional State. The Amharic.

BBC World Service Trust . On March 23. 2004-2005 WAN estimate. however.077 1.African Media Development Initiative.1 Source: CIA . and journalists charged with treason and attempting to subvert the constitution. charges which carry maximum penalties of life in prison or the death penalty. 2003 WAN from public sources.047 74.ba 2. and attempts to subvert the constitution.The World Factbook.ETHIOPIA Media / Press Laws The Ministry of Information required that newspapers maintain a bank balance of USD1.281 20.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 309 .50 -25.00 -11.2 646.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers 81 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies - 81 - 70 64 4 60 56 3 3 53 -30.999 929 37. Authorities also required permanent residency for publishers to establish and operate a newspaper. State Support All official media received government subsidies. 2006 BBC World Service Trust . Police had the authority to shut down any printing press without a court order but during the year did not exercise that power. Along with opposition party members. members of civil society.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 32.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Ethiopia.African Media Development Initiative 3. Printing & Distribution The majority of private newspapers as well as government newspapers printed their publications on government owned presses. the federal high court dropped the charges of treason and genocide against the VOA journalists and 13 others.302 44 54 2 100 Female 000 % 16.67 Source: 2002.African Media Development Initiative 3.1 2006 529. Local journalists complained of constant government harassment as well as more subtle forms of censorship. including pressure on printers not to print the newspapers.374 19.150 (10.476 43 54 3 100 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Addis Zemen The Ethiopian Herald Monitor Amharic English English Ethiopian Press Agency Ethiopian Press Agency Private Circulation (000) 50 40 2 Source: BC World Service Trust .16 Source: WAN estimate 7.86 - -12.000 birr) when annually registering for a publishing license. This sum effectively precluded some smaller publications from registering. The government continued to use statutory provisions on the publication of false information.118 37. In November 2005 five VOA journalists were included in a group of CUD leaders. The press law requires all publishers to provide free copies of their publications to the Ministry of Information on the day of publication. 16 journalists were charged with treason. WAN from public sources Source: CIA . bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 416.778 44 54 3 100 Male 000 % 16.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 8. the official media were legally autonomous and responsible for their own management and partial revenue generation. US State Department.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies - - - 95 92 - -3. Source: CIA . incitement of ethnic hatred and libel to justify the arrest and detention of journalists.655 40.076 2. genocide. following pressure from foreign governments. birr.

a Age All individuals 000 % Total 3 100 Source: CIA . Another large source of income is interest paid on money the government has in the bank. WAN from public sources Population by age and sex (2006) 2.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 1 1 1 1 1 0.FALKLAND ISLANDS Media Market Description General economic situation Today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. Performance of newspapers vs.00 0. Source: CIA . When the company collapsed.The World Factbook. The British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost. It has three full-time staff members and a number of freelance contributors.6% in 1998. BBC.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 310 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . the Seamount Fishing Company bought the paper. pound. the government took over the funding of the paper.aa Gross domestic product 1998 GDP - (United Kingdom. Performance of different types of newspapers The Penguin News was started in 1979 as a monthly newspaper. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. In the 1980s. mln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 - - - 38.3 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 3. Nowadays. The inflation rate was estimated at 3.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. other media Coverage of local affairs is provided by a radio station and by the territory's sole weekly newspaper. the Penguin News is published weekly in A4 black-and-white format.

00 0. The Faroe Islands has four other newspapers.The World Factbook. WAN from public sources 3.00 0. Performance of newspapers vs.00 0. Oyggjatidindi is published twice weekly.00 0. a weekly newspaper.00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. The inflation rate was estimated at 5. In a national survey.00 0.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.00 0. the Faroese have a standard of living not far below the Danes and other Scandinavians. SvF is the national television company in the Faroe Islands and the only station based on the islands broadcasting in Faroese. and all rely on the government subsidies and private contributions. The Faroe Islands supports 13 FM radio stations for approximately 26. Norolysio appears once a week.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % Male 000 % 5 16 3 24 21 67 13 100 Female 000 % Language Dimmalaetting 1 Sosialurin 2 Danish / Faroese Faroese 10 31 7 48 21 65 15 100 5 15 4 24 21 63 17 100 Circulation (000) Format 10 7 Broadsheet - Source: WAN from public sources 1 0-14 15-64 65 + Total Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title 2 The oldest newspaper on the islands. but in 2006 the Islands Social Democratic Party sold the newspaper Source: CIA .1% in 1999. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy (about 15% of GDP) from Denmark.000 radios and three television Vikubladid.00 0.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 311 . is the only newspaper stations broadcasting to about 15.00 0. All four are affiliated with political parties. dating back to 1878 Established in 1927. Thomson Gale. There are two Internet service providers.The World Factbook 8. other media National radio and TV services are publicly-funded. Source: CIA .ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. originally it was a political newspaper associated with Faroese social democrats. BBC.aa Gross domestic product 1997 GDP - (Danish krone.3 Source: CIA .00 0.00 0. widely read on the Islands. that is free. bln) 1998 1999 2000 - - - 2001 8. it came out as the most Neither radio nor television broadcasting runs 24 hours. Dagbladid is published three times a week. and FF/FA-bladid is published fortnightly. Performance of different types of newspapers There are two national dailies in the Faroe Islands.00 0.00 0.FAROE ISLANDS Media Market Description General economic situation Total dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable and the present fishing efforts appear in excess of what is a sustainable level of fishing in the long term.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 2 5 4 1 2 5 4 1 2 5 4 1 2 5 4 1 2 5 4 1 0.000 televisions.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 17 National paid-for dailies 17 Total paid-for non-dailies 4 17 17 4 17 17 4 17 17 4 17 17 4 0.

the remainder was privately held. fined. A trust operating on behalf of the provincial councils owned 51 percent of Fiji One.The Fiji Times. However. Performance of different types of newspapers The government of the deposed Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase also had shares in two daily newspapers.” Media / Press Laws Legislation pertaining to the press is contained in the Newspaper Registration Act and Press Correction Act. US State Department. a false or distorted article was published. A newspaper refusing to publish the minister’s correction can be sued in court and. closed its doors after broadcasts that featured deposed Prime Minister Qarase. remittances from Fijans working abroad. The sugar produced in Fiji has special access to European Union markets. imprisoned for six months. “We’re coming to get you. Performance of newspapers vs. The tourism industry in Fiji was damaged by the 2006 coup and is facing an uncertain recovery time. Under these acts all newspapers must register with the government before they can publish.000 tourists annually . if found guilty. would not tolerate the newspaper publishing any views that opposed those of the Army.The World Factbook. likely to create or foster public alarm. or result in “detriment” to the public. Malaysia Sun 312 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The second major Fijian newspaper. other media The country’s television news production was owned and operated by Fiji One. The Army representatives said they Source: CIA . or both. the The 1992 Television Decree permits the government to Daily Post and the Fiji Sun. However. Officers said the Army would instead close the newspaper. The inflation rate was estimated at 3% in 2005. this authority has never been used. one of two national noncable television stations.FIJI Media Market Description General economic situation Sugar exports. Individuals in such cases can be fined. The government owned the Fiji Broadcasting Corporation. Following the announcement of the military takeover in December 2006. These acts authorize the government to arrest any person who publishes “malicious” material. This would include anything the government considered false.000 to 400. The civilian government did not attempt to use the programming Newspaper launches / closures authority during the year. was also closed after staff received a call from the military saying. influence programming content. the Fiji Daily Post. in the minister’s view. the interim military Fiji’s biggest circulating daily newspaper and the oldest government attempted to censor television news in the country . which operated four radio stations. threats from the Fijian military which overthrew the Fijian government.with 300. and a growing tourist industry . the Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF) sent soldiers to various media outlets in an attempt to censor reporting of the event.are the major sources of foreign exchange. The acts give the minister of information sole discretionary power to order a newspaper to publish a “correcting statement” if.

a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 282 585 39 906 31 65 4 100 Male 000 % 144 293 18 455 32 64 4 100 Female 000 % 138 292 21 451 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher Fiji Times Fiji Sun Daily Post The Fiji Times Ltd.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.FIJI 3.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.The World Factbook 8.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 313 . dollar.00 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 8.00 0.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 0.1 9.6 Source: CIA . Sun (Fiji) News Ltd. - Circulation (000) Readership (000) 23 10 - 25 - Source: WAN from public sources 31 65 5 100 Source: CIA .7 2006 9.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Fiji.00 0.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.

every day.1 million copies. because the Finland. 2. The forecast for 2007 is 3. New mobile services options in advertising. 82 percent of the population over 12 inflation rate is low and consumers’ belief in the years read newspapers every day. Source: Sanomalehtien Liitto 2.6 per cent. but is still at 7. the average circulation of newspapers decreased 0. The total circulation of Finnish newspapers Unemployment is decreasing. i.7 per cent. Dailies lost 0. are delivered to subscribers before 6:30 a.FINLAND Media Market Description General economic situation In 2006.7 per cent. Circulation In 2006.562 18 13 13 15 15 13 13 100 Female 000 % 448 318 311 363 388 346 500 2. Structural Local news. A great majority. i. Kšrkimedia is the marketing are being developed.7 percent. This co-operation enables them to offer Approximately 150.8 per cent of their circulation. The inflation rate grew in comparison to 2005. Newspapers pay great attention in developing the content and appearance of their print editions.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 915 651 637 737 780 685 831 5.1 per cent.e. the Finnish GNP grew 5. economy is still strong and exports and private investments are expected to grow.5 per cent compared with 2005.236 17 13 12 14 15 13 16 100 Male 000 % 467 333 326 374 392 339 331 2. of Finnish advertisers competitive. 75 per cent. subscribed dailies. organisation of 34 daily newspapers and Suomen Paikallismediat is the marketing organisation of 137 local newspapers.7 per cent and non-dailies 0.1 per cent growth.m. Finnish people think very positively of newspapers: Advertising 88 per cent say that their own newspaper is important Advertising in media increased 3. The growth in the national economy is clearly higher than the average growth of the countries using the euro. newspaper and a pleasant medium. Overall. news from Finland. news from Europe interest readers most in newspapers.5 percent. This is mostly due to the fact that private consumption is on a much higher level and private investments continued to grow.674 17 12 12 14 14 13 18 100 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Finland Map: CIA – The World Factbook 314 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . The press also benefits from highly developed co-operation among newspapers in the sales of Online / Digital Publishing advertising. 80 percent of The forecast for 2007 is 7. Readership Newspapers still have a very high level of readership in Forecasts for next year are optimistic. Newspapers’ share of media advertising is 48 per cent.7 per cent in comparison to the previous year. but was still low at 1. international issues and unemployment is still high. is 3.e. advertising increasing 2. cost-effective and nationwide newspapers have online editions.

279 1.116 2.93 0.240 2.40 87.ca 750 88 Source: Finnish Newspaper Association Source: Statistical Yearbook of Finland Households (occupancy) (2006) 759 81 55 53 8 45 55 53 8 45 55 53 10 43 55 53 9 44 -1.a 439 49 Households (children) (2006) Households 000 % 746 87 Sales revenues Total paid-for dailies 383 Total paid-for non-dailies 51 4. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class .181 7 12 19 22 40 100 4. and junior managerial.00 2.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence . euro) min max Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 56 Total paid-for dailies 54 National paid-for dailies 8 Regional and local 46 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 53 Total free dailies 2 Total paid-for non-dailies 146 National paid-for non-dailies 3 Regional and local 143 paid-for non-dailies -0. TNS Gallup.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 2.529 8 13 15 26 38 100 Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Female 000 % 145 302 630 459 1.31 2.12 78. Advertising Spend in Finland 2004.92 5.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .55 2. euro.80 7.321 1.00 -0.71 -1.275 -0.415 38 34 12 10 6 100 1.60 68. Statistics of Distribution Costs 4.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) 2. WAN assessment (free dailies) Dailies Non-dailies 49 56 49 66 48 83 53 88 52 100 6.328 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 2.40 100 12 88 69 19 100 12 88 69 19 100 12 88 69 19 100 13 88 69 18 100 Source: Finnish Newspapers Association. administrative or professional B = Middle class .53 30.00 - Source: Finnish Newspapers Association.20 0.69 Source: Finnish Newspaper Association.85 -0.25 -0.425 2.33 0.33 53 2 146 3 143 53 2 146 3 143 53 2 148 4 144 53 2 147 4 143 0.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 359 625 1.79 -1.00 0.000 1.84 - Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions Home deliveries Postal deliveries Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 12.a Male 000 % 214 323 370 672 950 2.b Occupancy Children 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total 926 813 298 243 135 2.intermediate managerial.131 2.319 2.d Cover prices (2006) Newspaper reach (2004) 5. 2004 Suomen Lehdisto 6/2005.68 33.57 -1.268 Total free dailies 174 Total paid-for non-dailies 947 National paid-for non-dailies 132 Regional and local 815 paid-for non-dailies 2.20 19.255 2240 2.94 14. inserts and VAT Households 000 % Without children With children Total -1.50 -4.243 2.b Age % daily reach within age group 12-24 25-44 45-59 60-69 62 81 90 95 Source: Intermedia research 3.00 0.794 621 2. WAN assessment (free dailies) Single copy Subscription 1.41 -0.00 0.442 Total paid-for dailies 2. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 A = Upper middle class .96 -3.41 Source: 2002 Suomen Lehdisto 6/2004.268 National paid-for dailies 940 Regional and local 1.supervisory or clerical.71 7.066 5.a (%) Reached (Finland.00 0.71 3.224 165 170 194 200 937 945 934 923 128 128 176 172 809 817 758 751 -1.224 934 961 949 1.higher managerial.89 13.408 2.64 Source: Finnish Newspapers Associaton WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 315 .27 -0.74 -1.243 924 1. Subscription prices All adults Men Women 82 83 80 Source: Intermedia research Age structure of readership (2004) 5.424 2.00 -10.255 2. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .94 0.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Source: Finnish Newspaper Association.00 Including classifieds.cb 753 87 (Finland.18 -2.99 -0.00 -0.09 -1.30 -7.415 74 26 100 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Finland 452 52 - 455 55 18.c 2.434 2.35 0.85 12.00 0. 2006 Suomen Lehdisto 6/06 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Finland 3.c Media consumption 2000 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet (minutes per day) 2001 2002 2003 38 42 142 142 14 - 48 25 185 215 21 - 2004 48 33 169 207 33 Source: Intermedia research 6.FINLAND 2.652 6 11 24 17 42 100 Total paid-for dailies 759 Total paid-for non-dailies 81 4.94 -2.68 0.

309 1.8 2.ab Gross domestic product per capita GDP per capita Column meters 2000 (Finland.95 18. TNS Gallup Adex 7.0 150.77 0.000 440.1 28. euro) 426 186 138 133 112 84 82 81 75 64 1.053 1.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) Advertising expenditure per medium Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Helsingin Sanomat Ilta-Sanomat Aamulehti Iltalehti Turun Sanomat Maaseudun Tulevaisuus Kaleva Kauppalehti Keskisuomalainen Savon Sanomat Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Finnish Publisher Sanoma Osakeyhtio Sanoma Osakeyhtio Kustannus Oy Aamulehti Kustannusosakeyhtio Iltalehti TS-Yhtyma Oy Viestilehdet Oy Kaleva Kustannus Oy Kustannusosakeyhtio Kauppalehti Keskisuomalainen Oyj Savon Mediat Oy Circulation Readership Cover price (000) (000) (Finland.d 2001 (Finland. euro.50 2.7 100 Source: 2002-2004 Mediamainonnan m‰‰r‰ nettohinnoin.4 37 38 40 41 45 57 68 78 1.b Online readership (2006) 7.FINLAND 6.1 2.079 Retail trade Motor vehicles Telecommunications Travel Furniture Constructions Education Media houses Banks & Insurance Medicines 817 632 185 227 48 2.21 Source: TNS Gallup week 6/2007 Source: Suomen Lehdisto .4 Total circulation (000) Sanoma Osakeyhtio Alma Media Oyj Keskisuomalainen Oyj TS-Yhtyma Oy Ilkka-Yhtyma Oyj Suomen Lehtiyhtyma Esan Kirjapaino Oy Konstsamfundet Lansi-Savo Oy HSS Media Ab 860 595 262 173 108 73 73 68 62 47 Source: Finnish Newspapers Association Source: TNS Gallup Media Intelligence Includes agency commission.1 1. ZenithOptimedia 7.1 100 77.9 5.347 Source: Gallup Mainostieto.000 Source: Suomen Lehdisto .228 1.23 2.09 1.Advertising Spend in Finland.000 411.00 20.06 2. after discounts 8.016 Source: Sanomalehtien Liitto 316 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . classified.18 2.776 5.0 Advertising volume sold 2002 In colour Total Source: IFS.000 40. euro.3 24.080 2.6 26.416 15.189 854 871 885 900 656 669 680 690 198 202 205 210 244 251 265 275 47 48 50 52 1.180 8. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Advertising sector Publisher 759 774 580 596 179 178 201 207 44 48 2.e Contribution of display.000 13.9 27.9 22.22 1. 2006 Sanomalehtien Liitto Source: IFS.000 445.9 4.776 3.580 13.566 11.2 2. ZenithOptimedia % of display ad revenue 41.3 1.776 5.046 905 319 694 256 317 204 219 183 164 2. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 3.000 17.862.0 154.ac Display Classified Total Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0. euro) 16.266 1.a (Finland.0 16.9 100 75. euro.550 6. ZenithOptimedia 7.75 0.14 Format Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Finland.000 11.1 100 77. TNS Gallup. excludes production costs. ZenithOptimedia 2.1 22.4 1.8 2.22 1.272 772.2 4. TNS Gallup 1 1 Data on unique visitors per week 6/2007 multiplied by 4 7.320 762.0 140.0 2. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 25.77 0. 2005 TNS Gallup Adex. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 136.34 2.1 26.37 23.75 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 76.000 9.150 837 643 194 231 47 1.aa Gross domestic product GDP Including free dailies and free non-dailies 7.862.730 6.5 37 36 1.628 11.3 1.000 500.5 7.c Advertising revenues Unique visitors per month 1 Newspaper/ Publisher Iltalehti Ilta-Sanomat Helsingin Sanomat Taloussanomat Kauppalehti Online (Finland.75 0.42 3.ba Top publishing companies (2006) 7.892 15. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Source: IFS.2 143. includes classified advertising.832 12.00 2.ba Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 8.500 391.57 1.9 23.1 100 78.780.708 14.9 21.731 22. euro.580 13.000 446.00 2.000 474.47 (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 350.0 32 31 15 17 1.Advertising Spend in Finland.000 468.889 15.0 33 23 1.048 Total paid-for dailies 475 Total non-dailies 105 Total paid-for non-dailies 49 Total free non-dailies 1 56 484 111 51 61 511 121 55 66 519 124 56 68 532 127 58 69 12.

b Research Salaries (Finland.26 2.41 981.511 - 3.6 13.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats 54 37 11 6 54 - - 199 51 106 42 201 39 119 43 272.15 - Circulation is audited by Levikintarkastus Oy Readership is measured by Taloustutkimus Oy Source: Suomen Lehdisto 9. 10.500 3. Source: Finnish Newspapers Association Source: Sanomalehtien Liitto 13.150 Total number of employees 9. Sanoma Kaupunkilehdet 1 2 Distributed in Helsinki and 18 towns around southern Finland Distributed on buses and trams in Helsinki.133 3.47 - Methodology 30. euro.199 Source: TNS Atlas.b Direct subsidies (Finland.128 3. The government divides 43% of the grant according to a recommendation made by a state committee. Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total number of journalists 3. euro) 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: Sanomalehtien Liitto 10. euro) Tabloid Tabloid 4. Sanoma Corp.a Employment 11.940 4. Format Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Finland.ba % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant 22 22 0 0 0 0 0 Source: Finnish Newspapers Association Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries Taxes (2006) Tax 2000 2001 (%) 2002 2003 2004 30 15 20 28 26 - - - 32 29 - 13.FINLAND 8.000 telephone interviews Source: Finnish Newspapers Association Source: Suomen Lehdisto 12.01 -23.6 - 0.bb Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Average distribution costs per copy 2001 Subscription - (Finland. Since 1971 the government has granted a public subsidy to the press. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total amount - - - 13.300 9. euro. Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 317 .246 9. euro) 2002 2003 2004 - - 2005 0.22 5. at Helsinki metro stations it is available at stands 9.940 4.00 Source: Ministry of Finance. The remainder is granted to political party publications.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language 1 Metro Uutislehti 100 2 Publisher Finnish Finnish Circulation Readership (000) (000) 100 100 310 310 Sanoma Corp.67 1.77 2.53 12.20 (Finland.c Newsprint costs 2001 Average per ton 550 525 500 470 490 Are there any direct subsidies? Yes.38 Source: Suomen Lehdisto 10.199 4.82 616.488 9.a Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Source: Sanomalehtien Liitto 10. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total salary costs 285 304 306 - 312 9.20 0.

