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TA: Ronnie Steinitz

rsteinit@ucsd.e
du

THIS IS NOT
A STUDY
GUIDE! Refer
to lecture
slides/readin
gs for full
content

BILD 3 Kurle 2014 - Lecture 11


11/18/14
This chapter is mostly memorization- Hooray,
FLASHCARDS!
Tree

of life
Five kingdom system
3 domains:
o
o
o

and
- very successful
(prokaryotes have more biomass than all
plants and animals together)
Evolutionary- first organisms
Phylogenetic tree of Domains
o (Eukaryotes
at the
top)
o Each domain is mono-/para-/poly-
phyletic (circle
one)
o We are constantly finding new
species Relationships not known very well

Eukarya
Have cells contain true
nuclei All multicellular
orgs
Some single celled
Prokaryotic: Archaea and Bacteria
Prokaryotes have:
No
-bounded organelles
No
envelope
One circular chromosome
Flagella for movement
Pili helps them stick to other
substrates
Capsule sticky and helps
adherence, or hide from
hosts immune system
No
, but can
transfer genetic information
between cells, which keeps diversity high within
prokaryotes
Relationships within different domains are poorly

understood.

Examples of Bacteria
Proteobacteria-
o Ex. Rhizobium live in association with plant roots where
they fix
atmospheric nitrogen.
Gram positive bacteria-
o Ex.
o Ex.
Cyanobacteria-
o This is likely where original
(photosynthetic
cells in
plants) came from
o In water, photosynthetic
Spirochetes-
o Pathogens causing Lyme disease and syphilis
Archaea
First life forms were likely similar to archaea. Read more at the end of this
handout!
Extremophiles:
o Extremophiles well represented in this group
o Hard places to do research
o
philes- salty lakes
Ex. Halobacterium
philes- hot springs thermovents (deep sea)
o
Ex. sulfolobus
o Methanogens in ice in Iceland , swamps, guts of animals
Mostly anoxic (no oxygen) environments
Archaea more similar to: Eukaryotes (share more recent common
ancestor)

Autotroph/Heterotrph (circle one) = produces energy


thermal energy)
Autotroph/Heterotrph (circle one) = obtain energy
it on their

on their

own (via solar or

by ingestion (cannot produce

own)

Eukarya (protists)
o Have eukaryotic cells with internal membrane bound structures (nucleus,
mitochondria, chloroplasts)
o Oldest found 2.1billion years ago
o Diverse group of organisms (single cell, up to giant kelp)
o Unicellular Eukaryotes
o Largely unicellular, most aquatic
o Phylogenetic tree-
Archaea more closely related to eukaryotes than bacteria
o Protists-
o Not really plants but not really animals
o Can move but not a
lot
o Can
photosynthesi
ze but not a
lot
All branches of this
tree (besides bold, red
ones) are Protists

4 Examples of Protists (Unicellular


Eukarya)
1.
a. Intestinal parasite that persists in water
b. Feces mediated can get into water sources
c. Can be prevented by Iodine tablets and water filters
2. Trypanosoma
a. Cause
in humans
b. Vectored by tsetse flies
c. In tropical Africa
d. Causes vascular and lymphatic infection, can result in death
e. Treatable with drugs
3. Dinoflagellates
a. Cells reinforced with cellulose plates
b. Twin flagella propel organism through water
c. Blooms can cause Red Tides
i. An accumulation of dinoflagellates which color the sea
red
ii.
iii.
iv.

Some make neurotoxin that doesnt hurt mollusks


But it can hurt everything else
Influx of nutrients cause a bloom, causes red tide-
high concentration of neurotoxin in mollusks, can
make mollusks poisonous to humans
d. Some are bioluminescent
i. Release light as a product of a chemical reaction inside them
ii. Remember, we talked about the evolution of bioluminescence?
iii. Make light when disturbed to confuse predator
4. Diatoms
a. Unicellular algae with a cell wall composed of silica
b. Freshwater (rivers and lakes) and marine (oceanic)
c. Use of silica makes them easy/difficult (circle one) to
consum
e
d. VERY diverse
Eukarya Algae (Protists, focus on Algae)
Multicellular algae include brown, red and green algae (Giant kelp is
algae) Red and green algae belong to Archaeplastida, which likely
gave rise to plants
Alternation of generation
(gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) and multicellular embryos dependent on
maternal plant) life cycle where they alternate physical form depending on which
phase they are in. [Figure with cycle in the end of the worksheet]
Three Groups of
Algae Brown
Algae
Ex. Kelp, Seaweed
Exclusively marine

