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PIPING MATERIALS

This table is intended to give a comparison of American, British, German, and Japanese
Standards for common boiler tubing and boiler piping specifications. There is seldom an
exact match between specifications in two different Standards. Use this table only to find
an approximate equivalent, then compare the details of the specifications to determine if
substitution is permissable.
The table is divided into tubing, (which is used inside the boiler setting, as in steam
generating tubes, wall tubes, superheaters and economizers) and piping (which is used
ouside the boiler setting, as in headers, steam piping, and feedwater lines). The German
(DIN) Standards don't appear to differentiate between the two. Heat exchanger tube specs
are not included here. In general, the Japanese (JIS) specs match up pretty well with the
American(ASME/ASTM), while the British (BS) and German specs are usually more
difficult to find an equivalent in.

ASME/ASTM BS
Tubing Specs

DIN

JIS

SA-178 A

3059 ERW 320

17177 St37.8

G 3461 STB35 E

SA-178 C

3059 ERW 440

17177 St42.8

G 3461 STB42 E

SA-178 D

G 3461 STB52 E

SA-192

3059 S1 360

17175 St35.8

G 3461 STB35 S

SA-210 A1

3059 S1 440

17175 St45.8

G 3461 STB52 S

SA-210 C
SA-209 T1

G 3461 STB42 S
3059 S1 243

17175 15Mo3

G 3462 STBA12 S

SA-209 T1a

G 3462 STBA13 S

SA-213 T2

G 3462 STBA20 S

SA-213 T11

3059 S1 620-460

SA-213 T12
SA-213 T22

17175 13CrMo4-4

G 3462 STBA23

17175 13CrMo4-4
3059 S1 622-490

17175 10CrMo9-10

G 3462 STBA24

SA-213 T23 (not


appr)
SA 213 T24 (not
appr)

17175 7CrMoVTiB10-10

SA-213 T5

G 3462 STBA25

SA-213 T9

3059 S1 629-470

SA-213 T91

3059-2 Gr. 91

SA-213 Tp-304

G 3462 STBA26
17175-X10CrMoVNb9-1 G 3462 STBA28
17456 X2CrNi1911

G3463 SUS304TB

SA-213 Tp 304H 3059 CFS304S51


SA-213 Tp 316

G3463 SUS304HTB
17456 X5CrNiMo17122 G3463 SUS316TB

SA-213 Tp 316H 3059 CFS316S51


SA-213 Tp 321

G3463 SUS316HTB
17456 X6CrNiTi1810

SA-213 Tp 321H 3059 CFS321S51


SA-213 Tp 347

G3463 SUS321TB
G3463 SUS321HTB

17456 X5CrNiNB1810

SA-213 Tp 347H 3059 CFS347S51

G3463 SUS347TB
G3463 SUS347HTB

Pipe Specs
SA-53A

3602 HFS360

17175 St35.8

G 3454 STPG38

SA-53B

3602 HFS460

17175 St45.8

G 3454 STPG42

SA-106B

3602 CFS460

17175 St45.8

G 3456 STPT42

SA-106C

3602 CFS460

SA-335-P11

3604 CFS621

17175 13CrMo44

G 3458 STPA23

SA-335-P22

3604 CFS622

17175 10CrMo910

G 3458 STPA24

SA-335-P9

3604 CFS629-470

SA-335-P91

3604-2 Gr. 91

G 3456 STPT49

G 3458 STPA26

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specs are generally identical to ASME).
BS - British Standards
DIN - Deutsche Industrie Normen (German Standards)
JIS - Japanese Industrial Standards

ASTM International

BSi - British Standards


institute

Material

A120

1387

Carbon Steel

A53 Gr. A

3601/23

Carbon Steel

A53 Gr. B

3601/27

Carbon Steel

A106 Gr. A

3602/23

Carbon Steel

API 5L Gr. A

3602/27

Carbon Steel

A106 Gr. B

2602/27

Carbon Steel

API 5L Gr. B

3602/27

Carbon Steel

A333 Gr. 1

3063/LT50

Killed Carbon Steel

A333 Gr. 3

3603/503LT100

3.5% nickel

A335 Gr. P1

3604/240

1/2% molybdenum

A335 Gr. P12

3604/620

1% Cr 1/2% Mo

A335 Gr. P11

3604/621

1 1/4% Cr 1/2% Mo

A335 Gr. P22

3604/622

2 1/4% Cr 1% No

A335 Gr. P5

3604/625

5% Cr 1/2% Mo

A335 Gr. P7

3604/627

7% Cr 1/2% Mo

A335 Br. P9

3604/629

9% Cr 1% Mo

A312 Gr. Tp304

3605/304 S18 (EN58E)

Austenitic chromium
nickel

A312 Gr. Tp304L

3605/304 S14

Austenitic chromium
nickel (extra low carbon)