FINLAND 14. the majority of shares. of domestic daily newspapers? No Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other Source: Finnish Newspapers Association 15. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Source: Finnish Newspapers Association 318 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .a Ownership laws and rules Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. and in particular.

808 7.013 25. however.032 3.448 4. France’s leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws. France Telecom.FRANCE Media Market Description General economic situation France is in the midst of transition from a well-to-do modern economy that has featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms.102 23.322 16 33 19 19 12 100 Without children With children Total Households 000 % 24. and Thales.918 7. public transport.689 16 16 19 17 14 18 100 Female 000 % 3.322 49 51 100 Source: EPIQ 2006 Children aged 24 and below Source: EPIQ 2006 2.494 9.524 9.153 49.633 19 30 1 51 100 Source: EPIQ 2006 D = farmers.153 9. It maintains a strong presence in some sectors. the population has remained opposed to labor reforms.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 7.833 3. banks. unemployment hovers near 9%.322 23 30 1 45 100 Male 000 % 6.724 7.043 3 10 18 19 17 33 100 Source: EPIQ 2006 Source: EPIQ 2006 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 319 .009 49.587 224 13.345 4. Renault. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies. tax policies.774 16. The tax burden remains one of the highest in Europe (nearly 50% of GDP in 2005).911 4.322 15 16 18 16 15 30 100 Male 000 % 3.533 15.a Age Population by age and sex (2006) Age 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 7.726 3. Source: CIA .470 3.116 49. and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare.169 25.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.764 5.522 6. and has ceded stakes in such leading firms as Air France.The World Factbook 2. The lingering economic slowdown and inflexible budget items probably pushed the budget deficit above the eurozone’s 3%-of-GDP limit in 2006.004 668 22. particularly power. The government in 2006 focused on introducing measures that attempt to boost employment through increased labor market flexibility.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1+C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 11.944 7.753 25.389 4.419 444 9.689 28 31 2 38 100 Female 000 % 4.798 8. The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition. and defense industries.633 15 15 17 16 15 22 100 Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total Housewives 000 % 101 421 708 763 704 1. With at least 75 million foreign tourists per year.198 23. France is the most visited country in the world and maintains the third largest income in the world from tourism.559 7. E = unemployed / retired / students / housekeepers Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.887 4.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2. and insurers.913 3. hampering the government’s ability to revitalize the economy.950 49.

euro) min max Including 10 national dailies of general coverage .89 -0.067 8.0 1.9 18.67 6.79 Newspaper reach (2006) Source: EPIQ 2006 National newspapers Regional and local newspapers (minutes per day) 2002 2003 2004 31 24 31 24 32 24 31 24 2005 32 24 Source: 2001-2004 EUROPQN/SPQR/AEPHR. ZenithOptimedia 320 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . L'Humanité.701.a Number of titles 4.585. Le Monde.457 2. Les Echos.648.9 39. Le Figaro.0 1.97 -1. and 14 national specialized dailies 3.70 0.90 1.807 2. 000) 2001 2002 2003 2004 24.445 2.0 Paid-for dailies only Source: SPP/SPQR/DDM/OJD DSH 4. ZenithOptimedia 7.53 -1.84 -7.753 1.67 -5.4 27.114 5.00 3.c Media consumption 2001 6.31 Including circulation of only 12 national dailies according to OJD/DSH data : Aujourd'hui en France.0 5.6 5. euro.70 936 1.259 1.00 0.572 7. 2005 EPIQ 6.5 Age structure of readership (2006) % % daily reach of readership within age group 12 13 15 17 17 17 100 33 36 37 45 51 57 44 5.0 5.0 6.d 9.60 0.aa Gross domestic product Sales revenues 2001 (France.36 18.457 2.507 2.188. L'Equipe .26 -5. euro.7 4.180 5.10 3.4 20.55 -1.00 3.675 2.626 3.802 7.83 -0.60 0.01 5.7 2.00 0.56 1.a 70.934 2.410 2.325 685 663 669 657 645 1.25 50.60 0.75 -1.00 3.116 126.70 -7.754 9.07 4.619 3.776 1.0 19.179.680 220 31 189 219 32 187 0.553 -2.0 1. euro.FRANCE 3.a Total number of copies sold or distributed annually Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 71.241 5.595.5 42.7 664.0 1.62 0.0 1.87 -5. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 1.65 43.182. These 12 titles represented 92% of total national circulation in 2002.030 1.ab Gross domestic product per capita Source: SPP/SPQR/DDM/Secodip GDP per capita 2000 (France.308 4.29 5.9 26.68 2.534. and La Tribune.5 47.087 8.037 2.0 8.3 Source: EPIQ 2006 (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 220 32 188 70.822 1.60 2.21 -1. mln) Change (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003/99 2003/02 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies 68.33 Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries Free distribution 4.general edition.3 7. ZenithOptimedia 7.b 67.0 - 2.264 4.1 648.59 Source: IFS.151 2.00 0.6 3.0 20. International Herald Tribune.410 2.b 2003 Source: OJD DSH Source: SPP/SPQR/DDM/OJD DSH 1 2002 - 2.76 -1.847 9.0 18.00 0.00 3 32 2 30 3 32 2 30 7 32 2 30 8 33 3 30 8 34 3 31 166.0 1.909 2005 Cover prices (2006) National press single copy Regional press single copy Total average circulation per issue Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 1 Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays (%) 2004 (France.23 Source: SPQR/SPP 7.794 1.4 Paid-for dailies only Age Source: SPP/SPQR/DDM/OJD DSH.5 2.33 0.00 0.189 5.140 5.0 5.282 1.14 GDP (France.16 607 616 619 708 729 20.6 1.b 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 44.667 9.60 2. WAN assessment (free dailies) 1 2006 Source: SPP/SPQR (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 9.549.686 2.3 648.16 1.0 6.03 0.507 2.4 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 0.9 2.647 3.600 3.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Source: IFS.a Online editions Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Dailies National dailies Regional & local dailies 39 - 40 - 41 11 30 43 12 31 12 32 - 0.5 4. France Soir.193 7.70 -5.497. 4.3 25. La Croix.68 0.83 -4.90 (%) Reached All adults Men Women Main household shopper 218 36 182 350 223 38 185 11.05 4. Paris Turf.243 654.461 2.5 5. Libération.2 25.0 Source: IFS.30 0.531.268 7.518.00 3.445 2.233 4.00 -3.00 0.c Type of newspaper sales Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 1 Regional and local paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 88 85 24 61 88 85 24 61 92 85 24 61 93 85 24 61 93 85 24 61 5.238 4.5 1.

1 29.477 77.0 373.0 1.374.0 .000 Source: TNS Media Intelligence Source: OJD Source: IREP Data available only on commercial advertisements and classified ads 8.e Contribution of display.3 71.6 30. including classified advertising Ouest France L’Equipe Le Monde Le Parisien Le Figaro Sud Ouest La Voix du Nord Le DauphinÈ Libéré Le Progrés NRCO 7.94 3.8 2.268.0 1.0 2.046 901 792 622 Berliner Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Berliner Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Source: Circulation: OJD.457 Source: SPP/SPQR/DDM/Secodip 7.37 1.100 1.063.300 38.0 373.700 34.0 2.269 319.092 38. euro. 000) 61.413.0 362.0 128.900 25.510.0 2.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Advertising sector % of display ad revenue Advertiser Services Retail Distribution Business-to-business 44 23 21 13 Source: France Pub/IREP Top publishing companies (2006) 8.0 2.0 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 892.408.294. including paid-for and free copies Le Progrés + La Tribune/Le Progrés WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 321 . classified.0 1.308 2.500 46.168.189 249.0 2.496 2.573 98.0 Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Regional and local 120.98 -13.236.600 23.001. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Display Classified 1997 1998 (%) 1999 2000 2001 69.0 1.40 6.88 1.0 Regional and local 1.0 12.0 paid-for non-dailies 2.2.3 29.400 43.608. 2005-2006 IREP Publisher Before tax.9 70.c Advertising revenues (France.668 365.0 1.420.040 1.41 920.200 25.078.30 -0.099.600 26.4 70.7 29.257 231.017 342.035.26 7. excluding discounts.008.107.962 224.5 357.0 National paid-for dailies 418.0 30.005.94 14.0 1.510 338.5 2.5 1. Readership: EPIQ 2005-2006 1 2 Total average daily circulation on weekdays in France.26 1.820 85.40 1.242. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 2.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) 7.16 -0.751 37.17 7.349 355.7 Total circulation (000) 781.318.0 1.0 1.5 1. euro.a Source: 2002-2004 SPP/SPQR/DDM/Secodip.FRANCE 7.560 E Leclerc Citroen Renault Lidl Peugeot Gaz de France EDF France Telecom SFR Auchan Expenditure (France.0 29.315 296.0 135.0 70.51 0.186 1.200 26.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Ouest France L'Equipe Le Parisien Le Figaro Sud Ouest Le Monde La Voix du Nord Le Dauphiné Libéré Le Progrés La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest French French French French French French French French French French Circulation 1 (000) Readership (000) Format 782 354 343 328 319 317 296 249 232 2 225 2.0 122.426.0 2.0 Total paid-for dailies 1.0 1.851 1.d Advertising volume sold 1998 In colour Total - (pages & page equivalents) 1999 2000 2001 2002 - 41.440.3 137.140.090.

Strasbourg 9 editions in 2004-2006: Paris.00 -30. Free Dailies Newsletter. Marseille. euro) 1999 2000 2001 - 541 648 2002 570 Methodology 25.FRANCE 8. Bolloré Investissement.67 Source: SPQR Regional press only 10.607 - Change (%) 2005 2005/01 2005/04 5. Source: SPQR Readership is measured by TNS Sofres Regional press only 10. Bordeaux.135 5.a Employment 11.95 63. Toulouse. agencies and advertisers.98 - Research Circulation is audited by Diffusion Controle/OJD.00 -6.a Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Berliner 61 42 11 8 61 35 18 8 61 33 19 9 61 31 18 12 61 29 18 14 0.819 17. Taxes (2005) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 20 2 2 20 20 6 6 33 33 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .160 Tabloid 636 500 80 60 51 27 23 1. Strasbourg.64 75. Sofiprom 2 9. Lyon.690 18.441 18. Nantes+Rennes (Metro Ouest) 3 Afternoon daily 4 Spir and Sofiouest belong to Ouest France Group 5 Major shareholders: Bolloré.500 telephone interviews throughout the year 12.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher 20 Minutes 1 French Metro 2 Direct Soir 3 Lyon Plus Marseille Plus Lille Plus Bordeaux 7 Montpellier Plus French French French French French French French Circulation (000) Readership (000) Format 739 2.259 -0. Lyon. Nantes. 2001 2002 2003 2004 Total number of journalists 5.06 -2. Nice.00 0.519 Total number of employees 18.c Newsprint costs 1998 Average per ton Source: SPP 322 - (France.45 0. Marseille. Toulouse. Lille. Readership: EPIQ 2005-2006 1 8 editions in 2004-2006: Paris. Lille. SA 5 Le Progrés (Socpresse) La Provence (Hachette Filipacchi Médias) La Voix du Nord (Socpresse) Sud-Ouest / Socpresse / Hachette Midi Libre (Le Monde) Source: Circulation: OJD. a collaboration of newspapers.592 - Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Schibsted / 20 Min Holding / Spir Communications / Sofiouest 4 SAS Publications Metro France (Metro International) Direct Soir. Bordeaux. WAN from public sources.00 16.444 5.

no authorisation for a radio or television broadcasting service. have positive effects on employment and the financial health of the company. no authorisation may be issued to a person who. The Multimedia Press Fund – The government has created a fund to help the French print media modernise and adapt to new information technologies. part of which must be repaid. General principle / the rule of “any two of four”. Ownership laws and rules Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Railroad Source: DDM Discount rate (%) 60 1° Be a holder of one or more authorisations for television services broadcast by terrestrial radio link in digital mode that allows servicing of areas whose recorded population stands at 4 million people. on account thereof. direct mailing and so on). whether national or not.a Subsidies generally 15. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Yes. At national level To protect pluralism on the national level in analogue or digital mode. broadcast by terrestrial radio link in the area in question. brochures. 2° Be a holder of one or more authorisation for radio broadcasting services that allows servicing of areas whose recorded population stands at 30 million people. Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? Yes. No silent partners are allowed. catalogues. In 1998 two new funds made loans available to publishers under certain conditions: 1. outside of daily management. At regional/local level To protect pluralism on the regional and local level in analogue or digital mode. euro.6 61. 13. 3° Be a holder of one or more authorisations to distribute services that allow servicing of areas whose recorded population stands at 6 million people. The holder of the majority of shares is considered the publisher. Law of september 30th 1986 on Freedom of communication. The Modernisation Fund for daily newspapers – This fund is financed by the proceeds of a 1% tax levied on advertisers investing in the free and commercial printed media (free and promotional papers. and in particular.3 106 101 48. The objective of this aid is to finance modernisation projects presented by publishers. would be in more than two of the following situations: Direct subsidies (France. 40% of this advance may be rebated when the publisher is able to prove a given project has been completed.FRANCE 13. treated on a case-by-case basis. other than national. 2. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 323 .b Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. on account thereof. This fund shall advance money to print media companies.a Are there any direct subsidies? In 2002 the finance ministry introduced a new subsidy to help pay for the distribution of national daily newspapers providing political and general information. by terrestrial radio link or the operation of a network that distributes radio and television broadcasting services by cable may be issued for a specific geographic area to a person who. of domestic daily newspapers? Yes.72 Source: SPP 14. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total amount 68 63. the majority of shares.53 -4. projects have to be innovative. Foreign companies and individuals may own no more than 20% of the capital in a company that publishes a newspaper. would be in more than two of the following situations: 1° Be a holder of one or more authorisations for television services. No individual shareholder can hold more than 49% of the capital or voting rights. Shares in publishing companies must be registered. To be eligible for this (direct) subsidy.

another instrument or the purchase of a company. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? 324 Yes. whose total potential audience in the area in question exceeds 10 percent of the total potential audiences in the same area of all public or authorised services of the same kind. The law of August 1 1986 prohibits the lending of one’s name to any publishing company by falsely applying for shares. or through the programming it supplies to other licence-holders. The shares of any joint venture must be registered. The law of November 30 1986 prohibits the acquisition. takeover or management of one or more general or political-interest dailies by any individual or legal entity.FRANCE 2° Be a holder of one or more authorisations for radio broadcasting services. or through any combination of these. No individual shareholder can hold more than 49% of the capital or voting rights. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. directly or indirectly. whether national or not. or the designation. or by any group of people. when such an action would permit control or ownership. No individual or legal entity holding an analogue radio licence may reach more than 150 million listeners. every newspaper issue must contain the names of the owners if the company is not a legal entity. of a TV station broadcasting on terrestrial if that companyís average annual audience share across all platforms is greater than 2. either through its own transmissions. Moreover. form and name of the legal representative if the company is a legal entity. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? Yes.5%. of the publication(s) if the total circulation is greater than 30% of the total circulation on the national territory of printed daily publications of the same kind. 3° Be a holder of one or more authorisations for the operation of networks that distribute radio and television broadcasting services by cable within said area. either directly or indirectly. registration office. and any transfer must receive the prior approval of the companyís board of administrators or supervisory board.

00 0.aa Gross domestic product (Euro Member Countries. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Radio Guyane is operated by RFO. Radio Caraibes International is a commercial station.00 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 325 .b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 15 15 15 15 15 0. WAN from public sources 3. support an expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. other media The public service broadcaster.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.4 Source: CIA . Besides the French space center at Kourou (which accounts for 25% of GDP). France’s radio and television network for its overseas territories around the world.00 0. not fully exploited. Source: CIA . fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities.00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN estimate.The World Factbook. euro.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Publisher France-Guyane 1 La Presse de Guyane Groupe Hersant Média 2 Conseil général Circulation (000) 93 - Source: WAN from public sources 1 2. is operated by Réseau France Outre-mer (RFO).The World Factbook 8. Performance of newspapers vs. 2006 WAN from public sources 3.00 0. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GDP - - - - 1.FRENCH GUIANA Media Market Description General economic situation The economy is tied closely to the much larger French economy through subsidies and imports. Télé Guyane. Other channels include the commercial Antenne Créole Guyane and pay-TV Canal+ Guyane.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 58 129 13 200 29 65 7 100 Earlier printed in Martinique Called France-Antilles before October 2006 3 Print-run 2 Male 000 % 30 69 7 106 28 65 7 100 Female 000 % 28 60 6 94 30 64 6 100 Source: CIA . Performance of different types of newspapers There are two French daily newspapers. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods. There are no English-language newspapers.

The World Factbook. franc.00 0. French Polynesia has a lively media In 2003.00 0. and by private operators. TV and radio Source: CIA . copy of the daily La Dépeche. Performance of different types of newspapers There are two daily newspapers and one monthly magazine.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 71 188 16 275 26 68 6 100 1 Male 000 % 36 98 8 142 25 69 6 100 Female 000 % 25 90 8 133 26 68 6 100 Established in 1964 by Philippe Mazellier.1% in 2006.The World Factbook 8.00 0. Agence tahitienne de presse.00 0.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.FRENCH POLYNESIA Media Market Description General economic situation Tourism accounts for about one-fourth of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.00 Source: 2002-2003 WAN estimate. Considering its size. in 1989 acquired by France-Antilles (Groupe Hersant Média) 3 Called France-Antilles before October 2006 Source: CIA . 43% of respondents said they had read the last scene.00 0. Other sources of income are pearl farming and deep-sea commercial fishing. in 1988 acquired by France-Antilles. Consumers can access a wide variety of local. published also on Sundays from 1994 2 Established in 1957 by Roger Brissaud. while 12% declared to national.The World Factbook 326 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .aa Gross domestic product (Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique.6 Source: CIA . The inflation rate was estimated at 1. RFO.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language 1 La Depeche de Tahiti French Les Nouvelles de Tahiti 2 French Map: CIA – The World Factbook Publisher Groupe Hersant Média Groupe Hersant Média Circulation (000) 3 17 5 Source: WAN from public sources 2. and international news. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GDP - - - - 482. The territory benefits substantially from development agreements with France aimed principally at creating new businesses and strengthening social services. Tahiti Pacifique.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. There are competing have read the daily Les Nouvelles de Tahiti.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 0. WAN from public sources 3. services are provided by the French public overseas broadcaster. There is one news agency. 2004-2006 WAN from public sources 7.00 0. television stations and ten radio stations. other media readership surveys in Tahiti and Moorea from 1999. Readership The Louis Harris Institute has been conducting annual Performance of newspapers vs.

