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A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the
Department of Political Science
School of Law and Governance
University of San Carlos
Cebu City, Philippines
In Partial Fulfilment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Arts major in Political Science
(Public Management and Development)

March 2012

This thesis entitled Achieving Universal Primary Education: Effective Implementation in
Mandaue City prepared by Bea B Suan in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
DEVELOPMENT has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval for





Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with the grade of __________
Chair of the Defense Committee




Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree BACHELOR OF
Chair, Department of Political Science
School of Law and Governance

Chapter 1

Rationale of the Study

Education together with the other aspects of life, such as health, environment as well as
economic dimension is one of the contributing factors of development. Through time, education
was considered as the most significant factor among all aspects. The role of education is so
encompassing that its benefits were over spilled throughout the other phases of life. Combined
with sound macroeconomic policies, education is fundamental for the construction of globally
competitive and democratic societies. Education is a key in creating, applying, and spreading
new ideas and technologies which in turn are critical for sustained growth; it augments cognitive
and other skills, which in turn increase labor productivity, and improving these aspects would
make development possible (Bruns, Mingat, and Rakotomalala 2003, 1). Even our grandparents
had always reminded us that there is nothing more important wealth that their children could
inherit from them other than education.
With the significance of education in every ones life, government had been making
policies that would encourage children to go to school and learn. Since before, various states had
been making compact with each other, thereby committing themselves to pursue the goals
relating education by creating policies for an international implementation. And this compact
was formed since the 1990 World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand,
followed by the World Education Forum in Dakar towards the 2000 Millenium Development
Goals to be achieved by the year 2015. All of these conventions may differ in its timeframe.
However, they are one in their commitment to achieve an education for all or recently known as
universal education by the Millennium Development Goals. This policies were crafted

internationally, nevertheless includes the implementation in the regional or local level since it is
a worldwide goal. However, in the Philippines studies by UNDP had showed that goal number
two of Millennium Development Goals which is achieving universal primary education is one of
the three goals which are still at the low level of implementation in the Philippines. It means that
Philippines are at a snails pace in its drive in achieving universal education and improving its
quality. Eradicating poverty and environmental goals were the primary purpose of the
government leaving education behind. In this light, this study aims to evaluate the
implementation of Millennium Development Goals at the city level by looking into its initiatives
that intends to response to this developmental goals and how sound these initiatives in the
achievement of the goal.
Theoretical Background
Since before, education is a concept that holds the foundation of all other rights,
opportunities and enjoyment. Education is almost at the same age of the people born at time of
civilization. Hence, its been part of our culture that we must always treasure. It is a fundamental
human right; perhaps the most human of all human rights because it is reading and writing that
sets human beings most apart from other creatures (Delamonica, et a l., 2001). It was viewed as
an integral part of the over-all human development. Or, as Margaret Akpomi (2009) puts it,
Education is undisputedly recognized as the bedrock of any meaningful development. It was
well said in many policies, agreements and international conventions since 1940s. It is a great
independent variable (Kingston, et al., 2003), because it stands on its own and sends an impact
towards all aspects of human development. Almost all professionals in different fields and
disciplines recognized education as an essential part of progress. Most common of all
understanding is that, education could address poverty reduction and can help achieve economic

growth by providing economic benefits. As what Cohen and others (2005) had said that, Over
the past century, there are three approaches advocated to escape the consequences of widespread
poverty as well as rapid economic growth and environmental problems. These three approaches
were identified and differentiated as:
The bigger pie approach says: use technology to produce more and to alleviate
shortages. The fewer forks approach says: make contraception and reproductive
health care available to eliminate unwanted fertility and to slow
population growth. The better manners approach says: eliminate violence
and corruption; improve the operation of markets and government provision
of public goods; reduce the unwanted after-effects of consumption;
and achieve greater social and political equity between young and old,
male and female, rich and poor (Cohen, 1995).
Cohen (2005), had also implied that in this approaches the need of achieving education
whether formal or not is necessary to support the aforementioned approaches. Nevertheless,
education does not only help economic growth but brings as well political and social stability
through proper knowledge of governance and leadership. Coming from its premise as basic
human rights, it encompasses not just economic, social and political but all aspects of life that
could either benefit or not the person possessing it.
The first part had showed the significance of education in order to achieve other human
rights. Unfortunately, despite of its laid importance it seems education was undermined not just
by individuals but even with the larger scope, which is the government. This problem which we
currently have in this present system is not a brand new dilemma. Hence, this has emerged past
centuries from today. That is why, the goals of achieving an education for all is not somewhat
new because since before this goal has been on the international agenda such as in Universal
Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 which was aiming for a free and compulsory education to
all the children (EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2005). It was reaffirmed through time as a set of
goals in some conventions and agreements which may only have some revisions and