A312 Gr. Tp316

3605/316 S18 (EN58J)

Austenitic chromium
nickel molybdenum
bearing

A312 Gr.Tp316L

3605/316 S14

Austenitic chromium
nickel molybdenum
bearing (extra low
carbon)

A312 Gr. Tp321

3605/321 S18 (EN58B)

Austenitic chromium
nickel titanium stabilized

A312 Gr. Tp347

3605/347 S18 (EN58G)

Austenitic chromium
nickel nobelium stabilized

ASTM cross reference material specification of fittings, flanges, unions


and cast and forged valves can be found in the table below:

Material
Carbon Steel
Cold Temperature Service
Carbon-1/2 Molybdenum Alloy Steel
High Temperature Service
3-1/2 Nickel Alloy Steel
Low Temperature Service
1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel
1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo-1 Ni Alloy
3/4 Cr-1 Mo-3/4 Ni Alloy Steel
1 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel
1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel
2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel
5 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel
5 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel
9 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel
13 Cr Alloy Steel

Type 304 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-8 Ni)


Standard
Low Carbon
High Temperature Service

Forgings
A105
A350-LF2
A182-F1

A350-LF3

Castings

A216-WCB A234-WPB
A420-WPL6
A217-WC1
A352-LC1

A234-WP1

A352-LC3 A420-WPL3

A182-F2
A217-WC4
A217-WC5
A182-F12
CL2

A234-WP12
CL2

A182-F11
CL2
A182-F22
CL3
A182-F5
A182-F5a
A182-F9
A182-F6

A217-WC6 A234-WP11
A217-WC9
CL2
A234-WP22
A217-C5
CL3
A217-C12 A234-WP5
A743-CA15
A234-WP9

A182-F304 A351-CF3
A182-F304L
A351-CF8
A182-F304H

Type 310 Stainless Steel (25 Cr-20 Ni) A182-F310H A351-CK20


Type 316 Stainless Steel (16 Cr-12 Ni-2
Mo)
Standard
A182-F316
Low Carbon
A182-F316L A351-CF3M
High Temperature
A182-F316H A351-CF8M

Type 317 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-13 Ni-3


Mo)

Wrought
Fittings

A403WP304
A403WP304L
A403WP304H
A403WP310
A403WP316
A403WP316L
A403WP316H
A403WP317

Type 321 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 Ni- A182-F321


Ti)
A182-F321H
Standard
High Temperature Service
Type 347 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 NiCb)
A182-F347 A351-CF8C
Standard
A182-F347H
High Temperature Service
Type 348 Stainless Steel (18 Cr-10 NiCb)
A182-F348
Standard
A182-F348H
High Temperature Service

A403WP321
A403WP321H
A403WP347
A403WP347H
A403WP348
A403WP438H

What Is Stainless Steel?


Stainless steel is a name given to a group of steel alloys with many
differences in properties and behaviour having one property in
common - resistance to orrosion.
When an Alloy of Steel contains more than approximately 10.5%
Chromium it can be classed as a stainless steel. This is due to the fact
that Chromium has a high affinity for oxygen and forms a tenacious,

stable oxide film, which is resistant to further chemical or physical


change. This film, known as the passive film, forms practically
instantaneously in ordinary atmospheres and has the remarkable
property of being self-healing and rebuilding when it has been
removed.
The large group of stainless steels can be divided into two major
groups, namely Austenitic and Ferritic. The Ferritic group can be split
again into two groups, Martensitic and Ferritic.
Austenitic Stainless Steel , Ferritic Stainless Steel

Martensitic Stainless Steel


Effects of alloying elements in steel

Austenitic Stainless Steel


This group of steel alloys contains chromium normally in the range 1725% and nickel in a range 8-20%, with various additional elements to
achieve the desired properties. In the fully annealed condition, the
steel alloys exhibit a useful range of physical and mechanical
properties. The mechanical properties can be can be increased with
cold working. Welding of this group must be carried out with the
correct methods but the low carbon content results in fewer problems
than the Ferritic or Martensitic grades. Normally these steels are nonmagnetic but when a significant amount of cold working is involved, as
in centreless grinding, the magnetic permeability may be increased. If
this group is included with the Ferritic and Martensitic groups it can be
seen that the stainless steel alloys offer a great deal of versatility for
applications within modern industry. The numbers listed below
represent grades within British Standard 970(bar) and British Standard
1449 (sheet and plate). The figures in brackets after each number are
the Euronorms currently being introduced to supersede British
Standards.

Type 302 (BS EN 10088 1.4310)


A basic 18% chrome, 8% nickel, 18/8, grade from which the majority of
other forms have been developed. It has excellent ductility and welding
characteristics.

