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Automation has been of high priority for the manufacturing sector, from
Ford's first set of Model-T Assembly lines in the early 1920s to the modern
factory floor. With appropriate automation, the aim was to rationalize the
production and keep the process under control. Instrumentation for
measuring process variables assumed a significant role in meeting such
goals. The development of new sensors and instruments took place in stages
concurrent with advancements in science and technology. This paper
comprehensively reviews the evolution of industrial automation. Essentially,
it reviews the milestones in the industrial automation and control systems,
the emergence of Distributed Control Systems (DCSs), the advanced control
architecture, the non-conventional technologies for the future and finally the
benefits from the networked system.

An industrial SCADA system will be used for the development of the

controls of LHC experiments. Here we describe the SCADA systems in
terms of their architecture, their interface to the process hardware, the
functionality and the application development facilities they provide. Some
attention is also aid to industrial standards to which they abide, their planned
evolution as well as the benefits of their use.


Ideas for ways of automating tasks have been in existence since the time of
the ancient Greeks. The Greek inventor Hero (fl. about A.D. 50), for
example, is credited with having developed an automated system that would
open a temple door when a priest lit a fire on the temple altar. The real
impetus for the development of automation came, however, during the
Industrial Revolution of the early eighteenth century. Many of the steampowered devices built by James Watt, Richard Trevithick, Richard
Arkwright, Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen, and their contemporaries
were simple examples of machines capable of taking over the work of
humans. One of the most elaborate examples of automated machinery
developed during this period was the drawloom designed by the French
inventor Basile Bouchon in 1725. The instructions for the operation of the

Bouchon loom were recorded on sheets of paper in the form of holes. The
needles that carried thread through the loom to make cloth were guided by
the presence or absence of those holes. The manual process of weaving a
pattern into a piece of cloth through the work of an individual was
transformed by the Bouchon process into an operation that could be
performed mindlessly by merely stepping on a pedal.


a. what is automation
b. types of automation
c. role of computers in automation

a. What is Automation
Delegation of human control function to technical equipments
a. to increase production
b. to reduce cost
c. to reduce manpower
d. to improve safety working conditions
e. to reduce power consumption
f. to improve quality

b. Types of Automation

Automated machines can be subdivided into two large categoriesopenloop and closed-loop machines, which can then be subdivided into even
smaller categories. Open-loop machines are devices that, once started, go
through a cycle and then stop. A common example is the automatic
dishwashing machine. Once dishes are loaded into the machine and a button
pushed, the machine goes through a predetermined cycle of operations: prerinse, wash, rinse, and dry, for example. A human operator may have
choices as to which sequence the machine should followheavy wash, light
wash, warm and cold, and so onbut each of these operations is alike in
that the machine simply does the task and then stops. Many of the most
familiar appliances in homes today operate on this basis. A microwave oven,
a coffee maker, and a CD player are examples.
Larger, more complex industrial operations also use open-cycle operations.
For example, in the production of a car, a single machine may be
programmed to place a side panel in place on the car and then weld it in a
dozen or more locations. Each of the steps involved in this processfrom
placing the door properly to each of the different weldstakes place
according to instructions programmed into the machine.
Other category in which automation is divided is:
a. Scientific Automation

(used by scientists)
b. Industrial Automation
(building management system)
c. Office Automation
(used by non technical staff)

c. Role of computers in automation

Since the 1960s, the nature of automation has undergone dramatic changes
as a result of the availability of computers. For many years, automated
machines were limited by the amount of feedback data they could collect
and interpret. Thus, their operation was limited to a relatively small number
of alternatives. When an automated machine is placed under the control of a
computer, however, that disadvantage disappears. The computer can analyze
a vast number of sensory inputs from a system and decide which of many
responses it should make.



Manufacturing companies in virtually every industry are achieving rapid

increases in productivity by taking advantage of automation technologies.
When one thinks of automation in manufacturing, robots usually come to

mind. The automotive industry was the early adopter of robotics, using these
automated machines for material handling, processing operations, and
assembly and inspection. Donald A. Vincent, executive vice president,
Robotic Industries Association, predicts a greater use of robots for assembly,
paint systems, final trim, and parts transfer will be seen in the near future.
Vincent expects other industries to heavily invest in robotics as well.
Industries such as the electronics industry, with its need for mass
customization of electronic goods, the miniaturization of electronics goods
and their internal components, and the re-standardization of the
semiconductor industry, which, he says, will completely retool itself by
2004. Robotics will continue to expand into the food and beverage industry
where they will perform such tasks as packaging, palletizing, and filling; as
well as the aerospace, appliance, and non-manufacturing markets.
One can break down automation in production into basically three
categories: fixed automation, programmable automation, and flexible
automation. The automotive industry primarily uses fixed automation. Also
known as "hard automation," this refers to an automated production facility
in which the sequence of processing operations is fixed by the equipment
layout. A good example of this would be an automated production line
where a series of workstations are connected by a transfer system to move
parts between the stations. What starts as a piece of sheet metal in the
beginning of the process, becomes a car at the end.
Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in
batches. The products are made in batch quantities ranging from several
dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new batch, the production

equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over to accommodate the

new product style.
Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. Here, the
variety of products is sufficiently limited so that the changeover of the
equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming
of the equipment in flexible automation is done off-line; that is, the
programming is accomplished at a computer terminal without using the
production equipment itself.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is a form of programmable automation
in which a machine is controlled by numbers (and other symbols) that have
been coded into a computer. The program is actuated from the computer's
memory. The machine tool industry was the first to use numerical control to
control the position of a cutting tool relative to the work part being
machined. The CNC part program represents the set of machining
instructions for the particular part, while the coded numbers in the
sequenced program specifies x-y-z coordinates in a Cartesian axis system,
defining the various positions of the cutting tool in relation to the work part.


1. Replacing human operator in tedious task.

2. Replacing humans in tasks that should be done in dangerous environment.

3. Making tasks that are beyond human capabilities such as handle too heavy
loads, too large objects, too hot or cold substances or the requirement to
make things too fast or too slow.
4. Economy improvement- sometimes some kinds of automation imply
improves in economy of enterprises, society or most of the humankind.

1. Technology limits- nowadays technology is not able to automatize all
desired task.
2. Initial costs are relative high.


ON 20TH SEPT. 2000, the Finance Committee approved the proposal to

negotiate with ETM A.G. for the supply of PVSS-ETMs SCADA
developing the control systems of ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. In
accordance SCADA Working Group, that was set up by the CREN Controls

Board, re PVSS as one of the SCADA products for the development of

future control CREN.
These decisions are the accomplishment of around thirteen person- years
FTE- spanning over more than three years- to identify and evaluate a proper
control system that copies with the extreme requirements of high energy
particle experiments such as those of LHC.
Widely used in industry for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition of
processes, SCADA systems are now also penetrating the experiments
laboratories for the controls of ancillary systems such as cooling, ventilation
distribution etc. More recently they were also applied for the controls of
small particle detectors such as the L3 muon detector and the NA48
experiment, to two examples as CREN.
SCADA systems have made substantial progress over the recent years in
functionality, scalability, performance and openness.

SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. SCADA
refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant
or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer
which then manages and controls the data. SCADA focuses on gathering and

circulating the right amount of system information to the right person or

computer within the right amount of time so that creative solutions are made
The keyword supervisory indicates that decisions are not directly made by
the system. Instead, the system executes control decisions based on control
parameters entered by the agency staff. The system monitors the health of
the process and generates alarm notifications when conditions are out of
tolerance. It is also tasked with placing the process in a safe mode. It waits
for user inputs to correct problems. The supervisory mode is designed to
operate the system in a manner that avoids out of tolerance conditions. In a
water / wastewater process, pumps are started and stopped by the system
according to limits assigned by operations. As long as the system responds
correctly to the control commands, the system remains in control.
It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system
monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be industrial,
infrastructure or facility based as described below:
Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power
generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch,
repetitive, or discrete modes.
Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water
treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas
pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, civil defense siren
systems, and large communication systems.

Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including
buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control
energy consumption.


Data acquisition is the process of retrieving control information from the
equipment which is out of order or may lead to some problem or when
decisions are need to be taken according to the situation in the equipment.
So this acquisition is done by continuous monitoring of the equipment to
which it is employed. The data accessed are then forwarded onto a telemetry
system ready for transfer to the different sites. They can be analog and
digital information gathered by sensors, such as flow meter, ammeter, etc. It
can also be data to control equipment such as actuators, relays, valves,
motors, etc.


SCADA can be used to monitor and control plant or equipment. The control
may be automatic, or initiated by operator commands. The data acquisition
is accomplished firstly by the RTU's (remote Terminal Units) scanning the

field inputs connected to the RTU (RTUs may also be called a PLC programmable logic controller). This is usually at a fast rate. The central
host will scan the RTU's (usually at a slower rate.) The data is processed to
detect alarm conditions, and if an alarm is present, it will be displayed on
special alarm lists. Data can be of three main types. Analogue data (i.e. real
numbers) will be trended (i.e. placed in graphs). Digital data (on/off) may
have alarms attached to one state or the other. Pulse data (e.g. counting
revolutions of a meter) is normally accumulated or counted.
These systems are used not only in industrial processes. For example,
Manufacturing, steel making, power generation both in conventional,
nuclear and its distribution, chemistry, but also in some experimental
facilities such as laboratories research, testing and evaluation centers,
nuclear fusion. The size of such plants can range from as few as 10 to
several 10 thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA
systems evolve rapidly and are now penetrating the market of plants with a
number of I/O channels of several 100K.
The primary interface to the operator is a graphical display (mimic)
usually via a PC Screen which shows a representation of the plant or
equipment in graphical form. Live data is shown as graphical shapes
(foreground) over a static background. As the data changes in the field, the
foreground is updated. E.g. a valve may be shown as open or closed. Analog
data can be shown either as a number, or graphically. The system may have
many such displays, and the operator can select from the relevant ones at
any time.
SCADA systems were first used in the 1960s.SCADA systems have
made substantial progress over the recent years in terms of functionality,
scalability, performance and openness such that they are an alternative to in

house development even for very demanding and complex control systems
as those of physics experiments. SCADA systems used to run on DOS, VMS
and UNIX; in recent years all SCADA vendors have moved to NT and some
also to Linux.


