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Phase Two of the Local Plan for Sustainable

Nurturing Communal Stewardship of the
Mangrove Ecosystem

Amy Kessler, Lauren-Jasmine Lambert, Sara Pfeifer

Team El Salvador 8
Monterey Institute of International Studies,
A Graduate School of Middlebury College
January 3-24, 2014
Series Editor: Adele Negro, Program Director
Table of Contents

Results and Recommendations.
Recommendations for Improving the
Recommendations for Educational
Annex I. Results: Stakeholder Analysis and Needs
Annex II. Train the
Annex III. Pocket-booklet for the Park
Annex IV. Informational Pamphlet about the
Table 1. Stakeholder Analysis.
Table 2. Stakeholder Needs
Map 1. Western Sector of the Bay of
Map 2. Communities of the

Figure 1. The Environmental


We would first like to thank the Mangrove Association and local communities
of the Western Sector of the Bay of Jiquilisco. Their understanding and
commitment to environmental stewardship and to the sustained health of
their natural resources is inspiring. We thank them for their participation in
the study and dedication to local governance.
We extend a special thanks to Carmen Argueta, Jos Mara Argueta, Jose
Amilcar Cruz, Giovanni Daz, Walberto Gallegos, David Marroqun, Ines Salvia
and Luis Ramos for sharing their knowledge and connecting us with other
local and institutional stakeholders. Without their knowledge, mediation and
logistical support, our work would not have been successful.
We also extend a special thanks to all the stakeholders that participated in
the focus groups and interviews, particularly the park rangers, National Civil
Police officials, representatives from the Community Governance Council
(Grupo Local), and Giovanni Rivera, of the Ministry of Environment and
Natural Resources (MARN). Their commitment to the Local Plan for
Sustainable Use (PLAS) and its renewal provided the foundation for our work.
We thank them for their participation and willingness to provide us with their
insight, expertise and recommendations.
We also appreciate the warm welcome and efforts of La Coordinadoras staff
and our host families, as they provided us with the necessities and comforts
of home. Moreover, without the support and logistical coordination of
EcoViva, our work would not have been possible. In particular we would like
to thank their International Fellow, Aaron Voit, for all his knowledge, guidance
and committed work.
We would also like to thank the determined efforts of Adele Negro and her
continued dedication to building a meaningful relationship between the
Monterey Institute of International Studies and the Mangrove Association.
Finally, we would like to thank Aimee Teaby, CSUMB graduate student, for
her scientific knowledge and insight as well as her expertise in cartography.

The Local Plan for Sustainable Use (PLAS) has governed the resources from
the mangrove ecosystem in the Western Sector of Jiquilisco Bay since 2010
(Map 1). Mangrove forests supply local communities with several important
resources, such as fish, shellfish and wood, which families use as sources of
sustenance and livelihood. In addition to these extractive resources,
mangrove forests provide a number of ecosystem services that have both
local and global significance, such as storm and flood protection, water
filtration, carbon sequestration, and habitat for a number of important fish,
reptilian and bird species. Jiquilisco Bay contains 74,000 acres of mangrove
forests, making it Central Americas largest remaining mangrove ecosystem.
Given the global importance of Jiquilisco Bay, the Ramsar Convention placed
it on the list of Wetlands of International Importance in 2005, and in 2007,
UNESCO declared it a Biosphere Reserve.
Despite such global recognition, poor
regulation of Jiquilisco Bay enabled
exploitation and triggered conflict
over the use and ownership of
resources during the early 2000s.
Due to growing concern over the
depletion of mangrove forests, the
Ministry of Environment and Natural
Resources (MARN) declared all
mangrove forests as national
protected areas in 2005, permitting
no extraction of resources without a
MARN authorized concession (MARN,
2005). In response, local
Map 1. The Western Sector of the Bay of
communities that depend on the
Jiquilisco. Source: Teaby, Aimee (2014).
resources for sustenance and
livelihood expressed apprehension
and frustration with the national policy. As a means to resolve both the
concerns over the health of mangrove forests as well as the socioeconomic
concerns of local communities, MARN issued Decree No. 14 in 2008, which
enabled community leaders to create ecosystem-based communal
governance plans. Moreover, they required the regulations of such plans to
be guided by both socioeconomic and scientific evaluations.