amendments. Few years after the 1948 UDHR setting of goals in achieving education, the
commitment towards this has been reaffirmed throughout the time until the present through the
different forums and agendas,
In 1990, the World Declaration on Education for All
noted that the generally poor quality of education
needed to be improved and recommended that
education be made both universally available and
more relevant. A decade later, the Dakar Framework for Action
declared that access to quality education was the
right of every child. Through the MDGs, the international community has
reaffirmed its commitment to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015 (EFA Global
Monitoring Report 2005, 27-29)
Furthermore, supported by Birdsall and Vaishnav,the practice of setting goals for
universal primary education is not a new phenomenon. Beginning in 1934 with the International
Conference on Public Education in Geneva, developed and developing countries have repeatedly
pledged to leave no child behind by promising that boys and girls the world round would be
given the opportunity to enjoy the privilege of basic education. Unfortunately with all these plans
made, actions are missing and progress is invisible. It had only experienced growth in theories
but not in practice. In this study, Millennium Development Goals would be assessed considering
the fact that it is the present setting of goals emerging from the previous commitments of
Education for All. Specifically, this study would focus on the achievement of goal number 2
which is the universal primary education. As well as with the other goals in the MDG,
prioritizing education has been set since the previous commitments to development. In the
Millennium Development Goal 2, achieving a universal primary education by 2015 was at a low
level in most countries specifically of poor countries.
That is why stronger commitments by every state must be made with these goals in order
to implement and achieve this all within the allotted time of achievement and in order to
experience development. It is only through deep evaluation of the methods and strategies used

that could bring out this goals. Locally developed strategies, based on national consultation and
participation through representative political structures, accountable and capacitated institutions
and adequately incentivized public servants are the key to effective implementation of MDG
strategies and policies. (UNDP, 2010) Thus, achieving MDG by 2015 is possible if only equality
and commitment in the implementation will take at hand.
It is learned from the previous part the importance of education and the failures of the
government to implement development goals towards education. Hence, this crisis had led to
many scholars and researchers to conduct a study examining the different areas of education.
Significance studies related to education emerged from this framework of Millennium
Development Goals covering the different aspects of education.
Studies such as of Colclough and Al-Samarrai( 2000) focused on the public spending of
education in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. They argued that schooling for all is achievable
even in the poorest countries provided that governments are willing to reform both the private
and public costs and efficiency of school systems. Moreover, related studies and reports about
education also exists such as those studies focusing on the assessment of the relationship
between public education spending and education outcomes at the primary school level (AlSamarrai, 2003),financing capacity development between countries in Asia(Briones,),analyzing
emerging approaches, strategies and experiences of investing in local government in the
Philippines(Briones),return to investments in education through human development theory
(Pshacaropoulos, et al., 2001), improving the measurement of educational attainment for a broad
group of countries(Barro and Lee, 2000), updating the global and regional cost estimates for
achieving EFA by 2015(Delamonica, 2001), fast -track initiative as an approach for donor
financing the low-income countries(Birdsall and Vaishnav, 2005) and the profitability of
investment in education (Psacharopoulos.). These are the studies which discussed and assessed

how universal education in different areas could be achieved by looking or studying specific
factors or aspects of education and of development.
Among all of these is the study that is the most relevant with this paper crafted in the
same setting but having a different focus. The study by Professor Leonor Briones from the
National College of Public Administration and Governance which focused on the experiences of
the Philippines as part of the localization of MDG in Asian countries. Though it studies the
localization of the policy, nevertheless it implicitly assess the implementation of MDG in the
Philippines by looking into its approaches and strategies. It studies the local capacity
development investments for the MDG localization in the Philippines. Its objectives was to
review and analyze the emerging approaches, strategies and experiences of investing in local
government capacity development in the Philippines and to provide initial data towards
establishing a baseline of current investments in local CD in the Philippines. According to
Professor Briones, Philippine culture places high value on education as the key not only to
personal advancement but to national development as well. The status ascribed to education is
also evident in the recognition of the importance of training and CD. That is why; in the
gathering of evidence it tries to examine different phases in the implementation of this MDG at
the local level. It tries to examine the trends in decentralization of decision-making, the
increasing amounts of ODA being channeled through general budget support mechanisms, the
increasing in-country inequalities at the local level and the role of effective and accountable local
governments in meeting the MDG goals. This study includes two cities as case studies
specifically NueveEcija and Bulacan as suggested by UNDP Bangkok. Donor country was also
chosen, which combine resources to directly finance a portion of the recipient governments