In this section we are going to details which describe the common

architecture required for the SCADA products.

Hardware Architecture
The basic hardware of the SCADA system is distinguished into two
basic layers: the "client layer" which caters for the man machine interaction
and the "data server layer" which handles most of the process data control
activities. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through
process controllers. Process controllers, e.g. PLCs, are connected to the data
servers either directly or via networks or fieldbuses that are proprietary (e.g.
Siemens H1), or non-proprietary (e.g. Profibus). Data servers are connected
to each other and to client stations via an Ethernet LAN. Fig.1. shows typical
hardware architecture.

Figure 1: Typical Hardware Architecture


Internal Communication:
Server-client and server-server communication is in general on a
publish-subscribe and event-driven basis and uses a TCP/IP protocol, i.e., a
client application subscribes to a parameter which is owned by a particular
server application and only changes to that parameter are then
communicated to the client application.
Access to Devices:
The data servers poll the controllers at a user defined polling rate. The
polling rate may be different for different parameters. The controllers pass
the requested parameters to the data servers. Time stamping of the process
parameters is typically performed in the controllers and this time-stamp is
taken over by the data server. If the controller and communication protocol
used support unsolicited data transfer then the products will support this too.
The products provide communication drivers for most of the common
PLCs and widely used field-buses, e.g., Modbus. Of the three fieldbuses that
are recommended are, both Profibus and Worldfip are supported but
CANbus often not. Some of the drivers are based on third party products
(e.g., Applicom cards) and therefore have additional cost associated with
them. VME on the other hand is generally not supported.
A single data server can support multiple communications protocols;
it can generally support as many such protocols as it has slots for interface
cards. The effort required to develop new drivers is typically in the range of
2-6 weeks depending on the complexity and similarity with existing drivers,
and a driver development tool kit is provided for this.

Application Interfaces / Openness
The provision of OPC client functionality for SCADA to access
devices in an open and standard manner is developing. There still seems to
be a lack of devices/controllers, which provide OPC server software, but this
improves rapidly as most of the producers of controllers are actively
involved in the development of this standard.
The products also provide

an Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) interface to the data in the

archive/logs, but not to the configuration database,

an ASCII import/export facility for configuration data,

a library of APIs supporting C, C++, and Visual Basic (VB) to access

data in the RTDB, logs and archive. The API often does not provide
access to the product's internal features such as alarm handling,
reporting, trending, etc.
The PC products provide support for the Microsoft standards such as

Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) which allows e.g. to visualize data

dynamically in an EXCEL spreadsheet, Dynamic Link Library (DLL) and
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).


The configuration data are stored in a database that is logically

centralized but physically distributed and that is generally of a proprietary
format. For performance reasons, the RTDB resides in the memory of the
servers and is also of proprietary format. The archive and logging format is
usually also proprietary for performance reasons, but some products do
support logging to a Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) at
a slower rate either directly or via an ODBC interface.
Scalability is understood as the possibility to extend the SCADA
based control system by adding more process variables, more specialized
servers (e.g. for alarm handling) or more clients. The products achieve
scalability by having multiple data servers connected to multiple controllers.
Each data server has its own configuration database and RTDB and is
responsible for the handling of a sub-set of the process variables
(acquisition, alarm handling, archiving).

A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems:

A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which

presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the
human operator monitors and controls the process. A supervisory
(computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and
sending commands (control) to the process.

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process,

converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the
supervisory system.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices

because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and
configurable than special-purpose RTUs.

Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to

the Remote Terminal Units



SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) + HMI (Human

Machine Interface)
= CCC (Control, Cost reduction and Confidence)
CCC systems use real-time data acquisition and trending to allow you to see
what is happening with your business, as it happens. Any process can be
automated and monitored by these systems. Pioneered in the chemical and
petrochemical industries, new hardware and software now allow these

systems to be used for everyday processes. This results in cost savings that
pay for a system in a few months.
A quick example is the automation of a dosing system using day tanks and
large holding tanks used to fill the day tanks.

A SCADA system could be programmed to:

monitor high and low levels in the day tanks,

fill them when a certain level is reached,

calculated and store the volume used,

monitor the level in the main feed tank,

Alarm when a certain level is reached to notify purchasing (or send an


Plot the usage of chemicals vs time, process, or any other parameter.