The World Factbook. Performance of different types of newspapers The only daily newspaper was the government affiliated Printing & Distribution L’Union. Many companies inspection at the border by Gabonese authorities. International radio stations broadcast locally.to three-month publishing suspension for a first offense and a three.GABON Media Market Description General economic situation The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. government suspension of their publication Sogapresse.000 to USD10. Thomson Gale. Seven privately owned radio stations were operating at year’s end. Editors and authors of libelous articles can be jailed for two to six months and fined USD1. Short-term progress depends on an upbeat world economy and fiscal and other adjustments in line with IMF policies. poor fiscal management hobbles the economy. The government did not use the libel laws during the year.000 to five million CFA francs). licenses. it also reception was available. Source: CIA . those of various political parties. but most The printed copies of the newspaper are then sent back appeared irregularly due to financial constraints. Despite the abundance of natural wealth. Four privately owned television stations government to initiate criminal libel prosecution against transmitted 24 hours per day. The inflation rate was estimated at 2. or in to Gabon by airplane where they are distributed by some cases. Online / Digital Publishing Surveys indicated that about 5 percent of the population were using the Internet. Performance of newspapers vs. Satellite television persons for libeling elected government officials. L’Union and the Multipresse group have a monopoly on advertising in Gabon. most were apolitical. Media / Press Laws The law stipulates that penalties for libel and other offenses include a one. printing outside of Gabon remains the Foreign newspapers and magazines were widely cheapest option for independent newspapers. The law authorizes the stations. Approximately nine privately owned weekly or Most Gabonese newspapers are printed in Cameroon monthly newspapers represented independent views and where printing costs are an average of three times lower.to six-month suspension for repeat offenses. hesitate to sponsor private newspapers for fear of losing Sogapresse gets 40% of the sales revenue. WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 327 . There are available. US State Department. no customs taxes for newspapers printed in the neighbouring country.000 (500. a distribution company based in Gabon. authorizes the state to criminalize civil libel suits.2% in 2006. other media The government owned and operated two radio stations that broadcast throughout the country. although the content of Advertising independent publications is regularly subjected to Advertising revenue is low in Gabon. favor with the government. Libel can be either a criminal The government owned and operated two television offense or a civil matter. Even with the cost of flying the newspapers from Cameroon.

2005-2006 WAN from public sources 7. 2004-2006 WAN from public sources 3.00 Source: 2002-2003 WAN assessment.009.ba Language Publisher L’Union French Government Circulation (000) Cover price (USD) 20 0.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 22 22 22 22 20 -9.aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BEAC.00 -10.GABON 3.00 0.The World Factbook 328 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .a Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 000 % 600 768 57 1. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 4.425 301 383 24 708 43 54 3 100 42 54 4 100 Male Female 000 % 299 385 33 717 42 54 5 100 Source: CIA .508.09 -9.5 5.00 0.278.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1 Total paid-for non-dailies 10 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 0.9 Source: CIA .09 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.51 Source: WAN from public sources Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.The World Factbook 8.4 4.

The inflation rate was estimated at 14% in 2006.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 National paid-for dailies 2 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 0.The World Factbook.00 0. There was one independent bi-weekly magazine.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Gambia. dalasi.a Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 727 870 45 1. and the site remained blocked at the end of the year. The Daily Observer.00 0. The Gambia Daily.00 0. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 76. foreign cable. tended to favor the government in its coverage. Performance of newspapers vs. On November 6.00 0. Internet cafes were popular in urban areas. Internet access was limited by slow connection speeds and was frequently interrupted by power outages. and restrictive Newspaper launches / closures legislation. The Independent remained closed at year’s end.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Daily Observer English The Gambia Daily English Circulation (000) Ministry of Information & Broadcasting 2 - Source: WAN from public sources WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 329 . 2006 the Gambia Press Union opened an Internet cafe offering free access to journalists. however. police arrested Madi Ceesay. THE Media Market Description General economic situation About 75% of the population depends on crops and livestock for its livelihood.3 2006 90.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. President Jammeh claimed he would ban any newspaper deemed to threaten the country’s peace and security through “irresponsible reporting. In some cases journalists from certain independent Media / Press Laws newspapers were denied access to public events due to The constitution and law provide for freedom of speech official disapproval of their editorial stance.1 Source: CIA . other media During the year one government owned and four private radio stations broadcast throughout the country. Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment of economic activity.The World Factbook 8.00 0. but a 1999 government-imposed preshipment inspection plan.00 0. On March 28. and satellite television channels were available in many parts of the country. There were three other independent newspapers. Thomson Gale 3. including one published by an opposition political party.” Online / Digital Publishing In late May 2006 the government reportedly blocked access to The Freedom Newspaper. and Musa Saidykhan. and instability of the Gambian currency have drawn some of the reexport trade away from the Gambia. the editor-inchief of The Independent newspaper after it published two articles critical of the president.GAMBIA. Performance of different types of newspapers The government published one newspaper.5 95. At a September 24 press conference after his election victory. the government limited these rights by intimidation. Although many citizens were illiterate and most did not have computers or Internet connections at home. US State Department.00 0.00 0. Ceesay and Saidykhan were released without charge on April 20. detention.00 Source: WAN estimate 7. although privately owned. the Source: CIA .642 Source: CIA . The government owned Gambian Radio and Television Service (GRTS) television.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. and the press.The World Factbook 44 53 3 100 Male 000 365 432 23 820 % 45 53 3 100 Female 000 % 362 438 22 822 44 53 3 100 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0. managing director.

according to BCG Research. newspaper called “Lelo” is issued.4% Asaval-Dasavali. 90 percent of its income comes from sales. achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. According to the management of the Kviris Palitra weekly. Saati. version of The Georgian Times is distributed in Kvemo Kartli region and Azerbaijan. There are about a dozen leading advertising agencies in Georgia. “Their pieces are full of factual mistakes and exist at all or is scarce. The construction on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline have brought much-needed investment and job opportunities. Some of the papers print privately sponsored content. supplementing government expenditures on infrastructure. The price of Taymer is 30 tetri (17 cents). Newspaper launches / closures Another study by MGM on weekly newspapers found Two popular Georgian sports newspapers “Lelo” and that of those who read newspapers. and hazelnuts. information Readership delivered by the agencies often does not provide enough A survey conducted by MGM in 2006 indicated that details. Only three out of 17 newspapers interviewed by BCG Research said that their income from advertising generates more than 50 percent of their revenues. Guria News and chairwoman of the Georgian Regional Media Association (GRMA). All of them are Tbilisi-based. has made substantial economic gains since 2000. The newspaper consists of 16 pages. and 5% 24 There were approximately 100 independent newspapers. the reinvigorated privatization process has met with success. and 2. of the advertising market belongs to television channels. and Russian (8. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife. 13. the daily newspaper 24 Saati won the exclusive right to publish announcements of state institutions that now occupy a large portion of the paper’s space and generate a large amount of the paper’s income. Performance of newspapers vs. The survey found that 54.1% Akhali Taoba. so regional media There are about a dozen news agencies in Georgia. the Azeri 330 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . 17 of which offered locally oriented daily news. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages due to aging and badly maintained infrastructure. metals.” said Ia Bobokhidze. In general. the Gergian Times was published in three languages: Georgian (circulation 30. Smuggling is a drain on the economy. as well as poor management. Most have to work within the capital and not locally. publisher of the chief of the newspaper Akhali Gazeti in Kutaisi.GEORGIA Media Market Description General economic situation The main economic activities of Georgia include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes. Georgia. resulted in decreased diversity of opinions. there is no cooperation between print media and advertising agencies. and chemicals. was launched during 2006.000).6% of those who read papers prefer Alia. Channel 1. English (5.000). mining of manganese and copper. 15. an Azeri/Russian-language monthly newspaper. panelists of the in-depth GORBI survey of 15 According to panelists. and media have to refer to other sources to get 59. 59.7% Akhali Versia. An Azeri-language version of The Georgian Times was launched in 2006. other media There were eight independent or privately owned television stations in Tbilisi and one public station. with the help of the IMF and World Bank. 2.2% regularly read Georgian press. Taymer.4% preferred “Sport” merged with each other and from 2007 one Kviris Palitra. Until then.000). In addition to Tbilisi. defense. “The advertising market in regions either does not services. Newspapers receive most of their income from circulation sales and classified ads. An international NGO estimated that there were more than 45 regional television stations outside of Tbilisi. Performance of different types of newspapers 27.” said Ia Mamaladze.1% Kronika. As a result of the competition conducted by the State Agency for Procurement.8% of the respondents did not read any newspapers the full picture on an issue. In addition. and all of them publish paid announcements. Advertising The largest share. 20. the situation with finding newspaper managers conducted in May 2005 advertising in regions did not change much during complained about the high cost and poor quality of 2005.” and 40. and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. with radios and print media each getting 10 percent and 20 percent going to outdoor advertising. The inflation rate was estimated at 10% in 2006. and poverty reduction. 60 percent. editor-inmisspelled names. “What’s more. particularly of print media. in part encouraged by the general low profitability of media outlets. citrus fruits.1% Resonance. machinery. Economic and political pressure on the media.4% The Georgian Times.

cannot afford newspapers. people aged 4554 11.000. In 2005.6% in internet-cafes. people aged 25-34 31. there are several newspapers that are distributed nationwide. and 75 percent of them said that they learned this from the owners themselves. The 7th paragraph of the Code touches upon the relations between the law enforcers and media. The ministry of defense continued to ban journalists it considered undesirable from public briefings. newspaper 24 Saati negotiated to buy a used.” said Lasha Tugushi. Forty-five out of 50 managers disclosed the names of the owners. The Internet is consumed by the segment of the population whose income exceeds 300 GEL. The 7th paragraph reads: “Due to the importance of media as a fundamental tool of democracy. with only five of them refusing to talk about it. it is because of the outdated equipment.1%.8% at work. Another factor is that many Georgians. The Police Ethics Code worked out by NGO Liberty Institute and the Ministry of Internal Affairs was being actively discussed in 2006. Panelists named the weekly Kviris Palitra as the publication with the widest distribution area. trial etc. media analysts and individual journalists cited.GEORGIA Online / Digital Publishing According to the survey conducted by the Business Consulting Group among 4. Panelists agreed that within media circles. the printing houses in Georgia are mostly in private hands now. Akhali Versia.1% of all consumers. and P. Journalists complained that it was also difficult to obtain information from the ministry of internal affairs. where they still do not cover the whole territory. “There are 11 districts in the Imereti region and 530 villages. The paper continues to seek funds to cover transportation and construction expenses for the equipment. The average age of Internet users varies between 25 and 34. and people above 65 only 2.4%. Registration papers that list state ownership information can be requested through the courts. They are independent from the state. Media / Press Laws NGOs. including 24 Saati. The research showed that 97 percent of interviewed journalists (182) stated that they know who owns the outlet they work for. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 331 . The Liberty Institute’s representative Akaki Minashvili said that the opinion expressed in press according to which the Code implies less strict disciplinary punishment for police officers than it is implied by criminal code (up to 2 years in prison) in case they hinder journalists work.7% of the Georgian population use the Internet and the majority use it for entertainment. especially in small villages. Printing & Distribution According to the in-depth GORBI survey of 15 newspaper managers conducted in May 2005 and the recent study by BCG Research. If we could get at least 10 newspapers sold in each village. among others.2%. 15. the majority of the 50 media managers interviewed claimed full access to information regarding media ownership. the quality of printing causes a lot of complaints. 58% of people surveyed use the Internet at home. was wrong. 36. Information provided by Monitoring and Forecasting Center of Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources to media will not be free anymore. although this information might not be officially declared. The affected journalists claimed that the ministry’s press officer did not return their telephone calls. Panelists attributed this to the underdeveloped distribution system and the fact that newspapers do not have the financial resources needed for establishing a local independent distribution system. nontransparent tenders offered to media outlets. Therefore the information will be given to only those organizations that will make contracts with the Center and pay corresponding sums for the service. ignoring or boycotting selective media organizations by government officials. In the Minashvili’s opinion. 17. unequal treatment of media outlets.the lack of qualified technicians and engineers who can properly exploit and maintain the presses. each police officer is obliged to assist journalists in carrying out their professional duties as much as he or she is allowed by law”. the law does not oblige the Monitoring and Forecasting Center to serve TV companies for free. Ownership According to BCG Research in 2005.4%. the following problems: limited access to public information.500 respondents in 2006.. “In some cases. Young people aged 18-24 comprise 29. According to one of the panelists. According to Director of the Center Shorena Iosebidze. although still modern.” said Ia Bobokhidze. from Kutaisi and Guria News from Chokhatauri. people aged 55-64 6. Some papers strive to establish their own printing facilities. it is well known who owns which outlet. Rezonansi. However. while criminal code implies the presence of evidence. in other cases it might be caused by the human factor .S. in the Ethics Code’s case everything is much simpler: if a police officer violates a journalist’s rights then he or she will be fired straight away. and their services are generally accessible. we would grow our circulation by a minimum of 5. editor-in-chief of the newspaper Akhali Gazeti in Kutaisi. The ban continued after the appointment of a new minister of defense in November 2006. press from the largest Slovakian publishing house Petite Pres. Other newspapers are usually available only in their own regions.

In August 2005 the government announced an anticorruption action plan calling for an end to all direct and covert subsidies to the media. the process of educational reform features 23 institutions in Georgia that are accredited to teach journalism. 18 were television stations. and three nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established the Media Council.” According to 2004 Tax Code the distribution of newspapers and magazines as well as their selling are exempt from income taxes and VAT. Interfax. The school graduates 10 to 15 Georgian students each year. A study by BCG Research in 2005 shows an increase in salaries at 31 of the 50 media outlets interviewed from the previous years. funded by the U. Only state-owned Sakpressa covers the whole country. Management of Tax Department called upon the newsstands to purchase cash registers. However. On February 17 the Georgian Parliament approved an amendment to Tax Code with 133 votes against one. Internews Georgia.The World Factbook.ge.GEORGIA There are 11 distribution companies in Georgia. 2007. two are state-owned (Sakpressa and Adjara Press). which were fined by Tax Inspection services due to the newly made changes to Georgian Tax Code. remains the leader in providing quality journalism education in Georgia.) The representatives of the executive authorities demand that the newsstands have cash registers installed. Trialeti from Gori. and Speqtri from Gurjaani. Overall. while the newly established private firm Elva Servisi competes for total reach.Media Sustainability Index. Persons carrying out economic transactions should register the receiving of monetary sums through cash register. individual journalists. Head of Tax Department Koba Abuladze made comments in connection with that issue on February 8. and five were radio stations. Profit derived from publishing. The amount of the fines will vary from 1. and said teaching the methodology and curricula remain outdated. Lanchkhuti-based Ho da Ara. and the rest are private.. also property and belonging to persons working in media sphere and used for publishing purposes was exempted from taxes. US State Department. In June 2005. The research also showed that the salary rates of about 60 percent of the interviewed journalists do not exceed 200 GEL (about USD110). Media. the exemption for print media from property and profit taxes expired. The Caucasus School of Journalism and Media Management (CSJMM). Five newspapers of the 15 interviewed by BCG Research stated that they operate their own distribution systems. 2006. Those are Tbilisibased Kviris Palitra. According to BCG Research. otherwise they would be fined from March 1. eight were newspapers. The School of Social Sciences at the Georgia Technical University opened the fall semester in 2005 with a new Master’s program in Media Management. according to which the newsstands will not have to have cash registers installed until January 1. The Council is a media self-regulatory body serving in an arbitration capacity and as the main watchdog and enforcer of a journalistic code of ethics.. The press distribution organizations were forced to close down the newsstands. on December 31. too. Taxes The print media was exempted from profit and property taxes between 2005 and 1 January 2007. usage of cash registers in newsstands is absolutely unnecessary. The media remained largely dependent on subsidies. 2006. Out of those 31. State Support Typically newspapers were subsidized by and subject to the influence of patrons in politics and business. Source: CIA . This program will graduate a group of 12 students in two years. Guria News from Chokhatauri. IREX . nine national and 11 regional media organizations. Therefore." Other Factors There was absence of contracts or very short term contracts with journalists. 2006. WAN from public sources 332 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . the distribution companies divided the market and cover mainly local segments of the Georgian territory. Department of State and the Open Society Institute. panelists of the BCG Research in 2005 noted that there is still a lack of hands-on courses in the universities curricula. This rule concerned press booths.000 GEL. Panelists complained about university graduates not having skills that would allow them to integrate into newsrooms right after graduation. The Press Distribution Service decided to close down the booths selling newspapers and magazines due to the changes made to Georgian Tax Code.000GEL to 5. (. Ten leading Georgian newspapers made a joint statement in which they called upon the Parliament to correct the mistake in Tax Code due to which the newsstands were closed for several days in Tbilisi: “The distribution of Georgian newspapers and magazines has been seriously impeded for a few days now.S.

00 3.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 24 24 24 24 24 0. bln) 2002 2003 2004 6. the world’s leaders in providing highquality television audience measurement services joined this group.-based Nielsen Media Research International. Kutaisi. Imedi TV regularly conducts audience research through its own sociological service.00 0.500 people aged 12 to 65 in Tbilisi. By interviewing 1.2 Source: IFS.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers Total paid-for dailies 175 10 149 10 122 10 88 10 91 10 -48. 12 were television stations.41 0.308 19 15 14 15 12 10 15 100 Source: State Department of Statistics. MMI is a way of monitoring lifestyle and purchasing patterns of consumers. the panelists said. Of those.ab Gross domestic product per capita 2000 GDP per capita Source: IFS. MMI also helps media to identify their target audience. As the report by BCG Research shows. 26 media outlets out of the 50 interviewed stated that they conduct their own research. AGB Nielsen Media Research Georgia . WAN estimate (dailies). 000) 2001 2002 2003 - 1.GEORGIA 8. WAN estimate (dailies) 3.00 0. gather focus groups. and Batumi. six were radio stations. Methodology Twice a year IPM conducts standardized surveys of print media and radio audiences.a Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title - (Georgia.Media Sustainability Index WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 333 . Department of National Bibliography Statistical Yearbook of Georgia. The data are used by advertisers and advertising agencies for planning advertising campaigns and monitoring their own and competitors companies.a joint venture of the Italy-based.50 Source: Interfax 1 The price of weekly newspapers ranges from GEL0. GORBI.1 7. lari. the organization provides advertisers with the data that help them to better introduce their brands. at the same time buying data from AGB Nielsen Media Research Georgia and hiring other research companies. and BCG Research. Kantar Media Research-owned AGB Group and the U.00 Source: 2002-2004 Ministry of Economic Development. Some media outlets do conduct public opinion polls through phone and personal interviews or published questionnaires. they lack funds to buy the existing data or conduct their own quality research. attracted by the success of the diarybased television ratings conducted by the IPM Media through an IREX initiative and financial support. lari. WAN from public source Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.060 23 17 14 15 12 9 10 100 Female 000 % 445 342 315 349 286 229 342 2. however. and nine were newspapers.00 Source: WAN estimate 4.6 to GEL0. newspaper 24 Saati and radio Mtsvane Talga regularly research their audiences. The newspaper Akhali Versia conducts focus groups. lari) min Single copy 1 0.368 Male 21 16 14 15 12 9 13 100 000 % 471 342 296 310 249 178 214 2.8 Research Readership is measured by The major organizations producing media research in Georgia are IPM Media. called the Marketing and Media Index (MMI).S. many are still suspicious of the integrity and research methods of local organizations. Overall.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP - (Georgia.8 7. and do surveys. ZenithOptimedia Publisher Georgian Georgian Georgian Georgian Georgian Georgian Georgian Russian Georgian Georgian Government OOO Georgia - 11.4 2004 1. ZenithOptimedia 3.d Cover prices (2006) (Georgia. as well as brand and media consumption information. 2005 Ilia Chavchavadze.ba 0-15 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 916 684 611 659 535 407 556 4.2 1.2 9. National Parliamentary Library of Georgia.2 2005 9. Department for Statistics. MSI panelists agreed that media in Georgia acknowledge the necessity for market and audience research. Source: IREX . ZenithOptimedia 7. Population by age and sex (2005) Age Language 24 Saati (24 Hours) Akhali Taoba (New Generation) Alia Dilis Gazeti Khvalindeli Dge (Tomorrow) Resonance Sakartevelos Respublika Svobodnaya Gruzia (Free Georgia) Tribuna Mtavari Gazeti Circulation (000) 5 6 5 2 Source: Zhurnalist-IRS. Statistical Yearbook of Georgia. In addition.