In the same supergroup as diatoms, dinoflag., and


apicomplexans But NOT red and green algae
Ex. Giant Kelp; Macrocystis
Red Algae
Ex. Porphyra used in sushi
Mostly marine, can occur in great depths can absorb blue and
green light
Many can exhibit alternation of generations
Many are filamentous
Green Algae
Ex. Cholerpa
Many can exhibit alternation of generations
Chloroplasts similar in structure to those found in land plants
Marine, freshwater and terrestrial
EXTREMELY INVASIVE!!!
Eukarya Land Plants
Colonization of land transformed the terrestrial environments of Earth
500mya small plants
370mya first forests
Plants provide us with oxygen and food, and have many other positive functions
Land Colonization:
Advantages
Abundant CO2
Abundant Light (Autotrophs)
Nutrients more plentiful
Initially, no herbivores

Challenges / Disadvantages
Relative scarcity of water
Lack of structural support
Herbivores eventually

Most living plants are Angiosperms (Flowering plants)

Plant synapomorphies: (things that are derived, novel, and define land
plants)
1.
Alternation of generation (gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) and
multicellular
embryos dependent on maternal plant)
a. Embryos retained within parent plant- nutrients to help growth
b. Charophytes lack alternation of generation
c. Because land plants evolved this trait independent of the algae
2.
Haploid spores produced in sporangia resist desiccation
3.
Multicellular gametangia (to protect, give nutrients).
a. Gametangia: A gametangium (plural: gametangia) is an
organ or cell in which gametes are produced that is found in
many multicellular protists, algae, fungi, and the
gametophytes of plants. A gametangium is a haploid structure
and formation of gametes does not involve meiosis.
4. Apical meristem- localized regions of cell division that allow roots and shoots to
penetrate soil and to extend into the air (roots growing down, branches growing up)

Vascular plants- most plants on land (origin


~420mya)
-Water conducting cells xylem and phloem
contain lignin (a rigid polymer)
roots absorb water and nutrients
leaves increase surface area of plant
body for photosynthesis
Seedless vascular plants:
ferns, horsetails
gametophyte is reduced but
independent and
photosynthetic
often occur in moist environments
include club moss
Forests today are dominated by vascular plants with seeds, but 360mya seedless
trees dominated
Seed plants
Diversified in carboniferous period- 360mya
Seed: an embryo + some food in a protective coat
Seeds are detachable, mobile, capable of prolonged dormancy
Can withstand harsh physical conditions
Pollen: haploid stage male gametophyte within sporophyte-derived wall
Carried long distances by wind or water (or animal).
No reliance on water for fertilization (like algae)
Gymnosperms (one of the seeded groups)
Sporophyte is dominant stage with tiny gametophyte inside male and
female cones Gametophyte protected and nutritionally supported by
sporophyte
Naked seeds- not enclosed within an ovary, on modified leaves that form cones
1.
2.
3.
4.

Gingko trees - living fossil


Cycas revolute
Gnetophytes
Conifers; Ex:
a. Sequoias
b. Pines
c. Fir

Include worlds oldest, tallest trees


High elevation, grow slowly (one tree is 5000yo)

Seed Plants:
Angiosperms
Other group of seed plants-
Sporophyte is dominant phase
flowing plants
gametophyte- male and female, found in the flower itself
depend on the sporophyte for nutrition
Flowers: a specialized structure for sexual
reproduction Stamens produce pollen (male)
Carpel produces ovules
(female) Fertilized ovules
become seeds inside fruit

Pollination

Answers:
1. Cones / fruits
2. Mesozoic / Cenozoic
3. Wind / animal
Angiosperms the largest
group of plants
today Monocots
and dicots
DNA studies suggest that
monocots are a clade,
monophyletic, but dicots
are polyphyletic.
Flowering- monocots
Dicots- veggies, pees, zucchini

"Nothing in biology makes sense


in
the light of evolution." Theodosius
Dobzhansky, Geneticist

except

FIRST

LIFE FORMS:

So what were the first living things and when did


they appear? Studies of genetic material indicate
that a living group of single-celled organisms
called Archaea may share many features with early
life on Earth. Many Archaea now live in
hot springs, deep-sea vents, saline water,
and other harsh environments. If the first
organisms resembled modern Archaea,
they also may have lived in such places,
but direct evidence for early life is
controversial because it is difficult to
distinguish between complex inorganic structures and simple biological
ones in the geologic record. The oldest evidence for life may be 3.5-
billion-year-old sedimentary structures from Australia that resemble
stromatolites. Stromatolites are created today by living mats of
microorganisms (mostly cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae). These
primitive organisms trap thin layers of sediment with their sticky
filaments and grow upward to get light for photosynthesis. Modern-
day examples of stromatolites can be found in waters off Australia, the
Bahamas, and Belize.
[source:

http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/htmlversion/archean3.html]