A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process

data to a human operator, and through which the human operator controls
the process.
HMI's are an easy way to standardize the facilitation of monitoring multiple
RTU's or PLC's (programmable logic controllers). Usually RTU's or PLC's
will run a pre programmed process, but monitoring each of them
individually can be difficult, usually because they are spread out over the
system. Because RTU's and PLC's historically had no standardized method
to display or present data to an operator, the SCADA system communicates
with PLC's throughout the system network and processes information that is
easily disseminated by the HMI.
HMI's can also be linked to a database, which can use data gathered from
PLC's or RTU's to provide graphs on trends, logistic info, schematics for a
specific sensor or machine or even make troubleshooting guides accessible.

An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms. An alarm is

a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM. Alarms
can be created in such a way that when their requirements are met, they are
activated. An example of an alarm is the "fuel tank empty" light in a car. The
SCADA operator's attention is drawn to the part of the system requiring
attention by the alarm. Emails and text messages are often sent along with an
alarm activation alerting managers along with the SCADA operator.


SCADA solution often has Distributed Control Systems components. Use of

smart RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously executing simple
logic processes without involving the master computer, is increasing. A
functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3, is frequently used to
create programs which run on these RTUs and PLCs. Unlike a procedural
language such as the C programming language or FORTAN,IEC 61131-1
has minimal training requirements by virtue of resembling historic physical
control arrays. This allows SCADA system engineers to perform both design
and implementation of a program to be executed on a TRU or PLC.

System components

The three components of SCADA system are:

1. Multiple Remote Terminal Units
2. Central Control Room with Host Computer
3. Communication Infrastructure


The RTU connects to physical equipment. Typically, an RTU converts the
electrical signals from the equipment to digital values such as the
open/closed status from a switch or a valve, or measurements such as
pressure, flow, voltage or current. By converting and sending these electrical
signals out to equipment the RTU can control equipment, such as opening or
closing a switch or a valve, or setting the speed of a pump. The RTU can
read digital status data or analogue measurement data, and send out digital
commands or analogue setpoints.
An important part of most SCADA implementation arealarms. An alarm is a
digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM. Alarms
can be created in such a way that when their requirements are met, they are
activated. An example of an alarm is the fuel tank empty light in a car.
The SCADA operators attention is drawn to the part of the system requiring
attention by the alarm. Emails and the text messages are often sent along
with an alarm activation alerting managers along with the SCADA operator.


The SCADA usually presents the information in the form of mimic. This
means that a operator can see a representation of the plant being controlled.
For example a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator
that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe
at the moment. The operator can then switch the pump off. The SCADA will
show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in relay time. The HMI
package for the SCADA system includes a drawing program that the
operator or system personnel use to change the way these points are
represented in the interface. These representation can be as simple as an on
screen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the
field or as complex as a multi-projector display representing the position of
all the elevators in a skyscraper or all the trains on a railway. The interface is
usually 2D and is displayed using the X11 protocol, although some vendors
provide immersive 3D interfaces and support for other display APIs such as
Win 32 GDI/DirectDraw. Scada master computers typically run on top of a
third party operating system. Nearly all SCADA products run on either a
UNIX variant or HP Open VMS, although many vendors are beginning to
provide Microsoft Windows as a host operating system option. Initially
more open platforms such as Linux were no as widely used due to highly
dynamic development environment and because a SCADA

customer that

was able to afford the field hardware and devices to be controlled could
usually also purchase UNIX or open VMS licenses.

Instead of relying on operator intervention, or master station automation,
RTUs may now be required to operate on their own to control tunnel fires or
perform other safety related tasks. The master station software is required to
do more analysis of data before presenting it to operators including historical
analysis and analysis associated with particular industry requirements.
Safety requirements are now being applied to the systems as a whole and
even master station software must meet stringent safety standards for some
For some installations, the cost that would result from the control system
failing is extremely high possibly even lives could be lost. Hardware for
SCADA systems is generally ruggedized to withstand temperature, vibration
and voltage extremes but in these installations reliability is enhanced by
having redundant hardware and communications channels. A failing part can
be quickly identified and its functionality automatically taken over by
backup hardware. A filed part can often be replaced without interrupting
the process. The reliability of such systems can be calculated statistically
and is stated as the mean time to failure, which is a variant of mean time
between failures. The calculated mean time to failure of such high reliability
systems can be in the centuries.




SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct

serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements, although
Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used at large sites such as
railways and power stations.
This has also come under threat with some customer want in SCADA data to
travel over their pre-established corporate networks or to share the network
with other applications. The legacy of the early low bandwidth protocols
remains, though, SCADA protocols are designed to be very compact and
many are designed to send information to the master station only when the
master station polls the RTU.