GERMANY Media Market Description General economic situation Germany’s affluent and technologically powerful economy .750 8.73 26.180 10. structural rigidities in the labor market.210 6.2006 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.ca Occupancy 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 14. After a long period of stagnation with an average growth rate of 0.7% growth.980 30.230 3.99 18. flat domestic consumption. the declining level of investment in plant and equipment. stronger growth has led to a considerable fall in unemployment to about 8% at the end of 2006. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly longterm process. Among the most important reasons for Germany’s high unemployment during the past decade were macroeconomic stagnation.63 100 Male 000 Female 000 42.270 5. has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions.346 7.2005 334 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .300 15. but higher government revenues from the cyclical upturn in 2006 reduced Germany’s budget deficit to within the EU’s 3% debt limit.190 7. lack of competition in the service sector.670 13 13 15 22 16 11 10 100 Female 000 % 2. combined with high chronic unemployment.098 40.910 4.840 64.266 5.870 82.000 3.695 13.370 2.304 9.030 10.477 4.6.736 21.527 39.213 1.560 7 12 17 25 16 11 12 100 Source: AWA Households (occupancy) (2006) 2. company restructuring. Source: CIA .340 Source: Statistisches Bundesamt.12.840 3.860 33. Germany’s aging population.00 25.178 38 34 14 11 4 100 Source: Statistisches Bundesamt.900 4.438 5.230 10 12 16 24 16 11 11 100 Male 000 % 4.690 23. with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly USD80 billion.showed considerable improvement in 2006 with 2.The World Factbook 2.130 5.7% between 2001-05 and chronically high unemployment.b Population by social class and sex (2001) Social class 1 (high) 2 3 4 5 6 7 (low) Total All adults 000 % 6.35 9.08 11.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age under 6 6-15 15-25 25-45 45-65 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.the fifth largest in the world in purchasing power parity terms . latest available data: 6. and high interest rates.960 3.492 15.480 8.550 6. latest available data: 31.480 4.

54 0.042 85.b Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Bild Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung S¸ddeutsche Zeitung Die Welt Die Zeit www. 000) 2000 2001 2002 2003 24.288 1.292 1.63 0.335 Total paid-for non-dailies 23 National paid-for non-dailies 8 Regional and local 15 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 1 1.0 Source: IFS.52 Source: 2005 IVW 12/2005.315 1.300 69. 2 In Germany.933 1. WAN from public sources (free dailies) 1.2 82.53 Age structure of readership (2006) Age 14-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ Total % % daily reach of readership within age group 7. 4.18 -14.292 1. euro.074.6 35.288 1.a (Germany.459 -8.868 3.00 18. Forsa.faz.632 19.830 19.646 19. 2006 ZMG Auflagenstatistik III WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 335 .93 2.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total non-dailies Total paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 1 Total Sundays Total paid-for Sundays Total free Sundays 2 23.de Page impressions per month (000) 422.d Cover prices (2006) Total dailies 374 Total paid-for dailies 374 National paid-for dailies 10 Regional and local 364 paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies 374 Total free dailies Total non-dailies 1. euro) min Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 7.zeit.98 2.315 4.63 Source: ZMG Auflagenstatistik. ZenithOptimedia Source: 2005 ZMG-Auflagenstatistik II.129.5 58.80 - Source: BDZV Analysis method was changed in 2005 Source: BDZV 0.543 21.36 6 -14.00 -1.2 64.6 64.350 2.sueddeutsche.93 0.280.02 -0.200 55.4 63.10 1.10 -10.306 1.055 86.34 -2.00 -1.1 16.453 21.0 2.013.642 20.98 22.8 73.3 15.81 -1. ACTA.5 16.000 35.813 1.37 3.267 23.2 84.543 1.0 2.0 2.c Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet 36 10 196 202 46 28 10 221 220 73 28 10 221 220 44 6.net www.913 88.00 4.000 21.898 21.254 21.378 25 27 27 28 6 6 6 6 19 21 21 22 -1.7 201.600 22.7 Source: BDZV.0 3.60 - -2.095 22.a 4.500 -2.de 6.07 3.317 1.60 7. 2006 Media-Perspektiven GDP Excluding VAT 2 Including total paid-for Sundays (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 40 2001 1 73. ZMG 4. BVDA. BVDA.GERMANY Number of titles 3.10 -0.267 1.7 71. WAN from public sources (free dailies) 1.bdzv.90 3.171.485 - 88.42 -2.de www.9 5.315 - 22.00 3 0.8 2005 2006 35.de www.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies 259 264 384 384 382 47. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2.21 90.00 0.0 18.00 - 190 201 239 - 18.35 -3.65 -9.90 2.455 2.312 Regional and local 1.933 85.095 1.091 1.b Source: BDZV.653 20.571 1.165 4.49 -9.56 372 371 368 370 4 1.29 0.868 19. 2005 Media-Perspektiven.642 2.76 1.07 0.485 4.876 86.350 1.1 82.6 35.0 100 47.918 22. Internet facts II.947.100 32.095 86.74 -25.8 25.400.691 21.54 3. euro.306 1.576 22.970.00 3 0.110. MA 5.400 Source: IVW 12/2006 7.2 25.ab 2002 2003 (%) 2004 36.2 14.7 25. ZenithOptimedia Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Subscriptions 39 10 206 185 45 2006 Source: 2002-2004 Time-Budget. ZMG.c (%) Reached All adults Men Women Single copy Subscription Source: ZMG-Auflagenstatistik.81 420.312 free non-dailies Total Sundays 7 Total paid-for Sundays 7 National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays Total free Sundays 2 - 372 372 10 362 371 371 10 361 368 368 10 358 374 370 10 360 0.0 2.64 0.000 22.676 1. 2006 www.2 35.10 0.9 12.de www.6 3. Sevenone Media.330 3. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 1 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 3.91 In Germany.49 -0. euro.900 4.22 21.37 17 17 7 10 197 7 3 4 207 6 3 3 245 3.bild. 2 Newspaper reach (2006) 5.0 Total paid-for non-dailies 2 226 194 193 - 4.7 76.67 0.4 Gross domestic product per capita 1999 GDP per capita - (Germany.b Sales revenues (Germany. free non-dailies and free Sundays (Anzeigenblatter = advertising journals) do not comply with the definition of newspaper as the share of their editorial content is too small in proportion with advertising.38 3.4 64.8 64.543 87.aa Gross domestic product (Germany.6 Source: IFS.400 23.893.571 22. 3.800 4.165 18. free non-dailies and free Sundays (Anzeigenblatter = advertising journals) do not comply with the definition of newspaper as the share of their editorial content is too small in proportion with advertising.000 21.333 1.7 75.70 0.0 3.welt. Media Perspektiven.2 68.85 -2.091 163 88.00 46.

492 (Germany.500 1.a Excludes agency commission of 15%.300 40.07 1.512 6.33 Source: 2001-2003 BDZV.900 1.961 3. ZMG. euro) (000) (000) 3.56 -0.2 3.003 4.981 116.192 10.164 967 870 950 645 621 702 924 Source: Media-Perspektiven Weeklies and Sundays 7.502.956 595 161 713 227 16. after discounts Total paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 1 Advertising sector Source: ZMG Source: ZAW. 000) Media-Markt/Saturn Procter & Gamble Lidl & Schwarz Axel Springer AG Albrecht (Aldi) Ferrero L’Oréal Haarkosmetik + Parfüm Gruner + Jahr Verlag C&A Unilever Bestfoods 348.500 1.100 Source: ZAW Top publishing companies (2006) Total circulation (000) Axel Springer AG Verlagsgruppe WAZ Verlagsgruppe Stuttgarter Zeitung /Die Rheinpfalz.78 0.65 1. Druck GmbH Mitteldeutsches Druck297 und Verlagshaus GmbH & Co.906 Source: 2002-2003 BDZV.937.0 225.c 7.92 -0.946 562.66 -11.80 1.0 4.981 157650 59. KG Süddeutscher Verlag GmbH Rheinische Post Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Verlag Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH Zeitungsgruppe Thüringen Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH Presse.788 Source: IVW III. 2004-2005 BDZV 1 43. ZMG.980 16.30 Nordic Rheinisch 41.781 40. KG 1.372 564.086 4.60 2.600 0.550 6.573 10. excludes production costs.840 4.6 287.476.086 681 137 813 642 17.714 573.600 245.779 433 391 1.693 6.Druck.23 Rheinisch 45.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) Advertising volume sold 2002 Total (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 587.9 9.193 551.5 2. euro.800 1.6 9. Sächsische Zeitung.890 3.0 4. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 11.835 - Freie Presse Chemnitzer 319 Verlag u.900 165. euro) (USD) Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Germany.2 10.10 1.694 10.700 3.0 4.800 292.60 1.806 10.042 347.73 0.300 334.547 363 1.645 356 1.473 10.0 268.735 3.958 3.502.d Expenditure (% of display ad revenue) Publisher Advertising revenues 5. Neue Presse) 5.354 1.0 4. ZenithOptimedia 7.und Verlags GmbH Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung German Zeitungsgruppe Thüringen 3 German Augsburger Allgemeine / Allgäuer Zeitung fp Freie Presse German Nürnberger Nachrichten German German Circulation Readership Cover price Format (Germany.95 1.802 4.800 158.700 1.g Top newspaper advertisers (2005) Local Other Family National Real estate Motor vehicles As placements Events Travel Advertising expenditure per medium Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 7.42 Rheinisch 12.377 10.833 6.300 0.8 Advertiser 8.0 4.50 1. ZenithOptimedia 7.326 53.716 920 571 17.6 4.926 6.771 4.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 0.863 64.860 3.190 16.71 Source: IFS.300 158.10 1.621 23.099 343 1.900 213.Dumont Schauberg Expedition der Kölnischen Zeitung GmbH & Co.56 5. euro.10 1.1 240.012 4. includes classified advertising.200 231.930 579 619 664 161 147 132 710 720 769 246 271 332 15.73 2005 2006 0. MA 1 Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung / Neue Ruhr Zeitung / Neue Rhein Zeitung / Westfalenpost / Westfälische Rundschau Kölner Stadtanzeiger / Kölnische Rundschau / Express 3 Thüringer Allgemeine / Thüringische Landeszeitung / Ostthüringer Zeitung 2 336 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher BILD WAZ-Mediengruppe 1 Zeitungsgruppe Köln 2 German German German Süddeutsche Zeitung Rheinische Post German German Axel Springer AG Verlagsgruppe WAZ M.00 2.811 3.151 3.42 1.476.455.154 7. 12/2005 8.42 Berliner 17.900 3.04 Rheinisch 48. 2005-2006 ZMG.660 3. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 -20. euro. Ludwigshafen/SüdwestPresse Verlagsgruppe Münchener Zeitungsverlag /Zeitungsverlag tz/Westfälischer Anzeiger Verlagsgruppe M.200 1.673 6.090 1.0 252.047 673 134 794 530 16.989 67. DuMont Schauberg Georg von Holtzbrinck Verlagsgruppe Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Süddeutscher Verlag Verlagsgruppe Madsack DDVG (for example: Frankfurter Rundschau.642.07 Nordic 36.9 6.354 58.994 665 133 778 431 16.700 344.221 1.700 0.1 9.GERMANY 7.ba (Germany.136 689 138 832 771 17.700 60.1 Expenditure (Germany.961 10.00 0.74 0.031 4.6 5.783 6.30 Nordic Rheinisch Berliner 347.

V. there are no specific provisions for the press. www. 10873 Berlin. (AG. Title Publisher Circulation (000) Business News 1 Die Sportzeitung 2 Handelsblatt News am Abend 3 Financial Times Deutschland Kompakt 4 Holtzbrinck Verlag SV Deutsche Sportverlag - 70 65 20 8 Discounts (2005) Discount on rates of Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Source: WAN from public sources Launched in August 2006.306 - - - 14. several tests for whether press mergers qualify for regulation. Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? There are general competition laws to prevent excessive concentration. One is whether the new company’s turnover is above Euro 13 million. There are. Media-MicroCensus GmbH. and more so since the introduction in 1976 of specific controls on press mergers.a Employment Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/00 Total number of journalists 15. and they are much more stringent.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. Another 10.000 copies.000 copies are distributed daily in first class ICE trains in Germany. Germany.000 from 16:00 on. Am Weingarten 25. available from 5:30 am at 12 German airports 3 The paper has moved from Lufthansa to Air Berlin and will be distributed with a circulation of 10. but the preferred test is to look at copies sold. among other things. which means that in effect the regulatory trigger for press is actually Euro 17 million. It should be noted that the anti-monopoly laws preclude all agreements between newspaper publishers and magazine publishers.ivw. 3.a 19% from January 1. www. Research Circulation is audited by Informationsgemeinschaft zur Feststellung der Verbreitung von Werbeträgern e.52 - Source: ABZV 11.de 12. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? General ownership regulations apply to all businesses.agma-mmc. 2007 Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No 15. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. only available in office buildings Launched in October 2006. Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits for newspapers 16 1 7 7 16 2 16 3 16 4 16 5 53 Source: BDZV 1. but for press this is qualified by various revenue limits dependent on the type of periodical in question. (IVW). The competition laws regulate. 4.bb Top free dailies (2006) 14.MA). 5 13. however. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 337 .V. 2. as well as those with direct competitors. and in particular.GERMANY 8. These laws have always had a strong influence on the development of the German press. The ceiling for dailies is 40.920 -2. Companies with combined profits of Euro 5 million or less are exempted. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? Newspapers are subject to the same transparency regulations as all other businesses. 10117 Berlin. discrimination and the right to impose prices on press products. 60487 Frankfurt am Main. Am Weidendamm 1A. available on first-class ICE trains Discount rate (%) 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 9. and enable associations to draw up competition regulations for a specific sector and have them recorded in a register kept by the Federal Office of Monopoly Control. of domestic daily newspapers? No So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. the majority of shares. 4 A morning free paper. There is normally no restriction on mergers where combined turnover is below or equal to Euro 256 million.de Readership is measured by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Media Analyse ev.

for example. This duty to declare does not however enable the cartel authorities to exert power over or to forbid the merger. but few succeed with this argument. Although the notion of “market monopolisation” is at the core of the merger control. Mergers are permissible if the companies can show that competition is actually being increased. depending upon the nature of the paper and whether it is classified. In the government 338 proposal at the time of enactment. a planned merger must be declared in advance when the turnover reaches a minimum level. local and chronological effects. This is of major importance for agreements between dailies and advertising papers. a new regulation is discussed. “sensational”. regardless of its effect on the readership market. for which the regulations pertaining to mergers in the press also apply. or reinforces their position in that market. the legislature never defines the market concerned. the merging of two publishing companies places them in a preeminent position in the advertising market. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . it would imply that all such agreements would favour or reinforce a preeminent position in the market. for example. Is further regulation of media concentration expected? Yes. Electronic media and printing houses are seen as belonging to different markets. is presumed in the press industry when the turnover reaches Euro 2. Euro 6 million.5 million. which ranges from Euro 26 million to Euro 51 million depending on circumstances. the merger can be totally banned. There are two determining “markets” for the press: readership and advertising. The readership and advertising markets are themselves divided into several distinct categories. There is a legal presumption that a one-third market share is preeminent. Otherwise. Companies have the right to appeal against decisions to the Federal Ministry of Economy. in relation to its concrete. local.GERMANY In the press sector. rebuttable with evidence that the annual turnover of the company concerned is less than Euro 128 million. a new law is expected to be adopted within next three years. when only a small number of suppliers operate in a market. If. which is what the regulations are designed to prevent. but it is very rarely used. it was established that such a market must be determined for each particular case. The creation of an oligopoly. or weekly. as subscription. or in the press sector.

30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Max.b Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees Max. 30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Allowed Allowed Allowed National TV Licensees Max.GERMANY 15. 30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Allowed Allowed Allowed Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital National Newspaper Owners Allowed Allowed Allowed Allowed Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital Max. 30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Allowed Allowed Allowed Local Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital Allowed National Radio Licensees Allowed Allowed Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital Up to 25% or 35% ordinary capital Allowed Satellite TV Broadcasters Foreign Investors No difference between No difference between No difference between No difference between No difference between German or foreign investors German or foreign investors German or foreign investors German or foreign investors German or foreign investors WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 339 . 30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Max. 30% market share in TV (either German or foreign) Max.

African Media Development Initiative. including the BBC. including two state-owned dailies. and there were approximately 11 state-owned and 100 privately owned FM stations across the country. and three cable networks broadcasting in the Greater Accra Region. over the past five years. with large fines imposed on their papers. Registration of newspapers with the NMC is required by the 1992 Constitution and 1993 NMC Act.GHANA Media Market Description General economic situation Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assitance. Newspaper launches / closures The business newspaper Ghana Market Watch was launched in July 2006. Ghana received a Millenium Challenge Coporation (MCC) grant in 2006. BBC World Service Trust . There was also one cable network broadcasting in Sekondi-Takoradi. with the proviso that the NMC cannot exert control over newspapers. dailies. even when they contained articles critical of the government. vernacular-language newspapers. Foreign periodicals were available in major cities and circulated freely. Source: CIA . two of which also broadcast in Kumasi. For instance. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence argiculture. Most newspapers circulated only in regional capitals. WAN from public sources 340 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . which accounts for 34% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force. the print media field is still weak. timber. Advertising The large circulation papers are dominating advertising revenue. Radio France International. Eastern. 23 bi-weeklies and five tri-weeklies. and Voice of America.000 per copy. Almost all advertisers want to patronise the Graphic because of its reach. US State Department. and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. a newspaper’s financial collapse due to a large civil libel however. the state-owned nationally dominant Daily Graphic has seen its advertising revenue base drastically improve. 67 weeklies. Gold. The NMC recently brought out a list of 52 papers that were not registered. Ghana has 106 newspapers. Performance of different types of newspapers More than 135 newspapers. existed in the country.The World Factbook. This has lead some to worry that the former danger of journalist imprisonment under the Criminal Libel Law has been replaced by the danger of According to the National Media Commission (NMC). More than 50% of the newspapers currently in circulation have come into existence in recent years. and two state-owned weeklies. making it difficult for the smaller operations. mainly small landholders. Ashanti and Northern regions. revealing that many papers had simply taken advantage of the liberalised environment and started operating without any regard for the legal requirement to register.9% in 2006. The New Punch weekly newspaper was launched in November 2006. Foreign media operated freely in the country. and this cuts across both public and private sector advertisers. Performance of newspapers vs. three semi-privately owned television stations that broadcast in the Greater Accra. and many of the smaller privately owned newspapers were available only in Accra. with journalists often sensationalising issues and making unsubstantiated allegations. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2006 along with record high prices for the largest cocoa crop in Ghana to date. There was one state-owned television station that broadcast nationwide. other media Accra and Tema had two state-owned and 18 privately owned FM radio stations. The two state owned dailies had national circulation. including 11 award. The cover price is GHC5. The inflation rate was estimated at 10. Media / Press Laws In spite of the NMC’s efforts at promoting standards. There are no non-English. Many print journalists have been taken to court to face civil libel suits. which aims to assist in transforming the agricultural export sector of Ghana.