In response to Decree No. 14, eight communities of the Western Sector of

Jiquilisco Bay established the first PLAS1, along with the support of the
Mangrove Association. The eight communities that initially established the
PLAS included Las Mesitas, La Chacastera, La Canota, Los Calix, Los Lotes,
La Babilonia, and Isla de Montecristo (Map 2). Community leaders from Isla
de Montecristo in particular played a formative role in the creation of the
To organize the structure of the PLAS and map the various groups involved in
its implementation, the PLAS included a design for an Environmental
Committee consisting of representation from the primary stakeholders and
relevant institutions that could provide technical support (Figure 1): the eight
participating communities, the Mangrove Association, park rangers (Guarda
Recursos), MARN, the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
(CENDEPESCA), the National Civil Police (PNC), and the Institute of Marine
Sciences for El Salvador (ICMARES). However, the Environmental Committee
has not met as a complete entity since its initiation, leaving the PLAS without
clear oversight, and the stakeholders without an organized structure to

1 The PLAS was changed from its original name, the Local Plan for
Sustainable Extraction, or Plan Local de Extraccin Sostenible (PLES) to the
PLAS, or Plan Local de Aprovechamiento Sostenible, in 2013; for clarity, the
current study will only refer to the plan as the PLAS.

The PLAS regulates the

extraction of fish,
shellfish and mangrove
wood from the forests
and rivers spanning a
surface area of
1,916.52 ha, from the
western border of the
mouth of the Lempa
River to the eastern
edge of San Juan del
Gozo Lake (Map 2).
The managed use of
mangrove wood, in
particular, has been a
challenging component
of the PLAS due to the
Figure 1. The Environmental Committee
national no-extraction
policy established in
the Law of Natural Protected Areas (MARN, 2005). To ensure only necessary
and sustainable use, the PLAS established a permit system regulated by the
Environmental Committee. Community members could request the use of
mangrove wood to repair houses damaged by floods and storms, and to
construct domestic fences. In addition, the PLAS included a quota system for
families to use mangrove wood as fuel for cooking.
MARN initially issued Decree No. 14 in 2008 with a five-year legal framework.
However, since the PLAS did not enter into effect until 2010, its five-year
application would extend until 2015. Decree No. 14 did not include further
language to specify the legal expiration or renewal process for local
management plans established under the decree. Accordingly, various local
groups have questioned the legality of the PLAS past 2013, when Decree No.
14 expired. However, the Mangrove Association has continued to uphold the
PLAS under the understanding that it also has a five-year application that will
end in 2015. As the end-date approaches, local community leaders and the
Mangrove Association have begun the process of evaluating and planning
the next phase for the PLAS.
The Mangrove Association requested a team of students from the Monterey
Institute of International Studies to perform a preliminary evaluation of the
PLAS effectiveness in January of 2013 (MIIS Team El Salvador 7). Following
this preliminary evaluation, the Mangrove Association requested a
socioeconomic evaluation, which was then conducted by a returning team
member in the summer of 2013. The evaluation demonstrated community
members knowledge of, attitudes towards, and compliance with the PLAS.
The results of these studies guided the design and objectives for this study.

The primary purpose of the

current study was to clarify
the legal framework of the
PLAS for its current
application and subsequent
renewal, as well as to provide
suggestions for its improved
efficacy. Key findings of the
preceding studies highlighted
the need for better
organizational structure and
communication among
Correspondingly, the current
study performed a
stakeholder analysis to
Map 2. Communities of the PLAS for the Western
Sector of the Bay of Jiquilisco. Source: Teaby, Aimee
understand how each group
of stakeholders viewed their
role within the framework of the PLAS and within its renewal process. The
preceding studies further emphasized the need for improved knowledge of
the PLAS among community members. Thus, the current study focused on
identifying the best methods to reach community members and foster
greater awareness of the PLAS.