The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and
control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas
(anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions
are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by
programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually
restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example,
a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial
process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set
points for the flow and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and
high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop
passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the
overall performance of the loop.

Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter
readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as
required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control
room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or
override normal RTU (PLC) controls.
SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly
referred to as a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or
points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or
controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point
represents an actual input or output within the system, while a soft point

results from logic and math operations applied to other points. (Most
implementations conceptually remove the distinction by making every
property a "soft" point expression, which may, in the simplest case, equal a
single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a
value and the timestamp when it was recorded or calculated. A series of
value-timestamp pairs gives the history of that point. It's also common to
store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to a field device or PLC
register, design time comments, and alarm information.


Access Control
Users are allocated to groups, which have defined read/write access
privileges to the process parameters in the system and often also to specific
product functionality.
The products support






combinations of synoptic diagrams and text. They also support the concept
of a "generic" graphical object with links to process variables. These objects
can be "dragged and dropped" from a library and included into a synoptic
diagram. Most of the SCADA products that were evaluated decompose the
process in "atomic" parameters (e.g. a power supply current, its maximum
value, its on/off status, etc.) to which a Tag-name is associated. The Tagnames used to link graphical objects to devices can be edited as required.
The products include a library of standard graphical symbols, many of which
would however not be applicable to the type of applications encountered in
the experimental physics community. Standard windows editing facilities
are provided: zooming, re-sizing, scrolling... On-line configuration and
customization of the MMI is possible for users with the appropriate
privileges. Links can be created between display pages to navigate from one
view to another.

The products all provide trending facilities and one can summarize the
common capabilities as follows:

the parameters to be trended in a specific chart can be predefined or

defined on-line

a chart may contain more than 8 trended parameters or pens and an

unlimited number of charts can be displayed (restricted only by the

real-time and historical trending are possible, although generally not

in the same chart

historical trending is possible for any archived parameter

zooming and scrolling functions are provided

parameter values at the cursor position can be displayed

The trending feature is either provided as a separate module or as a

graphical object (ActiveX), which can then be embedded into a synoptic

display. XY and other statistical analysis plots are generally not provided.

Alarm Handling
Alarm handling is based on limit and status checking and performed
in the data servers. More complicated expressions (using arithmetic or
logical expressions) can be developed by creating derived parameters on
which status or limit checking is then performed. The alarms are logically
handled centrally, i.e., the information only exists in one place and all users
see the same status (e.g., the acknowledgement), and multiple alarm priority
levels (in general many more than 3 such levels) are supported.
It is generally possible to group alarms and to handle these as an
entity (typically filtering on group or acknowledgement of all alarms in a
group). Furthermore, it is possible to suppress alarms either individually or
as a complete group. The filtering of alarms seen on the alarm page or when
viewing the alarm log is also possible at least on priority, time and group.
However, relationships between alarms cannot generally be defined in a
straightforward manner. E-mails can be generated or predefined actions
automatically executed in response to alarm conditions.
The terms logging and archiving are often used to describe the same
facility. However, logging can be thought of as medium-term storage of data
on disk, whereas archiving is long-term storage of data either on disk or on
another permanent storage medium. Logging is typically performed on a
cyclic basis, i.e., once a certain file size, time period or number of points is
reached the data is overwritten. Logging of data can be performed at a set
frequency, or only initiated if the value changes or when a specific

predefined event occurs. Logged data can be transferred to an archive once

the log is full. The logged data is time-stamped and can be filtered when
viewed by a user. The logging of user actions is in general performed
together with either a user ID or station ID. There is often also a VCR
facility to play back archived data.
Report Generation
One can produce reports using SQL type queries to the archive,
RTDB or logs. Although it is sometimes possible to embed EXCEL charts in
the report, a "cut and paste" capability is in general not provided. Facilities
exist to be able to automatically generate, print and archive reports.
The majority of the products allow actions to be automatically
triggered by events. A scripting language provided by the SCADA products
allows these actions to be defined. In general, one can load a particular
display, send an Email, run a user defined application or script and write to
the RTDB.
The concept of recipes is supported, whereby a particular system
configuration can be saved to a file and then re-loaded at a later date.
Sequencing is also supported whereby, as the name indicates, it is possible
to execute a more complex sequence of actions on one or more devices.
Sequences may also react to external events. Some of the products do
support an expert system but none has the concept of a Finite State Machine


SCADA vendors release one major version and one to two additional minor
versions once per year. These products evolve thus very rapidly so as to take
advantage of new market opportunities, to meet new requirements of their
customers and to take advantage of new technologies.
As was already mentioned, most of the SCADA products that were
evaluated decompose the process in "atomic" parameters to which a Tagname is associated. This is impractical in the case of very large processes
when very large sets of Tags need to be configured. As the industrial
applications are increasing in size, new SCADA versions are now being
designed to handle devices and even entire systems as full entities (classes)
that encapsulate all their specific attributes and functionality. In addition,
they will also support multi-team development.
As far as new technologies are concerned, the SCADA products are now

Web technology, ActiveX, Java, etc.

