Ireland in Schools

English & Irish history for primary schools

Birmingham Pilot Scheme Version 3, 11 September 2007

The pirates Grace O’Malley & Sir Francis Drake: goodies or baddies?
Contents About this unit/helpful texts/lesson plans Lessons, sources & worksheets 1. What is a pirate? 2. Are all pirates outlaws? 3. Why did Elizabeth I meet the pirates Grace and Drake? 4. Have the stories of Grace and Drake changed your views of pirates? Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The pirates in Lesson 1 More about Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake on the Internet What did Grace O’Malley look like? Drake's shopping list for the circumnavigation Every Child Matters

University of Birmingham

BASS

University of Northampton

Key Stage 2

About the study unit
This study unit is intended as a depth study within the Key Stage 2 History curriculum when studying Britain and the wider world in Tudor times. The key question asks: The pirates Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake: goodies or baddies? Using a variety of stimulus material, the unit encourages children to explore the past by examining the image and reality of pirates, with particular reference to Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake. The key question leads children to consider what are the characteristics of a pirate in popular culture, fiction and history; to challenge stereotypes in the light of historical enquiry; and to develop a more nuanced concept of a pirate. The key question also lead to a better understanding of the complexities of life and values in Tudor times. The unit also offers scope for work in Literacy and Music. National Curriculum Historical objectives - Key Stage 2
1. Chronological understanding a. place events, people and changes into correct periods of time b. use dates and vocabulary relating to the passing of time Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past a. characteristic features of the periods and societies studied b. the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied in Britain and the wider world c. identify and describe reasons for, and results of, historical events, situations, and changes in the periods studied 3. Historical interpretation recognise that the past is represented and interpreted in different ways, and to give reasons for this Historical enquiry a. find out about events, people and changes ... from an appropriate range of sources of information, including ICT-based sources b. ask and answer questions, and to select and record information, relevant to the focus of the enquiry Organisation and communication a. recall, select and organise historical information c. communicate their knowledge and understanding of history in a variety of ways.

Prior knowledge Children will be expected to have had prior knowledge of pirates and conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Tudor times. It would be helpful if the children had some understanding of historical interpretations and the use of sources.

4.

2.

5.

Every Child Matters
The unit fully embraces the Every Child Matters strategy - see Note 5.

Helpful texts
Sir Francis Drake & His Daring Deeds by Andrew Donkin Scholastic, Horribly Famous series, 0-43995-400-2 Avoid Sailing with Francis Drake by David Stewart The Danger Zone series, Book House, 1-90508-752-7 Rivalry & Conflict by Austin Logan & Kathleen Gormley Colourpoint Books, 1-89839-212-9 (‘An illustrated introduction to the main events in Britain, Ireland and Europe’, late 16th to early 18th centuries) Lesson plans on following page. Granuaile. Chieftain, Pirate, Trader by Mary Moriarty O’Brien Press, 0-86278-162-0 Granuaile. The Life & Times of Grace O’Malley by Anne Chambers, Wolfhound Press, 0-86327-631-8 Granuaile. The Pirate Queen by Morgan Llywelyn O’Brien Press, 0-86278-578-2 (historical fiction) The Ghost of Grania O’Malley by Michael Morpurgo Egmont, 0-74974-691-2

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 2

Lesson
1

Key question
What is a pirate?

Starter
Thought-shower pirates on the outline of a person on the wall (whiteboard or sugar paper): - who are they? - what do they look like? - what are they like? - when did they live? Put the more important characteristics in the middle and the others towards the outside.