Research for this study was conducted over the course of three weeks by a
team of three graduate students of Team El Salvador 8 of the Monterey
Institute of International Studies with the support of the Mangrove
Association and EcoViva. On-site research was carried out in the Western
Sector of the Bay of Jiquilisco, El Salvador in January 2014.
The first research phase consisted of separate, semi-structured interviews
with representatives from each stakeholder group: park rangers, PNC, MARN,
the Mangrove Association and elected officials to the Community
Governance Council (Grupo Local). TES 8 researchers met with five local park
rangers, one representative from the PNC, one representative from MARN,
four members of the Board of Directors of the Mangrove Association, and two
or more representatives from each of the eight PLAS communities, with the
exception of La Chacastera, which did not participate in the current study.
Questions were designed to assess the needs and competence of each group
with respect to strengthening the functionality of the PLAS, as well as what
specific tools and capacity building would support improved awareness,
implementation and enforcement of the PLAS.

The second phase of research focused on improving awareness of the PLAS

on a community level. Researchers held separate focus groups with the
leaders from each community. Questions were designed to identify and
develop key tools to improve the awareness and functionality of the PLAS.
Information collected over the course of both phases was then integrated to
support the teams recommendations to improve the flow of information
among stakeholders and strengthen the functionality and organizational
structure of the PLAS.

Findings and Recommendations

This section is divided into three parts: 1) the stakeholder analysis for the
PLAS; 2) the recommendations for improving its implementation and
organizational structure; and
3) the design of an educational campaign based on the suggestions and
information provided by the community leaders and park rangers.
I. Stakeholder Analysis
There were three primary goals for the stakeholder analysis: 1) to gauge
each stakeholders knowledge and support of the PLAS; 2) to record each
stakeholders recommendations for improving the organizational structure
and effectiveness of the PLAS, and more generally, improving communal
management of the mangrove resources; and 3) to outline what changes, in
the design, implementation and management of the PLAS, each stakeholder
would require to support its renewal, as well as how each stakeholder views
its role within the renewal process.
The park rangers were highly
knowledgeable and supportive of the
PLAS. They primarily viewed
themselves as advocates of
environmental stewardship, and with
regards to the PLAS, considered
themselves as educators of its
regulations and importance. They
supported the reactivation of the
Environmental Committee, which they
viewed as having a critical role in the
implementation and oversight of the PLAS. They further highlighted the
need to establish a more holistic wood-use management plan that would
better integrate the permit system with programs that minimize mangrovewood use and mitigate the negative impacts on the ecosystem. They further
reported the lack of clarity regarding the permissible extraction sites for

mangrove-wood, and the need to clearly delineate such sites. Their primary
concern was to have a physical representation of MARNs authorization of the
PLAS to demonstrate to community members the legality of its regulations.
Moreover, they reported the absence of a uniform protocol for recording and
responding to infractions of the PLAS, as well as the need for a systematized
means to document and communicate infractions to MARN.
The National Civil Police (PNC) reported to be unfamiliar with the PLAS and its
regulations. As enforcers of the law, the PNC viewed the clear legal backing
of the PLAS as the most important component to enable them to apply its
regulations. Thus, they underscored the
Park Rangers from the communities of
need to have a well-defined legal
the Bay of Jiquilisco. Photo taken by Josh
framework and official authorization by
MARN in order to enforce the regulations.
Moreover, they expressed support for the park rangers in the application of
environmental regulations, and view the park rangers as important sources
of information. However, they further noted the need to improve the lines of
communication with the park rangers.
The Mangrove Association emphasized its role as a co-manager of the Bay of
Jiquilisco with MARN, such that the two organizations must work together to
ensure the preservation of the natural resources of the mangrove ecosystem.
With regards to the PLAS, the Mangrove Association viewed its role as an
educator and facilitator of communication between stakeholders, as well as a
source of technical and structural support needed for the implementation
and maintenance of the PLAS. The board members indicated the Mangrove
Associations support for the reactivation of the Environmental Committee
and agreed to assume a leading role within its initial phase of restructuring.
Board members emphasized the need for the PLAS to be a community-led
plan with the legal backing of MARN, which they viewed as a critical
component for its implementation and success. They supported a more
integrated management of the mangrove resources, which would link the
permit system to environmental education as well as mangrove restoration
programs. They also reported the need for regular scientific studies to
evaluate the impacts of the PLAS on the ecosystem, as well as an updated
registration of community members, such as fishermen and punche crab
fishermen, currently using resources from the mangrove ecosystem.