OPC as a means for communicating internally between the client and

server modules. It should thus be possible to connect OPC compliant
third party modules to that SCADA product.


DYNAMIC PROCESS GRAPHIC mimics developed in SCADA software

should resemble the process mimic. SCADA should have good library of
symbols so that you can develop the mimic as per requirement. Once the
operator sees the screen he should know what is going on in the plant.

REAL TIME AND HISTORICAL TREND the trend play very important
role in the process operation. If your batch fails or the plant trips, you can
simply go to the historical trend data and do the analysis. You can have
better look of the parameters through the trend. Ex. We commission a
SCADA system for Acid Regeneration plant where the plant has to be
operated on 850-deg temperature. If the operator operates the plant at 900
deg you can imagine how much additional LPG he is putting into the
reactor. Again what will happen to the bricks of the reactor? So the
production mangers first job will be to go through the trends how the
operators are operating the plant. Even when the plant trips there are more
than 25 probable reasons for the sample but if you go through the history
trends, its very easy to identify the problem.

ALARMS have a very critical role in automation. Generally you have alarm
states for each inputs/outputs like your temperature should not cross 80 deg
or lever should be less than 60. So if the parameters go in alarm state the
operator should be intimated with alarm. Most of the SCADA software
support four types of alarms like LOLO,LO,HI and HIHI. Deadband the
value of deadband defines the range after which a high low alarm condition
returns to normal.
Alarms are the most important part of the plant control applications because
the operator must know instantly when something goes wrong. It is often
equally important to have a record of alarms and whether an alarm was
acknowledged. An alarm occurs when something goes wrong. It can signal
that a device or process has ceased operating within acceptable, predefined
limits or it can indicate breakdown, wear or process malfunction.

RECIPE MANAGEMENT is an additional feature. Some SCADA

software support it, some do not. Most of the plants are manufacturing multi
products. When you have different products to manufacture, you just have to
load the recipe of the particular product.

SECURITY is on facility people generally look for. You can allocate

certain facilities or features to the operator, process people, engineering dept
and maintenance dept. for example operators should only operate the
system, he should not be able change the application. The engineers should

have access to changing the application. The engineers should have access to
changing the application developed.

DEVICE CONNECTIVITY you will find there are hundreds of

automation hardware manufacturer like Modicon, Siemens, Allen Bradly,
ABB. Everybody has there own way of communication or we can say they
have there own communication protocol. SCADA software should have
connectivity to the different hardware used in automation. It should not
happen that for Modicon I am buying one software and for Siemens another
one. The software like Aspic or Wonderware has connectivity to almost all
hardware used in automation.

DATABASE CONNECTIVITY now a days information plays very

important role in any business. Most manufacturing units go for Enterprise
Resource Planning or Management Information System.


Production Dept.
Real time production status: manufacturing status is updated in real time
in direct communication to operator and control device
Production schedules: production schedules can be viewed and updated
Production information management: production specific information is
distributed to all
Quality Dept.
Data integrity and quality control is improved by using a common
It is an open platform for statistical analysis
Consolidation of manufacturing and lab data
Maintenance Dept.
Improved troubleshooting and de-bugging: direct connection to wide



diagnostic/debugging time





Plant can be viewed remotely. Notification can include pagers, e-mails and







unscheduled downtime.
Enterprise Information
Corporate information and real time production data can be gathered and
viewed from anywhere within operations
User specific information ensures better informed decisions
Data exchange with standard databases and enterprise systems provides
integrated information solutions
Engineering Dept.
Integrated automation solutions reduce design and configuration time
Common configuration platform offers flexibility for constant
configuration in all areas
Capable of connecting to wide variety of systems. Reduces start up time
and system training with industry proven open interfaces
Manufacturing Dept.
Unscheduled down time is reduced due to swift alarm detection and event
driven information

Makes operations easier and more repeatable with its real time
Secured real time operation are maintained with windows


What is a Tag- a tag is a logical name for a variable in a device or local

memory (RAM). Tags that receive data from some external devices such as
programmable logic controllers or servers are refereed to as I/O tags. Tags
that receive data internally from software are called memory tags.
Analog Tags- store a range of values. EX temp, flow, density etc
Discrete tags- to store values such as 0 or 1. EX on/off status of a pump,
valves, switches etc.
System tags- store information generated while the software is running
including alarm info and system time and date.
String tags- are used to store ASCII strings a series of characters or whole
word. The max string length is 131 characters.
Touch links- allow the operator to input data into the system. EX. Operator
may turn the value on or off, enter a new alarm set point, run a complex
logic script etc.
Touch push buttons-are used to create object link that immediately perform
an operation when clicked with the mouse or touched. These operations can
be discrete value changes, action script executions and show or hide window

