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EE2 Physics for Electrical Engineers

Lecture 1
Introduction to Physical Electronics
Course Instructor: Marko Sokolich
28 September, 2015

2015 Marko Sokolich All Rights Reserved

Posted on the CCLE Website

Survey of Previous Coursework


EE2 Sylabus
Contact Information
Class Schedule/Office Hours
Grading Policy/Exam Schedule
Teaching Assistant/Discussion Sections
Textbook/References
Course Outline

2015 Marko Sokolich All Rights Reserved

Course Philosophy

Solid foundation in fundamental principles


Qualitative Understanding first, Quantitative Skill second
Conceptual foundations of Quantum Mechanics
Mental and numerical models of physical processes
Thorough treatment of the physics of pn Junctions
Introduction to a wide variety of 2-terminal semiconductor devices
Each illustrates a physical principle
Connect each to applications
Be able to understand operation of novel devices

Mastery of material requires considerable self-study


Not all concepts will be covered in lectures
Homework is an important component of success
Homework will require reading ahead of the materials in lecture

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The Importance of Homework

Lecture

Quote of the Day...


I hear and I forget.
forget I see and I remember.
remember
"I
I do and I understand
understand."
Homework

-- attributed to
Kong FuziConfucius
(551 479 bce)

Your Notes,
Slides and
Text

The importance of Homework has been known for at least 2500 years !

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Why study quantum mechanics?


Classical, Newtonian, physics breaks down
at atomic dimensions.
Forget atoms! Simple, macroscopic things
cant be explained
Why are quartz and diamond transparent?
Why does conductivity sometimes increase with T?
How can current flow be asymmetric?

The behavior of semiconductors cannot be


explained without quantum mechanics.

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Fine, but then why study semiconductors?

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Semiconductor Devices

Where are they?


Computers
Watches
Smart Phones
Cameras
CD Players
Satellites
Undersea Cable
Automobiles
Airplanes
Lights
The Cloud
The Internet
Humans/Dogs/Whales etc.
Interstellar space

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Semiconductors: Historical Perspective


Where are they?

What did they replace?

When?

Computers

1960s

Watches

Mechanical Calculators,
Tubes, Magnetic cores
Mechanical Movements

1970s

Cell Phones

[Made them possible]

1980s

CD Players

Mechanical stylus, Tubes

1980

Satellites

[Made them possible]

1957

Radio, TV

Vacuum Tubes

Automobiles

Mechanical timing, Maps

1950s
1970s
1980s

Airplanes

Crew Members (Navigator)

1980s

Traffic Lights

Light Bulbs

1990s

Smart Phones

Cell Phones

2000

Ambient Lighting

Incandescent and Fluorescent

2010

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Imagine a day without silicon: 1977

First Star Wars movie is playing in theaters


Apple computer launches their first commercial success (Apple II)
Voyager 1,2 spacecraft have just been launched
With an incredible 40 kilobits of on-board memory (80,000 transistors)
A day without silicon
Leave your calculator at home
Dont go to the computer lab
Drive wherever
Watch TV (at parents house 10 year old set)
Play your LP records all day and night (tube amp, turntable)
Go to the Star Wars movie!

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Imagine a day without silicon 2015


Yet another Star Wars Movie!
Voyager 1 and 2 have reached interstellar space (in 2013)
One Apple iPhone 6s processor (A8) has 2 Billion transistors
The equivalent of 2 Million Apple II* computers from 1977
*In its first 4 years Apple sold over 300,000 units!