Activities
1. Modelling exercise. Watch the Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=3AzpByR3MvI (for karaoke version, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ylIuTCn02s). What have they done to look like pirates? How can you tell that they are not really pirates? 2. In groups, and using the Pirate Surveillance Report form, research real and fictional pirates on the Internet: Blackbeard, Anne Bonny, Captain Hook, Francois L’Ollonais, Long John Silver and Jack Sparrow. Who is the least scary and who is the most scary? Place them all on a continuum line, with the least scary on the left and most scary on the right. Justify your decisions. 3. Feed back decisions. Identify which are real and which are fictional pirates and decide whether fictional pirates are more scary than the real one. 4. Plenary. What makes a pirate? Review you initial thought-shower and add to or change the list surrounding the person on the wall. 1. Show collage of two Elizabethan pirates, Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake, with residences, ships, statues, meeting with Elizabeth I. Divide class into two, one to look at Grace, the other at Drake. What can you tell about Grace and Drake from these pictures? 2. Whole class. Look for similarities and difference between Grace and Drake. Look at the coats of arms. Which one belongs to Grace. Which one belongs to Drake? Place the coats of arms in the appropriate centerpieces of the collages. Justify our decisions 3. Whole class. How far do Grace and Drake fit your ideas about pirates and how they should be punished? 4. Plenary. What do you need to find out to explain the pictures of these two pirates meeting Queen Elizabeth? (Questions could include: what had Grace and Drake done to come to the attention of the queen; were they famous; had they killed anyone; why would the queen want to meet pirates; why were they not in chains; why did they want to meet the queen; why are they not at sea.) 1. Using the cards provided, and looking at the information sheet, sequence the events of the lives of Grace and Drake. Pick out what you think are the most important three events in each of their lives and put them on a fortune line. 2. Find qualities or characteristics which explain why Elizabeth met Grace and Drake. Have you mentioned any of the qualities in your thought-shower from Lesson 1? 3. What effect did the meeting have on their lives? 1. Grace and Drake: goodies or baddies? a. Split class into four groups. Using the cards from Lesson 3, Group 1 chooses an event which shows Grace in an heroic light; Group 2 chooses an event which shows Grace in a bad light; Group 3 chooses an event which shows Drake in an heroic light; Group 4 chooses an event which shows Drake in a bad light. b. As a class, match each group’s perceptions to the following: an Irish person; an English person, a Spanish person, a West African slave.* c. As a class, who of these would be happy with the songs about Grace and Drake and who would be offended by them. 2. Plenary. Show role on the wall. In the light of stories of Grace and Drake, have you views of pirates changed. If so how. If so, amend the role on the wall. * Note . This could be dealt with at several levels.

History NC
3 4a*, b* 5a, c

2

Are all pirates outlaws?

Should pirates be punished? How should they be punished?

2a*, b 4b* 5a, c

3

Why did Elizabeth I meet the pirates Grace and Drake?

Look at the pictures of Elizabeth meeting Grace and Drake. Use thought bubbles to show what she might be thinking.

1a, b 2a*, b, c* 5a, c

4

Have the stories of Grace and Drake changed your views of pirates?

Listen to or sing these two songs about Grace and Drake: Óró sé do bheatha ‘bhaile (‘You Are Welcome Home’) and Drake’s Drum. What do they say about Grace and Drake?

2a* 3* 5a, c

NB. If you have difficulty in obtaining resources from the Internet, please contact Ireland in Schools at: iisresources@yahoo.co.uk.

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Lesson 1

What is a pirate?
Starter Thought-shower pirates on the outline of a person on the wall (whiteboard or sugar paper): -who are they? -what do they look like? -what are they like? -when did they live? Put the more important characteristics in the middle and the others towards the outside. Activities 1. Modelling exercise. Watch the Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video: http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=3AzpByR3MvI* What have they done to look like pirates? How can you tell that they are not really pirates? 2. In groups, and using Pirate Surveillance Report form,** research real and fictional pirates on the Internet: Blackbeard, Anne Bonny, Captain Hook, Francois L’Ollonais, Long John Silver and Jack Sparrow. Who is the least scary and who is the most scary? Place them all on a continuum line, with the least scary on the left and most scary on the right. Justify your decisions. 3. Feed back decisions. Identify which are real and which are fictional pirates and decide whether fictional pirates are more scary than the real one. 4. Plenary. What makes a pirate? Review you initial thoughtshower and add to or change the list surrounding the person on the wall. History NC 3 4a*, b* 5a, c

* For a karaoke version, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ylIuTCn02s. For a Pirates of the Caribbean version, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NpSG0h_bo0. **The pirate flag is Blackbeard’s.

L1, Activity 1
Lazy Town video ‘You are a Pirate’ video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bEBbu-wkKrs

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L1, Activity 1

Possible starting points for internet search Blackbeard (Edward Teach) Anne Bonny
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackbeard http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pirates/bbeard.html http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/blackbeard.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Bonny http://www.thepiratesrealm.com/Anne%20Bonny.html www.thewayofthepirates.com/famous-pirates/anne-bonny.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Hook http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/villains/hook/hook.html http://clevermedia.tv/piratejokes/piratejokes20060721.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_l’Ollonais http://www.cindyvallar.com/lollonais.html http://www.thewayofthepirates.com/famous-pirates/francois-lollonais.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_John_Silver http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/treasure/contents.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6H7B-GDzKHk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Sparrow http://jacksparrow.moonfruit.com/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/femail/article.html?in_article_id=457724 &in_page_id=1879

Captain Hook

Francois L’Ollonais (Jean David Nau) Long John Silver

Jack Sparrow

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X
SAY NO TO PIRATES
1. Personal
Name: Date of birth (if known):

Office of the Pirate Hunter General Pirate Surveillance Report

L1, Activity 2

You are a senior naval spy out to catch a notorious pirate. You have to collect as much information as possible on this form.