Colour links- are used to animate the line colour, fill colour or text colour of
an object. Each of these colour attributes can be made dynamic by defining a
colour link for the attribute. The colour attribute may be linked to the value
of a discrete expression, analogue expression, discrete alarm status or analog
alarm status.
Visibility- used to control visibility of an object based on the value of
discrete tag name or expression.
Blink- used to make an object blink based on the value of the discrete
tagname or expression.
Orientation- used to make an object rotate based on the value of a
tagname /expression.
Disable- used to disable the touch functionality of objects based on the value
of a tagname of expression. Often used as a part of a security strategy.
Value display links- provides the ability to use text object to display the
value of a discrete, analog or string tagname.
Percent fill links- used to provide ability to vary the fill level of a filled
shape according to the value of an analog tagname or an expression that
computes to an analog value.
Application script- are linked to entire applications and are used to start
other applications, create process simulation, calculate variables and so on:
three types of application scripts are on start up, while running, on shut

Window script- is linked to specific window. 3 types of window scripts are

on show, while showing, on hide.
Key script- touch pushbutton action scripts are similar to key scripts, except
they are associated with an object that you link to a touch link action
pushbutton. 3 types are on key down, while down, on key up.
Condition script- is linked to discrete tagname or expression that equates to
true or false. You can also use discrete expressions that contain analog
tagnames. 4 types of scripts that you can apply to a condition are on true, on
false, while true, while false.
Data change script- are linked to a tagname and/or tagname field changes
by a value greater than a dead band that you defined for the tagname in the
tagname dictionary.
Application security- to an application is optional. It provides the
application developer with the ability to control whether or not specific
operators are allowed to perform specific functions within an application
Security is based on the concept of operator logging on to the application
and entering his user name and password and access level. For each operator
access to any protected function is granted upon verification of his password
and access level.


The move from proprietary technologies to more standardized and open

solutions together with the increased number of connections between
SCADA systems and office networks and the Internet has made them more
vulnerable to attacks.Consequently, the security of SCADA-based systems
has come into question as they are increasingly seen as extremely vulnerable
to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks.
In particular, security researchers are concerned about:

the lack of concern about security and authentication in the design,

deployment and operation of existing SCADA networks

the mistaken belief that SCADA systems have the benefit of security
through obscurity through the use of specialized protocols and
proprietary interfaces

the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are
purportedly physically secured

the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are
supposedly disconnected from the Internet

SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes,

examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and
oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other systems used as

the basis of modern society. The security of these SCADA systems is

important because compromise or destruction of these systems would impact
multiple areas of society far removed from the original compromise. For
example, a blackout caused by a compromised electrical SCADA system
would cause financial losses to all the customers that received electricity
from that source. How security will affect legacy SCADA and new
deployments remains to be seen.
There are two distinct threats to a modern SCADA system. First is the threat
of unauthorized access to the control software, whether it be human access
or changes induced intentionally or accidentally by virus infections and
other software threats residing on the control host machine. Second is the
threat of packet access to the network segments hosting SCADA devices. In
many cases, there is rudimentary or no security on the actual packet control
protocol, so anyone who can send packets to the SCADA device can control
it. In many cases SCADA users assume that a VPN is sufficient protection
and are unaware that physical access to SCADA-related network jacks and
switches provides the ability to totally bypass all security on the control
software and fully control those SCADA networks. These kinds of physical
access attacks bypass firewall and VPN security and are best addressed by
endpoint-to-endpoint authentication and authorization such as are commonly
provided in the non-SCADA world by in-device SSL or other cryptographic
Many vendors of SCADA and control products have begun to address these
risks in a basic sense by developing lines of specialized industrial firewall
and VPN solutions for TCP/IP-based SCADA networks. Additionally,
application white listing solutions are being implemented because of their

ability to prevent malware and unauthorized application changes without the

performance impacts of traditional antivirus scans. Also, the ISA Security
Compliance Institute (ISCI) is emerging to formalize SCADA security
testing starting as soon as 2009. ISCI is conceptually similar to private
testing and certification that has been performed by vendors since 2007.
Eventually, standards being defined by ISA99 WG4 will supersede the
initial industry consortia efforts, but probably not before 2011.
The increased interest in SCADA vulnerabilities has resulted in vulnerability
researchers discovering vulnerabilities in commercial SCADA software and
more general offensive SCADA techniques presented to the general security
community. In electric and gas utility SCADA systems, the vulnerability of
the large installed base of wired and wireless serial communications links is
addressed in some cases by applying bump-in-the-wire devices that employ
authentication and Advanced Encryption Standard encryption rather than
replacing all existing nodes.


Wonderware InTouch provides a single integrated view of all your controls

and information resources. Intouch enables engineers, supervisors, operators
and managers to view to view and interact with the working of entire
operation through graphical representations of their production processes.


