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Homework problems

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1

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

The main purpose of Section 1.1 is simply to introduce the basic notation and terminology of

differential equations, and to show the student what is meant by a solution of a differential

equation. Also, the use of differential equations in the mathematical modeling of real-world

phenomena is outlined.

Problems 1-12 are routine verifications by direct substitution of the suggested solutions into the

given differential equations. We include here just some typical examples of such verifications.

3.

y1 = 4 cos 2 x = 4 y1

and

y2 = 4sin 2 x = 4 y2 .

Thus y1 + 4 y1 = 0 and y2 + 4 y2 = 0.

4.

y1 = 9 e3 x = 9 y1

5.

and

y2 = 9 e 3 x = 9 y2 .

If y = e x e x , then y = e x + e x so y y = (e x + e x ) (e x e x ) = 2 e x . Thus

y = y + 2 e x .

6.

y2 = 4 e 2 x + 4 x e 2 x . Hence

y1 + 4 y1 + 4 y1 = ( 4 e 2 x ) + 4 ( 2 e 2 x ) + 4 (e 2 x ) = 0

and

y2 + 4 y2 + 4 y2 =

8.

( 4e

2 x

+ 4 x e 2 x ) + 4 (e 2 x 2 x e 2 x ) + 4 ( x e 2 x ) = 0.

y1 = cos x + 4 cos 2 x, and y2 = cos x + 2sin 2 x, y2 = sin x + 4 cos 2 x. Hence

y1 + y1 = ( cos x + 4 cos 2 x ) + ( cos x cos 2 x ) = 3cos 2 x

and

11.

If y = y1 = x 2 then y = 2 x 3 and y = 6 x 4 , so

Section 1.1

x 2 y + 5 x y + 4 y = x 2 (6 x 4 ) + 5 x ( 2 x 3 ) + 4 ( x 2 ) = 0.

If y = y2 = x 2 ln x then y = x 3 2 x 3 ln x and y = 5 x 4 + 6 x 4 ln x, so

x 2 y + 5 x y + 4 y = x 2 ( 5 x 4 + 6 x 4 ln x ) + 5 x ( x 3 2 x 3 ln x ) + 4 ( x 2 ln x )

= ( 5 x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (6 x 2 10 x 2 + 4 x 2 ) ln x = 0.

13.

to 3 r = 2. Thus r = 2/3.

14.

4 r 2 = 1. Thus r = 1/ 2.

15.

that simplifies to r 2 + r 2 = (r + 2)(r 1) = 0. Thus r = 2 or r = 1.

16.

3r 2e rx + 3r e rx 4 e rx = 0 that simplifies to 3r 2 + 3r 4 = 0. The quadratic formula then

The verifications of the suggested solutions in Problems 17-36 are similar to those in Problems

1-12. We illustrate the determination of the value of C only in some typical cases.

17.

C = 2

19.

20.

21.

C = 7

22.

23.

If y ( x) =

C = 56.

24.

C = 17

Section 1.1

18.

1

4

C = 3

1

4

32 + C 18 = 1 with solution

25.

If y ( x ) = tan( x 2 + C ) then y(0) = 1 gives the equation tan C = 1. Hence one value

of C is C = / 4 (as is this value plus any integral multiple of ).

26.

0 = ( + C )(1), so C = .

27.

y = x + y

28.

so the differential equation is x y = 2 y.

29.

If m = y is the slope of the tangent line and m is the slope of the normal line at ( x, y ),

then the relation m m = 1 yields m = 1/ y = ( y 1) /( x 0). Solution for y then

gives the differential equation (1 y ) y = x.

30.

the differential equation 2 x y = 1.

31.

differential equation is ( x + y ) y = y x.

In Problems 32-36 we get the desired differential equation when we replace the "time rate of

change" of the dependent variable with its derivative, the word "is" with the = sign, the phrase

"proportional to" with k, and finally translate the remainder of the given sentence into symbols.

32.

dP / dt = k P

33.

dv / dt = k v 2

34.

dv / dt = k (250 v)

35.

dN / dt = k ( P N )

36.

dN / dt = k N ( P N )

37.

y ( x ) = 1 or y ( x ) = x

38.

y( x) = e x

39.

y( x) = x 2

40.

y ( x) = 1 or y ( x ) = 1

41.

y ( x) = e x / 2

42.

y ( x ) = cos x or y ( x ) = sin x

43.

(a)

(b)

There is no such value of C, but the constant function y ( x) 0 satisfies the

conditions y = y 2 and y (0) = 0.

Section 1.1

(c)

It is obvious visually that one and only one solution curve passes through each

point (a, b) of the xy-plane, so it follows that there exists a unique solution to the initial

value problem y = y 2 , y (a ) = b.

44.

(b)

Obviously the functions u ( x ) = x 4 and v ( x) = + x 4 both satisfy the differential

equation x y = 4 y. But their derivatives u ( x ) = 4 x3 and v( x ) = + 4 x 3 match at

x = 0, where both are zero. Hence the given piecewise-defined function y ( x) is

differentiable, and therefore satisfies the differential equation because u ( x ) and v( x) do

so (for x 0 and x 0, respectively).

(c)

C x 4

y( x) =

4

C0 x

if x 0,

if x 0

Section 1.1

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