The Community Governance Council

reported to be supportive of the PLAS,
though concerned with its legal backing.
They reported a lack of understanding with
regards to its legal framework and the
Ministerial Decree No. 14. While they
emphasized the need for a community-led
educational campaign, they considered the
Community leader in the
park rangers and the Mangrove Association
Mangrove Forests surrounding
to be in charge of its design and
Photo taken by Josh Feinberg.
implementation. They further suggested
the inclusion of youth groups within the
educational campaign, the design of
informational material to be placed in public
spaces, and public-service-announcements
for radio broadcasts. They stated their
support for the reactivation of the
Environmental Committee and considered it
to be the primary means of direct
communication between community
members and institutional bodies such as MARN. Moreover, they suggested
that the Environmental Committee should increase community support by
meeting more regularly in each community and by including representatives
from youth groups and cooperatives. They additionally supported a more
holistic management plan for the mangrove resources, though they noted
the need for more technical and scientific support to ensure the success of
mitigation and restoration programs.
MARN expressed their support for the PLAS, as demonstrated by their
intention to back the design and implementation of further local
management plans in other communities throughout the country. They
viewed their role as providing the institutional backing for the PLAS, and
emphasized the need for local organizations and communities to take charge
of the design, implementation and management of the PLAS. They viewed
the PLAS as having legal validity through 2015 with the possibility to renew
its authorization every five years dependent on local support and scientific
studies demonstrating positive impacts on the health of the mangrove
ecosystem. They indicated their support for the reactivation of the
Environmental Committee, although they considered that elected community
representatives should assume the leading role within the committee.
Moreover, they reported that greater community knowledge and support of
the PLAS were needed for its functionality and for their endorsement of its
II. Recommendations for Improving the PLAS

1. Addressing the legal framework of the PLAS

a. Request the renewal of the PLAS every five years from
MARNs Department of Natural Protected Areas
Demonstrate increased community support of the PLAS by
implementing a community-level educational campaign
that promotes a sustained awareness within the
Encourage greater community participation in
environmental education and mangrove restoration
Evaluate community knowledge, support and attitudes
towards the PLAS every five years
Evaluate the impacts of the PLAS on the health of the
ecosystem following the recommendations of a biologist
b. Obtain official copies of the PLAS from MARN for distribution
to the PNC, park rangers and community leaders
2. Improving structural organization
a. Re-establish the Environmental Committee with clearly
defined roles to:
Receive feedback from all stakeholders regarding the PLAS
Facilitate communication between stakeholders
Provide a democratic decision-making process amongst
stakeholders to decide:
The appropriate protocols for responding to
The requirements for resource users, including their
registration and participation in restoration programs
and environmental education
Implement and supervise the PLAS
b. Develop a structure for governance, including the delegation
of leadership in the agenda-setting and facilitation of
c. Develop a systematized method for ensuring transparent
documentation of the decisions by the Environmental
d. Ensure representative participation by each stakeholder
e. Actively engage community members to ensure their
understanding of the functionality and role of the
Environmental Committee
f. Facilitate elections for community representatives and
guarantee their commitment to consistent participation
g. Share best practices with other communities engaged in the
design and implementation of local management plans