Male/female:

Relationship(s) (if any):

2. Appearance (What do they look like?)
Face: Clothes: Most important distinguishing feature: Any other distinguishing features:

3. Methods & location (How & where do they operate?)
Type of ship: Name of ship: Weapon of choice: Personal flag (if any):

Where do they operate?

Most important deeds:

4. Scariness factor:
1 2 3

Rate on the following scale (1 least scary; 10 most scary). Put a ring round your choice.

5

6

7

8

9

10

5. Suggested punishment:

6. Any other comments:

Signed: _____________________________

Date: _____________________
Form no: PHG/PSR01

SENIOR NAVAL SPY FIRST CLASS
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Continuum line Do you know whose flag this is?

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Least scary

Most scary

Lesson 2

Are all pirates outlaws?
Starter Should pirates be punished? How should they be punished? Activities 1. Show collage of two Elizabethan pirates, Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake, with residences, ships, statues, meeting with Elizabeth I. Divide class into two, one to look at Grace, the other at Drake. What can you tell about Grace and Drake from these pictures? 2. Whole class. Look for similarities and difference between Grace and Drake. Look at the coats of arms.* Which one belongs to Grace. Which one belongs to Drake? Place the coats of arms in the appropriate centerpieces of the collages. Justify our decisions. 3. Whole class. How far do Grace and Drake fit your ideas about pirates and how they should be punished? 4. Plenary. What do you need to find out to explain the pictures of these two pirates meeting Queen Elizabeth? (Questions could include: what had Grace and Drake done to come to the attention of the queen; were they famous; had they killed anyone; why would the queen want to meet pirates; why were they not in chains; why did they want to meet the queen; why are they not at sea.) History NC 2a*, b 4b* 5a, c

* Left: O’Malley coat of arms; ‘Powerful on land and sea’; ship, boar with bows/arrows, helmet, horse. Right: Drake’s coat of arms: ‘With God’s help’ (top); ‘Greatness from small beginnings’ (bottom); stars argent, helmet; globe; ship; waves.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 8

Do you know that we do not know what Grace really looked like? There is no contemporary (16thcentury) of her and so we have to use our imaginations.

L2, Activity 1 Collage Grace O’Malley
Statue at Westport House Rockfleet Castle, main home

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 9

Which coat of arms should be placed here?

(18thcentury engraving) Grace’s galley (impression)

Meeting Elizabeth I 1593

L2, Activity 1 Collage Sir Francis Drake
Statue at Plymouth Hoe Buckland Abbey main home

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 10

Which coat of arms should be placed here?

Knighted by Elizabeth I 1581 (19thcentury painting) Golden Hind (impression)

Coats of Arms

L2, Activity 2

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Lesson 3

What is a pirate?
Starter Look at the pictures of Elizabeth meeting Grace and Drake. Use thought bubbles to show what she might be thinking. Activities 1. Using the cards provided, and looking at the information sheet, sequence the events of the lives of Grace and Drake. Pick out what you think are the most important three events in each of their lives and put them on a fortune line. 2. Find qualities or characteristics which explain why Elizabeth met Grace and Drake. Have you mentioned any of the qualities in your thought-shower from Lesson 1? 3. What effect did the meeting have on their lives? History NC 1a, b 2a*, b, c* 5a, c

L3, Starter

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 12

Grace O’Malley was born in 1530, Francis Drake in 1534, probably. For most of their lives, Queen Elizabeth I ruled England and came to rule the whole of Ireland. Under Philip II, Spain was the leading Catholic country in Europe. It was also the one making most profit from the ‘New World’.

As a Protestant, English sailor, Drake’s story was relatively straightforward. He attacked the Spanish and helped to subdue Ireland.

Arguments about religion and trade meant that England was at war with Spain for much of Drake’s and Grace’s lives.

It was a time when religion was extremely important to people and England had become Protestant and was determined to remain so.

# Catholic countries # Protestant countries

It was also a time when England was growing in population, power and wealth, and was also becoming more outward looking. IRELAND Arguments about religion and resources also meant that England was at war with Ireland for much of the lives of Grace and Drake. Ireland remained Catholic, an ally of Spain and a source of fertile land. SPAIN Most of its leading chieftains did not want to accept Tudor rule.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 13

It was anxious for more trade and for a share in the profits which other European countries were making in the ‘New World’.