Type 304 (BS EN 10088 1.4301)


Similar to type 302 but due to lower carbon content, 0.08% is less
susceptible to inter-granular corrosion after welding.

Type 304L (BS EN 10088 1.4307)


A low carbon form of 304, 0.03%-0.035% carbon maximum, designed
primarily to avoid inter-granular corrosion after welding. The tensile
strength is somewhat lower than type 304.

Type 321 (BS EN 10088 1.4541)


Basically type 302 but with the addition of titanium, in direct
proportion to carbon content, to prevent inter-granular corrosion and
offer scale resistance at higher temperatures, up to 850C. Corrosion
resistance is slightly lower than type 304. This grade is not suitable for
bright or mirror polishing.

Type 347 (BS EN 10088 1.4550)


Similar to type 321 but with niobium added to stabilise the steel
instead of titanium. This reduces the incidence of inter-granular
corrosion, but has the effect of increasing corrosion resistance to the
level of type 304.

Type 303 (BS EN 10088 1.4305)


This is a free machining variant of type 304 with added sulphur or
selenium to improve machining characteristics.

Type 316 (BS EN 10088 1.4401)


This is a molybdenum bearing stainless steel designed for applications
involving severe corrosion conditions, resulting in a wide application in
the chemical, textile and paper industries.

Type 316L (BS EN 10088 1.4404)


Similar to type 316 but with lower carbon content, 0.03%00.035%
maximum, to avoid inter-granular corrosion after welding.

Type 310 (BS EN 10088 1.4845)


A 25% chrome, 20% nickel stainless steel developed for high
temperature service where high creep strength is required, its
maximum service temperature is aproximately 1100C. This group is
not recommended for applications of prolonged service as brittleness
may occur.

Ferritic Stainless Steel


This group contains a minimum of 17% chrome and carbon in the
range of 0.08% - 2.00%. The increase in chromium imparts increased
resistance to corrosion at elevated temperatures, but the lack of
mechanical properties due to the fact that it cannot be heat treated,
limits its applications. Like martensitics they are magnetic and the
welding of this group should be carried out with the necessary
precautions.

Type 430F (BS EN 10088 1.4105)


A 17% chrome, low alloy ferritic steel that is non-hardenable and
possessing only mild cold working properties due to the high chrome
content. This alloy possesses good corrosion resistance up to a
temperature of approximately 800C. It's lack of tensile properties, and
poor usability, limit its applications and as a result is usually found in
strip and sheet form.
Martensitic Stainless Steel
This group contains a minimum of 12% chrome and usually a
maximum of 14% with carbon in the range of 0.08% - 2.00%. Due to
the high carbon content of the steel, it responds well to heat treatment
to give various mechanical strengths, such as hardness. The carbon,
however, is detrimental when welding and care should be taken during
this operation. In the heat-treated condition this group of steels show a
useful combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties
that qualify them for a wide range of applications. The numbers listed
below represent grades within British Standard 970. The figures in
brackets after each number are the Euronorms currently being
introduced to supersede British Standards.

Type 410 (BS EN 10088 1.4006)


A 13% chrome, 0.5% carbon stainless alloy possessing good ductility
and corrosion resistance. It can be easily forged and machined and
exhibits good cold working properties.

Type 416 (BS EN 10088 1.4005)


Similar to type 410 but has added sulphur to improve usability, usually
in bar form.

Type 431 (BS EN 10088 1.4057)


A 17% chrome, 2.5% nickel, 0.15% (max) carbon stainless alloy which
has superior corrosion resistance to 410 or 416 due to the addition of
nickel. It can be heat treated to ensure good tensile strength, in the
range of 55/56 tonnes tensile. Due to its good machining properties
combined with strength it has numerous applications, particularly in
machined components where the above mechanical property is
required. The material is usually supplied in bar form.
Effects of Alloying Elements in Steel
Steel is basically iron alloyed to carbon with certain additional
elements to give the required properties to the finished melt. Listed
below is a summary of the effects various alloying elements in steel.

Carbon
Manganese
Chromium
Nickel
Molybdenum
Titanium
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Selenium
Niobium
Nitrogen
Silicon
Cobalt
Tantalum
Copper
Carbon

The basic metal, iron, is alloyed with carbon to make steel and has the
effect of increasing the hardness and strength by heat treatment but
the addition of carbon enables a wide range of hardness and strength.
Manganese
Manganese is added to steel to improve hot working properties and
increase strength, toughness and hardenability. Manganese, like nickel,
is an austenite forming element and has been used as a substitute for
nickel in the A.I.S.I 200 Series of Austenitic stainless steels (e.g. A.I.S.I
202 as a substitute for A.I.S.I 304)