00 Source: Commonwealth Press Union.000.000.00 0.396 6.00 0.00 3.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Ghana.00 3.289 6.0 470.00 3. distributed in all 10 regionas and 120 districts nationwide 2 Launched in 1999 3 Launched in 1990 4 Launched in 1998 5 100% government-owned WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 341 . 2006 National Media Commission .a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 8. cedi.9 558.935 790 22.685.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All newspapers 104 Total paid-for dailies 9 Total paid-for non-dailies 95 105 10 95 105 10 95 106 11 95 106 11 95 1.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Daily Graphic 1 English Daily Guide 2 Ghanaian Chronicle 3 Ghanaian Times Accra Daily Mail 4 Independent Daily Dispatch The Pioneer English English English English English English English Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.00 3.000.685 12.The World Factbook 39 58 4 100 Male 000 % 4.451 371 11.000. WAN from public sources 1 The oldest and most widely-read newspaper in Ghana. cedi) Graphic Communications Group 5 Western Publications Chronicle Communications New Times Corp.African Media Development Initiative 3.037.44 0.9 Source: CIA .00 0.22 0.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 180 190 200 215 215 19.000.410 Source: CIA .00 Source: 2002-2005 WAN estimate.00 17 15 15 5 5 - 3.The World Factbook 8.484 419 11.00 3.192 38 58 4 100 Circulation Cover price (000) (Ghana.000.000.BBC World Service Trust .00 Source: WAN estimate 7.00 3. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 2006 396.218 39 58 3 100 Female 000 % 4.000.92 22.191.GHANA 3. Doodle Publishers TransAfrica Company - 150 3.

Performance of different types of newspapers Established in 1801. offshore banking. Telecommunications accounts for another 10%.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Gibraltar Chronicle Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. The financial sector. the Gibraltar Chronicle was the The monthly Gibraltar Magazine is aimed at residents of Rock’s first daily newspaper and is one of the world’s Gibraltar and frequent visitors. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 7. Source: CIA .5 Source: CIA . WAN from public sources 3.a 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 5 18 5 28 18 64 18 100 51 Source: WAN from public sources 1 Population by age and sex (2006) Age Circulation (000) Male 000 % 3 9 2 14 21 64 14 100 In 1935 the Gibraltar Chronicle had a circulation of 800 copies a day Female 000 % 2 9 3 14 14 64 21 100 Source: CIA .aa Gross domestic product 1996 GDP - (Gibraltar.5% in 1998.The World Factbook.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.00 0. but fair and factual in its editorial content.00 0. and its position as an international conference center.GIBRALTAR Media Market Description General economic situation Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade. The inflation rate was estimated at 1. In recent years. oldest newspapers in continuous production. and tourism each contribute 25%-30% of GDP.00 0.00 0. the shipping sector. The paper’s ownership is structured as a trust and operates under the obligations of a charter partly modelled on the Irish Times so as to ensure it is not politically partisan.The World Factbook 8.67 0. pound.67 66. Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 66. bln) 1997 1998 1999 - - - 2000 0. The leading independent newsweekly Panorama is published on Mondays. its Internet edition has been running since 1998.The World Factbook 342 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .

556 209 377 486 532 617 292 6. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class . administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .396 6. Greece violated the EU’s Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criteria of no more than 3% of GDP from 2001 to 2005.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence . and unemployment are above the euro-zone average.279 5.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) Households (occupancy) (2006) 2.supervisory or clerical. WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 343 .b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E Total All adults 000 % 848 562 1.142 8 14 21 19 17 21 100 Female 000 % 243 421 653 612 541 743 3. Public debt. which has sustained record levels of consumer spending.The World Factbook 2.212 8 13 20 19 17 23 100 Households 000 % 518 1.881 15 11 23 14 37 100 Female 000 % 405 252 674 411 1.cb Households (children) (2006) Occupancy Children 2. equal to about 3.084 891 6.797 1. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid.A.A. The Greek economy grew by nearly 4. 2.227 2. inflation.354 Source: FOCUS BARI S.intermediate managerial.353 76 25 3 6 8 8 10 5 100 Source: FOCUS BARI S.0% per year between 2003 and 2006. and in part to an increased availability of credit. A = Upper middle class . but finally appears on track to meet that criteria in 2006. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force.052 2. Tourism provides 15% of GDP.A.ca 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs.GREECE Media Market Description General economic situation Greece has a capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP at least 75% of the leading euro-zone economies.202 1. due partly to infrastructural spending related to the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.497 2.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Without children With children aged 0-1 aged 1-2 aged 3-5 aged 6-9 aged 10-15 aged 16-18 Total Households 000 % 4. 8 14 21 19 17 22 100 Male 000 % 260 451 668 590 521 652 3. but are falling. Source: CIA .a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 13-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-70 Total 504 871 1320 1.Skilled manual workers D = Working class .850 15 10 23 14 39 100 Male 000 % 443 310 661 415 1.3% of annual GDP.061 1.969 14 9 23 14 41 100 Source: FOCUS BARI S.354 8 21 24 33 14 100 Source: FOCUS BARI S.A.335 826 2. administrative or professional B = Middle class .higher managerial.A Age Housewives 000 % 13-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-70 Total 1 4 209 194 219 326 986 4 21 20 22 33 100 The number of individuals with children does not equal the sum of the sub-categories because someone may have a child one-year-old and another five-years-old Source: FOCUS BARI S.364 1. and junior managerial.

0 12.23 1.04 350.0 49.91 paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 13.00 -11.8 183.00 200.0 22.c Media consumption 2002 All newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet Financial papers not included Total number of copies sold or distributed annually (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 - 30 22 90 230 - 156 162 - 156 162 - 2006 186 168 54 Source: 2003-2005 National statistics services.44 3.120 1.20 1.50 3.1 12.44 -11.a (%) Reached 0.GREECE 3. WAN assessment (free dailies) 4.85 0.85 8. 000) 2000 2001 2002 2003 - 11.12 -4.0 205.79 -2.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Source: Ad revenues include inserts. production costs and agency commission.0 93.00 490.a Online editions Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 -3. euro.c Type of newspaper sales Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 39 Total paid-for dailies 38 National paid-for dailies 38 Morning paid-for dailies 23 Evening and afternoon 15 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 1 Regional and local free dailies 1 Total paid-for non-dailies 14 National paid-for non-dailies 14 Total paid-for Sundays 4 National paid-for Sundays 4 39 37 37 21 16 40 37 37 21 16 42 39 39 23 16 42 39 39 24 15 7. all dailies except free press % % daily reach of readership within age group 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Total 7.9 76.85 265.320 1.47 8.0 96.0 219.46 186.05 167.00 4.31 490.80 -15.0 180.25 Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries Total 2 2 12 12 5 5 3 3 14 14 5 5 3 3 15 15 4 4 3 3 16 16 4 4 200.38 -3.00 59.0 (Greece.72 Dailies Non-dailies -0.85 -4.0 131.00 0.292 1.69 2.288 1.0 180.a Number of titles 4.67 6.7 184.0 12.7 18.5 55.120 1.292 1. ZenithOptimedia 344 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .9 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 1.320 1.00 0.67 0.6 24.38 14.ab Gross domestic product per capita 1999 GDP per capita Source: IFS.5 213.00 4.00 14.9 10.00 27.0 1.29 Gross domestic product GDP 2000 (Greece.b Total average circulation per issue -4.0 205.8 226.2 56.58 (%) 2001 Cover prices (2006) Single copy Financial papers not included Total dailies 1.256 Morning paid-for dailies 467 454 460 474 477 Evening and afternoon 825 834 660 846 779 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 88 198 214 235 235 Regional and local 88 198 214 235 235 free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 204 156 194 367 325 National paid-for non-dailies 204 156 194 367 325 Total paid-for Sundays 40 47 24 227 236 National paid-for Sundays 40 47 24 227 236 2000 (Greece.80 61.0 61. 2006 ADNPA (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 221.8 -6.2 14. Discounts range from 15-25% Ad expenditure Source: IFS.43 -0.8 1.35 -6.486 1.00 0.29 0.00 0.4 10.47 134.5 55.43 27.6 14.7 19.04 -2.0 20.9 13.334 1.00 National paid-for Sundays 2. euro) min max Source: Athens Daily Newspaper Publishers Association.22 1.8 226.0 12.288 1.0 19.1 40.1 23.00 7.96 3.1 40.46 265.0 12.35 0.0 126.96 95 5 100 98 2 100 97 1 2 100 Newspaper reach (2006) 5. ZenithOptimedia 7.00 350.05 2003 5.63 4.13 -8.2 56.0 49.7 535.04 134.b Sales revenues (Greece.9 23.b 1999 6.00 0.256 National paid-for dailies 1.0 205. WAN assessment (free dailies) 3.1 23.aa Source: ADNPA - - 13 7 13 7 15 8 - 15.7 184. bln) 2001 2002 2003 2004 122.8 - Notes: All dailies except free press 5.32 Evening and afternoon 127 126.4 10.0 22.4 69.88 National paid-for dailies 221.92 2002 Source: ADNPA Age 8.0 99.5 213. ZenithOptimedia 4.4 56.6 189.00 6.1 55.0 5.0 1.79 2.555 1.8 -6.0 219.8 17.0 153.38 3.5 117 106.00 0.5 12.0 19.6 14.a - Age structure of readership (2006) (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 167.31 59.00 7.6 189.0 20.30 130.0 165.22 1.0 205.9 59.88 Morning paid-for dailies 94. euro.00 95 5 100 Source: ADNPA Source: ADNPA.5 96.00 8.5 100 All adults Men Women Main household shopper 62.63 2.29 14.15 National paid-for non-dailies 13.00 0.00 0.63 -7.7 26.80 186.8 183.d 0.491 Total paid-for dailies 1. euro.14 -5.2 17.6 Source: ADNPA Adults 18-70.0 12.0 Source: IFS. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays 126.8 1.2 17.9 23.9 76.7 535.4 56.380 1.15 Total paid-for Sundays 2.20 142.

0 94.A.0 27.367 1.25 - Format Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Broadsheet Tabloid Tabloid Source: ADNPA 8.8 National paid-for Sundays 122.669 Source: ADNPA Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Readership Ta Nea Kathimerini Eleftherotypia To Vima Ethnos Eleftheros Typos Sportday To Fos Ton Sport Protathlitis Sportime Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Greek Lambrakis Press S. Th.a Ad revenues include inserts.00 1.19 2002 - 90 10 100 90 10 100 88 12 100 7.A. classified.A.00 3. Television 5.25 2.0 27.0 77.A.A.000 35.0 138.088 EFG Eurobank 6.8 16. Metrorama Ltd Metropolis Publications S. C. M.918 7.8 20.050 1. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 118.1 13.3 34. WAN from public sources (circulation) 1 Athens.2 120. (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 22.0 150.64 18.608 23. 000) OPAP (Betting) 11.439 2.00 3.0 26.276 Multichoice Hellas 7. excludes production costs.00 1.0 128. ZenithOptimedia Includes agency commission (15%).900.0 79.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Advertiser Expenditure (Greece.316 Source: ADNPA 8.054 2.2 120.000 38.00 1.0 75.0 140.1 13. UP Publishing S.601.0 27.850 35.762 Lidl Hellas 5.400 25.75 0.25 2. Press Foundation Sportday S.231 281 338 393 628 712 838 718 726 793 90 103 121 14 14 14 324 325 276 2.541 Lexitel 6.ba 2001 - Display Inserts Total 51.0 128 150 -14.25 2. Nikolaidis S.45 0.00 1.75 0.0 Morning paid-for dailies Evening and afternoon paid-for dailies Total free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 31.19 17.139 332 807 693 94 15 265 2.291 1.527. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Total 909 1.0 18. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue (Greece.M.75 0.453 8.15 0.75 0.d 1998 Total circulation (000) 37. Up Publishing Sportsman Publishing (000) 68 60 59 51 43 36 35 23 22 21 (000) 197 99 192 85 179 131 188 154 Cover price usual max usual max (Greece.0 94.75 2. euro. Pegasus Publishing & Printing S.6 31.K.137 36. Nikolaidis S.A.197 12.45 1.c Advertising revenues (Greece.5 19. Th. Pegasus Publishing & Printing S.0 44.ba Advertising expenditure per medium 7.0 27.037 Modern Times 5.GREECE 7. before discounts 7.0 138. euro.A. Kathimerini S.0 77.A. First Theme S.200 34. excludes classified advertising. Circulation (000) Format 125 100 10 Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Source: ADNPA.75 0.3 15.A.335 2.A.00 1.0 140.664 Source: Amer Nielsen.00 3.25 2.A.25 2. Discounts range from 15-25% 2002 1999 Source: ADNPA Source: ADNPA 7. Tegopoulos S.67 77.473. euro.684.00 - 0.00 0.00 17.00 3.365 Alpha Sat.7 Expenditure (Greece.A.219 1.29 -14.809 Pireaus Bank 9.00 1.0 63.1 182.249 18.00 1. Media Services.00 1.00 2. 000) Financial organizations Entertainment Public sector Publishing Travels Office equipments Private cars Services Education Various shops Publisher Lambrakis Press S.5 National paid-for non-dailies 31.321 Agricultural Bank of Greece 4.161 National Bank of Greece 6.15 22.0 63.A.5 Total paid-for Sundays 122. Thessaloniki Athens 3 Athens 2 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 345 .00 1.A.1 - 123.9 43.M.75 0.444 365 390 418 447 854 901 949 997 725 740 755 775 100 106 112 118 16 17 18 19 275 285 296 308 2. Lambrakis Press S.A.8 182.435 1.589.e Contribution of display.2 23.64 - 1. Kathimerini S.00 3. production costs and agency commission.776 Source: ADNPA Top publishing companies (2006) Advertising volume sold In colour Total (%) 2000 8.00 3.1 26. Press Foundation Sportday S.218 2.0 National paid-for dailies 118.75 0.0 26. Daily Press S.206 1.A.205.568.097 13.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.29 22.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher City Press 1 Metro 2 Metropolis 3 Greek Greek Greek K.A. Publications S.099 38.P. Tegopoulos S.75 0.083 7.A.399 11.465. euro) (USD) 1.426. euro.548 2.0 123.

state-owned concerns. improved 640EUR/ton 11. TV) is prohibited.c Charge units deducted (applies for telephone discounts) The reductions apply on post for newspapers and magazines 3 Each newspaper is allowed a discount for monthly telephone charges based on its circulation Newsprint costs 2 2001 Average per ton 779 (Greece. Ownership details must be submitted annually under pain of imprisonment. Discounts (2005) Discount rate % 1 Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Other formats 30 7 25 - 30 6 26 - 53 8 32 8 - 79 12 64 6 163.a Newspaper colour capability & formats 14.5% or less.200.ba Distribution costs as a % of average cover price 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 26 35 17 26 35 18 26 35 18 26 35 18 26 35 18 Single copy sales Home deliveries Postal deliveries Source: ADNPA Reduction % National Regional Newspapers Newspapers - 80 79 72 61 53 25 90 89 86 80 77 62 17.A. Research Circulation is audited by There is no audited body. “main shareholder”.00 - - Post 2 up to 20 g up to 100 g up to 250 g up to 500 g up to 1.000–500. has been amended (or rather frozen) under EU pressure.000 g up to 2. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? Subsidies generally Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership.a So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. Ownership laws and rules The law 3310/2005.5 19 Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? No. According to the system introduced by the law 3310/2005 (that purports to implement art.GREECE 10.33 71. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? Shares may only be registered by individuals. of domestic daily newspapers? No Methodology Multistage stratified cluster sampling 12.a Source: 2001-2003 ADNPA.43 156. Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares.000 500.” Source: ADNPA 13.001+ Telegraph Telex Source: ADNPA 10. but the figures given by the two main agencies (Argos and Europe) are cheque by the pension funds of the newspaper employees. euro) 2002 2003 2004 620 575 2005 560 1 - 15.000 1.200. Article 24 of Law 1746/88 strictly compels registration except for foreign or domestic investment trusts holding 2.001–1. Article 40 of Law 1806/88 allows the court to scrutinise the finances of press and broadcast companies. the majority of shares. which had introduced strict limitations to media ownership.5 19 19 4.200. radio. According to the law 2328/1995 (article 1 paragraph 10) “Participation in more than two different media (press. and official political-party organs.000 g Telephone 3 110.5 4. Taxes (2006) Tax % VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant 4.001–4. 2005 Eleftherotypia 1 Standard.5 35 52 105 50 50 - - 1 10.200. as their income is depending on the copy sales revenue. no owner. member of the board or officeholder of any media Source: ADNPA 346 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 4. Readership is measured by FOCUS S. and in particular. 14 paragraph 9 of the Greek Constitution of 2001).

too. economic. of the same. Any use of offshore companies to hold participations in media companies was prohibited. banks etc. The new proposed legislation is based on the concept of “dominant position”. all companies who have business dealings with public-sector entities had to comply with similar mandatory requirements. Moreover. lest the earlier procedures that had been started before the ECJ be re-activated. the strict provisions of the earlier legislation will be used. A dominant position may be found when the audience share (circulation. The proposed draft law prohibits control of more than one electronic media (radio.GREECE company could have these same capacities in any company which enters into agreements with publicsector entities. As to what constitutes “control”. Information media are further split into those of “general content” and “specific scope” (political. A tight prohibition covers any agreements of public-sector entities with media companies or owners. 3) unjustified tied sales. fixed. TV) of the same category (information or other content). there are three possibilities: 1) direct or indirect price-fixing or other inequitable terms. the EU Commission has called upon Greece to reply to accusations. often circumvented). Cases are to be judged and sanctions to be imposed by the Competition Authority. Dominant position may be found also whenever advertising space or time grows above a threshold (regardless the content). viewership) in the relevant market is higher than a threshold to be 15. upon information that a dominant position exists and is abused on the part of the Radio-Television Authority. As “main shareholders” were deemed those who are among ten largest shareholders or who hold the largest voting blocks. The thresholds discussed vary around 30%-33%. As to when abuse may be found. while their shares had to be nominative/registered – and in case of participations through corporate entities. 2) application of unequal terms in similar situations. but sanctions for using dominant position arise only when there is an “abuse” of the dominant position. according to which it was again applying de facto the above mentioned restrictive provisions. “main shareholders” etc. As of March 2006. but allows up to 100% ownership on information media (while up to now there was a 25% ceiling. Sanctions may be also imposed in cases of concentration or of collusive practices (the turnover thresholds for concentration are to be fixed). The relevant market may be geographic (nationalregional-local). or content-based (information or other). sports. Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Regional TV Licensees - Not allowed Allowed Allowed National TV Licensees Not allowed - Allowed Allowed Regional Newspaper Owners Allowed Not allowed - Allowed National Newspaper Owners Not allowed Not allowed Allowed - Satellite TV Broadcasters Not allowed Not allowed Allowed Allowed up to 25% up to 25% Allowed Allowed Foreign Investors WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 347 . In April 2006. or possess more than one percent of the capital. etc). Is further regulation of media concentration expected? See answer to the question 4. or technological (broadcast or subscription). with partial wavers for foreign companies and mutual funds. the Government aired a new draft law. which is to be introduced to Parliament before summer 2006.b Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? See answer to the question 4. the shares of such companies had to be nominative.