Logan & Gormley,Rivalry & Conflict, pp 8-9

Grace’s story was not so simple. As a Catholic, Irish chieftain, he attacked Spanish merchant ships and either attacked the English in Ireland or tried to make peace with them.

L3, Activity 1: Information card

L3, Activity 1: Cards for sorting - Grace O’Malley
O’Malley galleys in 1559

There are three very good galleys* belonging to the O’Malleys that will carry 300 men apiece. These, if employed by Her Majesty, would do much good in the north, and the O’Malleys are much feared everywhere by sea. There are no galleys in Ireland but these.
G1. English view of Grace’s usefulness, 1559. * Large ships using oars.

Grace O'Malley has not acted like a woman and has caused a lot of problems as chief commander and director of thieves and murderers at sea. She has thieved from this part of Ireland.

G2. English view of Grace’s activities, 1578.

In 1577, Grace was imprisoned in the ratinfested dungeons of Dublin Castle. Many of those captured with were hanged but Grace was lucky. She was released in 1579 on condition that she gave up her pirate career.
G3. Historian’s account to Grace imprisonment.

Elizabeth officials in Ireland refused to honour the queen’s promise that Grace should live in peace with her lands and property should be restored. Grace died, probably in 1603. It is not absolutely certain where she was buried.
G4. A summary of Grace’s declining years.

Elizabeth's governor in the west of Ireland took Grace’s lands and cattle, and even put her in jail. Finally, in 1593, Grace wrote to Queen Elizabeth I to complain about his behaviour. She successfully asked for all her property back and for permission 'to invade with sword’ Elizabeth’s enemies.
G5. Grace’s son Tibbott (Toby-of-the-Ships) was born aboard her ship. She defended her new-born son from an attack from Barbary Pirates. G6. Grace’s petition to Elizabeth I, 1593.

‘Terrified English soldiers flee Hen’s Castle as Grace’s men pour molten metal down on them.’ Grace let people know that she was in charge after the death of her husband, Donal the Cock.
G7. The defence of Hens castle, formerly Cock’s Castle

My dear Toby, Are you well, my son? ... Learn your letters, study Latin, and memorise the names of the major seaports. Your older brothers ... are merely simple warriors, all strength and shouting. I want more than that for you. Against an enemy as powerful as the English it is necessary to fight with one’s brain. Fortunately you and I both inherited good brains.... Always, Granuaile
G8. A modern author, Morgan Llywelyn, imagines a letter Grace might have written to Tibbott - Toby was their secret name for him - in 1575.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 14

‘Upset when her father refused to take her on a [sea] trip because she was a girl, the story goes that Grace cut off her hair and donned male clothes.’

‘An angry Grace sets out to take revenge on her son, Murrough, who had supported the English against her.’ She killed some of his men and filled her boats with cattle and other goods.

G9. Grace loved the sea from an early age.

10. Grace could be very ruthless.

HOWTH HEIR HIJACKED Insulted and angry, Grace O’Malley seized the Lord Howth’s son and heir, and took him to her castle. She only returned him after Lord Howth promised that the gates of Howth Castle, would never again be closed to anyone looking for hospitality. He also promised that an extra plate would always be laid at the dinner table. The cause of the trouble was that, on returning from a trading expedition, Grace had been refused her dinner at the Castle.
G11. 'The Legend of Howth Castle'. To this day an extra place is set at the dinner table in Howth Castle.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 15

G12. Grace’s sheltered but strategically-placed territory in Mayo (in red) and neighbouring counties Galway and Clare - in light red) in the west of Ireland, the province of Connaught or Connacht.

Acknowledgements: Chambers, Granuaile (G12), Llywelyn, Granuaile. The Pirate Queen (G8); Moriarty, Granuaile. Chieftain, Pirate, Trader (G7, 9, 10); Terry Deary, Horrible Histories. Ireland, Scholastic, 0-43901-436-0 (G5).
IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 16

L3, Activity 1: Cards for sorting - Sir Francis Drake

On 26 July 1575, Drake played a part in a shameful massacre of England's opponents in Ireland. After the surrender of main castle on Rathlin Island, the English massacred its 200 occupants and then killed 400 others hiding in caves and cliffs. Queen Elizabeth congratulated her men on their success.

D1. The Defence of Cadiz against Sir Francis Drake, Spaning painting, 1634. In the ‘singeing of the King of Spain’s beard’ in April 1587, Drake and his crew burnt or stole 38 Spanish ships to delay the Armada.