A day without silicon:


No driving
No smartphone, laptop, calculator, FitBit, watch
Wooden center Bball and Weights only, no elliptical/treadmill!
No music, no TV, no gaming
No movie digital projector
Go to the beach
Hike in the Santa Monica Mountains
Stay away from civilization
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Semiconductors: The Future (my predictions 2002)


Ambient Lighting
Incandescent Light bulbs will be as hard to find by 2015 as vacuum tubes
are today?
Pervasive Computing
Microprocessors will be imbedded in many previously low-tech systems.
Segway (personal scooter) uses 3 microprocessors just to maintain
balance. These will become pervasive.
Cars wont crash.
Communications
Cell phones will be the size of a watch and operate without batteries
(scavenging power from the environment)
Fiber to the home will become indispensable.
Personal Robots will become commonplace by 2010 for limited functions.
Microprocessor and memory industries will become mature and cease to
grow in dollar volume. All semiconductor sales growth will be in sensors,
ambient lighting and communications.

The future aint what it used to be


Yogi Berra (1925-2015)
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Semiconductors: The Future (2015 Predictions)

Pilotless full size aircraft (cargo 2020, passenger ?)


Consumer priced floor to ceiling video screen (2020)
Silicon minds (Siri on steroids by 2025)
All-body monitors (complete personal health monitoring by 2025)
50% of cars sold are self-driving (2025)
Driverless Pizza delivery (2025)
90% of cars sold are self-driving (2030)
Biometric PIN credit/debit cards (2030)
Cash not accepted at 50% of all businesses (2030)
50% of California electricity from solar (2030)
Robot soccer team beats human world cup team (2050)
The singularity [a machine superior to a human] (2070+)
It's tough to make predictions, especially about the future.
Yogi Berra (1925-2015)

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Semiconductors: The Future (Your Prediction)

Provide one prediction about the future of technology (somehow


involving semiconductors)
At least 20 years in the future (2025 or later)
Falsifiable precise enough for a definitive yes or no
Example of a good prediction: 10% of Americans will own
personal vehicles capable of flight by 2027 easy to check
Your choice of anonymous or with attribution (anonymous
unless you sign your name)
Make a prediction about something you know better than your
peers (a hobby, an interest outside of school, a unique work
experience)

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Solid state electronics in a nutshell


(A pictorial outline of the syllabus)
Experimental Observations
Allowed Energy States in Atoms
Semiconductor Crystals
Energy Bands in Solids
Metals, Insulators and Semiconductors
Electrons and Holes
Counting charge carriers
Generation and Recombination
Electrical Conductivity
Junctions
Solids and Light

Next: A whirlwind review of the entire course in 20 slides!


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Early semiconductor observations

In 1833 Michael Faraday observed that the


conductivity of silver sulfide increased with
increasing temperature no metal behaved this
way.
In 1874, 24-year old Ferdinand Braun noted that
current flowed only one way when he probed a
lead sulfide crystal with a thin metal wire the first
observation of diode behavior.
Neither effect can be explained without Quantum Mechanics

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Experimental Observations: Crystals

Max Von Laue won the 1914


Nobel Prize in Physics for observing
the interference effects of X-rays
(Roentgen Rays) with crystals
in 1912.
Atoms in some materials are arranged in a
uniform lattice with long-range order
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Experimental Observations: Photoelectric Effect

Emitter

Collector

Blue Light - current flows


Red Light - no current

Battery Voltage

BlueLight
Red
Light

vacuum

Red Green Blue

+
Battery

Ammeter

Light behaves as particles. Electrons can interact


only with a single light particle (photon).
Electrons are bound to the metal with energy eVo
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Frequency of Light

eV = h - eVo
Observations by Lenard in 1902
Explanation by Einstein in 1905
Einstein won Nobel Prize in 1921

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Experimental Observations: Spectral Lines

Unlike light from the


sun which contains
all the colors of the
rainbow, elements emit
a distinct signature
of spectral lines.
The simplest elements
H and He have the fewest
spectral lines.

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Potential Well of a Nucleus


F = eE 1/r2
E = d/dr 1/r
e
r

An electron in the attractive


potential of a nucleus can
only have one of a set of
discrete or quantized
energy levels.
The lowest of these levels is
called the ground state.