projects.(Birdsall and Vaishnav 2005,257). Her study, since focused on the local capacity

development entails the participation of government agencies and institutions. In the end, it was
concluded that the importance of capacity development has long been recognized for the
achievement of social and economic development in the Philippines and the MDG as a global
commitment had increased the role of the capacity development. In the end of her study it
produces a demand in the Philippines which is by the advent of regionalization and
decentralization has increased the responsibilities of local government units for the delivery of
basic services especially of health and education.
However, these study though it involves localization and the assessment of the
governments method of implementation which is the same with this paper but differs
specifically on its specific objectives. While it studies the implementation and the localization of
MDG as a whole, this paper would specifically assess the implementation of MDG goal number
2 which is achieving universal primary education in Mandaue City. Professor Briones research
encompasses the focus of this paper since her study is a general assessment of MDG being
localized and implemented in the Philippines. Nevertheless, as this study would assess the
implementation of goal number 2, it implicitly evaluate the effectiveness of their implementation
by particularly looking into the educational projects or programs initiated in order to address the
need and importance of education especially of the primary education, which is the basic of all.
Proclaimed by the Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Education
programmes should be designed to promote the full development of the human personality and
strengthen respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Professor Briones studies examined the capacity development of local government units
in the implementation of MDG as a whole, however in this paper; it focuses on the mere
implementation of MDG particularly highlighting goal number two which is to achieve a
universal primary education by 2015. This paper would center on the implementation of MDG

focusing on the service delivery of education by identifying the initiatives of the city in order to
respond on what has been provided in the goal. This study would specifically identifies the
educational programs and projects made by the city from the year before and after MDG had set
its foot in the ground, its goals or objectives, methods and respondents in order to compare and
to determine the improvement of this goal by looking through its indicators, in terms of the
number of primary students enrolled in two phases of time, the proportion of pupils starting
grade 1 who reach grade 5, and as well as the literacy rate of 15-24 years old. This study is
different from others since it does it not only studies the over-all localization and implementation
but looks into the micro-level of implementation of policy which could contribute to the
achievement of a universal primary education. From the Millennium Development Goals, goal
number 2 which is achieving universal primary education targeted that by 2015, children
everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling with
the indicators and to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably
by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015. (Bruns, et al., 2003). Moreover, the
attainment of universal primary education depends even more crucially on education system
reform than an incremental financing. So this paper would serve to be a contributing study and
assessment to the implementation of Millennium Development Goal. Based from the assessment
done by UNDP, achieving universal primary education is one of the 3 goals which are still are at
the low level of implementation. Nevertheless, other country such as Africa was keener on
implementing goal number 2 as a step to address poverty. Education for all coming from MDG
was now slowly crawling towards the agenda of the Philippine government. Along with
Education for All, the Philippines is also committed to pursue eight time bound and specific
targets under the Millennium Declaration which it signed on September 2000. The Declaration,

in general, aims to reduce poverty by half in 2015(22.65 percent proportion of the population
below poverty incidence and 12.15 percent below subsistence incidence by 2015). With the
adoption of the Declaration, the Philippines likewise affirmed its commitment to the Millennium
Development Goals (MDG) geared towards reducing poverty, hunger, diseases, illiteracy,
environmental degradation and discrimination against women. These goals have been
mainstreamed in the countrys Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) 2004-2010
including policies and plans related to children, access to primary education and gender equality.
(Philippine Education For All Report). Education was not strongly implemented but nevertheless
the commitment of the Philippines with EFA will serve as a stepping stone in further achieving
universal primary education. Explicitly, while this paper focuses on the implementation in terms
of the service delivery it examines as well how strong is the local government and public
officials in the implementation of this goal and what methods or approaches they had took in
order to achieve this. The findings of this study may be used as topic for the next paper who
wishes to study and focus on education as the fundamental right and way for development.
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
The goals set and being laid in the different agendas comes from the need to address
poverty. Thus, these goals must be implemented and act out in the realm in order to solve the
dilemma which is reduce poverty as a whole and to achieve over-all development. These goals
should not remain on papers but be seen upon the outside of it. With these, frameworks are made
in order to commit every state to do an action to all the goals being known. One of the prominent
frameworks when it comes to the achievement of the developmental goals is the Dakar
Framework. This framework is a collective commitment to action made by the participants of the