InTouch consist of three major programs. The InTouch Application

Manager, Windowmaker and Windowviewer. InTouch also includes the
diagnostics program Window Logger.
The InTouch Application Manager organizes the application to create. It
is also used to configure Windowviewer as an NT service, to configure
Network Application Development for client based and server based
architectures, to configure Dynamic Resource Conversions and/or
distributed alarms.
WindowMaker is the development environment, where object oriented
graphics are used to create animated, touch sensitive display windows.

These display windows can be connected to industrial I/O systems and other
Microsoft Windows application.
WindowViewer is the runtime environment used to display graphic
windows created in WindowMaker. WindowViewer executes InTouch
QuickScript, performs historical data logging and reporting, processes alarm
logging and reporting and can function as a client and a server for both DDE
and Suite link communication protocol.


SCADA solutions often impose complex demands on software architectures.

Wonderware InTouch HMI Visualization, coupled with the award-winning
ArchestrA-based Wonderware System Platform is uniquely positioned to
meet these challenges.
Solutions built on ArchestrA technology benefit from a single, open and
scalable software architecture that can connect to virtually any automation
system, remote terminal unit (RTU), intelligent electronic device (IED),
programmable logic controller (PLC), database, historian or business system
in use today. The open nature of this platform enables users to expand their
existing systems without having to buy new hardware or control systems.
Geographically dispersed applications, from a few hundred to one million
I/O and from a single node to hundreds of stations, can be rapidly and
securely implemented.

Key Benefits

Easy-to-use, easy to implement

Easy configuration, simplified maintenance

High security and availability

Virtually unlimited scalability

Key Capabilities

HMI visualization and geographically distributed SCADA

Template based development and maintenance

Remote application development and change management

Data level security built into the system

Easy and flexible alarm definition

Data collection and analysis for new and existing systems

Easy-to-use report generation

Open access to historical data




SCADA Systems Management (SSM) helps its customers to transform the

operational performance of their businesses through the use of
Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions (MES).
Our in-depth practical experience of a range of industries combines with our
expertise in the award-winning GE Fanuc Proficy products to enable us to
deliver insights that bring benefits.
We offer a range of cost-effective services that address the operational
management issues from shop floor to board room. Our pragmatic solutions
are targeted at unlocking value quickly


While one should rightly anticipate significant development and

maintenance savings by adopting SCADA product for the implementation of
a control system, it does not mean a no effort operation. The need for
proper engineering can not be sufficiently emphasized to reduce
development effort and to reach a system that complies with the
requirements, that is economical in development and maintenance and that is
reliable and robust. Examples of engineering activities specific to the use of
a SCADA system are the definition of:
a library of objects complete with standard object behavior, graphical
interface and associated scripts for animation,
templates for different types of panels, eg alarms
instructions on how to control eg. A device
a mechanism to prevent conflicting controls


SCADA used as a control mechanism for chemical plants, electricity

generation, electric power transmission, electricity distribution, district
Control mechanisms are described in Process Control.
EPICS is an example of an open source software environment used to
develop and implement SCADA system to operate devices such as particle
accelerators, telescopes and other large experiments.


1. A SCADA system is "normally" significantly cheaper than a DCS.

2. SCADA can continue operating even when telecommunication are
temporarily lost.
3. SCADA systems allow a smaller number of operators to control a large
number of individual assets.
4. SCADA systems were designed to be used on large scale

systems with

remote assets over a very large geographical area.

5. SCADA system improves operation, maintenance and customer service
and provides rapid response to emergencies.
6. It provides a high level of system reliability and availability.






R.S View








I Fix




SCADA is a control system with

More interfaces and efficient storage

More record or device oriented configuration
But system wide configuration tools are needed
Are less expensive than DCS, but offer different functionality than DCS
And finally various applications


Prolific Technology Inc., a leading IC design house and ASIC design service
provider, was founded in November 1997 by a group of highly experienced
and specialized technical engineers. The Company started out by developing
Smart I/O IC solutions, focusing on niche USB/IEEE 1394 bridge controller
products. The Company then also ventured in the Mixed-Mode technology
development, successfully designing Brushless Motor Driver IC and Hall
sensors. With the future towards 3C integration, the Company will devote
more efforts in SOC development as well as integration of competitive
multimedia (MPEG-4/JPEG/MP3) and GPS products. The Company will
also continue to introduce new technologies for existing IC product base that
will offer customers a wide range of product solutions. Through System
Integration technology, Prolific is envisioning herself to grow from a
Professional IC Design House to a leading SOC Core Technology Pioneer.

Layout of Industrial Automation
Advantages and Disadvantages




SCADA as a system

Features of SCADA

Usefulness of SCADA

General terminology

What is Intouch

Intouch environment

Wonderware SCADA solution

SCADA a boom in engineering

Practical uses of SCADA


SCADA management


a. What is SCADA
b. What is Data
c. Why or where we use SCADA