D2. Historian’s account of the ‘Rathlin massacre’, which took place on Rathlin Island, off Ireland’s north coast.

Drake nearly lost his life and reputation in 1568 when taking part in the slave trade with the Spanish colonies. He and his boss, John Hawkins, were stopped by large Spanish force at San Juan de Ullua. They made an agreement with their captors, but still the Spanish attacked. Many were killed and Drake hastily returned to Plymouth. Hawkins accused him of desertion. Drake became Spain’s deadly enemy.
D3. Disaster: a crucial moment in Drake’s life.

Booty Queen Elizabeth's share of the booty that Sir Francis Drake brought back from his voyage around the world was enough to pay off England's debts. She had financed the voyage with £1,000. She received £47,000 back. Drake received £10,000 himself, which made him an extremely wealthy man in the 1500s. Drake's crew received not an single pound.
D4. Historian’s estimate of the financial gains made from Drake’s circumnavigation.

The 23 [day] we set saile and stood up again for Puerto Bello ... The 28 at 4 of the clocke in the morning our Generall sir Francis Drake departed this life, having bene extremely sicke of a fluxe,* which began the night before to stop on him. He used some speeches at or a little before his † death, rising and apparelling himselfe, but being brought to bed againe within one houre died.
D5. Drake’s death at sea in January 1596, as told by an Englishmen whom Drake commanded on his last voyage. * Dysentery; † Dressing. D6. Drakes early ambitions, from Drake’s Secret Logbook, 24 August 1547, by Andrew Donkin.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 17

When the Spanish Armada was spotted off the coast, Drake refused to interrupt his game of bowls.
D7. The Spanish Armada, 19 July 1558. Some say he knew the tide was against them and the English ships could not leave harbour for a few hours. D8. Dining on penguins, from Drake’s Secret Logbook, Magellan Strait, 24-25 August 1579, by Andrew Donkin.

D9. ‘Francis Drake’s Hat Stolen by Indian’ near Rio de la Plata, 1578. Note the burning Spanish ship.

In 1572, Drake's first major independent enterprise - to the Panama isthmus - nearly ended in disaster. He tried to capture the town of Nombre de Dios, which was full of Spanish gold and silver. He had to give up when he was wounded. Luckily, he stayed around. The next year he robbed a richly laden mule train of the huge sum of £20,000 in gold and silver.
D10. Drake’s first independent success- in alliance with a French buccaneer, Guillaume Le Testu.

DRAKE DISPOSES OF DOUGHTY Drake had his close friend Thomas Doughty beheaded for encouraging mutiny. His head was held up as a warning to the rest of the crew. The crew had become angry when they realised that they were not going to collect currants from Egypt. Instead, they were sailing where no English ship had sailed before.
D11. The execution of Thomas Doughty, June 1578. Drake did allow him tom choose his last meal.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 18

D12. Drake’s circumnavigation, 1577-80.

Acknowledgements: Donkin, Sir Francis Drake & His Daring Deeds (D 6, 7, 8, 12).
IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 19

Lesson 4

Have the stories of Grace and Drake changed your views of pirates?
Starter Listen to or sing these two songs about Grace and Drake: Óró sé do bheatha ‘bhaile (‘Your Are Welcome Home’) and Drake’s Drum. What do they say about Grace and Drake? Activities 1. Grace and Drake: goodies or baddies? a. Split class into four groups. Using the cards from Lesson 3, Group 1 chooses an event which shows Grace in an heroic light; Group 2 chooses an event which shows Grace in a bad light; Group 3 chooses an event which shows Drake in an heroic light; Group 4 chooses an event which shows Drake in a bad light. b. As a class, match each group’s perceptions to the following: an Irish person; an English person, a Spanish person, a West African slave.* c. As a class, who of these would be happy with the songs about Grace and Drake and who would be offended by them. 2. Plenary. Show role on the wall. In the light of stories of Grace and Drake, have you views of pirates changed. If so how. If so, amend the role on the wall. *Note . This could be dealt with at several levels. History NC 2a* 3* 5a, c

L4, Starter

Óró sé do bheatha ‘bhaile Various version of can be downloaded from the Internet.
Best for singalong Fun Clancy Brothers static video but clear audio Sinead O’Connor - video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03m7KbgchZ4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImW2sqzZNmQ http://cdbaby.com/cd/trasna http://www.garageband.com/song?%7Cpe1%7CS8LT M0LdsaSkZFW3ZWs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAay_nFMWkM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9x6fG3QrBE http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=3AFRCWg_kOc