World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal in April, 2000. It posits the obligation of the
National Governments for ensuring the Education for All goals and targets to be reached and
sustained, which is

a responsibility that can be met most effectively through broad-based

partnerships within countries, supported by co-operation with regional and international agencies
institutions. Dakar would commit theirselves to act the following goals:
Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education,
especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged of children
Ensuring that all children, with special emphasis on girls including the
poorest, working children and children with special needs - complete a good
quality primary education by 2015.
Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people are met through equitable
access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes.
Providing equitable access to basic and continuing education programmes for
adults, and achieving at least a 50 per cent reduction in current gender
disparities within a decade.
Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, as
a milestone towards achieving gender equality in education programmes,
institutions and systems by 2015.
Improving all aspects of the quality of education so that recognised and
measurable learning outcomes are achieved, especially in literacy, numeracy
and essential life skills. (World Education Forum 2000,iii)
Dakar Framework tends to commit their actions toward these goals and use these goals as

well in assessing the implementation of every state. Nevertheless, as we are on the 21 st century
having these new developmental goals which are the Millennium Development Goals, we are
committing ourselves to the new framework that it had made. We assess development
specifically through MDGs achievement within the span of time it plans to achieve. Using its
own goals, targets and indicators, determining the development of a country would be easy,
though in truth its difficult to take.Considering the fact, that there have been an existing
frameworks in the commitment of action with the aforementioned goals, it would be best to use a
policy- analysis framework considering that in every agendas no matter how they seems to be
in convergence , there have been differences in some aspects of its goals. Thus, analysing the
policy in all its phases would help in understanding how government institutions act and
implement the policies, what are their initiatives, do they really address the achievement of
goals, what are their methods, is it compatible with the goals, and so on. Using the framework of
policy-analysis and focusing in the implementation aspect, the flow of the study will be:




Goals/ Odjectives



FIG. 1. Flow of the Research Process

Implementation of MDG 2



21 : i n m i t pi a t ci v t es s

RESPONDENTS: Mandaue CityGovernment& PTA


Treatment of Data





Statement of the Problem

This study seeks to evaluate the level of achievement of Mandaue City of the Millennium
Development Goals particularly by assessing the implementation of these goals in the city level
by the time it reaches its ground. The focus of the study will be in Mandaue City highlighting
goal # 2 two which aims in achieving a universal primary education by 2015.
In order to carry out this main objective, the following specific objectives will be
addressed in the succeeding parts of the study:
1. To determine the initiatives of Mandaue City in response to goal number two by
determining the following:
a) Programs/ projects prior and after the onset of MDG in Mandaue
b) Budget allocated in the implementation
c) Goals, respondents as well as the methods used in the implementation of the
2. To evaluate the impacts of the projects and programs by looking into the following :

a.) Reactions of the parents and teachers to the programs

b.)Population of primary students enrolled before and after the MDG had reached
Mandaue City
c.)Proportion of pupils starting grade 1-5 from the years before MDG in Mandaue
and after MDG had reached Mandaue up to the recent times.
d.)Literacy rate of 15-24 years old prior and after the coming of MDG in the city.
Significance of the Study
As this study focuses on the localization thru adoption and implementation of a certain
global policies, this will be a helpful study generally concerning on education as well as
implementation. This paper would be helpful, first to the developmentalist who aims on studying
various aspects of education and implementation that could propel development. Moreover, this
would be a contributing study about MDG, which as other studies had, were only to evaluate
financial, institutional aspects and others. So, as this paper studies the other sides of education
and implementation, this will enrich the previous studies. Lastly, this study would help public
policy students and even public leaders on what methods or approaches would be appropriate in
a certain process in order to reach their goals and in order for them to reflect from this study in
the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used in the localization.
Scope and Limitation
Thefocus of the study is the goal number 2 of Millennium Development Goals which will
specifically identify educational programs and projects of the city, funds allocated for the
programs, its goals, methods as well as the respondents in the city. Goal number 2 has given
priority since the importance of this aspect seems to be disregarded which in fact based from
studies; it is education that laid the way for the development of other areas. Furthermore, it
merely studies the educational projects and programs since among all available studies; it has
always been financial aspect that has been looked upon. This study covers 10 out of 27
barangays in Mandaue City which have their own public and private elementary schools. These