Potential energy of an electron is e

Transitions between states


result in the absorption or
emission of a quanta of energy
(a photon)

Nucleus looks roughly like a box potential

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Potential Well of a Nucleus


F = eE 1/r2
E = d/dr 1/r
e
r

An electron in the attractive


potential of a nucleus can
only have one of a set of
discrete or quantized
energy levels.
The lowest of these levels is
called the ground state.

Potential energy of an electron is e

Transitions between states


result in the absorption or
emission of a quanta of energy
(a photon)

Nucleus looks roughly like a box potential

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Potential Well of a Nucleus


F = eE 1/r2
E = d/dr 1/r
e
r

An electron in the attractive


potential of a nucleus can
only have one of a set of
discrete or quantized
energy levels.
The lowest of these levels is
called the ground state.

Potential energy of an electron is e

Transitions between states


result in the absorption or
emission of a quanta of energy
(a photon)

Nucleus looks roughly like a box potential

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Crystal Lattices

Some elements array themselves in


highly regular crystals with very long
range order. Silicon is an example.
The distance between adjacent atoms
is a few Angstroms (tenths of
nanometers) so that electrons are
shared between adjacent atoms.
The order imposes restrictions on the
wave functions of electronsthey
must have properties similar to the
symmetry of the lattice.
The high purity with which such
crystals can be grown results in the
ability to change their properties with
miniscule addition of impurities.
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Atoms in Proximity: Splitting of Quantum States

E0

E0 +

Atoms far apart do not have electron


E0
wave functions that overlap. They
have the same ground state energy for
all electrons.

E0 +

E0

E0
As atoms are moved
closer together the energy
levels split

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The closer they get the


greater the splitting

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Periodic Array of Potential Wells: Energy Bands

E0 +

Eg.

E0

As many states as there are atoms in the solid.


So close together that they form into bands.
If each atom contributed one electron then in
the ground (lowest energy) state the lower (valence)
band of the solid is filled with electrons and the
higher (conduction) band is empty.
In between there is an energy gap Eg.

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Insulators, Metals and Semiconductors

Empty

Filled

Conduction band
Valence band
Conduction band

Empty

Metal
Eg ~ 5 V
Empty

Conduction band
Valence band

Eg ~ 1 V
Filled

Valence band

Filled

Insulator

Semiconductor
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Semiconductors

III

IV

Large substrates available in Si, GaAs, Ge, InP


Carbon is an insulator and Tin (Sn) is a conductor
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Crystal Engineering

Semiconductors can be
engineered by growing
different materials on top
of each other.

Any compound
along this line can
be grown on an InP
wafer

This can be done if the


lattice constant (the
spacing between unit cells)
is the same or similar.
Because semiconductors
want to array themselves in
a crystalline form this is
relatively straightforward
5.4310

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Electrons and Holes: Thermal Excitation

+4

+3

+5

C
Si
Ge
Sn
B
Al
Ga
In
N
P
As
Sb

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E
+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4
Hole

+4

+4

+4

+4

Free
Electron

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Electrons and Holes: Doping

+4

+3

+5

C
Si
Ge
Sn
B
Al
Ga
In
N
P
As
Sb

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Free
Electron

+4

+4
+5

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4
+3

+4

Hole

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Semiconductor Statistics

Two state system in thermal*


equilibrium with a reservoir

0,
U0

* Systems can exchange energy

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P ( )

exp

P ( 0)
kT
Ratio of the probability that
the system has energy to
the probability that it has
energy 0

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Semiconductor Statistics
Two state system in thermal
and diffusive* equilibrium with
a reservoir
0,
U0

P (1, )
F
exp

P (0,0)
kT
Normalize

The system can be in a state


with 0 particles and 0 energy
or in a state with 1 particle
and energy
* Systems can exchange energy and
particles.
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P (1, ) P(0,0) 1
1
P (1, )
F
exp
1
kT
F is called the Fermi energy

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Electrons and Holes: Optical Excitation


photon

+4

+3

+5

C
Si
Ge
Sn
B
Al
Ga
In
N
P
As
Sb

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Free
Electron

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

A photon of sufficient energy striking


the semiconductor creates an electron-hole
pair.