Blueridgecelticfusion Trasna - mp3 Garage Sentimental Film Green Man - mp3 (excerpt) Wolfe Tones - video Wind that Shakes the Barley Marching song Darach Ó Catháin

Purist

Drake’s Drum There seems to be only one free download, an mp3 at: www.klassikakzente.de. The drum itself - right - is on display at Buckland Abbey.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 20

Drake’s Drum
DRAKE he’s in his hammock an’ a thousand mile away, (Capten, art tha sleepin’ there below?) Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, An’ dreamin’ arl the time o’ Plymouth Hoe. Yarnder lumes the island, yarnder lie the ships, Wi’ sailor lads a-dancin’ heel-an’-toe, An’ the shore-lights flashin’, an’ the night-tide dashin’ He sees et arl so plainly as he saw et long ago.

by Henry Newbolt
Drake he was a Devon man, an’ ruled the Devon seas, (Capten, art tha sleepin’ there below?), Rovin’ tho’ his death fell, he went wi’ heart at ease, An’ dreamin’ arl the time o’ Plymouth Hoe, ‘Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore, Strike et when your powder’s runnin’ low; If the Dons sight Devon, I’ll quit the port o’ Heaven, An’ drum them up the Channel as we drummed them long ago.’ Drake he’s in his hammock till the great Armadas come, (Capten, art tha sleepin’ there below?), Slung atween the round shot, listenin’ for the drum, An’ dreamin’ arl the time o’ Plymouth Hoe. Call him on the deep sea, call him up the Sound, Call him when ye sail to meet the foe; Where the old trade’s plyin’ an’ the old flag flyin’, They shall find him, ware an’ wakin’, as they found him long ago.

The drum which went with Drake on his circumnavigation has become something of a symbol - a rallying cry in times of national emergencies. It is claimed that it can be heard at times when England is at war or significant national event takes place. For example, some said they heard the drum when Britain’s greatest naval hero, Admiral Lord Nelson, was made a freeman of Plymouth. The most recent occasions on which the drum roll was said to have been heard were during the Dunkirk evacuation in 1940, and the Falklands War in 1982.

Óró sé do bheatha ‘bhaile* - Granuaile as a metaphor for Ireland
‘Sé do bheatha a bhean ba léanmhar! Bé ár gcreach tú bheith i ngéibhinn Do dhúiche bhreá i seilbh meirleach IS tú díolta leis na Ghallaibh! Chorus: Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile! Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile! Anois ar theacht an tsamhraidh! A bhuí le Rí na bhfeart go bhfeiceam Muna mbíonn beo ‘na dhiaidh ach seachtain Gráinne Mhaol agus mile gaiscioch Ag fógairt fáin ar Ghallaibh! Chorus Tá Gráinne Mhaol ag teacht thar sáile, Óglaigh armtha léi mar gharda Gaeil iad féin is ní Gaill ná Spáinnigh ‘S cuirfid siad ruaig ar Ghallaibh! Chorus
*

This is taken from the Clancy Brothers’ version. Other version, such as Sinead O’Connor’s, start with the chorus.

by Patrick Pearse

Welcome Oh woman who was so afflicted It was our ruin that you were in bondage Our fine land in the possession of thieves And sold to the foreigners

Óró! You are welcome home Óró! You are welcome home Óró! You are welcome home Now that summer is coming May it please the God of Miracles that we may see Although we only live a week after it Grainne Mhaol and a thousand warriors Dispersing the foreigners

Grainne Mhaol is coming over the sea Armed warriors along with her as guard They are Irishmen, not English or Spanish And they will rout the foreigners
See next page for a rough phonetic version

Traditional air. This song is about dates from Grace O’Malley’s own lifetime as a song welcoming her home after one of the occasions in which she was held captive by the English. Padriac Pearse, one of the leaders of the Irish Rebellion of 1916, composed the poem, upon which modern versions of the song are based, as invitation to all the Irishmen in Europe who were fighting for the British Empire and the freedom of small nations to come home and tackle the ancient foe on their own little island. IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 21

Irish ‘Sé do bheatha a bhean ba léanmhar! Bé ár gcreach tú bheith i ngéibhinn Do dhúiche bhreá i seilbh meirleach IS tú díolta leis na Ghallaibh! Chorus: Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile! Óró, sé do bheatha ‘bhaile! Anois ar theacht an tsamhraidh! A bhuí le Rí na bhfeart go bhfeiceam Muna mbíonn beo ‘na dhiaidh ach seachtain Gráinne Mhaol agus mile gaiscioch Ag fógairt fáin ar Ghallaibh! Chorus Tá Gráinne Mhaol ag teacht thar sáile, Óglaigh armtha léi mar gharda Gaeil iad féin is ní Gaill ná Spáinnigh ‘S cuirfid siad ruaig ar Ghallaibh! Chorus

Rough Phonetic Shay duh vah-ha uh vahn bah layn-var, B-Ay air grack too veh EEnn gay-vin, Do-oo-EEv rah-EE shay-live mare-lawchk... Iss too deal-tah lesh nah Gah-live!