3. Building a holistic wood-use management plan

a. Re-establish the Environmental Committee as the body
responsible for the implementation and management of the
wood-use permit system
Identify distinct roles and duties of Environmental
Committee members for the oversight of the wood-use
permit system
Develop and publicize a documented protocol for the
application process and approval for mangrove-wood
extraction that includes:
Clearly designated community representatives from
the Environmental Committee whom community
members must consult
The requirements for approval to be decided by the
Environmental Committee, which could include:
o Demonstrated economic necessity
o Demonstrated commitment to the health of the
mangrove ecosystem through participation in
environmental education, mangrove
restoration projects and/or mitigation programs
Methods for transparent documentation of wood-use
The procedure for extraction, including the
assistance of park rangers in locating permissible
extraction sites and species
A clear protocol for responding to infractions, to be
established by the Environmental Committee
o First-time offenders could be required to
participate in environmental educational and
restoration programs
b. Provide technical and scientific support for the integration of
mitigation and restoration programs into the management
c. Provide necessary support for the park rangers to act as
educators of the management-plan and guides for the
permissible extraction of mangrove-wood
d. Improve communication amongst stakeholders to ensure
community members have a clear understanding of the
requirements and application process for the wood-use permit
Improve community awareness and access to
environmental education, restoration projects and
mitigation programs such as planting living fences and
using eco-stoves


III. Educational Campaign

Multiple stakeholder groups emphasized the need to develop an educational
campaign to improve community knowledge of the PLAS and its importance.
The primary goals of the educational campaign would be to improve general
awareness of the PLAS, facilitate access to information, and to provide a
continued presence of visual and auditory reminders that supports long-term
communal management of the mangrove resources.
Recommendations for an educational campaign
1. Train the park rangers and community leaders, including the
community representatives to the Environmental Committee, to
facilitate an informational workshop for community members (Annex II)
2. Provide further logistical and organizational support for the park
rangers and community leaders to facilitate the workshop for each
3. Develop and provide necessary audio-visual materials for the workshop
and campaign
a. Create a field pocket-book for the park rangers to educate
community members about the PLAS and its regulations (Annex
b. Draft a pamphlet for community leaders to educate their
communities about the PLAS and its regulations (Annex IV)
c. Post informational signs at sites with the greatest extraction of
resources focusing on the site-specific resource(s) under stress,
i. La Nueva: the extraction of crabs, and mangrove wood for
building and firewood
ii. El Can de Cali-Chacastera: the extraction of fish and
shrimp, highlighting permitted nets
iii. El Llorn: the extraction of fish and shrimp, highlighting
permitted nets, and the extraction of mangrove wood for
building and firewood
iv. El Horno: the extraction of mangrove wood for building and
v. La Barcelona: the extraction of crabs, and mangrove wood
for building and firewood
vi. El Barral: the extraction of punche crabs
d. Design public-service announcements for radio broadcast, with
the help of youth groups
e. Design public-service announcements for community
megaphones, particularly to promote awareness during the notake season for punche crabs