10 barangays will be chosen based on their school-aged population. School-aged population in

this study covers only the population of children that studies at elementary level, which age
ranges from 7- 12, both, boys and girls. And it includes 10 selected parents and teachers in each
chosen barangay, chosen through the membership in the Parents Teachers Association (PTA).
However, this study does not dwell on other aspects of achieving universal primary
education such as government costing, public expenditure, health of children and infrastructural
aspects. School-aged population would not include high school students or college students.
Then, barangays with a small number of school-aged children will not be included.Lastly,in this
study parents and teachers selected does not cover parents and teachers who are not so active in
meetings and academic activities.
Assessing the implementation of Millennium Development Goals in Mandaue City will
employ a descriptive research design. As what the term clearly implies, it is descriptive in the
sense that it aims to present or to prevail conditions, relationship, opinions and even beliefs. This
is also descriptive since it determines the relationship between variables. After data will be
gathered, information will be treated by looking or linking the variables towards what was really
happening. Through descriptive research it will show the relationship of variables that forms the
results. In this study, every single variable will be assessed in order to determine the level of
achievement of these international agenda in the local level.
By identifying the right design of the study, it will be easier to understand the problem
and to know on how and what to do with the problem, and how data will be treated. In this study,
survey, interview, and data-analysis will be used as the most appropriate method in gathering the
needed information of the study.
Research Environment
The study will be carried out in MandaueCity,located at the Northern part of Cebu which
consists of 27 barangays. The study will specifically focus on Mandaue City for the convenience

of the researcher and the easy access of data. Other than that reason, Mandaue will be the focal
area of the study considering that it is one of the three highly urbanized cities in the island of
Cebu and which forms a part of the Cebu metropolitan area.
Respondents of the Study
The problem that will be looked upon in this paper is the implementation of the MDG
and how is its level of achievement in Mandaue City going? Thus, participants of this study
would at first-hand involve the City Government of Mandaue. Moreover, in order to really assess
the implementation of MDG goal number 2 in this study and to determine the appropriateness of
the governments initiatives towards the recipients of the educational programs, parents and
teachers representing the voice of their little children will be included. Summing up, the
participants of this study will be the City Government of Mandaue and which also include 10
parents and 10 teachers from the selected 10 schools in MandaueCity, which were chosen
through the population data. These participants will be chosen based on their active involvement
in school activities and on their membership in Parents, Teachers Association (PTA).
Research Instrument/s
In order to facilitate and to pursue the objectives of this study, certain methods and
instrumentation will be used in order to conduct the study. For an easy and reliable source of
information, this study will be conducted through the use of a statistical data, documents and a
questionnaire.First, the statistical data of the population will help determine the barangays with
the highest population in terms of the school-aged population. Second will be the documents
presenting the iniatives or programs of the citytogether with its goals, methods and budget or
resources allocated which are made to address educational problems. Lastly will be the
questionnaire to be used to the parents and teachers participants that would assess on what are
the impacts of the iniatives to the children and even to theirselves.
Data Collection Techniques

In this study, data will be gathered in two ways: through the respondent itself providing
the information and through interviews with the selected participants. First, the researcher will
personally ask the city office responsible of all the statistics relating to population of all
barangays as well as population of the school-aged children from grade 1-6. On the other hand,
in order to gather data from the other participants, parents and teachers, interviews will be
conducted individually or by groups.
Data Analysis
Gathered or collected data from the city government and from the respondents will be
analysed by objectives. It means, data gathered that would specifically address one objective
would be analyse based on the goal of the specific objective. Statistical documents from the city
government relating the population of all barangays will be analyse by just comparing the
numbers. The barangay which belongs to the 10 highest populations of school-aged children will
be included in the assessment. Then, when it comes to the educational programs/ projects taken
by Mandaue City, the one which address the goals of Millennium Development Goals will be the
one to be considered, disregarding the others. Using the indicators of Goal number 2 of MDG,
the achievement of the educational programs in the city will be compared to it so as to determine
if such initiatives address the goals of development in education.
Definition of Terms
Educationreferstothe result produced by instruction, training, or study;
Effectivenessin this study refers to the state of productivity or the capability to produce a result
Implementationrefers tothe act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order
Millennium Development Goalsrefers to theeight international development goals that all 193
United Nations Member States and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve
by the year 2015.
Policy Analysis involves the systematic comparison and analysis of a set of policy alternatives to
determine which option is most likely to achieve a set of objectives - whether political,
economic, social, or otherwise.


In this study there will be four (4) chapters. Each chapter would comprehensively
explain and discuss every part of the study. Through these chapters, the objectives will be
achieved and theproblem as a whole would be clearly understood by everyone and the methods
being laid will be put into practice.
So, chapter 1 contains the introduction, rationale, theoretical background, the problem
and the methodology of the study. And then, in chapter 2 we will discuss the methods or how
data collection takes place, how statistical data be acquired from the government and how other
participants react to such informations. After the data collection, Chapter 3 will analyse the
gathered data using the framework of the study. The last chapter, which is chapter 4 will
synthesize the results and will provide a conclusion of the study, the summary and
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