Chromium
Chromium is added to the steel to increase resistance to oxidation.
This resistance increases as more chromium is added. 'Stainless Steel'
has approximately 11% chromium and a very marked degree of
general corrosion resistance when compared with steels with a lower
percentage of chromium. When added to low alloy steels, chromium
can increase the response to heat treatment, thus improving
hardenability and strength.
Nickel
Nickel is added in large amounts, over about 8%, to high chromium
stainless steel to form the most important class of corrosion and heat
resistant steels. These are the austenitic stainless steels, typified by
18-8, where the tendency of nickel to form austenite is responsible for
a great toughness and high strength at both high and low
temperatures. Nickel also improves resistance to oxidation and
corrosion. It increases toughness at low temperatures when added in
smaller amounts to alloy steels.
Molybdenum
Molybdenum, when added to chromium-nickel austenitic steels,
improves resistance to pitting corrosion especially by chlorides and
sulphur chemicals. When added to low alloy steels, molybdenum
improves high temperature strengths and hardness. When added to
chromium steels it greatly diminishes the tendency of steels to decay
in service or in heat treatment.
Titanium
The main use of titanium as an alloying element in steel is for carbide
stabilisation. It combines with carbon to for titanium carbides, which
are quite stable and hard to dissolve in steel, this tends to minimise
the occurrence of inter-granular corrosion, as with A.I.S.I 321, when
adding approximately 0.25%/0.60% titanium, the carbon combines
with the titanium in preference to chromium, preventing a tie-up of
corrosion resisting chromium as inter-granular carbides and the
accompanying loss of corrosion resistance at the grain boundaries.
Phosphorus
Phosphorus is usually added with sulphur to improve machinability in
low alloy steels, phosphorus, in small amounts, aids strength and
corrosion resistance. Experimental work shows that phosphorus

present in austenitic stainless steels increases strength. Phosphorus


additions are known to increase the tendency to cracking during
welding.
Sulphur
When added in small amounts sulphur improves machinability but does
not cause hot shortness. Hot shortness is reduced by the addition of
manganese, which combines with the sulphur to form manganese
sulphide. As manganese sulphide has a higher melting point than iron
sulphide, which would form if manganese were not present, the weak
spots at the grain boundaries are greatly reduced during hot working.
Selenium
Selenium is added to improve machinability.
Niobium (Columbium)
Niobium is added to steel in order to stabilise carbon, and as such
performs in the same way as described for titanium. Niobium also has
the effect of strengthening steels and alloys for high temperature
service.
Nitrogen
Nitrogen has the effect of increasing the austenitic stability of stainless
steels and is, as in the case of nickel, an austenite forming element.
Yield strength is greatly improved when nitrogen is added to austenitic
stainless steels.
Silicon
Silicon is used as a deoxidising (killing) agent in the melting of steel, as
a result, most steels contain a small percentage of silicon. Silicon
contributes to hardening of the ferritic phase in steels and for this
reason silicon killed steels are somewhat harder and stiffer than
aluminium killed steels.
Cobalt
Cobalt becomes highly radioactive when exposed to the intense
radiation of nuclear reactors, and as a result, any stainless steel that is
in nuclear service will have a cobalt restriction, usually aproximately
0.2% maximum. This problem is emphasised because there is residual
cobalt content in the nickel used in producing these steels.

Tantalum
Chemically similar to niobium and has similar effects.
Copper
Copper is normally present in stainless steels as a residual element.
However it is added to a few alloys to produce precipitation hardening
properties.

Nominal
Composition

Carbon
Steel

PIPING

Mo

1 Cr
Mo

1 Cr
Mo

2 Cr 1 Mo

9 Cr 1 Mo
V

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
ASME Section-I

DIN TRD
300

BS 1113

SA178 Gr.C,
St 35.8
Gr.D,
St 45.8
SA192, SA210SPECIFICATION
MATERIAL
Gr.A1

& Gr.C
SA209 T1
15 Mo3
SA106 Gr.B, Gr.C

SA335 P12
13 Cr Mo 44
SA213 T12

BS3059 P2 S2 360,
440
BS3602 P1 360, 430,
500 Nb

----

SA213 T11
SA335 P11

----

BS3604 P1, 621

SA213 T22
SA335 P22

10 Cr Mo 910

SA213 T91
SA335 P91

X 10 Cr Mo V
Nb91

BS3059 P2 S2 622490
BS3604
P1, 622

BS3059 P2 S2 620
BS3604 P1 620 440

-----

12 Cr 1 Mo
V

-----

X 20 Cr Mo V
121

BS3059 P2 S2 762
BS3604 P1 762

SA213 TP304 H

-----

BS3059 P2 304 S51


BS3605 304 S59 E

SA213 TP347 H

-----

BS3059 P2 347 S51


BS3605 347 S59 E

18 Cr 8 Ni

18 Cr 10 Ni
b