As the PLAS nears the end of its five-year term, requiring renewed
institutional approval, it is critical to reflect and build upon the initial
successes and challenges of its implementation and functionality.
The PLAS has been highly successful in a
number of regards. First, by assigning rights and
use-permits to the resources, it has helped
reduce conflict surrounding the extraction of
resources. Moreover, it has significantly
diminished the commercialization of mangrove
wood and has promoted communal management
of the aquatic resources. Finally, the PLAS has
garnered national recognition and support from
MARN, which considers it a model to replicate in
other areas.
However, the PLAS still faces a number of
challenges. As a community-based
management plan, it is essential that community
knowledge and support of the PLAS exist.
However, both previous studies and the current
evaluation have found that while the
foundational support for environmental
protection exists throughout the communities, there is not a strong sense of
communal ownership of the PLAS itself. To
Park Ranger in the Mangrove
address this challenge, stakeholders with
Forests of the Bay of Jiquilisco.
organizational and technical capacity should
Photo taken by Josh Feinberg.
develop an educational campaign that supports
continued awareness of the PLAS and its communal roots. Moreover, it is
important that community leaders, along with park rangers and
representatives of the Environmental Committee, assume the roles as
educators and advocates for environmental stewardship and communal
management of resources.
It is thus critical that community leaders have direct and reliable
communication with organizational and institutional bodies that can provide
the technical support for a sustained educational campaign. Likewise, it is
crucial that the institutional stakeholders have a clear understanding of the
local impacts of the PLAS on the health of the mangrove ecosystem as well
as on the socioeconomic conditions of the communities. The Environmental
Committee was designed to create the space for representatives from each
stakeholder group to gather and provide consistent flows of information;
however, as there was no clear procedure for meetings and agenda setting,
the committee has not functioned properly since its inception. Thus, to
strengthen the PLAS and ensure its long-term functionality, stakeholder
groups must rejuvenate the Environmental Committee and establish a
transparent organizational structure and plan for sustained commitment.

Such commitment by all stakeholders, local and institutional, is essential for

the PLAS to promote communal stewardship of the natural resources in the
Western Sector of the Jiquilisco Bay.


Annex I. Results
Table 1. Stakeholder Analysis
Park Rangers


- Regard PLAS as
- Uninformed of the
useful instrument
PLAS and its
for resource
- View their role as
- View their primary
enforcers of law
role as educators
and advocates of
the PLAS
- Scope of work hinges - Cannot enforce PLAS
on MARNs support
without legal
and the legal
- Uncertain of legality
and 14th Ministerial




- View their role as co- - Supportive of PLAS, managers with

but concerned of its
- View themselves as
facilitators of
- Lack understanding
- Regard PLAS as legal
of the 14th
through 2015
Ministerial Decree
- Consider MARNs
and PLASs legal
backing as
important for
- Support integrated - Legality is critical to
- Recommendations:
- Recommendations:
include restoration
and mitigation
monitoring and
programs (unsure
of nurseries
promote access to
component, tree

- Recommendations: - N/A
include restoration
and mitigation
programs, i.e.
planting living
fences and tree
- Improve access to
wood and programs
for alternative
Environment- Support re- Willing to participate
- Willing to take
al Committee establishment
leading role in
- View EC as an
initial phase of
component of the

Supportive, trying to
replicate in other
View themselves as
institutional backing
with a small role in
Regard PLAS as valid
through 2015
Renewal dependent
on community
support and
scientific studies
Support the
incorporation of
restoration and
programs such as

- Regard EC as direct - Committed to

avenue for
with institutional

Lines of
- Currently use a
system for
infractions to
MARN, but not for
the PLAS
Education - Regard themselves
as educators and
advocates of

- Regard park rangers - Recognize need for - View Mangle and

- Value
as important source
improvement and
MARN involvement
for information
their central role in
as critical
- Emphasize
challenges in
with institutions
- N/A
- Regard themselves - Emphasize need for - Regard education as
as playing a key
community led
the tool to increase
role in community
education and
- Recognize need for
youth involvement

Table 2 Stakeholder Needs Assessment

Park Rangers



MARNs endorsement of PLAS

demonstrated in print

Assurance that PLAS has a

legal authority
Official copy of the PLAS

Clarification of
specific extraction
documentation of




Confidence that
PLAS is supported
by legal framework
Resources for
regular scientific
and socioeconomic
Updated study of
mangrove resources
and registration of
resource use

Confidence in the
legality of PLAS


Protocol for recording and responding to

Recommitment from
involved parties


Commitment by all stakeholders to the

Human resources for
restructuring and


Technical and
scientific support,
especially for
mitigation and
knowledge of
extraction sites
participation via incorporating
cooperatives and

Scientific study to
evaluate impacts of
Provide annual or biannual policy
PLAS renewal in 2015
commitment by the
communities to the
health of the
mangrove ecosystem