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Excess Carriers: Diffusion, Recombination

Illumination creates electrons


and holes (carriers)

semiconductor
t=0
As time passes the
carriers diffuse
and recombine

t1
t2

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Excess Carriers: Drift

Illumination creates electrons


and holes (carriers)

Apply Voltage Across


the sample

V
semiconductor
t=0
t1

As time passes the


carriers drift, diffuse
and recombine

t2

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Motion of Electrons: Mobility and Velocity


Free space electrons move with constant acceleration in a constant
electric field: F= eE = ma
In a solid electrons do not move freelythey periodically collide with
the atoms in the lattice:
Velocity is proportional to field for low fields < ~ 1V/m
Proportionality constant is called mobility ():

v =

Nearly constant velocity at high fields


Peak velocity at intermediate fields

InGaAs

InP

GaAs
Peak velocity up to 0.3 m/picosecond (ps)

Si

Saturated velocity 0.1 to 0.2 m/ps

0.1V/m
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1V/m

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Electrical Conductivity

Recall from your Electromagnetics course that: J = E or J = E (the


macroscopic analog is V = IR) where is the conductivity and is
the resistivity (=1/ )
Current density J (Amperes/cm2 = Coulombs/sec/cm2) is
proportional to the number of charge carriers, their individual
charge and their velocity: J = nev = neE so that the conductivity is
given by: = ne
In a semiconductor we can manipulate the density of charge
carriers in various waysthus we can change the conductivity.

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Conductivity
L

Area

Semiconductor 1

J nev neE
I Area J AJ

I
1
1

R
R

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V EL E

V
L

I AneE Ane

V
L

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Junctions

Metal,
Insulator or
Semiconductor 2

Semiconductor 1

+V

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pn Diodes
MS Diodes
tunneling

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Ideal Diode IV Characteristic


2.5E-03

I I 0 e

eV
kT

2.0E-03
1.5E-03

I(A)
1.0E-03
5.0E-04

I 0 4 10 15 Amperes

0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Diode turns-on to mA level at about 0.65V


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Solar Cells: Optically Generated Current

If there is uniform EHP generation in the sample (Gop) then the


optically generated current is given by:

I op eGop Ln L p W A

Iop

-xp-Ln
-xp
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xn xn+Lp

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Solar Cells: Power Delivered to a Resistive Load


The power from a solar cell must be delivered into a resistive load.
The load can be chosen to maximize the power.
140

Im

Iop

RL

The equivalent circuit of the solar


cell is a diode in parallel with an
independent current source Iop
The resistor can be depicted on
the IV characteristic as shown.
The power delivered to RL is ImVm.
2015 Marko Sokolich All Rights Reserved

RL

100
Current, mA

Full Sun

120

80

Half Sun
60
40

0.13 Sun

20
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Voltage, V

Vm

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Light Emitting Diodes

LED and Lasers require a population inversion of carriers.


This means that an excess of electrons exists in the conduction
band and and excess of holes exists in the valence band in the
same space location.
One way to do this is with a heavily doped p+n+ junction in forward
bias.
Fn

Fp

The wavelength of the emitted light is related to the bandgap as:


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Eg
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LEDs Semiconductor Choices

LEDs are primarily used as


visible light sources.
As a result, the visible
spectrum is our best guide
to LED materials.
For many years a blue LED
was not available because
there were no suitable
semiconductors in the
blue.
Now GaN is used for bright
blue LEDs

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Summary of Course Content


Physics of Semiconductors
QM of Solids: Energy Bands
Charge Carriers
Drift and Diffusion
Interaction with Light
Generation and Recombination
Semiconductor Junctions
Metal-semiconductor
pn junction
Circuit (macroscopic) Models
2 Terminal devices (diodes) [a very brief intro]
Junction diode
Tunnel diode
Solar cell
Light emitting diode
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