500.000 copies nationwide. The inflation rate was estimated at 1. first as a local newspaper for the Nuuk area. There are no daily newspapers in Greenland.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 2 National paid-for non-dailies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.00 0. WAN from public sources 2.The World Factbook. Two national newspapers are published. published in Qaqortoq and covering South Greenland. It is published twice a week – Tuesdays and Fridays – and has a circulation of 3. It is published once a week. krone. plays the dominant role in the economy. Source: CIA . Sermitsiaq was established in 1957. The public sector.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 14 39 4 57 Male Female 000 % 000 % 7 21 2 30 23 70 7 100 25 68 7 100 7 18 2 27 26 67 7 100 Source: CIA . circulating 4. 2005 Statistics Greenland 7. The two local newspapers in Greenlandic and Danish. Performance of newspapers vs.00 Source: 2002-2004. Gronlandsposten/AG was established in 1861 and published in the Greenlandic language only. Programmes are several towns and settlements.6% in 1999.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 348 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . which supplies about half of government revenues. 2006 WAN from public sources. Performance of different types of newspapers and Iluliarmioq published in Ilulissat.2 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 3. with the largest circulation are Kujataamiu Nutaaq. including publicly-owned enterprises and the municipalities.00 0. other media Kalaallit Nunaata Radio broadcasts daily radio and TV Local papers are published more or less regularly in programmes to the whole of Greenland.aa Gross domestic product 1997 GDP - (Denmark. bln) 1998 1999 2000 - - - 2001 9. In 1952 the paper became bilingual (Greenlandic and Danish). both have their head offices in Nuuk.00 0.GREENLAND Media Market Description General economic situation The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government.

together with the development of an offshore financial industry. Performance of newspapers vs. dollar.The World Factbook 3.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 349 . other media The privately owned Grenadian Broadcasting Network (GBN).000). 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 7.The World Factbook. There are five weekly newspapers and several other newspapers that are published irregularly. and Grenada Guardian. the government launched the Government Information Service.000). The leading publications are the Grenada Voice (circulation 3. government–sponsored events. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 - - - 1. speeches. have also contributed to growth in national output.GRENADA Media Market Description General economic situation Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange. All three are privately owned. with a minority government share. Grenada Today (5.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 30 57 3 90 Male Female 000 % 000 % 15 30 1 46 33 65 2 100 33 63 3 100 15 27 2 44 34 61 5 100 Source: CIA . Performance of different types of newspapers The country has no daily newspapers. A cable TV company operates in most areas of the country. Source: CIA .2 Source: CIA . The inflation rate was estimated at 3% in 2005.aa Gross domestic product 1998 GDP - (East Caribbean. additional outlets are privately owned. WAN from public sources 2. a television channel for public service announcements. owns the principal radio and TV stations. In September 2005. and sessions of parliament.67 25.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for non-dailies 3 4 4 4 5 66. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing.

00 Source: WAN from public sources 7. Light industry features sugar and rum production.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies - - 2 2 2 - 0.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Le Pélican French Circulation (000) 2 Source: WAN from public sources Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. Le Pélican newspaper is produced by a former journalist of FaxInfo. The newspaper is available at newspaper stands on the French side of the island from Monday to Friday. although Guadeloupe is still dependent on imported food.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 107 304 42 453 24 67 9 100 Male 000 % 55 151 18 224 25 67 8 100 Female 000 % 52 153 24 229 23 67 10 100 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 350 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .00 Source: 2002-2003 WAN assessment. a daily news bulletin.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 0. eggplant. an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit the islands. and services. The objective of the newspaper is to inform the French speaking population on what is taking place on the island. euro.The World Factbook 8. and flowers. Hurricanes periodically devastate the economy.aa Gross domestic product (Euro Member Countries. with most tourists from the US. bln) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 GDP - - - - 3. It also depends on France for large subsidies and imports. WAN from public sources 3. such as bananas (which now supply about 50% of export earnings). mainly from France. is simultaneously published during the winter for visitors.00 0. Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for local consumption. Performance of different types of newspapers The first daily French newspaper in St. Le Journal de Saint-Barth is a weekly French-language local newspaper. Source: indexmundi.GUADELOUPE Media Market Description General economic situation This Caribbean economy depends on agriculture. entitled St-Barth Weekly.com. The traditional sugarcane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops. An abbreviated English version. tourism.1 Source: CIA . Most manufactured goods and fuel are imported. and in the mornings is sold in the streets by vendors at different locations. light industry. 2004-2006 WAN from public sources 3.00 0. Unemployment is especially high among the young. Martin was launched in 2004. Tourism is a key industry.

geared Performance of newspapers vs. Source: CIA .b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 0.The World Factbook 8. dollar.00 0. was established in 1970 as the successor to the Guam Daily News. The inflation rate was estimated at 2. 2005-2006 WAN from public sources 7.The World Factbook.00 Source: 2002-2004 WAN estimate. which Broadcasting is regulated by the US Federal focuses on the Naval community.00 0. The PDN publishes two spinoff weeklies.5% in 2005. BBC.a 1 Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 50 110 11 171 29 64 6 100 Male 000 % 26 56 5 87 30 64 6 100 Morning newspaper.00 0.00 0.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.00 0. other media towards military personnel: The Navigator.5 Source: CIA . serving the Air Force community. the Pacific Daily News (PDN). the tourist industry has grown to become the largest income source following national defense. Over the past 30 years.00 0.GUAM Media Market Description General economic situation The economy depends largely on US military spending and tourism.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 1 National paid-for dailies 1 Total paid-for non-dailies 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0. WAN from public sources 3.The World Factbook WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 351 . bln) 2002 2003 2004 - - - 2005 2. and The Pacific Edge. Performance of different types of newspapers The only daily newspaper.00 0.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP - (USA.00 0. published seven days a week Female 000 % 24 54 6 84 29 64 7 100 Source: CIA .ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Pacific Daily News 1 English Map: CIA – The World Factbook Gannett Corporation Circulation (000) Format) 20 Tabloid Source: WAN from public sources 2. Communictions Commission (FCC).

068 7 5 28 38 22 100 Male 000 % 211 151 844 1. Two state TV channels are licensed but are not broadcasting.145 663 3. Multivex. owners of businesses or sources of income. sugar. medium-ranked executives 4 D = grade school graduates.b Population by social class and sex (2004) Social class A+B 1 C1 2 C2 3 D4 E5 Total All individuals 000 % 425 303 1.014 7 5 28 38 22 100 Female 000 % 214 153 855 1. other media the street hawkers will then place their orders based on Private operators dominate the media scene. the more copies they will order.GUATEMALA Media Market Description General economic situation The agricultural sector accounts for about one-fourth of GDP. Media / Press Laws On February 1.335 6.054 7 5 28 38 22 100 Source: INE. holding that these articles produced in a tabloid size. post-graduates.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 5. CNSS. Coffee.468 225 6. professionals.161 672 3. ZenithOptimedia 1 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 352 A+B = university graduates. high-level administrative employees 2 C1 = high school or university graduates.479 3.822 420 12.122 42 55 3 100 Female 000 % 2. two-fifths of exports. Verified Audit Circulation 2. no steady employment WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .354 195 6. Source: CIA . Most include color on nearly violated freedom of expression guaranteed in the every page. All of Guatemala City’s daily newspapers circulate throughout the country.constitution.6% in 2006. some owners of medium-sized businesses 3 C2 = grade school or high school graduates. with direct. Remittances from a large expatriate community that moved to the United States during the war have become an important source of foreign exchange. all in Spanish. and nearly all circulation is paid. The more exciting the front national TV channels share the same owner and have page. Four the front-page content.699 2.172 40 56 4 100 Source: CIA . Circulation Press run for some of the newspapers is not determined until the editorial department lets the circulation department know what will appear on the front page the next morning.306 1. and half of the labor force. mostly by sectoristas (street hawkers). businessmen.294 41 55 3 100 Male 000 % 2. unskilled auxiliary or dependent workers in specialised activities 5 E = little or no education. 2006. US State Department. BBC. are disrespect for public officers. This typically happens late at night and Performance of newspapers vs. the Constitutional Court declared Performance of different types of newspapers void three articles of the Penal Code that criminalized Guatemala’s daily newspapers. Thomson Gale. and bananas are the main products.573 3. The inflation rate was estimated at 6. private or public business executives.The World Factbook.052 6. to-the-reader sales. a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting. small industrialists.The World Factbook 2.

ba Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 7 8 9 10 10 42.A.3 2 2006 477.June 30.ab Circulation (000) 1 Source: WAN from public sources. Source: Verified Audit Circulation WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 353 . The organization which represents the Central American country’s leading advertising agencies. has audited five daily newspapers in Guatemala City since 1999. 2003-2005 WAN estimate 3. Research Circulation is audited by Verified Audit Circulation from California.0 485. Circulation: Verified Audit Circulation. Unión Guatemalteca de Agencias de Publicidad (UGAP).00 Source: 2002.A.S. quetzal. U. ZenithOptimedia Gross domestic product per capita 1998 GDP per capita Source: IFS. 2004 .S.3 Source: IFS.00 Source: WAN assessment 7.. 2006 WAN from public sources.1 14.88 10.GUATEMALA 3. encouraged the newspapers to have their circulations audited.1 July 1. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 461. 2005 Evening newspaper 11.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 320 400 450 500 550 71.a Number of titles 8. California.aa (Guatemala.86 0. Gross domestic product GDP Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title - (Guatemala. ZenithOptimedia Format 280 125 38 23 23 - Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Tabloid Nuestro Diario Prensa Libre Al Dia El Periodico Siglo Veintiuno El Grafico La Republica Diario de Centro America La Hora 2 El Metropolitano 1 2002 7. 000) 1999 2000 2001 - 13. the U. quetzal.1 2002 15.

Internet and political party. commercial operators competed for listeners in this key sector. In fact. BBC. Conakry. Typically. revocation of press cards. private radio stations began A restrictive press law allows the government to censor broadcasting. the airwaves and licensed private radio broadcasters in early 2006. Sanctions included fines. purportedly to (CNC) suspended several newspapers. although technical difficulties and high operating costs impeded regular publication. imprisonment. the Horoya. and availability remained major constraints to use by a broad range of citizens. the infrastructure is found to be the There were 10 private newspapers published weekly in least developed in the entire West Africa region. More than a dozen private newspapers Printing & Distribution publish either weekly or sporadically and are critical of Infrastructure is a main problem for the press in Guinea. music. WAN from public sources 354 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .GUINEA Media Market Description General economic situation The country possesses almost half of the bauxite reserves in the world and is the second-largest bauxite producer. but only a small minority of the population used the technology. for CIA . was affiliated with the governing and air network. During the year 12 it considered seditious. electricity. including the encourage private media. With various formats initially focusing on publications. literacy. and can last for days or even weeks. The mining sector accounts for over 70% of exports. Chronic paper shortages further limit the press strongly. Guinea’s National Communication Council to 37 of 58 registered private newspapers. public peace or security. One In addition to distribution limitations due to a poor road newspaper. established defamation and rural and community radio stations continued slander as criminal offenses. L’Espoir. The government agreed to open up religious subjects. The government does not permit media ownership by political parties and religious institutions but did not The government continued to operate official television restrict broadcasting programming on political and and radio stations. telephone. or disturbed the were operational. but the standard of living fell. as well as the country’s largest damages to the network by lightening. Power cuts are frequent supported opposition parties. for the first time in the Media / Press Laws country’s history. only privately owned daily newspaper Le Quotidien. even Conakry. incited eight license applications for private radio stations.The World Factbook. The government published an official daily newspaper. Growth rose slightly in 2006. the government. were available both in State Support print and electronic format. In August 2006. Radio remained the most important The government prohibited talk or chants in public that source of information for the public. and several other newspapers openly paper supplies are critical factors. five violence. Foreign publications. are state-controlled and offer little coverage of the opposition and scant criticism of Ownership the government. where no newspapers reach far out from the capital. primarily due to increases in global demand and commodity prices on world markets. In September 2006. US State Department.000 (400 million Guinea francs) In 2006. and prohibited operating. The inflation rate was estimated at 27% in 2006. the National Communications Council (CNC) announced financial subsidies of Newspaper launches / closures approximately USD79. some of which criticized the government on a regular basis. and Performance of different types of newspapers banishment. and only daily newspaper. the monopolist state telecom provider cuts Performance of newspapers vs. Online / Digital Publishing The Internet was available for use by all citizens. and up to 10 other publications appeared compared to war-affected countries. Cost. articles published that were considered libelous or nonfactual. or hatred. At year’s end the government had accepted communications that insulted the president. discrimination. afrol News Canarias SA and the Editors Forum of West Africa. other media Internet supply during the frequent rain storms to avoid Radio and TV stations. sporadically.

a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.11 Source: US State Department WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 355 .00 0.a 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 4.300 5.GUINEA 3.00 0.a Subsidies generally Are there any direct subsidies? Yes Source: US State Department 13.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.4 98.aa Gross domestic product (Guinea.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 25 25 25 25 25 0.The World Factbook 8. franc.847 45 52 3 100 Female 000 % 2.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.0 - -11.589.084 306 9.690 Source: CIA . bln) 2003 2004 2005 2002 GDP - - 2006 43.843 44 53 4 100 13.128 2.178.543 172 4.541 134 4.511.00 0.172 2.0 400.7 Source: CIA .5 75.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.00 0.b Direct subsidies (Guinea. franc. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total amount - - - 450.The World Factbook 44 52 3 100 Language Publisher Horoya (Liberty) Le Quotidien French French Government - Circulation (000) 15 - Source: WAN from public sources Population by age and sex (2006) Age Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Male 000 % 2.

not least the lack of a reliable power supply. the repression of the free media .aa Gross domestic product (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc BCEAO. several private newspapers published without restriction. equipment. Rice is the major crop and staple food. Broadcasters face many challenges. Government drift and indecision have resulted in continued low growth in 2002-06. All Online / Digital Publishing newspapers published sporadically during the year due Lack of infrastructure. breakdowns.4 581.4 Source: CIA . US State Department.which has Performance of different types of newspapers been the normality since before independence and until There are no daily newspapers. There are few signs that this will change in the near future.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 000 Male % 597 802 43 1. a high degree of poverty and the lack of aid for the press. The inflation rate was estimated at 4% in 2002. In addition to the 2003 . afrol News Canarias SA and the Editors Forum of West Africa 2. both to all major urban centres. This instability on the media scene is strongly connected to the country's poor infrastructure.The World Factbook. and a national television station. owned printing house. all newspapers manage to distribute the Gazeta de Noticias and the Correio de Bissau. technical CIA .The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 356 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . government owned newspaper No Pintcha.has ceased.0 650. Performance of newspapers vs. BBC.442 298 384 18 700 43 55 3 100 41 56 3 100 Female 000 % 299 418 25 742 40 56 3 100 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 7. The most regular independent newspapers published in Bissau are In the small country. and education to financial constraints and dependence on the state severely limited access to the Internet.GUINEA-BISSAU Media Market Description General economic situation Guinea-Bissau depends mainly on farming and fishing exporting fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts. a national radio station. On the other hand. problems at printing facilities and financial bottlenecks however impede them from being totally regular. Printing & Distribution Guinea-Bissau remains the country of the West Africa The national printing press often lacked raw materials. region where newspapers are most irregular. Guinea-Bissau further has a long history of the establishment and later bankruptcy of private media. other media There were several independent radio stations. International radio broadcasts operated without restriction. and timber. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 GDP - - 561. weeklies. Elevated telecom prices and irregular services hinder the use of the Internet (dial-up) for research and publication. Prolonged and frequent power cuts. palm kernals.

00 Source: WAN from public sources 3. and serves the Demerara.400 - 75.6 2006 687.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 50. US State Department.00 50.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age All individuals 000 % 0-14 15-64 65 + Total 201 526 40 767 Male 26 69 5 100 Female 000 % 000 % 102 265 17 384 27 69 4 100 99 261 23 383 26 68 6 100 Source: CIA .600 - Source: WAN from public sources 1 The newspaper is located in Georgetown.00 0. as well as a variety of privately owned weekly newspapers published by religious groups. the capital. dollar) Stabroek News 1 Guyana Publications Inc.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies 13 13 30 30 30 30 32 32 32 32 146.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Guyana. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 501.00 Source: WAN estimate 7. WAN from public sources 2. Radio Paiwomak.The World Factbook. constrained the broadcast media. primarily in the raw materials sector. Kaietuer News Guyana Chronicle Government 15 7 77 - 50.15 146. The inflation rate was estimated at 6% in 2006.The World Factbook 3. The entrance of Guyana into the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) in January 2006 will broaden the export market of the country. which are the only media that reach the entire country. Performance of different types of newspapers Performance of newspapers vs. other media Apart from the state-owned daily newspaper.15 0.The World Factbook Map: CIA – The World Factbook 8. and Berbice counties WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 357 .00 0. and others. News. Esequibo. A third station.8 Source: CIA . the Stabroek News and the Kaieteur government. political Government limits on licensing and expansion sharply parties.GUYANA Media Market Description General economic situation The InterAmerican Development Bank in November 2006 canceled the nearly USD400 million debt of Guyana with the Bank. owned and operated two radio stations broadcasting on several frequencies. there are two privately owned channel. The The government operates radio services and a TV Guyana Chronicle. Private TV stations freely criticise the independent dailies. dollar. operated under the license of the government-operated National Communications Network as a community radio station with a limited broadcast area in the hinterland Rupununi region. The government Source: CIA .00 0. BBC.ba Top paid-for dailies (2005) Title Publisher Circulation Readership Full page ad rate Mono Color (000) (000) (Guyana.6 551.

with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty. gourde.4% in 2006.8% in 2006. and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters.ba Map: CIA – The World Factbook Top paid-for dailies (2005) Title Publisher Le Matin Le Nouvelliste Le Nouveau Matin S.302 159 4.00 0.9 2006 531. There Haitians circulate in Port-au-Prince.00 Source: WAN from public sources 3.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 3. including natural disasters. the highest growth rate since 1999.202 125 4.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP - (Haiti.29 0. providing a full spectrum of political views. other media There is virtually no Creole-language press. There are three partisan weeklies distributed in Haiti and the United States: the Haiti Observateur.HAITI Media Market Description General economic situation Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. and Haiti En Marche.504 284 8. exacerbated widespread deforestation. they are subject to a law designating the state as the sole owner and proprietor of the airwaves.2 599. A macroeconomic program developed in 2005 with the help of the International Monetary Fund helped the economy grow 1. mainly small-scale subsistence farming. are more than 250 private radio stations.521 4.A.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 2 2 2 2 2 0.9 Source: CIA .The World Factbook 358 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 7 7 8 8 8 14. Several Radio is Haiti’s most important information medium. Source: CIA . Le Nouvelliste and Le Matin. The inflation rate was estimated at 14. BBC. Performance of different types of newspapers There are two French-language daily newspapers. retaining preemption rights in the event of a national emergency. - Circulation (000) 5 - Source: WAN from public sources 2. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the argiculture sector.771 2. Haiti Progrés.211 42 55 4 100 Source: CIA . The state leases broadcast rights to private enterprises.The World Factbook. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - 454.098 43 54 3 100 Female 000 % 1750 2.309 42 54 3 100 Male 000 % 1.The World Factbook 8. Performance of newspapers vs. Although radio stations are nominally independent. WAN from public sources 3. weeklies and monthlies produced by foreign-based access to the press is limited by low literacy levels.