Strong community
Elected community

agenda setting

Lines of

System for
communicating PLAS
infractions to MARN

with park

Strategy to


Visual material to use in the field


Strategy for
implementing an
campaign with
sustained results

youth groups
More frequent
meetings held in
each community
Functioning EC to

Collaboration between
all communities with
local management

regulations in
materials such as
signs/posters and

Assurance that PLAS is

known and adopted
suggested each
community holds a
general assembly

Annex II. Train the Trainers

To promote greater communal ownership of the PLAS, community leaders
should take on the roles as educators and advocates of the management
plan. A primary component of this role would be to facilitate educational
workshops to inform community members about the PLAS, its function,
communal origins, and organizational structure as well as its specific
regulations. For the community leaders to assume this role, they indicated a
need for technical and logistical support from organizations such as the
Mangrove Association. In order to empower local leaders as community
educators and advocates of the PLAS, the Mangrove Association should meet
with local leaders to plan the educational campaign for their communities
and involve them in the design of the workshop.
Based on the information gathered during our meetings with community
leaders and the Mangrove Association, we designed the educational
workshop outlined below, which the Mangrove Association and community
leaders may use as a model to adopt accordingly. We would also
recommend that representatives of the Mangrove Association provide
training for the community leaders and park rangers, who in turn can
facilitate the adapted workshop in their communities.
1. Introduction: facilitated by a representative from the Mangrove
a. Ice breaker: facilitate a game or activity that would highlight
some of the key benefits or characteristics of the mangrove
ecosystem (5-10 minutes)
2. Communal origins of PLAS: facilitated by members of the Community
Governance Council
a. Explain the history of the PLAS as a community-based
management plan
b. Explain its legal backing through the Ministerial Decree No. 14
and the 5-year renewal process
3. Environmental Committee: facilitated by representatives of the
Environmental Committee
a. Explain the roles of the Environmental Committee:
i. To respond to concerns brought up by community members
regarding the PLAS
ii. To facilitate communication between stakeholders
iii. To evaluate and oversee the PLAS
iv. To implement and supervise the wood-use management
b. Explain its organizational structure and plan for regular meetings
c. Explain the steps to reactivate the committee, particularly the
need to elect community representatives
4. PLAS regulations: facilitated by the park rangers with the assistance of
visual materials

a. Particular emphasis on the following regulations:

i. Extraction of punche crabs
1. No-take regulation during the reproductive period
2. Permitted quantity
ii. Permitted fishing nets
iii. Use of mangrove-wood (for building and cooking)
1. Permitted quantity of firewood
a. Provide easy conversions of the local
measurement, un pante (1m x 4m x 50cm),
used in the PLAS regulation to other local
measurements such as un jas, una
carretada, and una pichichada
2. Requirements for the use of mangrove-wood for
3. Permitted sites for extraction
Annex III. Pocket-booklet for the Park Rangers
Outline attached in Spanish on pages 16-18.
Annex IV. Informational Pamphlet about the PLAS
Two versions attached in Spanish on pages 19 and 20: the first version
includes more detailed writing, and the second version is in a bulletedformat.

Se establece una veda total en el Izcanal

MARN: Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (2005). Ley de
reas Naturales Protegidas: Decreto No. 579. San Salvador, El Salvador.
MARN: Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (2008).
Resolucin No. 14. San Salvador, El Salvador.
Rivera, Carlos Giovanni (2008). Estructura y composicin del complejo
Manglar-estuario del sector occidental de la Baha de Jiquilisco, Usulutn.
Asociacin Mangle, Fondo de la Iniciativa para las Amricas (FIAES),
Universidad de El Salvador, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologa de
El Salvador (ICMARES). San Salvador, El Salvador.
Rivera, Carlos Giovanni (2009). Diagnostico socio-econmico de ocho
Comunidades del Sector Occidental de la Baha de Jiquilisco,
Departamento de Usulutn. ICMARES, Universidad de El Salvador,
Asociacin Mangle. San Salvador, El Salvador.

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