Oh-roe shay duh vah-ha wall-ya, Oh-roe shay duh vah-ha wall-ya, Oh-roe shay duh vah-ha wall-yaaa, Ah-nish air hawkt un tauw-rEE! Ah vEE leh rEE nah vairt guh veck-ann Mun-uh mEEn b-yo in-uh jeh-i(d)-ock shawktan Gran-yah wail iss mEE-leh gahsh-kEE... Egg foe-gurt fahn air Gah-live

Tah gran-yah wail egg chawkt ar saul-yah Oh-gulEE ar-muh lay mahr gard-uh Gayl EE-ad fayn iss nEE Gahl nah spahn-EE... Iss cur-fee(d) shEE-id roo-ig air Gah-live!

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 22

Note 1

Pirates in Lesson 1
Blackbeard (c. 1680-1718) Also known as Edward Teach. Notorious Golden Age pirate renowned for his devilish appearance and rule-by-fear tactics. Bonny, Ann (c. 1698, date of death unknown) Irish pirate who was partnered with Jack Calico Jack in the Caribbean during the Golden Age. Hook, Captain Renowned fictional bewigged pirate featured in J.M. Barrie’s legendary Peter Pan. L’Ollonais, Francois (c. 1635 - c. 1668) Born Jean David Nau. One of the most cruel and sadistic pirates known. Based in Toruga, he was dubbed Flail of the Spaniards by the Spanish. Silver, Long John One-legged fictional pirate of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island who walked with a crutch and sported a parrot on his shoulder. Sparrow, Captain Jack The fictional character in the Pirates of the Caribbean universe. He was introduced in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003) and the back-to-back sequels, Dead Man’s Chest (2006) and At World’s End (2007), where he was played by Johnny Depp.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 23

Note 2

More about Grace O’Malley and Sir Francis Drake on the Internet
Grace O’Malley
1. Videos
Warrior Women 2 - Grace O’Malley. Short documentary hosted by Lucy Lawless; 8+ mins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAm2kAlP-KQ A Pirate’s Life for She. Morgan Llywelyn on Granuaile becoming a musical; 4 mins http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=34464218996 32807146 Granuaile. Sung by Rita Connolly; 10 mins http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=-8307735547 834017733

Sir Francis Drake
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Drake Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://www.mcn.org/2/oseeler/drake.htm Extensive pages on Sir Francis Drake and his circumnavigation of the world on the Golden Hind. http://www.indrakeswake.co.uk/index.htm Claims, with some justification, to be the best Drake web site http://www.activehistory.co.uk/Miscellaneous/free_stuf f/google_earth/drake/index.htm Lessons on Drake’s Circumnavigation: 1. Structured Questions about Drake’s Circumnavigation 2. Living Graph of Drake’s Circumnavigation 3. Sir Francis Drake: Hero or Villain? 4. Working with Primary Sources: Text Account 5. Working with Primary Sources: Pictorial Account 6. Making a Google Earth Tour of Drake’s Circumnavigation http://library.thinkquest.org/J002678F/sir_francis_dra ke.htm Illustrated page created by students provides an overview of Drake’s entire life. www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conWebDoc National Maritime Museum http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/drake.ph p The Mariners’ Museum: Newport News, Virginia http://www.snaithprimary.eril.net/sailor.htm ‘Come and travel with Sir Francis Drake on his epic voyage around the world.’ http://bestoflegends.org/pirates/drake.html Exploring Legends in History, Folklore, Literature, Fiction, and the Arts: Pirates and Privateers www.elizabethan_era.org.uk/sir_francis_drake.htm Sir Francis Drake in Elizabethan context http://international.loc.gov/intldl/drakehtml/rbdktime.ht ml Drake timeline http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rbdk.catalog Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus

b. Texts

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_O’Malley Wikipedia http://www.graceomalley.com/whowasgrace.php ‘The Official Site’ by Anne chambers. Grace’s biographer http://journals.aol.co.uk/iis04/GraceOMalley Ireland in Schools resources www.geocities.com/Heartland/Park/7669/granuaile.html Good context www.omalley_clan.org/uow/omalley_web/granuaile.htm Web resources http://bestoflegends.org/pirates/grainne.html Pirates and privateers. http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/omalley_grace.htm An excellent resource for pirates and their vessels www.rootsweb.com/~nwa/grace.html Biography of Grace O’Malley, Irish Chieftain, pirate, trader and seafarer. http://www.rencentral.com/oct_nov_vol1/graceomalley.s html Illustrated biography www.themediadrome.com/content/articles/history_articl es/grace_omalley.htm ‘Put down that Barbie doll, sweetie, I have a story for you…’ http://home.fiac.net/marshaw/mhaille.htm Informative www.angelfire.com/dragon2/supercooper/index.htm Questions about Grace, but with annoying pop-ups http://www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/1Kids/PlateHowt h.html The Howth story www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/apr/08/escape.ireland.r estandrelaxation A tourist attraction

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 24

Note 3

What did Grace O’Malley look like?
We do not know what Grace looked like. While there are many contemporary pictures of Sir Francis Drake, there is no surviving picture of Grace from her own lifetime. The nearest we have is this portrait of her great-great granddaughter, Maud Burke, who was born around 1642. The result is that people make up their own minds of what Grace looked like, as this selection of modern pictures shows.

Here are two eighteenth century pictures of Grace.

Left: This 1616 picture shows the sort of clothes a woman of Grace’s standings wore. Right: Painted in 1591, this is probably the most famous portrait of Drake.
IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 25

Note 4

Drake’s shopping list for the circumnavigation
Donkin, Sir Francis Drake & His Daring Deeds, p. 57

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 26

Note 5

Every Child Matters
Every Child Matters
Be healthy Physically healthy Mentally and emotionally healthy Sexually healthy Choose not to take illegal drugs. Stay safe Safe from maltreatment, neglect, violence and sexual exploitation Safe from accidental injury and death Safe from bullying and discrimination Safe from crime and anti-social behaviour in and out of school. Have security, stability and cared for. Enjoy and achieve Ready for school Achieve stretching national and educational standards at primary school Achieve personal and social development and enjoy recreation.

Evidence in History
Developing self esteem by including aspects of a pupil’s community’s history.

We do
By focussing on an Irish female pirate we give status to those of Irish ancestry and girls.

Developing a questioning disposition so pupils do not take things at face value. Challenging stereotypes and exploring the histories of different people and their society or context.

The unit challenges the image of pirates. The unit a highlights the heroic nature of female characters so often written out of history. It also shows the violent reality of piracy. By providing a Unit that is not Anglo-centric in approach and looks at the ‘wider world’. The unit deals with an interesting, popular and ‘Romantic’ historical topic. A range of pedagogic devices are used enabling all pupils to experience success. Throughout the unit pupils work in a variety of grouping and ways. The Unit challenges stereotypical views of people i.e. pirates, women. The unit places the characters in a variety of contexts thus emphasising the global nature of the stories.

Providing opportunities to explore and value pupil’s identity and place in the world. Providing opportunities to enjoy finding out exciting and interesting experiences of different people in the past. Providing opportunities to enjoy and reach their potential through a wide range of teaching and learning experiences (e.g. drama). Providing opportunities to work collaboratively, e.g. in discussion. Providing an appreciation of a child’s place in the wider world by exploring the achievement of other people within their society and other parts of the world.

Make a positive contribution Engage in decision-making and support the community and environment Engage in law-abiding and positive behaviour in and out of school Develop positive relationships and choose not to bully and discriminate Develop self-confidence and successfully deal with significant life changes and challenges Develop enterprising behaviour. Achieve economic well-being Engage in further education, employment or training on leaving school Ready for employment. Live in decent homes and sustainable communities Access to transport and material good Live in households free from low income.

Providing opportunities to develop literacy and communication skills to explore historical issues. Providing opportunities for problem solving when exploring historical questions. Developing critical abilities when examining sources such as artefacts, pictures etc.

The pupils communicate their conclusions in a variety of ways in the unit. Problem solving is central to the activities The core of the unit is to challenge popular concepts of piracy and lawlessness.

IiS, Pirates: goodies or baddies?, 27

Ireland in Schools 19 Woodlands Road Liverpool L17 0AJ Tel: 0151 727 6817 Email: iisresources@yahoo.co.uk web site: http://.iisresource.org For more free teaching & learning resources