ZenithOptimedia 1 A = income greater than Lps 150.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2000) 7.00 8.0 2006 403.7 (Honduras. 2003 WAN estimate 0.9 Source: IFS.5 7. Growth remains dependent on the economy of the US.0 Source: SPC Source: Rivera Research.1 7. other media Media freedom in Honduras is limited by punitive defamation laws.000 a month 3. and the first to use computers in publishing to achieve computer pagination 2 Established November 7.aa Gross domestic product 2002 GDP (Honduras.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 6 6 4 4 4 -33. bln) 2003 2004 2005 - - 328.g Top newspaper advertisers (2000) Advertising sector Expenditure (Honduras. lempira.8 9. 2004-2006 WAN from public sources.491 2. The government influenced media coverage of its activities through the granting or denial of access to government officials. 000) 1999 2000 2001 2002 Source: CIA .7% in 2006. lempira) 1 50 - 7.000-35. first to print full color pages. US State Department. 1964. mln) 20.921 4.077 114 3.964 3.000-10.682 40 56 3 100 1430 2. Source: CIA .1 15.155 251 7. The inflation rate was estimated at 5.ab Gross domestic product per capita 1998 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2.4 435.000 a month E = income less than Lps 2.027 3.00 6.000-150. BBC 3.The World Factbook 2.00 - Format Tabloid - Source: WAN from public sources 1 Established October 26.327 40 57 3 100 Male Female 000 % 000 % 1.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies 200 200 160 160 160 -20.a GDP per capita Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 2.000 a month.1 19.339 10 30 61 100 7.The World Factbook.559 10 30 60 100 - - 13.645 39 57 4 100 Source: CIA .ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title La Prensa La Tribuna El Heraldo Tiempo 2 Circulation (000) Cover price (Honduras. La Prensa was the first newspaper in Honduras to use offset.8 14.00 0.000 a month 3 D = income between 2. Performance of newspapers vs. ZenithOptimedia Male Female 000 % 000 % 341 973 1. creating a situation in which the media was so closely interrelated and linked to the political system that the powerful magnates strongly influenced the news agenda and thereby elections and political decisions. B+C1 = income between Lps 35. lempira. but in recent years has experienced a rapid rise in exports of light manufacturers.906 3220 11 30 59 100 320 992 2. its largest trading partner. 1970 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 359 .8 12. lempira. lempira. These require journalists to reveal sources in certain cases. A small number of powerful business magnates with intersecting commercial.7 16. political.078 137 3.b Population by social class and sex (2004) Age A+B+C1 1 C2 2 DE 3 Total All individuals 000 % 662 1.9 15. making it vulernable to natural disasters and shifts in commodity prices. and family ties owned most of the country’s news media.33 Source: 2002.000 a month 2 C2 = income between Lps 10.933 6.00 Source: WAN estimate 7.The World Factbook 7.00 6.9 7.HONDURAS Media Market Description General economic situation The economy relies heavily on a narrow range of exports. mln) Advertiser State Banking Supermarkets Electrodomestic stores Newspapers Department stores Movies Fast food Political Malls La Colonia Estado Cerveceria Hondurena Diunsa Diario La Prensa Celtel La Curacao Burger King Televicentro Pizza Hut 38 36 35 23 19 18 18 16 12 11 Source: SPC Expenditure (Honduras. notably bananas and coffee.1 9.

The free newspapers collected a combined HKD774 million or 10 per cent of all newspaper advertising dollars in the first half of 2006. retained its place atop the category with HKD342 million in advertising. up 50 per cent from the previous interests on the mainland. 15 cover mainly local price war came to an end in May 2006 when Oriental and overseas general news. the public service broadcaster. the Hong Kong registered in October 2005 when it cut its cover price from HKD6 press included 21 Chinese-language dailies. making them vulnerable to half-year. with many papers fighting for respondents believed the media practised self-censorship. bilingual dailies and five in Japanese. The seven-month Chinese-language newspaper Of the Chinese-language dailies. and a return of consumer confidence resulted in the resumption of strong growth from late 2003 through 2006. in particular in the United States. Its two competitors both debuted in July 2005. falling an average 11 per cent to about 300.6 billion in the same period last year. Am730. USA Today International. eight Apple Daily’s circulation suffered most in the price war. up 8 per cent from a year earlier.2% in 2006. running sensational headlines and big photos of scantily clad young women. Headline Daily. a 90 per cent gain compared with the first six months of its existence. Free dailies cut an increasingly large chunk of revenue from the traditional newspapers. the original free paper. four specialise in finance.3 billion. the United Kingdom and Australia. Metro. and some have editions printed outside Hong marketing director Agnes Chan. Hong Kong is the base for a number of regional publications such as Far Eastern Economic Review (which changed from a weekly to a monthly publication) and business and trade magazines. The Sun daily sparked Performance of different types of newspapers a price war among Chinese-language newspapers As of September 30. Moreover.4 per cent share in the preceding six months. Kong. it is a regional broadcasting hub with 13 licensees uplinking over 100 satellite television channels for the regional market. A solid rise in exports.to HKD3 to “celebrate the daily’s seventh anniversary”. self-censorship. 2006. Canada. other media Hong Kong viewers and listeners have access to over 200 local and overseas television channels in various languages through free-to-air terrestrial and satellite reception or pay television services. a member of the Sing Tao News stable. total newspaper advertising revenue in the first six months 2006 was HKD8. 14 English. Performance of newspapers vs. according to Nielsen Media. according to Nielsen. 360 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 copies a day. in conjunction with the Hong Kong Society for the Blind.HONG KONG Media Market Description General economic situation Hong Kong has a free market economy highly dependent on international trade. several large initial public offerings of Chinese companies on the Hong Kong stock exchange since late 2005 have helped to boost the status of Hong Kong as a financial hub and have contributed to the improved performance of the market in late 2006. The inflation rate was estimated at 2.” said free daily am730 networks. raked in Most media outlets were owned by businesses with HKD211 million. owned by property-agency magnate Shih Wing-ching. scoops. International Herald Tribune and Nihon Keizai Shimbun are printed here. but Hong Kong suffered two recessions in the past eight years because of the Asian financial crisis in 1997-1998 and the global downturn in 2001-2002. the rest cover horse racing. The larger papers include “The market competition remains fierce as the free overseas Chinese communities in their distribution dailies’ circulation is going up. one English daily and four One of the English dailies publishes a daily Braille bilingual dailies are published on the Internet. a boom in tourism from the mainland because of the easing of travel restrictions by China. and 14 radio channels provided by two commercial broadcasters and Radio Television Hong Kong. At the same time. compared with HKD572 million of revenue or a 6. The Financial Times. Circulation In 2005 the University of Hong Kong conducted Observers say competition in the Hong Kong market a public opinion poll that said that 50 percent of is becoming excessive. Online / Digital Publishing Two Chinese dailies. versus HKD7. and Press Group’s the Sun raised its cover price to USD4. Terrestrial television broadcasters are migrating to digital broadcasting and the Government is updating the regulatory regime in the light of technological and market convergence. Advertising Both the free papers and the Chinese-language quality dailies outpaced the average 8 per cent growth in Hong Kong newspaper advertising in the first half 2006. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% from 1989 to 2006. language dailies (including one of them in Braille). On a pre-discount basis. garnered HKD221 million in the first half of 2006. The Wall Street Journal Asia. edition.

The World Factbook.5 70.08 4.a Newspaper reach (2005) (%) Reached All adults 75 Source: Nielsen Media Research.3 Source: AC Nielsen 2.6 69. managers.9 65.a Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies International paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies 50 49 46 3 1 - 50 49 46 3 1 23 50 49 46 3 1 23 52 49 46 3 3 - 54 51 48 3 3 - 8. South China Morning Post.35 0.b Population by social class and sex (2005) Age A+B C1 D E Total All individuals 000 % 1.b % of readership % daily reach within age group 12-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 3 11 15 20 16 4 3 56. The Asahi Shimbun Households (occupancy) (2004) 2.220 100 Source: HKSAR 3. and unskilled white collar with secondary education or below.334 3. D = skilled white & blue collar with some secondary education or below.1 78.00 4.7 64.936 14 13 15 19 17 9 12 100 Male 000 % 519 455 469 587 579 328 389 3. E = unskilled blue collar with secondary education or below. other data WAN assessment 2.35 0. US State Department. WAN from public sources 3.118 1.2 77.65 -3.323 1.00 0.85 4.77 Source: 2005-2006 HK ABC (free dailies).049 1.216 302. the Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance guards against the inclusion of obscene materials in print and other media not regulated by the Broadcasting Ordinance.325 16 14 14 18 17 10 12 100 Female 000 % 486 454 579 737 600 307 448 3.HONG KONG Media / Press Laws The publishing or importation of print or other media in Hong Kong are subject to regulation by a few provisions to safeguard the interest of readers.178 555 1. C1 = skilled white & blue collar with secondary education completed. unskilled white & blue collar with secondary education completed or above. CIA . ZenithOptimedia Age structure of readership (2004) 5.216 2.355 35 17 33 15 100 Male 000 % 671 394 454 188 1.648 31 10 40 20 100 Source: Nielsen Media Research.b Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies Total free dailies Map: CIA – The World Factbook 302 308 323 3. ZenithOptimedia Definition of adult status: AB = professionals. AsiaMedia.707 39 23 27 11 100 Female 000 % 507 161 653 327 1.00 200.ca Occupancy Total Households 000 % 2.005 909 1.00 - Source: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.00 - 3. For example. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.178 635 836 6.54 -9.611 13 13 16 20 17 9 12 100 5. executives and skilled white & blue collar with post-secondary education or above.08 4.a Population by age and sex (2005) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1.107 515 3.216 2000 1. ZenithOptimedia Source: Census & Statistics Dept.75 8. aged 18-64 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 361 .

70 12.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 1.159 9.c Revenue (Hong Kong.706 4. 000) Expenditure (Hong Kong.072 Headline Daily 256.30 June 2006 8.247. 000) 274.139 7. dollar.aa Gross domestic product 2001 GDP (Hong Kong.215 628 6 719 114 14. distributed from Monday to Friday (except for public holidays).174 Apple Daily 1.656 5.422 2. Kerry Media Ltd.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Headline Daily 1 Metropolis Daily 2 Language Publisher Circulation (000) Chinese Sing Tao Newspaper Group Chinese Metro Publishing HK Ltd.021 623.457 688 24 845 78 14.285 191 26.689 672 3 1.575 1.389 217. includes agency commission 1.116 6.410 7700 6.535 121.39 1.442 15.1 178.ba 2004 185.372 Launched July 12.310.30 June 2006 1 January .ab Refers to newspaper owners Gross domestic product per capita 2000 GDP per capita 189. dollar.148 South China Morning Post 302.493 8.156 178 25.612 1.0 1.039 128.c Media consumption Top owners (2005) 2001 Radio Television Internet (minutes per day) 2002 2003 2004 - - - Owners 2005 - Oriental Daily News 2. dollar. 000) 2001 2002 2003 184. such as big shopping malls owned by MTR Corporation Limited like Paradise Mall.13 1. television. excludes production costs. ZenithOptimedia 7. dollar.615 884 2 2.658 2.060 181.220.157 858 2 2. mln) Change (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004/00 2004/03 All newspapers (A+B+C+D) 11.254 Apple Daily The Sun Chinese Chinese South China Morning Post Sing Tao Daily English Chinese Ming Pao Daily News The Wall Street Journal Asia Sing Pao Daily News Hong Kong Daily News Hong Kong Economic Times Chinese English Chinese Chinese Chinese Circulation (000) Format Oriental Press Group Ltd.962 809 2 1.1 (Hong Kong. internet: ZenithOptimedia 7.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Hong Kong.7 173.680 Hong Kong Economic Times 1.835 7.815 AM 730 244.974 Ming Pao Daily News 669.479 560.30 September 2006 4 1 January .391.608 13.0 1.598 577.013.439 833 2 1. WAN from public sources 603 333 280 1 (Hong Kong.592 3. bln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 1. dollar.153 13.911 165 23. Telford Plaza.7 Source: Nielsen Media Research. - 500 - 297 1 200 - 104 2 100 Broadsheet - 81 3 81 4 80 80 75 - 1 January . dollar.153 Sun News 921.608 Metro 388.291 14.509 12.779 Sing Tao Daily 781.0 1.g Top newspaper advertisers (2004) Advertising sector Expenditure (Hong Kong. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 8.055 29. formerly called Metro Daily News.556 11.0 1.270.609 735.912 599.344 191.30 June 2006 3 1 July . 000) Advertiser Real estate Travel Pharmaceuticals Household goods Company notices & ann. Store Watson's Super Store Wellcome Supermarket Park'n Shop Hong Tai Travel Compliment ads HSBC Vital Impact Wing on Travel Bank of China 362 Chinese 2 Advertising revenues Source: Nielsen Media Research. ZenithOptimedia 7.0 8.717 7. Miscellaneous Retail Estate agents Mobile communication Education Mannings Dept.024 8. Free Dailies Newsletter.225.044 1.783 2. 2002. and Luk Yeung Galleria 3 Launched in July 2005 4 An English section 2 11.318 6.178 159.00 Source: AC Nielsen (at ratecard) (A+B+C+D) = total dailies + total non-dailies + total Sundays + online newspapers 7.899 6.382 8. dollar. ZenithOptimedia 7.418 9. ZenithOptimedia Source: IFS.399 10.48 Source: IFS. Sing Tao Newspaper Group Ltd.466 716.220. Research Circulation is audited by Hong Kong Audit Bureau of Circulations (HKABC) Source: Nielsen Media Research WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .732 152 22.17 1.975 3. Next Media Oriental Press Group Ltd. / English 4 (Metro International) am730 3 Chinese Centaline Holdings Source: HK ABC.135 3.136 198. ZenithOptimedia 7. WAN from public sources 13.42 1.441 790 2 1.535 Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Source: HK ABC.395 Source: HK Adex SRG.562 855.903 9. 2005 Launched April 15.150 12.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2005) 7. by hand or from the newspaper stands in 49 Mass Transit Railway stations and 11 other key central locations. ZenithOptimedia Language Publisher Oriental Daily News 1 After discounts. excludes classified advertising.HONG KONG 5.983 164.398.263.5 Source: IFS.161.013 123 17.252 1.403 89 254 117 Source: Radio: Nielsen Media Research.045 139 19.358 139.443 9.311 9.

HUNGARY Media Market Description General economic situation Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy.264 8.higher managerial.772 4. Cable TV and the Internet increased their advertising revenues by 40% in 2006 compared to 2005.450 588 1.ca Occupancy 1 person 2 people 3 people 4 people 5 or more people Total Households 000 % 1. grow in volumes. The current government has announced and begun to implement an austerity program designed to address these issues.040 6. and tackling a persistent trade deficit. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP.435 1. International observers. Printing & Distribution In May 2006. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008. a company taking over the dailies’ operations from the National Post Office from January 2007. have expressed concerns over Hungary’s fiscal and current account deficits.265 1. such as events and direct marketing. together with Fiege. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the EU in May 2004. with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-25 average.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 1. Hungary’s labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). CIA . Below-the-line activities. Germany is by far Hungary’s largest economic partner.475 3.984 17 7 19 19 37 100 Female 000 % 755 309 955 728 1.726 1. however.572 15 74 11 100 Female 000 % 820 4. Performance of newspapers vs.b Population by social class and sex (2006) Social class A+B C1 C2 D E1 Total All adults 000 % 1.697 14 71 14 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Male 000 % 840 4.120 612 5. and junior managerial. administrative or professional C2 = Skilled working class .503 17 7 20 17 38 100 Male 000 % 696 279 770 747 1.5% in 2006. Advertising Television receives the majority of big contracts. from about 6.state pensioners or widows (no other earners) Households (occupancy) (2006) 2. Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete.519 17 7 21 16 39 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 1 Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. Hungary issues investmentgrade sovereign debt.652 11. administrative or professional C1 = Lower middle class . with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than USD60 billion since 1989. while the VAT on newspapers and magazines dropped from 15% to 5%.intermediate managerial.557 984 8.698 2.supervisory or clerical.Semi and unskilled manual workers E = Those at lowest levels of subsistence . while print handles smaller advertisements. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread. other media Television has been strengthened by new cable channels.385 1.The World Factbook 2. Unemployment has persisted above 6%. leading to eventual adoption of the euro.503 20 29 22 18 12 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 363 .492 3. Taxes The average VAT was reduced from 25% to 20% in January 2006. administrative or professional B = Middle class . Performance of different types of newspapers Regional dailies hold their position on the readership market.829 1.660 8.Skilled manual workers D = Working class . Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3. Online / Digital Publishing Some regional and national newspaper try to find the right technical and financial method to run their online versions.7% in 2006. three major publishers established a new subscription-distribution company.125 13 70 17 100 Including respondents with no answer A = Upper middle class .

0 65.22 0.c Total average circulation per issue (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total non-dailies Total Sundays Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays Total dailies 543 Total paid-for dailies 474 National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies 69 National free dailies Regional and local free dailies Total paid-for Sundays 18 National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 4.58 -33.540 1.76 - Source: Szonda Ipsos.45 0.62 17.00 -20.12 0.a (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Housewives 000 % Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total 268 823 884 956 776 1.451 765 750 720 740 705 830 790 750 720 746 322 365 - 320 388 - 320 320 420 260 160 1.993 1.70 - -2.00 0.0 65.00 - 3 3 - 3 3 - 3 3 - 6 3 3 3 3 - 0.757 486 682 1. Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All adults Men Women Main household shopper 50 54 46 48 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete % % daily reach of readership within age group 15 17 17 19 14 17 100 43 51 53 57 55 44 50 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 364 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .62 -4.41 -9. forint.05 -31.719 19.Szonda Ipsos.79 78 20 - 95 88 7 21 13 8 445 96 96 33 21 12 447 82 82 22 22 - 18.84 22.7 0.71 -2.00 0. circulation and sales .51 -21.39 -0.993 - - Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete All figures exclude VAT (5%) 4. forint) min max Single copy Subscription 69.7 61.595 1.b Source: 2002-2005 Titles .d Cover prices (2006) 5.171 4. WAN assessment (free dailies).cb Without children With children aged 0-2 aged 3-6 aged 7-14 aged 15-17 Total Households 000 % 5.00 0.00 250.25 -13.790 1.73 3.460 1. Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Sales revenues (Hungary.64 29 1 1 195 195 20 20 28 1 1 201 201 33 33 30 1 1 211 211 33 33 38 1 1 - 30 1 1 - 3.84 -10.03 -7.7 1.8 100 37.58 -5.71 -4.470 1.33 3.00 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Age structure of readership (2006) 5.00 0.05 0.800 1.61 -0.28 - Type of newspaper sales 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - 32.746 2.HUNGARY Households (children) (2006) 2.00 - -21.45 -0.437 1.62 -4.00 - 547 469 - 543 448 223 225 541 445 222 223 529 447 220 227 -2.58 -14.00 45.b Total number of copies sold or distributed annually 1.d Housewives (co-habiting persons) (2006) Children Age 2.Mediagnozis.33 4. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays - - - - 33.a 4.172 8.7 100 Single copy sales Subscriptions Postal deliveries Bulk (sponsored) deliveries Free distribution Total Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 4.22 - 0.244 14. Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 3.45 22.503 68 32 5 8 17 14 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 3.b Age Source: Szonda Ipsos.451 340 324 340 324 1.775 1.90 1.81 - -1.877 5 17 18 19 16 24 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies National free dailies Total paid-for non-dailies National paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies Regional and local free non-dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Regional and local paid-for Sundays 30 29 9 20 29 28 9 19 31 30 11 19 39 38 16 22 31 30 11 19 3.45 -14.0 0.00 - -50.475 - - - - - - 1.27 48.6 61.917 1.00 250.460 1. 2006.a Newspaper reach (2006) (%) Reached (Hungary.22 -5.860 1.784 430 440 430 290 430 150 - -7.

030 16.315 38.253 50.431. classified.055 126.104 98.995.627 15.327 31.585 32. ZenithOptimedia. excludes production costs.127 82.421 518.030 17.5 100 86.530 510. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Display Classified Inserts Online Total 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 86.193 448.0 3.429 1.416 60.d GDP 2006 16.089 21.854 45.265 1.869. forint.237 88.988 9.43 7.787 375.718 45.0 18.59 166.879.514 26.323 22.szon.boon.893 697.473 41.485 8.886 807.450 46.386 39.19 35.aa (Hungary.819 1.786 48.718 16. Mediagnozis.9 43. 000) 983.255 7.hu www.275 877.987 111.0 21.077 47.0 25.9 100 69.2 1.175 13. 000) 2003 2004 2005 53. includes agency commission Ringier Axel-Springer Metro PLT (WAZ) Inform Média Népszabadság Híd Rádió Nemzet Lapkiadó Geronia Népszava Total circulation (000) 114.077 21.048 136.17 2005 2006 2.583 64. 2006 Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete (pages & page equivalents) 2003 2004 2005 2006 39.000 2.535 4.17 0.568. ZenithOptimedia Based on rate-card prices 7.0 Source: 2002-2005 IFS.hu 21.929 26.4 -16.456 46. forint.4 100 86.458 445.840 45.050 106.hu www.637 370.906 204.000 1.700 34.978 40.817 5.0 100 65.769 512.460 5.000 47.ab Total dailies Total paid-for dailies National paid-for dailies Regional and local paid-for dailies Morning paid-for dailies Total free dailies Total paid-for Sundays National paid-for Sundays Source: 2002-2005 Mediagnozis.4 1. 2006 Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 7.627 57.797 2.730.381 40.091 118.023 20.428 39. ZenithOptimedia Publisher Before disounts.046 40.579 537.000 3.422 242.18 10.0 20.522 38.851 47.652 16.haon.777.023 48. TNS-MI.706 29.000 975.106 331.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Ad expenditure Daily newspapers 2002 2003 (%) 2004 1.491 1.04 166. includes classifieds.253 44.406 17.000 2.180 39.463 40.0 26.967 52.000 5.64 -1.364 24.782 22.805 480.519 52.46 -1. ZenithOptimedia.0 1.016 1.a Online editions 7.000 7.470 15.99 2.700 639 779 901 1.660 Rate-card prices Gross domestic product 2002 7.819 8.709 5.700 33.0 - 2006 2. 2006 Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Total 2002 GDP per capita 1.740.570 286.399 409.073 1.185.208 44.0 100 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 7. 000) Advertiser Service Car Retail Classified Finance Telecom Culture Food Travel Property Pannon Lidl SzRt Socialist Party MediaMarkt Penny Market Nat. forint.43 58.0 1.123 26. forint.088.954 Advertising volume sold 2002 (Hungary.233 319. 2006 Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 7.203 15.0 6.a Source: Mediagnozis.000 7.374 20.034 68.166 1.918 54. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue Gross domestic product per capita (Hungary.378 38.786 43.073 1.240 Source: 2002-2005 TNS-MI. forint.17 46.226.06 15.388 11.c Advertising revenues Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Sundays - - - 24 2 25 2 - 4.e Contribution of display.blikk.706 1.895 4.936 53.89 1. Office T-mobile Vodafone T-com 8.296 20.402 582.169 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Top publishing companies (2006) 8.291 342.328 1. mln) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Press Newspapers Magazines Television Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total 78.741 65.313 442.915 771.31 2.706 3.000 4.562.0 5.2 12.522 35.ba Advertising expenditure per medium (Hungary.0 2.03 58.77 -2.483.722 502.083 53.688.665 35.011. Dev.0 23.058 14.203 57.227 68. bln) 2003 2004 2005 49.00 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 6. forint.hu www.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2006) 7.nso.700 17.0 Source: 2002-2004 IFS.982 62.600. Mediagnozis.912 87.882.000 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Expenditure (Hungary.hu www.219 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 365 .b Online readership (2006) Newspaper/ Publisher Website Page impressions (000) Észak-Magyarország Kelet-Magyarország Hajdú-Bihari Napló Nemzeti Sport Blikk www.HUNGARY 6.593 639 779 901 1.315 23.g Top newspaper advertisers (2006) Advertising sector Expenditure (Hungary.253 39.04 -0.347 824.9 1.382 28.6 11.28 Source: IFS.1 33.318.9 11.897 636.627 39.

900 400 600 4.383 1.334 1.000 individuals (15+ years old) - (Hungary.a Employment 11. or Hungarian Audit Bureau of Circulation) Readership is measured by Szonda Ipsos-GfK Hungary Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 10.00 - 98.536 2.00 69. Distribution costs as a % of average cover price Single copy sales Postal deliveries Methodology CAPI data collection. using a sample of 32.598 2.bb Top free dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Metro Hungarian MTG Circulation (000) Readership (000) 324 770 Format Full page ad rate Colour (Hungary. Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total number of journalists Number of part-time journalists Total number of employees - - - 2.990 3. forint) 69.126 2.208 3.00 -2.00 - Format Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Tabloid Broadsheet Broadsheet Broadsheet Full page ad rate Mono Colour (Hungary.00 145.200 717 1.744 2. forint) Tabloid 3.ba 2002 2003 (%) 2004 2005 2006 - - - 38 41 38 41 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 10.HUNGARY 8.50 Circulation is audited by Magyar Terjesztés Ellenörzési Szövetség (MATESZ.a Research Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Broadsheets Tabloids Berliner - - - 45 42 3 - 34 5 29 - -24.0 35.00 60.00 88.00 104.bb Average distribution costs per copy 2002 Single copy Subscription Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 12.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Blikk Észak-Keleti Napló Népszabadság Nemzeti Sport Kisalföld Magyar Nemzet Színes Bulvár Lap Vas Népe Zalai Hírlap Délmagyarország-Délvilág Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Hungarian Ringier Inform Média Népszabadság Ringier Lapcom Nemzet Kiadó Híd Rádió PLT PLT Lapcom Readership (000) (000) 245 153 149 83 77 68 65 56 55 51 1.473 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 8.00 129.5 34.621 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 9. forint) 2.000 3.0 Taxes (2006) Tax % Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers 20 5 5 20 20 20 20 18 18 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 13.0 2006 32.00 99.a Subsidies generally Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete Are there subsidies for the purchase of newsprint? No Are loans granted at low rates for re-equipment or improving existing equipment? No Are there any direct subsidies? No.00 114.00 50.900 - -5.370 1.142 1.150 1.104 2. forint) 2003 2004 2005 - - 32.109 665 427 351 277 172 148 178 188 170 Cover price usual max (Hungary.950 932 1.44 66.67 - Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 10.00 98.980 5.00 98. Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 366 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 .000 1.

Discounts (2006) Discount on rates of Discount rate (%) Post Railroad Telephone Telegraph Telex Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 Source: Magyar Lapkiadok Edyesulete 15. So as to guarantee disclosure and transparency in the capital structure and to avoid silent partners. or the registration of shares in newspaper-publishing companies? No Is there any law prohibiting or restricting foreign companies or individuals from owning shares. is there any law or rule permitting in any event the possibility of finding out who are the actual owners of a publishing company? No Is there an antitrust law limiting concentration in the daily press? No Is further regulation of media concentration expected? No Cross-media ownership restrictions Owners Regional TVs National TVs Regional Newspapers National Newspapers Radio Regional TV Licensees No holding in stations with more than 20% signal overlap - No holding permitted if more than 80% overlap between circulation and signal areas - - National TV Licensees No holding permitted No other holding permitted - No holding permitted No holding permitted Regional Newspaper Owners No holding permitted if more than 80% overlap between circulation and signal areas - - - - National Newspaper Owners - No holding permitted - - - No holding in stations with more than 20% signal overlap - No holding permitted if more than 80% overlap between circulation and signal areas - - No holding permitted No holding permitted - No holding permitted No other holding permitted - At least 26% of shares must be Hungarian-owned - - At least 26% of shares in national radio stations must be Hungarian-owned Local Radio Licensees National Radio Licensees Foreign Investors WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 367 . Regional newspaper publishers may not hold shares in regional radio or television broadcasters whose signal areas overlap the publisherís circulation area by more than 80%. and in particular. the majority of shares.a Ownership laws and rules Does any law exist governing publishing-house ownership. of domestic daily newspapers? No 15. National newspapers may not acquire holdings in any broadcaster over 25%.HUNGARY 14.b Is there any law prohibiting daily newspaper or periodical publishers from operating radio or television stations in the same locality? Yes.

aluminum. which provides nearly 70% of export earnings and employs 6% of the work force. and ferrosilicon. Source: CIA .00 9.00 0.ca Occupancy Total 3.00 0.00 -50. and diversifying the economy.00 0.00 0. limiting foreign borrowing.00 -50.The World Factbook Households (occupancy) (2004) 2.ICELAND Media Market Description General economic situation Iceland’s Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic.00 10.00 - -25.00 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 11 10.35 8. The government remains opposed to EU membership. Iceland’s economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade. and remarkably even distribution of income.00 0.00 0.00 4.a Households 000 105 Number of titles Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Total dailies 3 Total paid-for dailies 2 National paid-for dailies 2 Morning paid-for dailies 1 Evening and afternoon 1 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 1 National free dailies Regional and local free dailies 1 Total non-dailies 22 Total paid-for non-dailies 12 National paid-for non-dailies 2 Regional and local 10 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 10 Regional and local 10 free non-dailies Map: CIA – The World Factbook 2. with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale watching. revising agricultural and fishing policies.00 -50. In the absence of other natural resources (except for abundant geothermal power). and new developments in software production.09 8.00 - 1 1 25 12 2 10 1 1 24 12 2 10 2 1 1 23 12 2 10 2 1 1 24 13 2 11 100.00 -50. primarily because of Icelanders’ concern about losing control over their fishing resources.a Population by age and sex (2006) Age 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Total All individuals 000 % 65 45 46 44 42 30 36 308 21 14 15 14 14 10 12 100 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 - 4 2 2 2 - 3 1 1 1 - 0. Since 2000 growth has varied from -1% in 2002 to 8% in 2004.00 Source: Statistics Iceland Male 000 % 33 23 24 23 22 16 16 157 21 15 15 15 14 10 10 100 Female 000 % 32 22 22 21 20 14 20 151 21 14 14 14 14 10 13 100 Source: Statistics Iceland 368 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . and financial services are taking place.00 10. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products. Government policies include reducing the current account deficit.33 0.33 0.00 10. yet with an extensive welfare system (including generous housing subsidies). The tourism sector is also expanding.00 0. low unemployment. the economy depends heavily on the fishing industry. containing inflation. The 2006 closure of the US military base at Keflavik had very little impact on the national economy. biotechnology. Iceland’s low unemployment rate aided former base employees in finding alternate employment.00 -50.

00 -25.83 -22.0 129.9 1. Figures are at rate card prices 4. exclude VAT.00 72.768 23.is www.00 5.6 Ad expenditure 2001 2002 12.7 1.0 162.320.11 - -0.a Online editions Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 Dailies Non-dailies (mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 56.56 Source: Statistics Iceland 6.8 51.0 3.3 Evening and afternoon 6.3 839.6 2. Statistics Iceland.51 -22.9 31.20 -26.vf.320.73 -25.1 4.5 2006 1. ZenithOptimedia WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 369 .0 1.is www.0 Total paid-for dailies 22.7 Source: Statistics Iceland Source: Statistics Iceland 2005 Preliminary data 2006 Estimate Annual number of copies sold/distributed = average circulation per issue multiplied by number of issues per year 4.2 15.6 21.9 16.14 1.3 36.7 1.9 35. 000) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.6 86.6 - - - 3 11 2 16 3 18 4 18 3 19 0.3 0. Sudurland.072 Source: Statistics Iceland 1 Data on page impressions in the week 50/2006 multiplied by 4 7.8 61.c 7.b Total average circulation per issue 4.4 90.84 -11.0 3.8 61.a (%) Reached Source: Statistics Iceland 2 97 97 - Newspaper reach (2003) 5.c Media consumption 2002 Radio Television (minutes per day) 2003 2004 2005 188 183 217 172 249 156 240 155 2006 231 150 6.is www.88 138.6 2.0 1.aa Gross domestic product GDP 2002 (Iceland.00 - Single copy Subscription 100 100 - 187 102 85 202 205 - 134.2 National paid-for non-dailies 0.ICELAND 3.0 3.453.1 3. H-prent ehf.567.68 - 7.6 21.2 Total paid-for dailies 1.83 -22.825.d Cover prices (2006) Total dailies 162 Total paid-for dailies 76 National paid-for dailies 76 Morning paid-for dailies 54 Evening and afternoon 22 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 86 National free dailies 86 Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies 74 Total paid-for non-dailies 23 National paid-for non-dailies 6 Regional and local 17 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 51 Regional and local 51 free non-dailies 168 71 71 53 18 163 63 63 63 - 251 64 64 64 - 250 48 48 48 - 54.9 21.9 paid-for non-dailies Total free non-dailies 2.3 Regional and local 0.0 Regional and local free dailies Total non-dailies 3.1 35. weekends 350 November 2006 5.1 24.5 1. 365 miolar hf.4 1999 2000 (%) 2001 2002 2003 - 1.166.800 2 Morgunbladid only Source: Statistics Iceland 4.6 Total paid-for non-dailies 158.2 0.384 34. bln) 2003 2004 2005 812.is www.9 Morning paid-for dailies 16.2 0.00 -25.3 Total paid-for non-dailies 1.69 - 20.20 3.622.9 3.560.7 21.02 100.9 16.bl.6 2.1 Regional and local 2.98 - 82 21 5 16 76 24 7 17 75 23 6 17 - - - 61 61 52 52 52 52 - - - 1 Source: Capacent/Statistics Iceland 1 People aged 12-80 who read a daily newspaper at least once a week Weekdays.0 Source: Statistics Iceland 2005 Preliminary data 2006 Estimate Source: Statistics Iceland Figures include classified and inserts.6 2.6 0.4 0.96 -26.188 69. krona.6 National paid-for dailies 1.1 - - - 2002 GDP per capita (Iceland.37 - 8.69 137.32 -36.sudurland. krona.2 24.021.2 - 56.47 70.2 13. Vikurfrettir ehf.9 National paid-for dailies 22.84 -36.2 21.a (Iceland.9 - 78. krona) min (000) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 7.0 2.9 21.5 0.72 - 2.1.7 16.3 1.27 Source: IFS.ab Sales revenues Gross domestic product per capita (Iceland.1 free non-dailies 220 1 2.bb.0 1.6 - 73.8 87. IM Gallup.534.0 National free dailies 26.83 - 31.6 paid-for dailies Total free dailies 26.40 -25.2 24. krona.9 - 63.is 954.903.3 146.b Online readership (2006) Page impressions per month 1 Newspaper/ Publisher Website Arvakur hf. mln) Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 All paid-for newspapers .141.visir.08 1.7 926.752.6 2.8 - 137.ac Ad spend as a % of GDP Type of newspaper sales Single copy sales Home deliveries 1998 1999 (%) 2000 - - 9.b 96 1 All adults Source: Capacent/Statistics Iceland Total number of copies sold or distributed annually Total dailies 48.is www.080 886.

849.a Advertising sector Publisher % of display ad revenue Property Grocery stores and supermarkets Cinemas New cars Furniture Banking Computers. exclude VAT.is) 2006.a Methodology Sample of 1.a Employment Change (%) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002/98 2002/01 Total number of employees - - 729 439 582 - 32.5 18 18 0 Source: Statistics Iceland As of March 1.432.00 0. media use for one week) Standard VAT VAT on: Single copy sales Subscription sales Advertising Newsprint Composition Plant Tax on profits – standard rate Tax on profits for newspapers Tax concessions for newspaper companies % 24.5 24.8 373.1 - - 28. 102 100 48 Source: Statistics Iceland Source: IM Gallup Source: IM Gallup/Statistics Iceland 8. only two dailies out of four. Reach : Fréttabladid 66%..00 350.ba Top paid-for dailies (2006) Title Language Publisher Circulation Morgunbladid 1 Icelandic Árvakur hf. 2007 VAT on subscriptions and single-copy sales has been lowered from 14% to 7% 370 WORLD ASSOCIATION OF NEWSPAPERS – WORLD PRESS TRENDS 2007 . Arvakur hf.ICELAND 7.5 24. Fréttabladid and Morgunbladid Source: Statistics Iceland Readership is measured by Capacent (www. krona) (USD) 48 220.98 - Figures include classified and inserts.300-1.0 3.0 357.capacent.0 6.6 2.00 -25.5 24.0 Total non-dailies 188.0 2.0 Total paid-for non-dailies 175.e. 2 Format (000) Cover price usual max usual max (Iceland.6 216.7 4.0 Display Classified 8. publisher of the free daily Bladid 3 42x28 cm 2 8.00 3.0 5. Bladid 44% 1 Daughter company of Árvakur hf. classified.898.027. insert and online advertising to total advertising revenue 7. Taxes (2006) Tax Source: Statistics Iceland 10.6 173.5 141.3 95. publisher of the paid-for daily Morgunbladid 2 42x28 cm 3 42x28 cm 9.c Advertising revenues (Iceland.57 Dailies only Newspaper colour capability & formats Change (%) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006/02 2006/05 4-colour newspapers Tabloids 3 3 Source: Statistics Iceland Figures are for national dailies only 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 0.e 2000 (%) 2001 2002 2003 - 95.0 Total free non-dailies 113 Regional and local 113 free non-dailies 2.0 5.bb Top free dailies (2006) 11. 1 Circulation (000) Format 102 100 Tabloid 2 Tabloid 3 Research Circulation is audited by Iceland Chamber of Commerce.20 5.f Top newspaper advertising categories (2003) 14 7 7 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 Top publishing companies (2006) Total circulation (000) 365 miolar hf.5 95. krona.1 3.00 -25.600.1 173.767.00 Tabloid 3 Source: Statistics Iceland 1 Reach : 46% Mother company of Ár og dagur ehf. i.224. six times a year (diary method.00 12. mln) Change (%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005/01 2005/04 All newspapers (A+B+C+D) Total dailies 2. software/hardware Travel agencies Books and bookshops Mass media Source: Statistics Iceland 1999 7. Ár og dagur ehf.409.1 141.7 200.5 14 14 24. Figures are at rate card prices (A+B+C+D) = total dailies + total non-dailies + total Sundays + online newspapers Contribution of display.